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Active:

Limiting cases:

Open circuit:

component is in parallel with a short, the equivalent

resistance becomes 0 and both components are

replaced with a short.

1.3 Current

Time rate flow of charge, (A)

Convention:

1.7 Voltage division

1.4 Voltage

1.8 Current division

Work done by EMF in moving charge through a circuit

per unit charge, (V) .

Convention

Series:

1.5 Passive/Active Elements

Parallel:

Passive absorbs electrical energy

Active provides energy

1.10 Power

Independent sources don't rely on other circuit

Time rate transformation of energy, (W)

variables, whilst dependent sources do.

Did someone say fully sick ELEC summaries - Josh Pham

2. Kirchoff's Laws

2.1 Definitions/topology

A branch is a single element ( )

A node is a point of connection ( )

A loop is a closed path. ( )

A mesh is a loop containing no other loops.

2.2 KCL/KVL The trick with mesh currents is that, when forming the

equations using KVL, say for the first mesh, as enters

, it is not the only current travelling through the

resistor. is also travelling through it in the opposite

direction, so the current travelling through when

KCL: Sum of currents in = sum of currents out analysing mesh 1 is .

KVL: Sum of voltage drops = sum of voltage gains around

a loop.

and so on...

2.3 Nodal analysis

Super mesh

1. Name nodes and select reference (usually

bottom one). A super mesh occurs when meshes share a current

2. Assign current/voltage labels (usually - is at source. Created by excluding the current source/any

ground and + is up top). A voltage source in a elements in series. It is not ignored, but rather as the

branch gives you the voltage source of that current "crosses" into the other half, you use the other

branch. current:

3. Apply KCL and express in terms of node voltages.

4. Solve equations simultaneously

Supernode

connected in parallel with it) between two non-

reference nodes

Pick

coming in and out of the supernode).

1. Assign mesh currents, for meshes.

2. Apply KVL to each mesh

3. Solve equations simultaneously

Did someone say fully sick ELEC summaries - Josh Pham

3. Circuit Theorems 3.4 Source transformation (Relationship between

Norton and Thevenin)

3.1 Superposition

Used to determine the responses of a linear circuit by

summing the individual responses of each independent

source (can't disable dependent sources).

To disable a current source, open circuit it.

whose effect you want to determine.

2. Repeat until you have found all responses for

each source and sum them.

Any circuit of sources and resistances with an identified

terminal pair can be replaced by an equivalent circuit

consisting of a voltage source in series with a

resistance .

2. Disable all independent sources and find

equivalent resistance .

3. Don't disable dependent sources. Instead

disable all independent sources and apply a 1V

source at the terminals and work out . Then you

can find using . Alternatively you can

apply a 1A source and find terminal and then

using .

.

Any circuit of sources and resistances with an identified

terminal pair can be replaced by an equivalent circuit

which consists of an ideal current source in parallel

with a resistor .

terminals)

2. .

Did someone say fully sick ELEC summaries - Josh Pham

4. Capacitors and RC Transients We know,

4.1 Capacitors

A capacitor is a passive element

designed to store energy in its From KVL,

electric field. It consists of two

parallel conducting plates

separated by an insulating

Noting that the capacitor becomes an open circuit, after

medium (dielectric).

a long period of time, when the capacitor becomes an

Capacitance is a the ability to store charge (F): open circuit, .

Series:

Parallel:

4.4 RC Transients

First order RC circuits are those containing either one

capacitor or one inductor forming a first order ODE. The

complete response of an RC circuit is made of a transient

(natural) and a steady state (forced) response.

Hence, to obtain the complete response you must find,

1. Initial conditions

1. Initial capacitor voltage

2. Transient period

2. Final capacitor voltage

3. Final conditions

3. Time constant

The capacitor acts as an open circuit for (switch

and substitute into the above formula.

hasn't been closed) and (as and

Implication

.

1. Voltage cannot change instantaneously

Analysing the transient response,

as as and

Did someone say fully sick ELEC summaries - Josh Pham

5. Inductors and RL Transients We know,

5.1 Inductors

An inductor is a passive element made of coils designed

to resist changes in electric current passing through it From KVL,

(introduce inductance (henries)).

current flows. When current flows, a time varying

magnetic field induces a voltage in the conductor, where

according to Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction.

According to Lenz's law, the direction of the induced

EMF is always such that it opposes the change in current

that created it. Hence, to obtain the complete response you must find,

Model of an inductor 1. Initial inductor current

2. Final inductor current

3. Time constant

Implication

Series:

Parallel:

5.3 Energy stored by inductor

5.3 RL Transients

Contain one inductor and one or more resistors. The 5.4 RC and RL Transients

inductor acts as a short circuit for and (as

Apply the implications simultaneously. Find initial and

and . final conditions and substitute into derived formulae.

Did someone say fully sick ELEC summaries - Josh Pham

6. Sinusoids and Phasors Writing a sinusoidal signal as a phasor:

6.1 Sinusoids

To convert from phasor (frequency domain) to time

domain, you need .

= amplitude (V)

= angular frequency (rad/s) 6.3 Phasor relationships for circuit elements

= phase shift

Resistor: in phase

Capacitor: leads by 90o

Inductor: lags by 90o

Concept of lagging and leading

You will be expected to plot the phasors of these

The wave that comes first in time leads the

voltages and currents on a phasor diagram.

other, whilst the other lags.

6.4 Impedance and admittance

Impedance is the complex resistance to sinusoidal

current. It has the unit ohms.

When attempting to find the phase shift of two reactance

signals (one in cos and one in sin), you need to are the impedances for the capacitor and inductor

convert them all to sin or cos (preferably cos)

respectively. They are purely imaginary.

[and both positive or both negative] using

. Remember that sin and

cos shift polarities every 180 shift.

Remember from graph transformations that THESE ACT AS SHORT CIRCUITS AT DC (low ) AND

causes a shift right, and OPEN CIRCUITS AT HIGH FREQUENCY (high )

causes a shift left. Using this you can find which [IMPORTANT!!!!! WE SEE THIS IN OP AMPS

one lags and which one leads. QUESTIONS).

6.2 Phasors Admittance is the reciprocal of impedance.

All time-varying sinusoidal signals can be It can be represented as,

represented as a non time-variant complex

number in the frequency domain.

susceptance

where AC circuit analysis, you must convert all components to

the frequency domain (phasors and impedances) and

Operations:

then conduct analysis.

)

Did someone say fully sick ELEC summaries - Josh Pham

6.5 AC Analysis Complex power

Thevenin etc) but now with phasors.

Measured in VA

Kirchoff's AC laws:

Apparent power (VA)

6.6 Power Analysis

Effective value of a periodic signal (RMS)

Power factor

The effective value/RMS of a periodic current

is the dc current that delivers the same

average power to a resistor as the periodic

current. (purely reactive, no average

The effect value of a periodic signal is its power consumed), (purely resistive, all

RMS value. average power consumed).

lagging

leading

Average power

times. Reactive loads (L or C) absorb zero

average power.

i.e, when the load impedance is the

conjugate of the Thevinin impedance.

This maximum power transfer is given by,

Reactive power

Measured in VAr.

Did someone say fully sick ELEC summaries - Josh Pham

7. Operational Amplifiers For integrators and differentiators,

Active elements that perform basic math When dealing with AC circuits convert to

functions (+, -, , ) impedances etc.

For analysis purposes, we ignore that it is

7.3 Key quantities

connected to an external power supply

otherwise KCL will not directly hold. Nearly all OP amps questions will ask for the

transfer function or the open loop gain

The polarity of an input is outputted with (the constant of proportionality which your

opposite polarity if connected to the inverting input signal is subjected to produce an output).

input ( )

The polarity of an input is stays the same if

connected to the non-inverting input ( ).

7.3 Key configurations

The key configurations used to perform basic math

functions presented below. Do not memorise these.

Please see that their analysis uses the exact same ideal

conditions.

7.2 Ideal conditions/equivalent circuit

Non-inverting configuration

Every OP-amps question literally uses the same set of (as no current enters the op amp).

ideal conditions that you need to apply to solve the Since the current through the op amp is 0, .

question. By applying nodal analysis at 1,

Firstly, we assume that and .

flow and thus no voltage drop meaning that . But

Summary

Low frequencies (DC), capacitors act as open

circuits

Did someone say fully sick ELEC summaries - Josh Pham

Inverting configuration Subtracting/Difference configuration

Since and

Nodal analysis at node b,

Summing configuration Hence,

equal 0 and thus,

Cascade configuration

Also,

The saturation limits how much we can amplify. The

input of the adjacent op amp is the output of the one

Thus,

before it.

Did someone say fully sick ELEC summaries - Josh Pham

Integrating configuration

therefore,

Differentiating configuration

Did someone say fully sick ELEC summaries - Josh Pham

8. Transformers 7.3 Eliminating ideal transformers from circuits

Transformers are AC equipment used to 1. Reflecting the secondary circuit to the primary side

transfer power from one circuit to another

Divide by

without a change in frequency.

Divide by

Used to convert AC power at a certain voltage

Multiply by

to power at another voltage.

Only works with DC because no alternating flux

means no power transmission meaning the

voltage drop occurs through the primary

resistance which is quite low, burning the

primary coils.

The AC voltage applied to the primary coil

of turns sets up an alternating flux,

inducing an AC voltage in the secondary coil

of turns whose size depends on the turns 2. Reflecting the primary circuit to the secondary side

ratio . Multiply by

Multiply by

Divide by

1. A transformer of 2400 and 48 is used

as an impedance matching device. What is the

reflected value of a 3 load connected to the

secondary?

By Faraday's law, and the requirement that ,

10 kVA. Determine

Did someone say fully sick ELEC summaries - Josh Pham

3. A 4800 V rms transmission line feeds a

distribution transformer with 1200 turns on the

primary and 28 turns on the secondary. When a

10 load is connected across the secondary,

find:

a) Secondary voltage

b) Primary and secondary currents

c) Power supplied to the load.

a)

b)

c)

Sickest digital system summary/10 - Josh

Digital Systems

1. Introduction to Digital and Binary

1.1 Digital and analog signals

Digital systems are a method of signalling.

Whereas analog signals are waveforms, digital signals are streams of bits based on the

binary number systems. Where a bit, is a digit of the binary number system.

Consists of only two numerals.

Works on a base 2 number system.

Every number can be written in binary are long strings of 1s and 0s.

Example

Since there are 8 binary digits, this is an 8 bit system meaning it goes from (right to left)

Works in tandem with the binary number system.

Truth tables are exhaustive descriptions of outputs for all possible inputs.

Possible inputs are dictated by the number of bits which is often influenced by certain

relationships e.g. if , then true etc...

Example

Daniel goes to the mall. The items he shops for are categorised into things he needs and things he

wants. His method of payment are cash/debit.

Solution

Define variables:

(predetermined by the other inputs).

Sickest digital system summary/10 - Josh

We form a 5 by 16 (0 15) table. We know we only have 15 possible combinations. This is because

we only really have 4 real variables (P being determined by the previous inputs), , so we go

from .

First we start by writing all the numbers on the sides using binary.

This is the way we determine our (NWCD) [fundamental variables). How we can figure out P.

For the first column, he doesn't need it, doesn't want it. So he won't buy it. If we continue according

to rules we can fill out the P column.

Sickest digital system summary/10 - Josh

Logic gates are devices that perform a local operation on one of more logical inputs to

produce a singular logical output.

Used extensively in digital circuits.

We have 2 inputs so, we have 22 possible outcomes. "Z is true iff X and Y are true"

1.4.2 OR gates

"Z is true iff X or Y are true"

The not gate inverts/negates. (1 input, 21 possible outcomes). Replaces the input with the

complement of the input.

1.4.3 NAND gate (NOT and; the complement of the AND gate)

"Z is true if X or Y are false"

Sickest digital system summary/10 - Josh

"Z is true if X and Y are false"

"Z is true if X Y"

"Z is true if X = Y"

Sickest digital system summary/10 - Josh

Practically we must work with a large number of signals. Each signal has a binary choice (yes-

no, on-off, move-stop).

Boolean Algebra provides a method of simplifying and handling these signals.

AND

OR

NAND

NOR

XOR

XNOR

Fundamental theorems

2) (equals iff )

3)

4)

5)

6)

7)

8)

Distributive laws

(read A or B and A or C) etc

Absorption laws

1)

2)

3)

4)

De Morgan's theorem

Sickest digital system summary/10 - Josh

When we have two quantities whose truth tables are matching they are equivalent (can be used to

prove De Morgan's theorem).

Draw a truth table for the digital circuit. Also find a Boolean Expression for .

Solution

We have a NOR and AND and OR GATE. We have 3 inputs A, B, C and one input Z.

We should split up the inputs of the OR gate. One input will be X. The other will be Y.

Hence,

Sickest digital system summary/10 - Josh

Solution

The section is addressed as follows: What we also need to do now is B complement and an and

gate with C. To make B complement, we add a NOT gate and combine it with C using an and gate.

To get the , branch off C and add a not gate. Relate C and D using an AND gate. To get the A . B.

C term, to do that, we need to make an AND gate between A B, C.

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