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OBSERVATION REPORT

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT

OFFICE ADMINISTRATIVE PROGRAM

SMK ARDJUNA MALANG

Lecturer:

Miss Peptia Asrining Tyas, M.Pd

Group Name:

1. Najemah Muniroh (125110500111003)


2. M. Nur Asror Minallah (126110500111019)
3. Dyah Nur Rachmawati (125110500111026)
4. Achmad Nasir (125110500111029)

BRAWIJAYA UNIVERSITY

FACULTY OF CULTURE STUDIES

ENGLISH EDUCATION AND LITERATURE STUDY PROGRAM

2014
CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background

Vocational high school has many competence programs for students to


prepare to job world after their graduation. So the material or the subject that
they get in the school is related with their program. For English subject the
material has to appropriate with students competence. Need analysis for
vocational high school is really needed because students of vocational high
school need to learn English for specific purposes. In our observation we do
need analysis for secretary students. For vocational high school student
English is one of the compulsory subjects in the curriculum. So they learn
English based on their specific purposes.

In doing observation the researcher collect the information from the


students, teacher and school facilities. In teaching English for specific
purposes especially for vocational students, teacher has to create project that
related with the program of vocational students. In junior secretary program in
vocational high school usually the English related with job in office to prepare
students have good ability in English after graduate from the school. The new
curriculum in Indonesia curriculum 2013 the book for vocational high school
students is the same with senior high school students. The teacher has to teach
the material that appropriate with the program of the vocational students
because vocational students is different with high school student. The
vocational students is prepared to work after graduate from school but the
senior high school students is prepared to continue to high level of education.

Need analysis may take place in the beginning, during or after language
program. In doing need analysis researchers need to collect many information
from the students, teacher and the school facilities to know their needs in
learning English for specific purposes related with their program.

1.2 Setting
This observation is conducted through a video in SMK Ardjuna 01 Malang
which is located at Jl. R. Tumenggung Soeryo 27 Malang Jawa Timur.We
observed in XI class of Office Administrative Program which is consist of 16
students and one teacher. All the students are girls.

1.3 Objective

The aims of the observation a need analysis are to collect the information
about the need of vocational students, especially secretary students. And to know
the method that used by the teacher in teaching English for Specific Purposes.

1.4 Significance

This observation is useful for all people especially researcher or future teacher
to get better comprehension in Need Analysis to deal with material development.
School can improve their facilities based on students need to make easy in
learning English for Specific Purposes.
CHAPTER II

REWIEW OF RELATED THEORY

2.1 Review of Related Theory

2.1.1 Need Analysis

Based on Jack C. Richard on Curriculum Development in Language


Teaching, Need Analysis is a procedure used to collect information about
learners need. Need analysis as a distinct necessary phase in planning educational
programs emerged in the 1960s as part of the systems approach to curriculum
accountability (stufflebean, McCornict, Brinker boff and nelson 1985). By the
1980 in many parts of the world as a need based philosophy emerged in
language teaching particularly in relation to ESP and vocationally oriented
program design Brindley (1984 in Richard 2001)learners language need may be
relatively easy to determine, particularly if learners need to learn a language for
specific purposes. The information obtained a basis for planning a training
program.

Need are often described in terms of a linguistic deficiency, that is as


describing the difference between what a learner. This suggests that needs have
objective reality and are simply there waiting to be identified and analyzed
Porcher (1977 in brindley 1984).

A variety of procedures can be used in conducting need analysis and the


kind of information obtained is often dependent on the type of procedure selected.
Procedures for collecting information during need analysis can be selected such as
Questionnaire, Self ratings, Interview, Meeting, Observation, Collecting learners
language sample, task analysis, and case studies.

The goal of Need Analysis is to collect information that can be used to


develop a profile of the language needs of a group of learner in order to be able to
make decisions about the goals and the content of a language course.

There are some purposes of needs analysis:


1. to find out what language skills a learner needs in order to perform a
particular role, such as sales manager tour guide, or university student
2. to determine which students from group are most in need of training in
particular language skills
3. to collect information about a particular problem learners are experiencing
4. to determine current levels of language proficiency of students

2.1.2 Situational Analysis

Situational Analysis is an analysis of factors in the context of planned or present


curriculum project that in made in order to assess their potential impact on the
project this factor may be political, social, economic, or institutional.

Situation Analysis compliments the information gathered during needs analysis,


and can also be regarded as an aspect of evaluation. Because, the contexts for
language program are diverse and particular variable that come into play in
specific situation are often the key determinants of the success of a program.

Procedures used in situation analysis are similar to those involves in need analysis
(a) consultation with representatives o as many relevant such as teacher. (b) study
and analysis of teaching material. (c) observation of teachers and students in
relevant learning setting. (d) surveys of opinions of relevant parties. (e) review of
available literature.

The kinds of factors that can have an impact on the success of a curriculum
change like societal factors, project factors, Institutional factors, teacher factors,
learner factors, adoption factors.

Institutional factors, a language teaching program is typically delivered in an


institution such as a university or school. Different types of institutions create
their own culture. Institutions have their own ways of doing things. In some
institutions textbook are the core of the curriculum and all teachers must use the
prescribed text.

Teacher factors, Teachers are key factor in the successful implementation of


curriculum changes.
Learner factors, Learners are the key participant in curriculum development
projects and it is essential to collect as much as information as possible about
them before the project begins. Like the learners background, expectation, belief
and preferred learning styles.

The goal of situational Analysis is to identify key factors that might positively or
negatively affect the implementation of a curriculum plan. This is sometimes
known as a SWOT analysis because it involve an examination of a language
programs internal streghts and weaknesses in addition to external opportunities
and threats to the existence or successful operation of the language program
(Klinghammer, 1997,65).
CHAPTER III
METHOD

3.1 Method

The methods that we use in this observation in order to collect information needs
analysis of Office Administrative Program are:

1. Questionnaires
Questionnaires is a set of structured items (in which the respondent
chooses from limited number of responses. Here, we give students a
questionnaire to know their difficulties related with English language
skills.
2. Interview
According to Dr. S. M. Amunuzzaman, Interview is a very systematic
method by which a person enters deeply into the life of even a stranger and
can bring out needed information and data for the research purpose. In this
observation the respondent of interview are students and teacher. We
interviewed the teacher to know their method in teaching and interview
about the students motivation in the classroom. We also interview
students about their level language proficiency whether if they can catch
the material easily or not to measure their language proficiency.
3. Observation
Observation is done to observe learner behavior in a target situation to
assess their needs. In this observation we used rubric to collect the data.
We observed the students motivation in learning English in classroom if
the students have active participation in the classroom or not. We also
observed The book that used by students in Learning English for Specific
Purposes and to know what kind of facilities that established by the school
that support teaching and learning activities.
CHAPTER IV
DISCUSSION
RESULT AND DISCUSSION

4.1 RESULT
4.1.1 Teacher Method (Classroom Observation)

From the observation we got that student divide 2x 45 minutes into three main
cores:

Opening: (35 minutes)


1. Teacher gives greeting
2. Teacher review previous Material about IF CLAUSE

Whilst Teaching ( 50 minutes)

3. Teacher divides them into 4 group. One group consists three student
4. Teacher gives oral dictation students some question in Bahasa Indonesia and ask
them to translate in English.
5. Teacher asks the representatif from each group to come forward and write the
answer in laptop
6. Teacher uses online question from web to present more exercise by LCD
Projector and then asks random students to come forward to answer the question
by clicking a choice on the laptop

Closing (5 minutes)

This is the questions that given by the teacher:

1. Kalau tadi malam kamu datang ke pestaku kamu akan bertemu dengan Justin
Bieber (IF CLAUSE Type 2)
2. Kita akan mengadakan kemah di Pulau Sempu jika kita punya uang (IF CLAUSE
Type 1)
3. Aku akan membantu membersihkan kamarmu. Jika kamu memberiku sepeda
motor (IF CLAUSE Type 1)
4. Seandainya aku sudah lulus dari SMK aku pasti akan sudah kuliah (If Clause
Type 3)
4.1.2 Students Motivation (Rubric)

No Motivasi siswa Seluruh siswa Sebagian Tidak


siswa ada
1. Siswa hadir dalam kelas bahasa inggris
2. Siswa mengerjakan tugas dengan baik
3. Siswa menjawab pertanyaan dari guru
4. Siswa aktifmelakukan Tanya jawab dikelas
5. Siswa menggunakan bahasa inggris dikelas

Office Administrative Program in SMK Ardjuna seems less motivated


when teacher asks them to translate some sentences from their native languange
becomes English. They do the task well but only some students who can answer
questions from teacher. Here, we can not really see active participation from
student in asking question to teacher. There are some factors that makes Secretary
students less motivated: Because, their school does not push them to concern in
English, students also thinks that their major, Secretary Major does not require
them to have proficiency in English. So they think English only suplementary
subject and they put aside English and concern in their content subjects.

4.1.3 Student Languange Proficiency&Difficulties (Questionnaire &


Interview)

From questionnaires we found that:

1. Student opinion about English:


A. Very Hard (0)
B. Hard (14)
C. Easy (2)
D. Very Easy (0)
2. The hardest skill in English
A. Reading (5)
B. Speaking (4)
C. Writing (1)
D. Listening (6)
3. The thing that makes English becomes difficult:
A. Lack of vocabulary (4)
B. Hard Pronounciation (6)
C. Grammar (4)
D. Others (2)
4. The thing that makes English becomes easy:
A. Had a English course (3)
B. Use English Everyday (2)
C. Love English book (7)
D. Others (4)

Most of students think that English is a kind of hard subject, for a host of
reasons, Reading becomes very hard because of unusual pronounciation. But
in other side students think that reading makes English become easy if they
read English in silent way.

From interview with teacher comes out the information that vocational
students are not really focus in English and thinks that English is not really
important for their future job. The student are lack in vocabulary also less in
grammar, because of some factors, their previous knowledge, lack of
motivation, fossilization,

4.1.4 School Facilities (Rubric)

- Classroom Facilities

Keterangan
I Fasilitas Kelas V X
Jumlah Kondisi
1. Papan tulis 2 Baik
2. Kipas angin 2 Baik
4. Meja guru dan murid 25 Baik
4. Kursi guru dan murid 25 Baik
5. Jam dinding 1 Baik
- Language Laboratory Facilities

Keterangan
II Fasilitas Lab bahasa V X
Jumlah Kondisi
1. VCD Player 1 Baik
2. Speaker 2 Baik
3. Papan Tulis 1 Baik
4. Papan 1 Baik
Pengumuman
4. Jam dinding 2 Baik
5. Keranjang sampah 1 Baik
6. Materi listening Baik
7. Meja guru 1 Baik
8. Kursi guru 1 Baik
9. Meja siswa 30 Baik
10. Kursi siswa 30 Baik

4.14 Material Book (Rubric)

Bahasa Inggris XI. 2014. Jakarta: Kementrian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.

MATERI SKILL TOPIK VOCABULARY


So many -speaking -related with -too difficult for
chapter given -reading real-life students
in the book so -writing situation -the vocabulary
there are a lot -lack of topic is general
of material that appropriate
for vocational
students who
learn ESP

4.2 DISCUSSION

4.2.1 Teaching Method (Observation)

From the step of teaching that shown we can see obviously that teacher
uses Grammar Translation Method as Method of Teaching. In the teacher teach
about grammar and asks students to translate some sentences in their native
languange becomes English. Teacher delivers material with native languange and
it deals with Grammar Translation Method.

Grammar Translation Method is one of the famous method, a classique


method that makes teacher easy to teach; it requires no more than the ability to
memorize lists of isolated vocabulary words. And it aims low in terms of oral
communication and aural comprehension, no one teaching or learning a target
language is required to speak, pronounce, or even understand the spoken
language. Because the target language is taught in the students native language, it
is possible for students to have studied it for years without having been required to
participate in the most elementary conversation. Furthermore, grammar-
translation students are accustomed to doing fill-in-the-blank exercises, learning
grammar rules before applying them, memorizing lists of vocabulary words, and
creating artificial sentences to prove their mastery of the lexicon and syntax.

The strenghts of using this method is: Student will they are often able to
read and write Englishsometimes better than native speakers. Students also very
good in grammar domain

The weaknesses: the students had no experience listening to or speaking


the language. The grammar-translation classroom is overcoming boredom.

4.2.2 Student Motivation (Observation &Rubric)

From Teaching of Principle by H. Douglas Brown that motivation is the


extent that student make choice about goals to pursue and the effort you will
devote to pursuit. Here, secretary students in SMK Ardjuna 01 are less motivated
and get a lack of intrinsic motivation because they choice to put aside English and
concern in content subject so they dont have any goals to pursue, that is way we
can not see their efforts in learning English. They come to the class with empty
head and wait for spoonfeeding from teacher, so .

Here, extrinsic motivation also has a big role, teacher, school, family and
environment because intrinsic motivation is not only deteminer of succesfull
learning, positive feedbacck in the class that students perceive as a boost to their
feeling of competence and self-determination. So, for example sincerely delivered
positive feedback in a classroom, seen by student as a validation of their own
personal autonomy, critical thinking ability, self-fullfilment can increase or
maintain instrinsic motivation.
Students are less motivated in answering teachers question not all
students answer teachers question. In active participation there just a view
students active asking question when they are not understand with the material
that given by the teacher in that meeting. The students in the classroom do not
speak English they always use Indonesian language although there are in English
classroom. They are not usual using English conversation in English class. For the
take attendance all of students attend the class. In that meeting students do their
assessment from teacher in a group. They are not lazy doing their task in the
classroom. The learners perform the task because it is fun, interesting, useful and
challenging.

In (Brown, 2007) the intrinsic motivation principle is the most powerful


rewards are those that are intrinsically motivated within the learner. Students
motivation reflected in personal investment and in cognitive, emotional, and
behavioral engagement in school activities (Fredricks, Blumenfeld, & Paris,
2004). motivation is not necessarily something that learners bring to school; it can
also arise from environmental conditions at school and also from the teacher. So
the students motivation not only from intrinsic factor but also influence by
extrinsic factor like from the environment it can be from teacher, other students,
and school facilities.

4.2.3 Student Languange Proficiency&Difficulties (Questionnaire &


Interview)

There are some factors that make English becomes difficult and affect
students proficiency. First, Cultural differences can be a source of
misunderstanding for teacher and students. Each culture expresses itself in both
verbal and non-verbal forms of communication. Cultural cues in one culture may
represent something entirely different in another. For example, in Western
cultures, when a student smiles knowingly at the teacher, it often indicates
understanding. However, in many Asian cultures, it actually indicates confusion
or frustration.
Second, Native Language - student's fluency in his or her first language
directly impacts his or her acquisition of English. Also important are the
proximity of speech sounds for oral communication and whether or not the first
language uses Roman letters for written communication. Comparation between
Native Languange vs Target Language that we call Positive Transfer and Negative
Transfer. The transfer becomes Positive if we can find a lot of similarity between
Native language and Target Language and vice versa it becomes if there a lot of
differentiation between them, like grammar, pronounciation, and culture. That is
way we have found in classroom observation that students feel unconfident
showing their English in front of their teacher, because they lack of vobaulary and
afraid of making mispronounciation when speak English

Third, The majority of students' lack of English background knowledge;


for example, the English curriculum is provided when they learn in the first year
of low secondary school. The Government Policy, Curriculum 2013 treat English
as a suplementary subject that is in High School there a lot of differention
between students who has previous knowledge in English because in their Junior
High School they had been studied and the other who donts

4.2.4 School Facilities (Rubric)

The facility in the classroom is good and complete. Classroom facilities


are related with physical environment of the classroom there are white board,
desk, table, fan, etc. The physical environment of the classroom can built a good
atmosphere or good situation in teaching and learning activities. Student can enjoy
learning in the classroom and the teacher can use the facility for example teacher
uses LCD projector when explain the material with PowerPoint.
The important factors that determine the result of learning process is
Environment of classroom. The classroom is complex environment where human
(students) to interact each other, it is a place and with being various of unique
character in social and physical environment that specific. Other important
environmental features include temperature, lighting, and noise level. These
factors affect students in different ways and are directly related to individual
learning styles
The language laboratory, the facilities is complete. There are LCD
Projector, white board, sound system, air conditioner, desk, table, and listening
material. Language laboratory is really support for English language learning
especially for listening session. The material for listening is appropriate for
students. The listening session trains students to improve their skill in listening
and also for preparation to face listening test in national examination. A language
lab creates a learning environment much more effective than traditional
classrooms enhancing the capabilities of students. the use of the language lab
allows students to have access to the information quickly and easily developing
many types of classroom exercises, personalizing the learning process,
encouraging creativity, innovation and training .

4.2.5 Material Book

The English book that used by teacher and students is curriculum 2013
book published by government. The book contains skills like reading, writing, and
speaking. The material in the book is for integrated skills work but in this book
there is no listening material because there is no cassette given for listening
session. The book is good for spoken English because many dialogues are given
in the book so students will learn how to make a good conversation in English and
the dialogue well design for real life interaction. The vocabulary in the book are
too general and difficult for vocational high students and not specific for secretary
program. The topics in the book are not specific for vocational students and the
task that given related with the topic. About the games, the teacher can create a
game to make teaching and learning become more interesting and students can
grab the material easily. The teacher said that the English book, curriculum 2006
book is better than curriculum 2013 book because the book is more appropriate
for vocational high school students and the curriculum 2013 book the English
book is used by senior high and vocational high students so there are no
differences. In the book the vocabulary is difficult for secretary students because
in that school the language proficiency of students is beginner. So for the teacher
who teaches English for specific purposes have to teach vocabulary related with
the program of the students. Based on (Richard, 2001), in some institutions
textbook are the core of the curriculum and all teachers must use the prescribed
text. So here the school use book from the Government with a new Curriculum a
Curriculum 2013.
CHAPTER V

CONCLUSION & SUGGESTION

5.1 Conclusion

From the observation we got a lot of knowledge, how to treat vocational student
with all of the obstacles in education process. Therea some problem which is deal
with Vocational students (Office Administrative Program):

1. Student Motivation
The majority of students lack of confidence to use the language because
of afraid and feeling shame if they make mistakes
2. Method of Teaching
Teacher uses Grammar Translation Method as a main method
3. Language Proficiency of Student Difficulties
The language proficiency of students is beginner and most of students still
found difficulties in learning English because of lack of vocabulary,
different culture
4. Goverment Policy (English Material Book);
Curriculum 2013 does not support Vocational students to help them in
learning English for Spesific Purposes, because the Material Book which
is given by goverment is the same book with High School book
5. School Facilities
The school facilities in SMK Ardjuna 1 Malang is good and complete
because there is language laboratory that support English language
learning especially for listening skill

5.2 Suggestion

Therefore, the findings of this study clearly indicate that Vocational


Students still have lack of many key factors to support them such as motivational
encouragement, learning strategy and other related variables. Second, teacher
should improve his teaching method in order to create enjoyable class, and
effective and meaningful learning process to motivate students in learning
English. Teacher have to build English atmosphere in English classroom by
giving game or using interesting media to make students interest and motivate in
learning

Third, In dealing with students difficulties and proficiency, we do need


some helps from school policy, teacher, family and environment that support them
in learning English. Although the book for vocational students is the same with
the book for senior high school students in curriculum 2013. The teacher who
teaches English for specific purposes have to teach a material or vocabulary
related with the program of the students.

In addition important for language educations and policy makers to


carefully inspect how language learning is theorized in vocational students context
and make necessary changes in order to both correspond to current the real life
situations and advocate the best English language learning among Vocational
Students, particularly for higher education learners.

References

Richard, Jack C. 2001. Curriculum Development in Language Teaching.


Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Brown, H. Douglas. 2007. Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to


Language Pedagogy. New York: Pearson Education.
APPENDIX

-Questionnaire

Questionnaire (Students Difficulties)

Petunjuk : berilah tanda silang

1. Apa pendapat anda tentang mata pelajaran bahasa Inggris?


A. Sangat sulit
B. Sulit
C. Mudah
D. Sangat Mudah

2. Jika sulit, skill apa yang membuat bahasa Inggris menjadi mata pelajaran
yang sulit?
A. Reading
B. Speaking
C. Writing
D. Listening

3. Jika mudah, skill yang membuat pelajaran bahasa inggris menjadi mudah?
A. Reading
B. Speaking
C. Writing
D. Listening

4. Apakah yang membuatnya (skill) menjadi sulit?


A. Tidak tahu kosa katanya (vocabulary)
B. Sulit Pengucapannya (Pronounciation)
C. Tidak tahu tata bahasanya (Grammar)
D. Lainnya

5. Apakah yang membuatnya(skill) menjadi mudah?


A. Pernah kursus bahasa Inggris
B. Bahasa yang digunakan setiap hari bahasa inggris
C. Suka baca buku berbahasa inggris
D. Lainnya
-Students Motivation Rubric

No Motivasi siswa Seluruh Sebagian Tidak Ada


Siswa Siswa
1. Siswa hadir dalam kelas bahasa inggris
2. Siswa mengerjakan tugas dengan baik
3. Siswa menjawab pertanyaan dari guru
4. Siswa aktifmelakukan Tanya jawab
dikelas
5. Siswa menggunakan bahasa inggris
dikelas

-Facility Rubric

Keterangan
I Fasilitas Kelas V X
Jumlah Kondisi

Fasilitas Lab Keterangan


II V X
Bahasa Jumlah Kondisi

-Rubric of Material Book

MATERI SKILL TOPIC VOCABULARY


-Pictures

Pict1. The Dictionary in Laboratory Pict2. The Instructional Media in Lab

Pict3. Sound system (speaker) in Lab Pict4. Multimedia player in Lab.

Pict5. The rules in Laboratory