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Investigation of the Comminution Process in Pendular Roller Mills - Science

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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijminpro

Markus Wheeldon a, Joachim Galk b, Karl-Ernst Wirth a,

a

Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Institute of Particle Technology (LFG), Cauerstrae 4, 91058 Erlangen, Germany

b

Neuman & Esser GmbH Mahl- und Sichtsysteme, Werkstrae, 52531 bach-Palenberg, Germany

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: In the dry grinding industry the demand for very ne particle size distributions is increasing rapidly. At the same

Received 15 December 2013 time a growing awareness for an economical management of our planet's resources has raised the demand for

Received in revised form 21 August 2014 energy efcient processes.

Accepted 24 September 2014

Roller mills in general and specically pendular roller mills are best suited to meet these conictive demands,

Available online 5 November 2014

since they can, up to this day, produce particle size distributions with a D97 b 10 m while evidencing compara-

Keywords:

tively low power consumption values and high solids throughputs.

Dry grinding The design of the pendular roller mill is thus far based on the experience gathered from industrially utilized mills.

Pendular roller mills Due to the aforementioned development of roller mill applications this experience will no longer be sufcient for

Comminution guaranteeing a successful scale-up process. In order to nd valid scale-up rules for ne grinding pendular mills

Classier mills the operating behavior of such mills must rst be fully understood.

The grinding process in roller mills can be subdivided into the following steps: comminution between the rollers

and the grinding ring, classication and solids transport between milling zone and classier. In order to verify and

improve the existing scale-up methods all process steps must be completely characterized.

In order to characterize the comminution process a new measuring method was developed with which the mill-

ing gap between the rollers and the grinding ring and the rotation speed of the rollers can be determined simul-

taneously. This method was used on a pilot scale pendular roller mill during course and ne grinding processes to

investigate the inuence of process settings on the comminution conditions.

As a result of measuring the milling gap, it is now possible for the rst time to measure the relationships between

parameters such as energy input, solids throughput, solids hold-up or pressure loss on the one hand and the mill-

ing gap on the other hand. These relationships can be used to establish a physical model of the comminution pro-

cess, from which a scale-up rule for the comminution process can be derived.

This publication will show and assess the relation between process parameters and the milling gap for course and

ne grinding processes respectively.

2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction white to natural products such as cocoa bean shells its most common

application is the processing of minerals (Galk, 2008). Table 1 shows a

With the rst pendular roller mill being designed and built well over list of events where pendular roller mills have been operating in the

a century ago pendular roller mills or centrifugal mills, as they are some- comminution of minerals.

times referred to, are one of the oldest and most proven roller mills in The typical product size range for these processes lies between

the eld of comminution. D97,3 b 200 m and D97,3 N 20 m. However, there has been a recent de-

The original purpose of these mills was the processing of coal to coal velopment of market demand towards high throughputs in a t/h range

dust which was used for steam generation in power plants. Due to its with particle sizes of D97,3 b 10 m, with high performance concrete

comparatively low power and space requirements the pendular roller being a good example for such an application.

mill was quickly able to replace ball mills as the standard mill type with- Due to these developing markets a reevaluation of the pendular roller

in power plant circuits (Unger, 1983; Pahl, 1993). mill is in order, which should lead to a better understanding of the mech-

After the emergence of other roller mills with higher capacities, such anisms occurring in the mill especially during ne grinding processes.

as the bowl mill crusher, the eld of application for pendular roller mills

shifted towards minerals and pigments (Galk, 2008). 2. Working principle of the pendular roller mill

Although pendular roller mills are used for the comminution of a big

variety of different materials ranging from pigments like titanium The biggest distinguishing feature of the pendular roller mill from

other roller mill types is the generation of the comminution force by ro-

Corresponding author. tation of the grinding bodies. A sketch of a pendular roller mill is given in

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.minpro.2014.09.013

0301-7516/ 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

M. Wheeldon et al. / International Journal of Mineral Processing 136 (2015) 2631 27

Minerals processed by pendular roller mills. 2002; Husemann and Mtze, 2007) which helps to understand the

Mineral Fineness D97.3/m Solids throughput/th1 comminution process in pendular roller mills to a certain degree, but

Barytes 3275 260

as to which extend this knowledge can be used as the foundation for

Bentonite 3275 260 new ne grinding scale-up rules will be impossible to tell, until it is pos-

Clay 45200 2130 sible to properly monitor the comminution process in the pendular roll-

Graphite 32200 160 er mill.

Gypsum 80120 1070

Lime/limestone 100200 160

Phosphate rock 120500 15100 3. Material and methods

Talcum 2075 160

The typical monitoring of the comminution process by solely mea-

suring the power consumption of the mill motor and the axial pressure

Fig. 1. Each grinding body, usually referred to as grinding roller, is part of loss generated between the bottom of the mill and the section of the

a pendulum which is attached to the cross head. By rotating the cross cross head would appear to be inadequate to help explain the underly-

head a centrifugal force is applied to the pendulums, forcing them ing physics. For example, merely knowing the power consumption will

against the grinding ring. It is in the gap between the grinding ring make it impossible to distinguish between the actual comminution en-

and the grinding roller where the comminution process takes place. ergy and other forms of energy, such as the energy required for the

Consequently the comminution force increases with an increasing rev- movement of the rollers, kinetic energy of displaced particles and fric-

olution speed of the cross head. tion energy. Therefore, a new measuring device was designed which

In order to guide the feed material into the milling gap the feed is provides a deeper insight into the comminution process by measuring

added to the mill using the feed chute. From there the material drops the size of the milling gap and the revolution speed of the grinding rol-

to the bottom of the mill where it is picked up by both the process air lers, thus complementing the basic measurements of power consump-

and the feed blades rotating along with the grinding rollers. The process tion, pressure loss and mass ow. This work will focus on the results

air conveys the crushed material to the classier where the product par- of the milling gap measurements.

ticles pass through and exit the mill at the process air outlet, whereas The measurements were carried out on a PM05-model from

the coarse material is rejected against the mill housing and reintroduced Neuman & Esser with a maximum capacity of 10 t/h and a maximum

to the comminution process. mill motor power output of 60 kW.

The particle size distribution of the product can be adjusted by a con- As a sample material limestone out of Messinghausen Germany

certed combination of airow rate and classier revolution speed. (produced by Rheinkalk) is used, since it is inexpensive and easy to ac-

When looking at the working principle of the pendular roller mill it cess. The size distribution of the limestone is given in Fig. 3.

becomes apparent that the mill combines three unit operations in one

process, namely a comminution process, a conveying process and a clas- 3.1. Measurement of the milling gap size

sication process. Each individual process as well as their respective inter-

actions need to be investigated and understood in order to provide a For the purpose of measuring the milling gap size a laser distance an-

physically sound foundation for the process of scaling up these machines alyzer manufactured by Balluff is mounted to one of the pendulums. It

to ever higher capacities. Both the conveying and the classication pro- operates on the principle of triangulation. Therefore a laser beam is

cess can be investigated comparatively easily by measuring the pressure emitted at a specic angle measured from the analyzer plane. After

loss and motor power consumption. Additionally a lot of research has being reected at a surface at the end of the measured distance the

been done on pneumatic conveying (Muschelknautz, 1974) and classi- laser beam hits a sensor inside the analyzer, which can determine the

cation (Rumpf and Leschonski, 1967; Galk, 1996) which can be used to distance between the positon at which the laser beam exits and enters

better understand these processes in the pendular roller mill. the analyzer. From this value the distance between the analyzer and

However, unlike other roller mills, such as the high pressure roller the reecting surface can be calculated with a maximum resolution of

mill, where a lot of effort has been directed into investigating the oper- 200 m, using trigonometric equations. With this device the distance

ating behavior in general (Schnert, 1988) and the comminution pro- between the pendulum and the driving shaft can be measured (see

cess in particular (Schnert, 1996; Schnert and Sander, 2002), Fig. 2) and the resulting values can subsequently be used along with

nothing is published to the authors' knowledge about the comminution the known geometry to calculate the actual milling gap size. Therefore

process in pendular roller mills. There is extensive research available a two-point-calibration is carried out by using the values of zero gap

size and maximum gap size (26 mm). The pendulum axis is vertical

when no particles are present, but with particles being present it tilts in-

wards at a maximum angle of about 10, which means that the actual

gap size varies with the height of the grinding rollers. Therefore the

gap size is always referring to the width of the gap at the center of the

grinding rollers.

To enable the use of this optical measurement technique within a

high dust load atmosphere a rubber gaiter is applied to shield the mea-

suring distance between the sensor and the reection face from dust.

The transfer of the monitored data is achieved by a ZEBRA module

manufactured by Sentec Elektronik which is built into the measuring

device. This module contains a transmitter, with which the measured

data can be transferred wirelessly through the mill housing to a second

ZEBRA module with a respective receiver. This module is connected to a

laptop with which the data can be processed. Therefore the application

of a signal cable, which could wrap around the moving pendulums and

driving shaft during the milling process, can be avoided. With this setup

a sampling rate of 400 Hz can be achieved which is sufcient to cover

Fig. 1. Schematic sketch of a pendular roller mill. the dynamics of the pendulum and grinding roller movements.

28 M. Wheeldon et al. / International Journal of Mineral Processing 136 (2015) 2631

Fig. 2. Working principle of the gap size measurement at zero capacity (left) and full capacity (right).

Since the pendulums tilt inwards and because the measuring device sizes. The shown values were generated at grinding roller circumferen-

is xed to one of the pendulums a small error occurs during the mea- tial speeds of 7.0 m/s and 8.4 m/s.

surement of the milling gap size. However, this error can be estimated It is known that the required comminution energy increases with in-

to be smaller than 1% of the measured value. creasing neness, however, the power consumption of the mill motor

and thus the consumed energy of the comminution process increases

3.2. Measurement of the particle size distributions only with an increasing milling gap. There is no direct correlation with

the product size. The increase of the power consumption with an in-

During the grinding tests, samples were taken at a sampling point creasing milling gap size is most likely caused by the fact that more par-

shortly after the air lter. The particle size distribution of each sample ticles are being stressed at bigger milling gaps, which leads to more

was then analyzed in a Mastersizer 2000 from Malvern, using the dry breakage inside the particle bed and thus to a higher energy

dispersing unit. The applied dispersion pressure was 4 bar. The entire consumption.

process of sampling and analyzing the product can be carried out in However, when plotting Pmill over the gap size for different circum-

less than 5 min, which makes it possible to adjust the process parame- ferential speeds of the grinding rollers (see Fig. 4b), two effectually lin-

ters during the grinding test, if need be. ear curves can be observed.

The shift between these two curves in Fig. 4b can be eliminated by

4. Results replacing the power consumption of the mill motor with the torque of

the mill motor calculated from the power consumption values re-

The rst measurements to be conducted with the new measuring duced by the idle power consumption and the known angular velocity

device are meant to characterize the mill's entire operating behavior of the rollers using the following equation:

from coarse to ne grinding processes. Therefore measurements with

product neness values (see Fig. 3) of D97,3 = 137 m, D97,3 = 45 m Pmill Pmill; idle

T :

and D97,3 = 10 m are carried out.

For each given product neness the goal is to achieve a maximum

solids throughput while reaching stable process conditions. A process When considering the idle power consumption of the mill motor a

is considered stable when the solids hold-up, the difference between master curve is obtained (Fig. 5), which describes the required torque

solids input and output, stays constant. The product particle size is mon- at a specic milling gap size for all circumferential roller speeds (i.e.

itored during the process and adjusted by varying the circumferential comminution force) and all investigated product nenesses.

speed of the classier. The airow rate is kept constant at about The torque plotted in this graph is closely related to the product of

4.3 m3/s for all measurements referred to in the graph. the force necessary to move the rollers along the grinding ring (FR)

In Fig. 4a the respective power consumption of the mill motor is and the respective lever arm. This force is a result of the centrifugal

plotted over the milling gap size for the three investigated product force (FC) generated by the rotation of the cross head, which causes

the grinding rollers to sink into the particle bed, leaving a heap of parti-

cles to be pushed or overcome by the grinding rollers (Fig. 6).

This heap of particles causes elementary reactions of the particle bed

(dNx) which sum up to be equal to the force FR that has to be overcome

by the grinding rollers. The bigger the milling gap is, the higher the heap

of particles gets, which increases the sum of the elementary reactions of

the particle bed and thus the resistance force.

The existence of the master curve shown in Fig. 5 suggests that at a

given gap size the comminution process in the pendular roller mill gen-

erates the same product, regardless of the parameter settings. After the

comminution process the classier selects a specic particle fraction,

depending on its circumferential velocity, from the product generated

during the comminution process.

Subsequently, the only detectable inuence of the product particle

size on the comminution process can be found when looking at the

solids throughput. In Fig. 7 the solids throughput is plotted as a function

of the milling gap size at the three investigated product nenesses.

Fig. 3. Particle size distribution of feed material (sieve analysis) and of coarse, medium and According to Fig. 7 the solids throughput increases with increasing

ne products (laser diffraction analysis). milling gap size, however, the slope of the increase depends on the

M. Wheeldon et al. / International Journal of Mineral Processing 136 (2015) 2631 29

Fig. 4. Dependency of the power consumption of the mill motor on the milling gap size for different product sizes (a) and grinding roller circumferential speeds (b).

product particle size. For coarse and medium products the solids amount of product, however, at lower airow rates the process air is

throughput increases rapidly whereas the solids throughput of ne not able to carry all of the ne particles to the classier. It can be as-

product increases at a much lower rate. As expected, the maximum sumed that by further increasing the airow rate it will reach a level

achieved solids throughput for ne grinding is considerably lower at which the process air is capable of conveying all of the produced

than for coarse and medium grinding, but the reason for this does not nes up and through the classier, thus allowing the operation of the

solely lie in the fact that it is more difcult to produce ner particles. mill in a region in which the solids throughput is limited by the commi-

Due to the geometry of the mill the maximum possible milling gap nution process (Fig. 9).

size is 26 mm and it can be reached for both coarse and medium prod- Only at this point will the maximum possible solids throughput for a

ucts. However, during ne grinding the milling gap cannot be lled to specic product particle size distribution depend on the amount of such

more than 12 mm (Fig. 7), despite an increased effort to ll the mill particles being generated by the comminution process. However, since

with feed, i.e. increasing the feed rate to 5 t/h and increasing the solids it is not possible to reach this comminution limited region with the

hold-up to more than 1000 kg. It thus stands to reason that it is not test mill due to the failure of the air blower, which is caused by an in-

the comminution process, which limits the solids throughput for ne creased pressure loss, it can be concluded that the airow rate, and

grinding, leaving the conveying or the classication process as a possible thus the uid dynamics responsible for conveying the crushed particles

cause for this observed solids throughput limitation. up and through the classier, are determining the maximum possible

In order to nd out which of the two process steps is responsible for solids throughput at a specic product neness.

the limitation, experiments are carried out in which the maximum pos- With increasing product neness, i.e. with an increasing circumfer-

sible stable solids throughput is determined for an increasing airow ential speed of the classier, these uid dynamics become more and

rate, all of which while maintaining the product particle size distribu- more complicated, since the centrifugal force eld generated by the

tion. The airow rate is increased in small steps, until the overall pres- classier interacts with the airow responsible for carrying the product

sure loss reaches a level at which the air blower is no longer capable particles out of the comminution zone. As a consequence, a cyclone-like

of maintaining the airow rate. The results of these measurements are ow pattern is formed across the freeboard between the comminution

shown in Fig. 8. zone and the classier. While the occurring ow is theoretically not

The solids throughput increases linearly with an increasing airow strong enough to keep single particles of desirable size from passing

rate. At the same time the milling gap size remains comparatively un- through the classier, it has a signicant inuence on the particle

changed at 16.4 mm 2 mm, indicating that the conditions for the

comminution process are not affected by the increased airow rate. At

any airow rate the comminution process supplies (nearly) the same

Fig. 5. Master curve of comminution effort for different circumferential roller speeds and

product neness. Fig. 6. Forces and elementary reactions at the grinding roller (top view).

30 M. Wheeldon et al. / International Journal of Mineral Processing 136 (2015) 2631

Fig. 9. Assumed relation between solids throughput and airow rate for pendular roller

mills.

Fig. 7. Dependency of solids throughput on the gap size for varying product particle size

distributions. understand the underlying physics of the occurring processes in the

mill, especially since nearly all of the experience gathered from ma-

clusters that are typically formed under these ow conditions, very sim- chines deployed in industry is related to considerably coarser product.

ilar to the way experienced with uidized bed systems (Wirth, 1990). In order to gain a deeper insight into the occurring mechanisms a new

These particle clusters behave in a more inert way than the single parti- measuring device was developed which allows monitoring the milling

cles that are forming the clusters, which results in the rejection of the gap size during the grinding process and thus helps to detect changes

clusters, and thus the product particles embedded in the clusters, to- and patterns of the comminution process at different process

wards the mill housing. This is especially true for very high local solids parameters.

concentrations above 1 kg/m2 such as were determined to occur in First measurements carried out with this measuring device show that

pendular roller mills via pressure loss measurements (Wheeldon and the energy required for comminution increases effectively linearly with

Wirth, 2013) since the fraction of clusters increases in respect to the an increasing milling gap size. However, no relation could be found be-

overall cross section area with increasing solids concentrations (Wirth, tween the product particle size and the power consumption of the mill

1990; Richter, 2012). As a result many particles complying with the motor. In fact, when considering the different idle power consumptions

demanded product particle size do not reach the classier, which in for different circumferential speeds of the grinding rollers, the relation be-

turn leads to a lower than necessary solids throughput. tween the power consumption of the mill motor and the milling gap size

Because of the increased interactions of the classication and the con- is not affected by the product particle size or the comminution force.

veying process with increasing classier speeds the airow rate level at The solids throughput also increases with an increasing milling gap

which the operating behavior of the mill switches from the conveying size. However, the rate of the increase depends on the product particle

limited behavior to the comminution limited behavior presumably shifts size and is the highest for coarse product. In the case of ne grinding

towards higher airow rates with increasing product neness. the milling gap cannot be fully utilized, which suggests that there is a

By increasing the airow rate more particles can be carried up by the limitation of the solids throughput that is not caused by the comminu-

process air towards the classier. As a result more particles manage to tion process. Further investigations reveal that the maximum possible

reach the classier, which in turn leads to an increase of the solids solids throughput for a specic product particle size is determined by

throughput. the applied airow rate. From this nding a model is established

which separates the operation of pendular roller mills into two airow

rate regions, one at which the solids throughput is determined by the

5. Conclusion

conveying process and one at which it is determined by the comminu-

tion process. The results of the measurements lead to the conclusion

With evolving elds of application for pendular roller mills in ne

that within the typical operating range of pendular roller mills the pro-

grinding (d97,3 = 10 m) it becomes more and more important to

cess air is not able to carry all of the produced ne particles out of the

comminution zone of the mill and up to the classier. Pendular roller

mills thus operate in the region determined by the conveying process.

Acknowledgments

GmbH, Germany. The authors are very grateful for this help.

References

Galk, J., 2008. Swings in ultra-ne GCC grinding. Ind. Miner. 8083 (December issue).

Husemann, K., Mtze, T., 2007. Geschwindigkeitseinuss bei der Gutbettbeanspruchung.

Chem. Ing. Tech. 79 (3), 296302.

Muschelknautz, E., 1974. Auslegung pneumatischer Frderanlagen. Chem. Ing. Tech. 46

(6), 223272.

Nguyen, A., 2002. Zerkleinerung von druckbeanspruchten feinsten Gutbetten. Shaker

Fig. 8. Stable solids throughput and milling gap size at constant product particle size plot- Verlag, Aachen.

ted over airow rate. Pahl, M., 1993. Zerkleinerungstechnik, second ed. TV Rheinland, Kln.

M. Wheeldon et al. / International Journal of Mineral Processing 136 (2015) 2631 31

Richter, R., 2012. Charakterisierung von hochbeladenen Strmungszustnden im Schnert, K., Sander, U., 2002. Shear stresses and material slip in high pressure roller mills.

bergangsgebiet zwischen homogenen und heterogenen Fluid-Feststoff- Powder Technol. 122, 136144.

Systemen(Ph. D. thesis) University of Erlangen-Nuremberg. Unger, W., 1983. Gegenberstellung von Pendel- und Schsselmhlen. ZKG Int. 36,

Rumpf, H., Leschonski, L., 1967. Prinzipien und neue Verfahren der Windsichtung. Chem. 5762.

Ing. Tech. 39 (21), 12311241. Wheeldon, M., Wirth, K.-E., 2013. Optimization of the Operating Performance of a Pendu-

Schnert, K., 1988. A rst survey of grinding with high-compression roller mills. Int. J. lar Roller Mill Proceedings of PARTEC 2013, Nuremberg.

Miner. Process. 22, 401412. Wirth, K.-E., 1990. Zirkulierende Wirbelschichten. Springer Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg.

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