Sie sind auf Seite 1von 20


Pyrocrat Systems, J-103, 1st Floor, Tower No. 7,

Belapur Railway Station Complex,, C.B.D. Belapur,
Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra 400614

The term plastics includes materials composed of various elements such as carbon,
hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, and sulphur.

Plastics are macromolecules, formed by polymerization and having the ability to be

shaped by the application of reasonable amount of heat and pressure or any other
form of forces.

It is one of the few new chemical materials which pose environmental problem.

Polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene is largely used in the manufacturing of


Rapid population growth, urbanization and industrial growth have led to severe
problem of waste generation in urban centres.

The waste quantities increased from 46 million tones in 2001 to 65 million tones
in 2010.

Report says that per capita per day production will increase to 0.7 kg in 2050.

The characteristics of waste depends on various factors such as food habits,

traditions, lifestyle, climate etc.
Types of plastic materials

Plastics, depending on their physical properties, may be classified as

thermoplastic or thermosetting plastic materials.

Thermoplastic materials can be formed into desired shapes under heat and
pressure and become solids on cooling. If they are subjected to the same
conditions of heat and pressure, they can be remoulded.

Thermosetting materials which once shaped cannot be softened/ remoulded by

the application of heat.

Out of total uses of plastic, 80% areThermoplastic and 20% areThermosetting.

Categorization of plastic
Sources of plastic waste
Environmental Issues on disposal of
Plastic pollute beaches & oceans.

Plastic bags litter the landscape.

Plastic bags kill animals.

During product manufacturing various types of gases are released.

Indiscriminate plastic waste disposal on land makes the land infertile due to its
impervious nature.
Burning of plastics generates toxic emissions such as Carbon Monoxide, Chlorine,
Hydrochloric Acid, Dioxin, Furans, Amines, Nitrides, Styrene, Benzene, 1, 3-
butadiene, CCl4, and Acetaldehyde.
Sub-standard plastic bags, films etc. pose problem in collection and

Littered plastics give unaesthetic look and choke the drain.

Garbage mixed with plastics interferes in waste processing facilities and

also cause problems in landfill operations.

Lead and Cadmium pigments, commonly used in LDPE, HDPE and PP as

additives are toxic and are known to leach out.

Non-recyclable plastic wastes poses disposal problem.

Plastic Waste Management

Disposal of plastic waste is a serious concern in India. New technologies

have been developed to minimize their adverse effect on the environment.

Figure 1: Co-processing of plastic waste plastic Waste Management

Conventional Technology for Plastic Waste Management

Recycling of plastics through environmentally

sound manner

Plastics recycling technologies have been historically divided into four general
types- primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary.

Steps Involved in the Recycling Process:

Selection: The recyclers/reprocessors have to select the waste /scrap which are
suitable for recycling/ reprocessing.
Segregation: The plastics waste shall be segregated as per the codes mentioned
in the BiS guidelines.
Processing: After selection and segregation of the preconsumer waste (factory
waste) shall be directly recycled. The post consumer waste (used plastic waste)
shall be washed, shredded, agglomerated, extruded and granulated.

Landll is the conventional approach to waste management, but space for

landlls is becoming scarce in some countries.
A well-managed landll site results in limited immediate environmental
harm beyond the impacts of collection and transport, although there are
long-term risks of contamination of soils and groundwater by some
additives and breakdown by products in plastics, which can become
persistent organic pollutants.
A major drawback to landlls from a sustainability aspect is that none of
the material resources used to produce the plastic is recovered.

Incineration reduces the need for landll of plastics waste, however, there
are concerns that hazardous substances may be released into the
atmosphere in the process.

Incineration can be used with recovery of some of the energy content in

the plastic.

The useful energy recovered can vary considerably depending on whether

it is used for electricity generation, combined heat and power, or as solid
refuse fuel for co-fuelling of blast furnaces or cement kilns.
New Technology for Plastic Waste
Polymer Blended Bitumen Road
A brief description of the technique used in laying road using plastic waste
is given in figure.
Co-processing of Plastic waste in Cement Kiln

Co-processing of plastic waste as Alternative Fuel and Raw

Material (AFR).

Co-processing indicate substitution of primary fuel and raw material by waste.

Waste material such as plastic waste used for co-processing are referred to as
alternative fuels and raw material (AFR).

One of the advantage of recovery method used in existing facility is eliminating

the need to invest on other plastic waste practices and to secure land filling.
Plasma Pyrolysis Technology (PPT)

Pyrolysis is the thermal disintegration of carbonaceous material in

oxygen-starved atmosphere.

The intense and versatile heat generation capabilities of Plasma Pyrolysis

technology enable it to dispose of all types of plastic waste including
polymeric, biomedical and hazardous waste in a safe and reliable manner.

When optimized, the most likely compounds formed are methane, carbon
monoxide, hydrogen carbon dioxide and water molecules.
Conversion of Plastics Waste into liquid fuel

The entire process is undertaken in closed reactor vessel followed by

condensation, if required.

Waste plastics while heating upto 2700 to 3000 C convert into liquid-
vapour state, which is collected in condensation chamber in the form of
liquid fuel.

The tarry liquid waste is topped-down from the heating reactor vessel.

The organic gas is generated which can be used in dual fuel diesel
generator set for generation of electricity.
Figure 2: Schematic flow diagram of process.
Plastic Waste Management has assumed great significance in view of the
urbanisation activities.

Various strategies are being devised to mitigate the impact of plastic waste
in India.

Some significant challenges still exist from both technological factors and
from economic or social behaviour issues relating to the collection of
recyclable wastes, and substitution for virgin material.