GENERAl. EDITORS
No. 32
GENERALIZED H YPERG l~O.METRIC
SERI~S
GENERALIZED
HYPERGEOlVIETRIC SERlE~
BY
W. N. BAILEY, 1\f.A., D.Sc.
Senior Ledurer in Mathematics in the
University of Manchester
Reprinted by Arrangement
CONTENTS
Preface page vii
THE LIBRARY
UNIVERSITY OF GUELPH
PREFACE
Before the year 1923 the literature dealing with generalized
hypergeometric series was somewhat scattered, but in that year
Professor G. H. Hardy published his paper ''A chapter from Ra
manujan's notebook" in which he gave an account and proofs of
the results then known, most of which had been rediscovered by
Ramanujan. Since then numerous papers have been written on
the subject, and it seems desirable that the mass of special results,
obtained by one method or another, should be collected together.
This is the primary object of this tract.
No attempt has been made to give a complete account of the
ordinary hypergeometric series. In fact the first chapter simply
gives the minimum required for the succeeding chapters. Again,
all parts of the subject, such as asymptotic expansions, which
definitely belong to function theory, have been deliberately
ignored.
Although the main part of the work deals with generalized
hypergeometric series, there are also short accounts of Heine's
basic hypergeometric series and Appell's hypergeometric func
tions of two variables .
.My thanks are due to Professor G. H. Hardy who made valuable
suggestions regarding the general plan of the work, and to
Professor L. J. Mordell who suggested the desirability of a tract
on this subject.
W. N. B.
MANCHESTER,
January 1935.
CHAPTER I
THE HYPERGEOMETRIC SERIES
1.1. Introduction. The series*
+ ~b z+ a(a+ I)b(b +I) z2 + a(a+ I)(a + 2)b (b + 1) (b~ 2) za+ ...
1
I.e l.2.c(c+I) l.2.3.c(c+l)(c+2)
is called the hypergeometric series, and is denoted by F (a, b; c; z).
It is assumed that cis not a negative integer.
The series converges when I z I < I, and also when z = 1 provided
that R (cab)> 0, and when z = 1 provided that
R(cab+ 1)>0.
For brevity we write
(a)n=a(a+I)(a+2) .. (a+nI), (a) 0 =1,
r (a + b + 1 : c) r:'J~:: .!!] +
00
We thus find that* and, taking ( l  t) 2 as the new variable, this becomes a beta
r(c)r(cab) function. We can thus evaluate F (a, 1a;c; !) in terms of gamma
(I) F(a, b; c; z)=r(ca)r(cb)F(a, b; a+b+lc; 1z) functions. The actual formulae will be given in Chapter II.
r(c)r(a+bc) 1.6. Barnes' contour integral for F(a, b; c; z).* Consider
+f'(a)J'~ (1zyabF(ca, cb; 1+cab; 1z).
the contour integral
1.5. A definite integral for F(a, b; c; z). Consider the _!__fi"" r(a_+s)f(b+8)r(8) zsJ
( ) ~.
integral
I= J: tb 1 (1ncb1 (1 tz)adt,
27Ti i:>O r (c +8)
'vhere I arg ( z) I< 1r, and the path of integration is curved,
if necessary, to separate the poles 8= an, 8= bn,
where, for convergence, R (c)> R (b)> 0, and I z J < l. It is sup
(n=O, 1, 2, ... ) from the poles 8=0, 1, 2, .... This contour can
posed that the branch of ( 1  tz )a is chosen so that (I  tz )a""* 1
always be drawn if a and b are not negative integers, as then
as t+0. Then
none of the decreasing sequences of poles coincides with one of
I= fl ~ (a),n zntb+n1 ( 1 t)cb1 dt the increasing sequence.
On=O n.
Now,t if I arg (s+a) I~ 1r0, I argsl ~ 1ro, then
= (a)nznr(b+n)r(cb) log r (s+a) = (s+a t) logs s+! log (27T) +o ( 1),
n=on! r(c+n)
when lsl+oo.
=r(b)r(cb)
(a)n(b)nzn
Thus, the integrand, which can be written
r (c) n=O n! (c)n '
r(a+s)r(b+s) 1T(z)s
the change in the order of integration and summation being easily
justified. We therefore have, under the given conditions,
r
(c+s) r (i +s) Sil181T '
is asymptotically equal to
(1} ~(a, b; c; z) = r (brr(~~b) J>l1 (1 t)Cb1 ( 1 tz)a dt.

1T ( z)s
;~ exp [(a+ b c 1) log 8].
Sill 81T
When z= I, the integral on the right reduces to a beta function
and we are led again to Gauss's theorem. Putting 8 = iv on the contour, we see that, for large values of v,
Again, if z =  1, a= l + b c, the integral in (I} becomes the integrand is
J: (2tt2)a(It)Cb1dt,
( z)s
O(Na+bc1) ._
Slll81T
. ~ r(a+n)r(b+n) + ~ r(oc+8+n)r(,B+o+n)r(y8n)(1)n/n!
= 11m ~ zn n=O
NHn=0 n! r (c+n) '
=r(a.+y}r(,8+y)r(Sy)F(oc+y, ,8+y; 1+yS; I)
since r ( s) has a simple pole at 8=n, (n= 0, I, 2, ... ) with residue
+ a similar expression with y and ointerchanged.
( l)n1 /n!. Thus the integral represents an analytic function in
the region I arg ( z) I< 1T, and when I z I< 1 this analytic function Using Gauss's theorem we obtain the required result after a
may be represented by the series little reduction. The formula has been proved only when
r (a) r (b) R(oc+~+y+S1)<0,
r (c) F (a, b; c; z). but by the theory of analytic continuation it is true for all
The symbol F (a, b; c; z) rnay therefore be used to denote the values of a, {3, y, S for which none of the poles ofr (x+s) r (/3 +s)
more general function defined by the integral when divided by coincide with any of the poles of r (y s) r (S 8).
r (a) r (b)jr (c). By writing 8 k, oc + k, ,8 + k, y k, o k for s, Ot, ,8, y, o, we sec
that the result is still true when the limits of integration are
1.7. Barnes' lemma.* If the path of integration is curved so as
k ioo, where k is any real constant.
to separate the increasing and decreasing sequences of poles, then
1
2 fi"'.
1T~ too
r (oc +s) r (,8 +s) I' (y8) r (8 8) ds
_ r (oc+y) r(oc+o) r (~+y) r (,8+ o)
 r (a.+ ,8+y+8)
* Ba.mes1.
GENERALIZED HYPERGEOMETRIC SERIES 9
vaJid for Iz I < I if no two of the numbers I, p1 , p 2 , , Pp differ by
an integer.
CHAPTER II 2.2. Saaischiitz's theorem. In the formula
(Iz)a+bc 2 F 1 (a, b; c; z)= 2 Fdca, cb; c; z),
GENERALIZED HYPERGEOl\IETRIC SERIES.
FURTHER RESULTS CONCERNING OR obtained in 1.2, equate the coefficients of z", and we obtain
DINARY HYPERGEOMETRIC SERIES (a)r(~)r (~a_b) 11 =' = (c:a) 11 (cb) 11
r~o r! (c)r (nr)! n! (c),
2.1. Introductory remarks. In the ordinary hypergeometric Hence
series F (a, b; c; z) there are two numerator parameters a, b, and
~ (a)r<!>l! _r~.~ab) 11 (=n)r = (ca) 11 (cb)n_
one denominator parameter c. ~!ore generally, we can consider r~or!(c)r (l+a+bcn)rn! n!(c),~
the series
~ (:Xl)n (:X2)n . ._{:Xp)n zn It follows that
n! (pl)Jt (pq),! '
n=O
(I) .//[a, b;n; I J=(c~a)~~.(cb) 11
which we denote by 3 2
c, I+a+bcn (c)~~.(cab),~'
p
F
q
[0(1, a result due to Saalschi.itz. * It sums the series
With this notation the series F (a, b; c; z) is denoted by aF 2[oct ' oc2' oca; I]
Pt P2
2F 1 (a, b; c; z).
when p 1 + p 2 = oc 1 + oc 2+ oc3 + I and one of the numerator para
When p ~ q, the series converges for all values of z. When
meters is a negative integer. The theorem reduces to Gauss's
p > q + 1, the series converges only for z = 0, and is therefore
theorem when n+oo.t
significant only when it terminates.
In future, when the argument z is omitted, it will be assumed
Usually we shall be concerned with the case when p = q + 1.
that z = 1. Saalschiitz's theorem can then be written in the form
Then the series converges when I z I< I, and also when z= I pro
vided that R (~p ~:X)> 0, and when z =  I provided that ( )
2
F [a, b, c;J=r(d)r(I+ae)r(l+be)r(I+ce)
2 d, e
3
r{le)r(da)r(db)r(dc) ,
R(LpLoc+ 1) > 0.
The differential equation satisfied by provided that a, b or cis a negative integer and d + e =a+ b + c + I.
F [ocl' cc2' ... , ocp+l; z] 2.3. Kwnmer's theorem.t We shall prove that
is, as in 1.2,
pH P
P1 ... Pp
(1) 2
F
1
[a, 1+ab
b; IJ=r(I+ab)r(I+!a).
r(I+a)r(1+!ab)
{& (&+ P1 1) ... (&+ Pp 1) z (&+ oc1 )(.& + oc 2 ) ... (&+ ocP+l)}y= 0, As a preliminary lemma we show that
where.& denotes the operator zdjdz. The other solutions of this
[ta,t+iab;(I~z)2]'
equation are easily found to be
(2) 2Ft [a, +a bz] =(1z)
I
b; a
2Ft 1 b+a
* Saalschii.tz 1, 2. See a.lso Sheppard 1 and Douga.ll1.
t For the details of the limiting process, see Douga.ll 1.
t Kummer 1, p. 53.
10 GENERALIZED HYPERGEOMETRIC SERIES GENERALIZED HYPERGEOMETRIC SERIES 11
a formula* which is valid inside the loop of the curve The coefficient of zn on the left is
l4z I= liz 12 ~ f~)r_(b)r (l)'(a+r)"='=(a)n ~ ~~)r_!__n)r
r=or!(c)r (nr)! n!r=O r!(C) 7
which surrounds the origin. The righthand side of (2) is analytic
inside this region, and can therefore be expanded in powers of z (a)n (c b)n
when I z I < 3 2 y2. Now the righthand side of (2) is n! (c)n
by Vandermonde's theorem, and the formula is proved. The
~ li~)~(!+!a::~):(4zY(lz)a 2 r, argument is valid if I z I<!, and the complete result follows by
r=O r! (1 +ab)r
analytic continuation.
and the coefficient of zn is Now let z+  1, and we find that
r=O
~ (!_~!(~+lab)r ( 4)r(a+~r)nr
r!(l+ab)r (nr)!
2F1 [a,~;!]= 2a2F1 [a, c~; ll
_(a)n ~ (!+!ab)r(a+n)r(n)r The series on the right can be summed by Kummer's theorem
 n! r=O r!(l+ab)r(ta+f), when either c=Ha+b+l) or a+b=l. We thus obtain the
(a) 11 (b)n
= n! (1 +ab)n' (3)
by Saalschtitz's theorem. The formula (2) is therefore proved The formula (2) is due to Gauss.*
when I z I< 3 2y2, and the complete result follows by analytic
2.5. Standard types of generalized hypergeometric series. t
continuation.
When the parameters of the series
Now let z+ l, and we find that
(I) 3
/<'
2
[a, b c;
1 +a b, 1 + n c
J
_r'(1+!a) r'(1+ab) r'(l+ac) r(l+abc)
 f'{l:ta) r (1 +!ab) r' (1 +!ac) r' (1 +abc)'
and includes as a special case the sum of the cubes of the co
efficients in the binomial expansion.t It reduces to Kummer's
theorem when C*00.
Now, by Gauss's theorem
. r(I+a+2n)r(I+abc) _ F [b+n, c+n;J
r(I+ab+n)r(I+ac+n) 2 1 l+a+2n .
Thus
_____!'(a) r (b) r (c)
r (I +ab)f'(I +a c) 3
F
2
[a, b, c;
I +ab, I +ac
J
= ~  r(a+n)r(b+n)r(c+n)
n=<O n! r(I +a b +n) r (I +ac +n)
= ~ r(a+n)r(b_~l_rjc+n__
) __ p [b+n, c+n;J
n,on!r(l+a+2n)r(l+abc) 2 1 I+a+2n
= ~ ~ r(a+n)r(b+n+m)r(c+n+m)
. n " o m = o n! m ! r (I +a + 2n + m) r (l +a  b c)
= i r(a+n)r(b+p)r(~_+p)
w0 n=on!(pn)!r(l+a+n+p)r(l+abc)
= ~ r(a)r(b+p)r(c+p) F [a, p; I]
p 'oP! r (I +abc) r (I +a+p) 2 1
I +a+p
* Dixon 2. The proof given here is due to Watson 3.
t Morley 1. l:lcc also Dixon 1, Richmond 1, :\fac:\lahon 1.
I4 SERIES OF THE TYPE 3 ~1!'2 WITH UNIT ARGUMENT SERIES OF THE TYPE 3F 2 WITH UNIT ARGUMENT 15
= ~ _ _I'(~)f(b+p)f(c+p)f(I+ia) and this is the formula stated. The argument requires that the
p! f (I +abc) f (I +a) r (1 + !a+p) double series should be absolutely convergent. This is certainly
J
p=O
_ f(a)r(b)f(c) F [ b, c; f\O if the real part of e +fa is sufficiently large. Suppose, for
3
F
2
[a,t (a +b+
b, c;]=
1), 2c
_r(ta+~_b+})r(2c)r(c+tta!b)
r(a)r(c +~!a+ !b) r(2c+ t ia !b)
Let r0 , r 1 , r 2 , r 3 , r 4 , r 5 be six parameters such that
5
~ ri=O.
F [2c a,
2
t (l +ba),c+ k(lab);] i=O
X a 2c+k(lab), c+H1a+b) With these parameters associate numbers oc and fJ such that
The series on the right can be summed by Dixon's theorem, oclm~=! +r,+rm +r,~,
and we find that
flmn =I +rm rn.
(I) 3 Fz [:(a+:~ 1), ;~] Define functions Fp and Fn by the equations
This formula was given by Watson* in the case when a is a 4 5 1 F [()(023 1Xo1a' IXo12;]
negative integer, and the more general case was given by Whip Fn (O; ' ) = =r=(oco4:s):;;ro;;:(,8o4) f'l.Bos) 32 {304' f3os
ple.t When cHo, the theorem reduces to 2.4(2). The Fn function is derived from the corresponding Fp function
3.4. Whipple's theorem on the sum of a 3F 2 We now prove by changing the signs of all the r's.
that, when a+b= 1 and e+ f= 2c+ 1, Bypermutationofthesuffixes 60Fp'sand 60Fn'scan be found.
( I)
a
F
2
[a, b,e, c;J
f
If ocus=a, 1X24s=b, f34o=e,
IX345=c,
()( 123 =e+ fabc=s,
flso=f,
1rr (e) r (/) so that the hypergeometric function occurring in the definition
r (!a+ te) r (!a+ if) r (kb+!e) r (!b+ !/)'
= 22Cl
of Fp(0;4, 5) is 3 F 2 [a,b,c;e,J], then all the ()('sand ,B's can be
a result given by Whipple.:j: expressed in terms of a, b, c, e and f. They are set out in Table I.
Using the transformation (1) of 3.2, we see that, under the
given conditions, Table I.
F [a, b, c;]= r(e)r(J)r(c) F [ea,fa, c;] Expressions for IX'& and ,B's in terms of a, b, c, e,f
2 3 (s=e+fa6c).
e,j r(a)r(b+c)r(2c) 3 2 b+c,2c 0
The series on the right can be summed by Watson's theorem, 2=1c I O:ua=B
and the result follows. When we substitute forb and e and let 3=1b o: 12,=e c
=1f+a: a.t2s=fc
c+oo, the theorem reduces to 2.4(3). =1e+al et 13,=e b
=1a Gttas=fb
3.5. The functions Fp and Fn. The fundamental relations = 1J+b <Xus=a
of 3.2 are only two of many relations obtained in 1879 by ==1e+b Ot:2a4=ea
==1f+c <X2a5 =!a
Tho mae who approached the subject through the calculus of =1e+c Gt2C5 = b
* Watson 5. See a.1so Hardy 2. t Whipple 1.
=1s CY.acs =C
+Whipple 1. Thomae 1. Whipple 1. Cf. Barnes 2.
18 SERIES OF THE TYPE 3F 2 WITH UNIT ARGUMENT SERIES OF THE TYPE 3F 2 WITH UNIT ARGUMENT 19
In Tables II A and II B the parameters of the Fp's and Fn's are permutation of e, f. Thus Fp (2) and Fp (3) are of the same type
given in terms of a, b, c, e, f. as Fp (1) in the sense that they can be derived from it by the
interchange of b or c with a. For example, by comparison with
Table IIA. Fp (I; 0, 2) it is seen that Fp (2; 0, 1) has the parameters
1e+a, 1f+a, 1b; 1 +ab, 2sb.
The condition that the series Fp (u; v, w) may be convergent is


R (ocx11:&) > 0. It will be noticed that r (ocE11z) occurs in the de

Fp (0)
' i
v,w
4, 5
I
I
Numerator parameters
8,
a,
   
b,
ea,
c
fa
Denominator parameters
e,
s+b,
f
s+c
nominator in the definition of the Fp function. The condition for
Fn (u; v, w) to be convergent is R(ocuvw) > 0.
  . 
'.
1, 4 I a, eb, ec e, 11+a
3.6. Transformations of series 3F 2 with unit argument.
Fp (l) 0, 2 I 1e+b, 1f+b, 1a 1+ba, 2sa We now turn to the fundamental relations of 3.2. The formula (I)
[Fp (2) and 0, 4 1s, 1f+b, 1J+c 1+b+cf, 2sa
2, 3 ea, fa, 1a 1a+b, 1a+c of that paragraph can be written, in our new notation,
Fp (3) arc
2, 4 b, ea, 1f+b l+b+cj, l+ba
of this type]
4, 5 1s, b, c 1 +b+cj, 1+b+ce
( 1) Fp (0; 4, 5) = Fp (0; 2, 3).
 By interchanging r4 and r 1 we find that
Fp (4)
0, 1 1e+a, 1b, 1c 2e, 1+Jbc
[l<'p (5) is of
0, 5 1e+a, le+b, 1e+c 2e, 1e+f Fp (0; I, 5) = Fp (0; 2, 3),
this type]
1, 2 jc, Ic, s 1 +fac, l+fbc and thus
I, 5 1e+a, jc, fb l+fe, l+fbc
(2) Fp (0; 4, 5) = Fp (0; 1, 5).
Table lin. Accordingly all the permutations of the indices 1 to 5 are
legitimate, and we see that all the ten expressions Fp (0; v, w) are
Fn (u; V, w) = r (ocuvw> r (~uv) r <.Buw) 3 F2 [0Cuyz.Bu:~Pu:uxu]. equal* and may be conveniently denoted by Fp (0). Similar

results are true for the other Fp's and the Fn's. Thus the 60 series
1
v, w Numerator parameters
I Thmominato' ""'='"'" Fp may be divided into six groups of 10, the members of any one
group being all equal. A similar remark applies to the 60 series Fn.
Fn (0)
4, 5
2, 3
I 1a,
1s,
1b, 1c
1e+a, Ij+a
2e,
2sb,
2j
2sc
I, 4 1a, 1e+b, Ie+c 2e, 2sa 3.7. Threeterm relations. Now turn to the relation (2) of
1~  3.2. In our present notation this can be written
l<'n ( 1)
0, 2 fb,
eb, a
l+ab,
fc
I s+a
0, 4 Jb,
8, 1bc+f,I
s+a (l) sin7T,823 Fp(O)= Fn(2)
[Pn (2) and 2, 3 1e+a, lf+a, I 1 +ab,
a l+ac
Pn (3) are 2, 4 1b, le+a, jb
1bc+f, I+ab 1T r (iXo23) r (OC134) r (iX135) r (iX345)
of this type J 4, 5 s, 1b, lc 1bc+f, lbc+e Fn(3)
Jt'n ( 4) 0, 1 ea, b, c

e, 1f+b+c  r (1Xm) r (~125) r (iX24s) .
[Fn (5)isof 0, 5 ea, eb, ec e, 1+ej Changing the signs of the r's, we obtain
c, l8 1f+a+c, 1f+b+c
1
this typoJ 1, 2 IJ+c,
1, 5 ea, 1f+c, If+b 1 +ej, If+b+c ( 2) ~n 7T,8a2 Fn (0) =   Fp (2)c=,,
7T r (iXm) r (:Xo2S) r (:X024) r (1X012)
In these tables only representative forms are given. The per Fp(3)
mutation of the indices I, 2, 3 corresponds with the permutation  r (ocoas) r (1Xro4) r (1X013).
of a, b, c, whilst the permutation of 4 and 5 corresponds with the * Barnes 2, Hardy 2, Whipple 1.
20 SERIES OF THE TYPE 3F 2 WITH UNIT ARGUMENT SERIES OF THE TYPE 3F 2 WITH UNIT ARGUMENT 2I
By combining three equations like (I) it is found* that 3.8. An example. As an example of the use of the tables
consider the formula*
~ si~TT/345 ___ Fp(O)
(3)
r (1Xm) r (IXod r (1Xo23)
+~ sin71f35o _ _. Fp(4)
(I)
3
F
2
[a, e,b, c;Jf =~(e) r (eab) F [a,a+be+I,f
r(ea)r(eb) 3
b, f c;
2
J
r (1Xm) r (.xla4) r (.x234)
+ r (e) r(f) r (a +be) r (e+ Jab c)
+~  sin7rf304  ~ Fp(v_) =0, r (a) r (b) r (jc) r (e+ fa b)
r <oc12s) r (0(135) r (.x2a5)
x F [ea, eb, e+fabc;J
and, changing the signs of the r's, 3 2
eab+I, e+fab
(4)  sin1Tj35!  Fn (0) By the use of Tables II A and II n we identify the series as
r <0(345 >r <1Xz45) r (.x145 > multiples of Fp (0; 4, 5), Fn (5; 0, 3) and Fn (3; 0, 5). Hence, after
+ sin 71 f3o5 Fn (4) division by r (s) r (e) r (f), the formula may be written (with the
r (1Xoa5) r (.x025) r (1Xo15)
help of Table I) in the form
+ sin7rf34o
 F n(5)=0 71
)
F p (0 4 a= r (a:oas)
r (.xoa4) r <1Xo24) r <IXo14) ' ,
 Fn(50 3)
sin7rj353 r(0(234)r(1Xl34)r(oc123) ' '
Now eliminate Fn(2) from the relation of the type (1) con
necting Fp (5), Fn (0), Fn (2) and the relation of the type (2) + 7r  r (1X035 ) Fn (3 0 5)
sin 71J3as r (0(145) r (0(245) r (0(125) ' ' .
connecting Fn (2), Fp (0), Fp (5). It follows that"t
This is equivalent to 3.7 (I) with the indices 2 and 5 inter
Fp(O)
(5) changed.
r (1X12o> r (.x13~)r (~23o) r (a:24o) r <~~~o) r <0(~4~) The formula (I) has an interesting connection with Saalschtitz's
sin11f305 Fn(O)
+ =:;:,,;=:: K F ()
 0 p D ' theorem. If e +f =a+ b + c + I, the first series on the right reduces
7rr (a:12a> r (.xl24) r (a:la4) r (a:2a4) to a 2F 1 which can be summed by Gauss's theorem, and we ob
where
11 3K 0 =sin 11a:145 sin 11a:245 sin 7r.x345 +sin mx 123 sin 11/340 sin 11{350 ,
taint
(2)
3
F
2
[a, b,e, e+fab1;]
f
or, in terms of the r' s,
5  r (e) r (f) r (eab) r (fab)
4713K 0 = L COS7r(r0 + 2rn) cos 37rr0  r (e a) r (e  b) r (f afr'(j b)
7L=1
The analogue of (5) is 1 r(e)r(j)
+a+be r(a)r(b)r(e+fa6)
( )
6
Fn (0)
r(;~ 5 ) r (a: 245 ) r (a:145 ) r (~;;,) r (a:235) r (a:m)
x 3
F [ea, eb, I;
2
eab+1, e+Jab
J
+~in'f!f3soFp(O)  =KoFn(5).
7rr (1Xots) r (1Xo3s) r <~025} r (oc015) If a or b is a negative integer, the second term on the right
All the threeterm relations between the 120 hypergeometric vanishes, and we obtain Saalschtitz's theorem. Thus (2) gives the
series are typified by the equations (I) to (6). form which Saalschlitz's theorem assumes when we remove the
Cf. Thomac t, equation 46, Hardy 2, equation 7.1. Ha.rdy 2, equation 5.2.
t Cf. Thomac t, equation 5:3. The discussion given here is due to Whipple 1. t ~a.alschutz 2. Sco a.lso Hardy 2.
22 SERIES OF THE TYPE 3F 2 WITH UNIT ARGUMENT
7
F [k,1+lk,k+ba,k+ca,k+da,
6
}k,
a+n, n;
l+ab, 1+ac, l+ad, l+kan, I+k+n
J where k = 1 + 2a b c d, and the parameters are subject to the
restriction that
b + c + d + e + f + g m = 2 + 3a.
(1 + k)n (b)n (c)n (d)n
= (a~k)n(I+ a b)n (I +a _:c).:..!!n:.,. I+a=d:)n
( ' This formula, which is one of the most general known trans
formations of terminating wellpoised series, connects two well
where k = I+ 2a b c d. This is equivalent to poised series, either of which is of general type except for the
( I) 7 (k)r (I+ !k)r(k + b a)r (k+ca)r (k +d a)r second parameter, and the restriction that the sum of the de
n (a+n),.(ak+n)_,.(n)r nominator parameters exceeds the sum of the numerator para
,.~ 0 r! (! k),. (1 +a b),.(I +ac)r (l +ad)r (1 + k+n),. meters by two.
(1 +k)n (b)n (c)n (d)n 4.4. Some deductions from the formulae of 4.3. Dougall's
=(a k)n (1 +a b)n (I +ac),. (,1+ad)~' theorem includes as limiting cases some of the previous results.
and so, by the process of 4.2, we deduce that For example, if we replace d, e by 1 +ad, I +a e, and then let
( )
6
F [a, b, c, a m;J
d, a1 , 2 , ... , a8 ,
a+ oo, we obtain Saalschtitz's theorem. If we substitute for b
and let m+ oo we obtain t
s+S sH I+ab, I+ac, 1+ad, P1 P2 ... ,ps,Ps+1
(k),. (k + b a),. (k+c a),. (k +da),. (!a),.(!+ !a),. (I)
5
F
4
[a, c,
I+ !a,
!a,
d, e;
I+ac, l+ad, l+ae
J
tn (a 1 ),. (a8 )r ( m),.
 :E ~ ~'.:.''
_ r (1 +ac) r(I +ad) r (I +ae) r (1 +acde)
 r~o r! (!k),.(l + !k),. (I +a b)r (1 +a c),.(I +a d),.
(pl)r {Ps+l)r  r (1 +a) r (1 +ade) r (I +ace) r (1 +acd),
Bailey 3.
F [a+2r, ak, a1 +r, ... , a8 +r, m+r;J t The justification of the passage to the lim it i,; not particularly difficult. The
xs+3 s+2 I+k+2r,pl+r, ... ,ps+r,p~+l+r . details are given by Dougall1, 8.
28 METHODS OF OBTAINING TRANSFORMATIONS OF HYPERGEOMETRIC SERIES 29
which generalizes 4.3 (3). The last formula reduces to Dixon's
theorem when e =!a. (4:)'
F[a,I+!a,
6
c, d, e, f, g;
!a, I+ac, I+ad, 1+ae, 1+aJ, I+ag
J
Similarly, if we let mHXJ in Whipple's transformation 4.3 (4), r (1 +ae) r (I +a f) r (I +ag) r (l +ae jg)
we derive the formula* = r(I +a) r (1 +a fg) r (1 +age)[' (1 +a e j)
(2 )
6
F [a, I+la,
5
b, c, d, e;
!a, I+ab, 1+ac, 1+ad, I+ae
I] F
x4 a
[l +acd,
+a c,
I
e, j, g;
1 +ad, e + f + g a
J
_rp+ad)r(1+ae) F [1+abc, d, e;J r(I +ac) r (1 +ad) r (1 +ae) r(1 +a f) r (1 +ag)
r(1+a)r(I+ade) 3 2 I+ab, 1+ac ' +   r(1+a)r(l+acd)r(efr(J)r(g)
which expresses a wellpoised 6 F 5 with argument  I in terms of r (e + f +g1a) r (2 + 2a cde fg)
X
a 3 F 2 , or conversely expresses any 3 F 2 with unit argument in r(2+2acejg) r(2+ 2ade fg)
terms of a wellpoised 6 F 5 F [2+2acdeJg, 1+aJg, 1+age, l+aef;]
4 3
From (2), taking b+c= I +a, we obtain x 2+aejg, 2+2aceJg, 2+2adejg
( )
1 4
F
3
[a. 1+ab,
b, c, m;J
I+ac, w
series on the right can be summed by Saalschiitz's theorem, (1.3),
(1.2) or ( 1.4). We thus derive the four following transformations*
Xs
p[ l+ab,1+ac,1(1+awm),1+!(awm)J'
4
l+aw,~a,!(l+a),I+abc,m; =
(I+ 2ka)m (1 + ka)m
(1 + k)m (I+ 2k 2a)m
which is due to \\"hippie,* and transforms a nearlypoised 4 F 3 F [k, l+!k, }a, !+!a, k+ba,k+ca,k+da,
9 8
into a Saalschi.itzian 5 P 4 x !k, 1+k!a,!+k!a,1+ab,I+ac,1+ad,
If the series on the right of ( 1) reduces to a 3 F 2 it can be summed
by Saalschiitz's theorem. \Ve thus derive the following special
I+aw, m;
ka+w, 1 + k+m
J
cases: where k=1+2abcd, W=2a2km;
( 1. 1)
3
F [a, 1 +!a, 
2
!a, w
m;J = (w=~=1:__ _?!t)Jw _(tlm_=!,
(w),. (4 ) F [a, I+!a,!a, I +ab,
b, c, d, wm;J
6
~ 1 +ac, 1 +ad,
2
(1. ) 3
F
2
[a, 1+(Ll>,
b, m;
1+2bm
J(a2b)m(1+!ab)m(_~!m
(1+ab)m(!ab)m(2b),/
_ (2ka)m (ka)m
(I+ k)m (2k 2a)m
(1. 3) P [a, 1+la, b, m; ]=(!!~~)m(b)m k I+!k, i+la, I +!a, k+ba, k+ca, k+da,
4 3
~a, I+ab, 1+2bm (l+ab) 111 (2b),/ x9Fs [ '
!k, i+kka, kfa, l+ab, 1+ac, 1+ad,
4 F [a, 1+!a, b, m; J 1+aw, m; J
(1. ) 4 a ia, I+ab, 2+2bm
ka+w, I+k+m
(a2b1)mH+!ab) 111 ( b1) 111
where w = 1 + 2a 2k m, and k is the same as before;
= (1 +a b)m (tab i)m (=26=1) 111
Of these formulae (1.1) is the only one that we can use on the (5)
5
F
4
[a, I +ab,
b, c, d, m;J
I +ac, 1 +ad, w
right of 4.3 ( 1), and in this case we derive the formula t
(ka)m {I+ 2ka)ml (2ka+ 2m)
( 2) f>F4 [a,1~~a, b, c, wm;J (1 +k)m(2k 2a)m
2"a, 1 +a b, 1 +ac,
F [k, 1+}k, !+!a, !a, k+ba,k+ca,k+da,
(wa1m) (wa),n1 9 8
x !k, !+k}a,l+k!a,1+ab,1+ac,1+ad,
F [
(w)n~
L~
X 9.l' 8
[k, I+P, ~k,
+!a,
~+kta, k~a,
I+~a, k+ba, k+ca, k+da,
I+ab, I+ac, I+ad,
=r(Kb)r(I<C) F [b, C, ~(Ka), ~(l+Ka);J
I +au, m;
ka+w, I+k+m '
J r (K) r (K b c) 4 3 K a, ~ K' ~ (K+ I)
which transforms a nonterminating nearlypoised 3 F 2 with
'
where w= 2+ 2a 2km. argument I. The series on the right is not Saalschiitzian.
The last four formulae all express nearlypoised series in terms When c =! K in (3), the relation expresses any 2 Jt\ with argu
of wellpoised series. In (3) and (4) the nearlypoised series are ment  I in terms of a 3 Jt\. This 3 F 2 can be transformed by the
Saalschiitzian, and in (5) and (6) they are such that the sum of the formulae of Chapter III, and so a large number of series can be
denominator parameters exceeds that of the numerator para found allied to a given 2 F 1 with argument  L Such series have
meters by two. been considered in detail by Whipple.t
4.6. Transformations of nearlypoised series of the first 4.7. The case when a is a negative integer. In certain
kind. A terminating series can evidently have its terms written applications of nearlypoised series of the second kind the para
in the reverse order. A nearlypoised series of the second kind then meter a is a negative integer. Returning to 4.3 it is evident that
becomes a similar series of the first kind,* while a Saalschiitzian formula (I) of that paragraph is still true if a is a negative integer
series or a wellpoised series remains of the same type. Thus from  n, and  m is not necessarily a negative integer. Thus, ta,king
the formulae of the last paragraph we can derive transformations s = 0 and using Vandermonde's theorem, we derive the formula!
of nearlypoised series of the first kind. The results obtained from
(I) 4Fa[n, b, c, d;]=(~~),_.
4.5(I) and (2) aret 1nb ' Inc ,. w (w) It
(I}
4
F
3
[a, Kb, KC,
c,
b, m;.]=(K)m(Kbc)11t
K+m, (Kb)m(KC)m
X
5
F4 [ d , 1nbc ' Jn 1
" '2 .ln
:! '
Inw'
Inb, Inc, i(l+dwn), I+i(dwn)
J
Xs
F [!~<~a, t+i~<!a, b, c, m;
4
Ka,!K,t+tK,b+CK+lm
J
1
This appears to be the most interesting formula of its type.
{2 )
S
F[a,I+!~<,
4
tK,
b, c, m;
}+Kb, I+KC, I+K+m
J Whipple&.
t Whipple 8.
! Whipple 5, equation fi.ll.
x5
F [!~<!a, !+!Kia, b, c, m;
4
I +~<a, !~<, !+ !~<, b+cKm
J
* Whipple 5, 6.
t (1) is due to Whipple 5, and (2) to Bailey 3. For the results derived from 4.5,
(a)(6), sec Bailey 3.
TRANSFORMATIONS OF HYPERGEOMETRIC SERIES 35
5.2. An elementary proof of a transformation of well
poised series sFs. Similarly we can prove the more general
CHAPTER V relation 4.3 (7) connecting two wellpoised 9 F 8 This relation
can be written
METHODS OF OBTAINING TRANSFORMATIONS
OF HYPERGEOMETRIC SEHIES; (2) BY F [a, l+!a, b, c, d, e,
9 8
DOUGALL'S METHOD AND CARLSON'S !a, I +ab, l +ac, l +ad, l +ae,
THEOREM
5.1. An elementary proof of Dougall's theorem. When
J, g,
I+aJ, 1+ag, l+a.h
h; J
transformations of terminating series have been discovered, they r
(1 +ae) r (1 +a. f) r (I +a g) r (I +a.h)
are usually capable of being proved in a very simple way. We = r (I +a) r (I +a.e j) r (1 +ae(i) r (I +aeh)
begin by proving Dougall's theorem in a manner substantially
equivalent to his original proof.* r(l +a fgh)r(I +aegh) r(l +aefh)
Writing fin place of  m, the theorem becomes
r (1 +a efg)
x
7 F6 [
a, I+ !a, b, c, d, e, f;
ia, 1 +ab, 1 +ac, 1 +ad, 1 +ae, l +a f
J ~~~=~~=~
r (I +a jg) r (I +a. fh) r (I+ agh)
r(1+a.ejgh)
f''.p (x)dx~
X 9
~k, l+ab, l+ac, l+ad, I+ke, 28 (k e)+ (b a 28) k= (b a) k 28.;,
f,
I +k f,
I+a+kef+m. m;
e+fam, I +k+m
J (/
1 f21T
Hence I~ pdB.
277 0
(I +a) 111 (k+b a) 111 (k+c a), (k+d a) 111
(
(k a)~~~ 1 + a=t),JTt~a::_c) 111 (f+a d),". But by hypothesis p ~ l, and so p = 1 for all values of 0.
Taking the real part of (2), we now obtain
This is true by Dougall's theorem, and so the proof is complete.
I f21T
I= Z1r cos .f>dO,
5.3. Carlson's theorem. When a transformation is known to 0
be true for terminating series, it can sometimes be shown to be and so cos4>= I. Hencef(z) =f(z0 ) on r, and so everywhere; that
true also (with slight modifications) for nonterminating series, isf(z) is a constant.
by using a theorem due to Carlson.* To prove this theorem we Thus lf(z) I< M at all interior points of D unless f(z) is a
require some preliminary lemmas. constant.
Lemma 1. Iff (z) is regular in a region D and on its boundary C Lemma 2. Let f(z) be an analytic function of z ( =rei9), regular
(asimpleclosedcurve), and iflf(z) I~ M on C, then IJ(z) I~ Mat all in the region D between two straight line.s making an angle 1TjiX at
interior points of D. the origin, and on the line.s themselves. Suppose that
We first notice that if 4> (x) is continuous, 4> (x) ~ k, and (3) !f(z)I~M
on the line.s, and that, as r__,.oo,
bI a " J"
::__ .f>(x)dx?:k, (4)
where {3 <IX, uniformly in the angle. Then the inequality (3) holds
Carlson 1. Sec a!Mo Wigert 1, Ricsz 1 a.nd Hardy 1. 'fhe proof given here followli
that given by TitchmarHh, 'l'lwory of functions (1932), Chapter V. throughout the region D.
38 METHODS OF OBTAINING TRANSFORMATIONS OF HYPERGEOMETRIC SERIES 39
We may suppose, without loss of generality, that the two lines Lemma 4. If f(z) is regular and of the form 0 (ek lzl) for
are fJ = !, 7Tjrx. R(z)~O, andf(z)=O(ealzl), where a>O, on the imaginary axis,
Let F(z)=euYf{z), thenj(z) is identically zero.
where f3 < y < rx and e > 0. Then We apply lemma 3 tof(z) with 81 =0, 02=i7T, h 1=k, h 2= a.
Then
(5) 1F (z) 1= eEiY cosyi11J (z) 1 f (z) = 0 {e<kcos8a I sin Bllr}
(7)
On the lines 0 = !7Tfrx, cos yB > 0 since y < rx. Hence on these for0~8~!7T.
lines Similarly, by taking 81 = l7T, 82 = 0, h 1 =a, h2 =k in lemma
I F (z) I ~ lf(z) I ~ M.
3, we find that (7) also holds for  !7T ~ 8 ~ 0.
Also on the arc I fJ I~ i7T/rx of the circle I z I= R,
Let F (z) =ewzf(z),
I F(z) 1 ~eR">'cosh1T/a: lf(z) 1 <AeR 11RYcosh1T/a:
where w is a (large) positive number. Then by (7) there is a con
and the righthand side ~ 0 as R ~ oo. Hence, if R is sufficiently
stant M, independent of w, such that
large, I F (z) I ~ M on this arc also. Thus, by lemma I, I F (z) I ~ M
(8) 1 F(z) 1 ~ ..ll.fel<k+w)cos9alsln91)r
throughout the interior of the region 181 ~ f7Tfrx, r ~ R; that is,
since R is arbitrarily large, throughout the region D. Hence by (5) for  !7T ~ 0 ~ t7T. In particular we have
lf(z) I~ MeEr">' (9) I F(z) I ~M
in D, and, making e~O, the result stated follows. for (} = f7T and 8 = rx, where rx =arc tan {(k + w )fa}.
We can now apply lemma 2 to each of the three angles
Lemma 3. Suppose thatf(z) is regular and of the form O(eklzl) ( !r., a.), (a., a.) and (a., t7T). It follows that (9) actually holds
for 81 ~ 8 ~ 82 , where 02 81 < 7T. Suppose also that j(z) = 0 (ehlzl)
for  !7T ~ 0 ~ f7T. Hence
when 0 = el' and j(z) = 0 (eh21Z I) when 8 = 82. Let H (0) be the func
tion of the form a cos 8 + b sin fJ which takes the values h1 , hz at
lf(z) I~ llfewrcos9
and, making w~oo, it follows that 1/(z) I= 0. This proves the
81 , 82 Then f(z)=O(emO>r)
lemma.*
uniformly in the angle 81 ~ 8 ~ 02 Carlson's theorem. If f(z) is regular and of the form O(eklzl),
The value of H (0) is easily seen to be
where k < 7T,jor R (z) ~ 0, and if j(z) = 0 for z = 0, I, 2, ... , thenf(z)
H ( ) = h1 sin (fJ2  0) + h 2 sin (8_: 01) is identically zero.
8
sin(02 0 1 ) Consider the function
Let F (z) = j(z) e<aiblz. F (z) = f(z) cosec 1rZ.
Then On the circles I z I=n +},where n is a positive integer, cosec 7TZ
(6) IF (z) I= lf(z) I eu<8>r, is bounded. Hence F (z) = 0 (eklzl) on the circles and also on the
and so, if r is large enough, imaginary axis. Since F (z) is regular, it follows that, if
I P (rei8) I= 0 (elh,m8,llr) = 0 (I). n!< Iz I <n+!,
A similar result holds for F (1ei02). Hence by lemma 2, F (z) is F (z) = 0 (ek(n+!>) = 0 (eklzl),
bounded in the angle (81 , 82 ) and the result stated follows from (6). * Also due to Carlson 1.
40 METHODS 01!' OBTAINING TRANSFORMATIONS OF HYPERGEOMETRIC SERIES 41
and so F (z) is of this form throughout R (z) ~ 0. Also for 1' = 0, I, 2, ... since 1 +a> 0. Hence the function 7 F 6 is abso
F (z) = 0 (e<k.,.)1.:1) lutely and uniformly convergent for R(z) ~ 0, and is regular and
bounded in this region_
on the imaginary axis. The result therefore follows from lemma 4.
Now, if also
5.4. An example on Carlson's theorem. We shall illustrate (4) 1+a+kef>0,
the use of Carlson's theorem by applying it (with k = 0) to Whip
the function
ple's transformation of a wellpoised 7F 6 , 4.4(5). We shall
assume that the result is known to be true when g is a negative r (I +a+k+z) r (1 +ae!+ k+z)
integer. This has been proved in 4.3, but it can also be proved f'(l+af+k+z) r(I +ae+k+z)
by Dougall's method.* Writing  kz forg, where kis a positive is regular for R (z) ~ 0. Since it tends to unity when I z I+ co, it is
integer, the theorem to be proved is bounded in the halfplane. The series 4 F 3 consists of a finite
(1) 7
F
6
[a, I +!a, c, d, e, J,
! a, l +a c, 1 +a  d, I +a e, 1 +a  f,
number of terms, and each term is bounded for R (z) ~ 0 if
(5) I+2a+kcdej>0,
r (I+ a e) r (I +af) r (1 +a +k+z) r (l +ae f+ k+z) two sides of (1), the conditions of Carlson's theorem are satisfied
r (I +a) r (I +ae j) r (l +af+ k+z) r (I +a e + k+z) by f(z). It follows that (l) holds so long as the parameters are
x 4
F [
3
l+acd, e,f, kz;
1 +a c, l +ad, e +fa k z
J subject to the conditions (3), (4) and (5) and the restrictions that
the denominator parameters not involving z are real and positive.
These conditions may be removed by analytic continuation, and
and it is known to be true when z = 0, l, 2, .... (I) is true provided that I+ a c dis a negative integer and the
We proceed to prove that (1) is true when 1 +acd is a series on the left is convergent.
negative integer and the series on the left is convergent, so that It will be noticed that the formula 4.3 (7) connecting two
(2) R{4 + 4a 2 (c+d+e+f) + 2k+ 2z} > 0. terminating series 9 F 8 cannot possibly be generalized in this way
owing to the presence of a denominator parameter of the form
The series 6 F 6 derived from the lefthand side of ( l) by sup
A  m on both sides of the formula.
pressing the parameters involving z is absolutely and uniformly
convergent for real values of a, c, d, e,j such that all the denomin
ator parameters are positive and
(3) 3 + 3a 2 (c + d + e +f)> 0.
Also, if R (z) ~ 0,
kz+r 1
I l +a+ k+z+r I< l,
,. See Whipple 4 whore Ca.rlHon'g theorem is also used to provo tho result when
the serilll! on the left does not tl'rminate. Carlson's theorem had previously been
uood by Hardy 2 to prove 4.4 (1).
TRANSFORMATIONS OF HYPERGEOMETRIC SERIES 43
Thus
6.1. Introductory remarks. In Chapter V we saw how X 2~f r(oc1 + s) r(oc2 + s) r (/31 ocl <X2 s) r(s)2Fl[<X3 p~s;Jds
transformations of nonterminating series can sometimes be and so
derived by a use of Carlson's theorem, and in 4.4 some trans
formations of such series were obtained by a limiting process from (2) F [ocl' <Xz' oca;J = ___ r _(/3_t.'"'=)=r"({J:=2'),==,,
3 2 f3t > {32 r ({31 otl) r ({Jl 1X2) r ({J2 1Xa) r (ocl) r (ot2)
transformations connecting terminating series of higher orders.
r (ocl +s) r(oc2+s) r (fJlor.lor.2s) r({J2or.a+s)
In this chapter a direct method* is given in which free use is made
of contour integrals of Barnes' type.
(I) _I_ f!' (ott +s) r (or.~+~)_ r(1X _}s) r (I {31s) r<_s)ds
3
easily be justified if R(fJ2 1X 3 +s)>0. Now take fJ1 =or.3 ; the
series on the left can be summed by Gauss's theorem, and the
21Ti r (fJz + s)
lemma is proved.
r (or. 1 ) r (or. 2) r (oc3) r (I {11 + or.d r (1 /31 + or. 2 ) r (1 /31 + or. 3 ) If the integral in (I) is evaluated in terms of hypergeometric
r (/32 cxl) r(p2 otz) r (/32 _~;3)  series by considering the residues at poles on the right of the
provided that {11 + {1 2 = or. 1 + or. 2 + or. 3 + l. The path of integration is contour, we obtain a relation which reduces to Saalschiitz's
a line parallel to the imaginary axis except that it is curved, if theorem when one of the parameters or. 1, oc2, or. 3 is a negative
necessary, so that the decreasing sequences of poles lie to the left, integer.*
and the increasing sequences of poles to the right of the contour.t 6.3. Integrals representing wellpoised series. From
All the integrals in this chapter are of this type. Barnes' second lemma it is easily verified that
By Barnes' lemma ( I. 7) we have
r {01.1 + n) r (01.2 + n) r (ota + n)
r (~ otl + n) r (K Ot.2 + n) r (K__ ___:_ota_+_n___,)
I
r (K  Ot.2  <X3) t' (K  Ot.3  otl) r (K  otl  IX2)
X _2_Jr(or.l +s)r(or.2 + 8) r(or.a+ 8) r(K otl ot2_: 01.~s)r(n:s)ds
Bailey 8.
t Barnes 2. 2rri r(K+n+s) .
t The integral is taken from c ioo to e + ioo. In some papers the intcr,raiH a.ro
taken in the oppoRitc direction, and so variations in sign occur. The relation similarly obtained from (2) is equivalent to 3.8 (I}.
44 METHODS o~ OBTAINING TRANSFORMATIONS OF HYPERGEOMETRIC SERIES 45
It follows, by expansion and the interchange of the order of If we evaluate the integral on the right of {2) by considering
summation and integration, that the residues at poles on the right of the contour, we obtain the
(I) F[a, a., a2, aa,
Ka 1 ,Ka2 ,Ka3 ,a1 ,a2 , ...
P1P2 ... p,;]
v,
transformation 4.4(4) of a wellpoised 7 F 6 in terms of two
Saalschtitzian 4 F 3
d; J
r (K+S)
27Ti
x F[a, PI P2 ... ,,v,,p, K+S
s;Jds.
(1) 4F3 [a, Kb,
b, c,
KC, Kd
v 1 , a 2 ,
r (Kb) r ("c) r (Kd)
Thus, if we can sum the series on the right of (I) in terms of =
r (b) r (c) r (d) r <" c d) r (Kb d) r (Kbc)
gamma functions, we can find an integral of Barnes' type repre
senting the series on the left. If we use Dixon's theorem on the
r (b +s) r (c+s) P(d +s) r (Ka+ 2s)
I r(Kbcds)r(8)ds
2m J
right, we obtain an integral representing the wellpoised series X          
r (K  a + 8) r (K + 28)
5
F
4
[a, b, c, d, e;
1 +ab, I +ac, I +ad, I +ae '
J If d =! +! K, c = k K, we can evaluate the integral on the right
by Barnes' second lemma, and (changing Kinto I +K) we find that
[a, l+iK, b; J
and when b = 1 +!a the integral can be evaluated by Barnes'
second lemma, giving the formula 4.4(1). We therefore adjust (2 ) F
3 2
!K, 1+Kb
the parameters in ( 1) so that the series on the right can be summed
by that formula, and we obtain r (! K) r (1 +! K  ~a) r ( 1 + K  b) r (K a 2b)
r (1 +! K) r (! K  i a) r
(2 ) 7
F
6
[a, I+ !a,
!a,
b, c, d, e, f;
l+ab,I+ac,I+ad,I+ae,1+af
J = (I + K ab) p (~ 2b)
Now use this result on the right of 6.3 (I) and we obtain
r ( 1 +ab) r ( l +ac) r' ( l +a d) r (I +a=:: e) r (I +a f)~ (3 ) F [a, l+!K, b, c, d; J
= f(I + a)f' (b) r (c) r (d) r (I +a cd) r (I +abd) S
4
!K, }+Kb,1+KC,1+Kd
r (l +abc) r (I +ae/)
Ka r(1+Kb)r(l+Kc)r(1+Kd)
r (b+s) r (c+s) r (d+s) r (1 +aef+ s)  ,.,. f(b)f' (c) r (d) r (1 + K C d)r (I+ Kb :__d)
x
1
27Ti l  ~~
r
r(I+abcd.~) r(

(1 +a  e + .~) r (1 + a  f
When]= n, a negative integer, and 1 +2a=b+c+d+en,
+ 8)
s)ds
. r(1+KbC)
Xs
}' [b,
4
C, d, !{Ka), ! (I +Ka);
Ka, !K, !(K+ I), I.:._K+b+c+d
J I
r (a +s) r (I+ !a+s) r (b +s) r (c+s) r (d+s)
r(e+s)r{f+s)r(bas)r(s)d.s
27Ti r (!a+s) r (1 +a c +8) r (I +ad+s)
r(Kb)r(K C) r(Kd} r(b +c+d K) r(3Ka 2b 2C 2d)
+ . .   ~~ ~
r (b) r (c) r (d) r (2~< a bed) r (3K 2b 2c 2d) J r (l +ae+s) r (I +af+s)
KCd, Kbd, KbC, iK!abcd,] can be expressed in terms of two well~poised series 7 F 6 , but these
p .\+
 2aK!abcd
~ '
can only be evaluated by Dougall's theorem when they terminate,
Xs 4 I+Kbcd, 2Kabcd, and then the contour cannot be drawn to separate the increasing
( !Kbcd, !+!~<bed and decreasing sequences of poles. We can, however, evaluate the
integral in another way.
This is a generalization of 4.6 (I), and expresses a nearly~ poised
From Barnes' second lemma we have
F in terms of two Saalschiitzian 5 F 4
4 3
Similarly from 6.4 (3) we obtain a transformation of a nearly~ r (d+s) r (e+s) r {f+s)
poised 5 F 4 into two Saalschi.itzian 5 .1'4 , and this is a generalization r (1 +ad+s) r (I +ae+s) r (1 +aJ+s)
of 4.6(2).
I
6.6. The integral analogue of Dougall's theorem. The r (I +aef) r (1 +adf) r (I+ ade)
second lemma of Barnes may be regarded as the integral analogue
X _.!_Jr (d+t) r (e+ t) r (/ + t) r (I +ade jt) r (st)dt
of Saalschi.itz's theorem of which it gives a generalization. We 2m r(l +a+s+t) .
may similarly enquire whether there is an integral analogous to
Dougall's theorem. Thus our integral is equal to*
First consider the integral
_1 Jr(d+t) r (e+t) r (f+t) r (1 +ade ft)dt
r (a+ s) r (I+ !a+s) r (b +s) r (c+s) r (d+s) r (I +a e f) r (I +ad f) r (I +ade)
l
2m
1 r(bas)r(s)ds
2;.i   ~C( ~a t8) r ( 1 +a=c+ s) r (lt ad+ s)  r(a +a) r (1 + !a+s) r (b+s) r (c +s) r (st)
which is analogous to a wellpoised series 5 P.1 . By considering the
residues at poles on the right of the contour, the integral can be
expressed in terms of two wellpoised 6 F 4 which can be Hummed
xI
2m l r(bas)r(s)ds
r(ta+s)r(I+ac+s)r(l+a+s+t) '
For the justification of the interchange in the order of integration cf. Whittaker
by 4.4 (1). We can thus evaluate the integral in terms of gamma. and Watson, Modern Analysis, 14.53. The lower bound of the distance between
the sand t contours is supposed to be definitely positive.
functions, and we find after some reduction that
48 METHODS OF OBTAINING TRANSFORMATIONS OF HYPERGEOMETRIC SERIES 49
The integration with respect to s can be performed by means 2ba, 1 +b ta, b, b+ca,
FG[ b !a,
of (I), and we obtain x7 t
l+ a, 1+ b c,
b
3
()
7
F
6
[a, l + ~a, b, f;c,
!a, l+ab,l+ac,I+ad,I+ae,I+af
d, e, J Now multiply by
r (pl + t) r (p2 + t) r (bat)
 r(at+t) 
I' (1 +ac) I'(I +ad) r (I +ae) r (l+a j)
= I'~(l+a)r(b a) f'(l r
+ad _.:._e) (I +a.:::.c_:_e) r (C+a :.:(;_:_d) integrate with respect to t, and then put t + s for t on the right.
I'(b+c a) r (b +da) r(b+ea) r (b +fa) We thus obtain
X r
r'TI+a=c f) (I +adf) r(l +a:::...e_.:._]y
r (a+t) r (c+ t) r
(d+ t) r (e+t) r(pl +t}
r (I+ 21J a) r (b+c a) r (b +d a) r (b +ea) r (b+ fa) I _I _ ~~ ~~~~ _r<E!t)r(bat}r(t)d!
 I'(I+h~cjl'(l+bd)r(i+be)r~(itb::._J)  J
() 21ri I'(l+ac+t)r(l+ad+t)r(l+ae+t)I'(a1 +t)
r (ab) I' (I +a c) I' (1 +ad) I' (1 +ae) I'(l +a/) 2r (c) r (d) r (e)
x r(ba)I'(I+ct)I'(c)r(d)r(e)r(JT = r(a ~k> rTk+~ca> r <k+da) r (k+ ea>
50 METHODS OF OBTAINING TRANSFORMATIONS OF HYPERGEOMETRIC SERIES 51
r (k +s) r (I+ ik+s) r (k+ca+s) a, 1 +!a, b, c, d,
X 9 F8 [
I r (k+da+ s) r (k+ea+s) r (s)ds 1
OJa, l+ab, l+ac, l+ad,
X J
i1ri r(tk +s) r(1 +ac +s) r(1 +ad +s) r(I + ae +s)
e, f, g, h; J
r(a+ 2s+ t) r (a k+ t) r (pl +s+t) l+a~1+ah1+a~1+ah
r(p 2 +s+t)~J~=~st)r(t)dt
X I
21J'i J
__
r(l+k+2s+t)r(a1+s+t) 1 the formula can be written
where k= 1 + 2acde. (3) cosec (b  a) 11'
In this formula there may be any number of the quantities p x{V(a; b, c, d, e,J, g, h) V(2ba; b, b+ca, b+da,
and a. If we can integrate with respect to t on the right, we can
b+ea, b+fa, b+ga, b+ha)}
obtain a relation between two integrals of Barnes' type.
r(c) r(d) r(e) r(f+ba)r(g+ba)
6.8. An integral related to wellpoised series. In the
r(h+ba)cosec(1 +afgh)1T
formula 6. 7 ( l) choose the parameters p, a so that we can evaluate =
r (1 +ade) r(ftace) r(l +acd)
the t integral by 6.6 (2). We thus find that r (1 +agh) r (1 +a jh) r (I +a fg)
1
( ) 2~
1 fr (a+t) r (l + ia+t) r (b+t) r (c+t) r (d+t) r (e+t)
f'(!a+t)r(l+ac+t)r(1+ad+tfr(l+ae+t)
x{V(1+2acde; b, 1+ade,
1 +ace, I +acd, J, g, h)
r (/ + t) r (g + t) r (h + t) r (bat) r ( t) dt
x~~~7~~~~~~~~~~~~
r(I +a f+t) r(l +ag+t) r(l +a h+t)  V(2b2a1 +c+d+e; b, ba+c, ba+d,
ba+e, l+agh, l+afh, l+afg)},
r (c) r (d) r (e) r (j+ba) r (g+ba) r (h+ba)
= r (k+ca) r(k+d=a)l'(k+e=a) rTi +agh) provided that (2) is satisfied. Any one of the series 9 F 8 is of general
r (l +afh) r(1 +a fg) type except for the second parameter and the restriction that the
r (k+s) r (l + lk +s) r (b+s) sum of the denominator parameters exceeds the sum of the
1 r(k+ca+s)r(k+da+s) numerator parameters by two. \Vhenf, gor his a negative integer,
X 21Ti Ji'T!k+s) r(l +ac+s) r(l +ad+s) r(I +ae+s) the formula reduces to 4.3 (7).
r (k+ea+s) r (j +s) r (g+ s) r (h + s) r (b k s) r (s)ds The parameters of the second seriis are obtained from those of
x  r(t+k/+sfr(ttkg:t.S)r(L+kh+s) ' the first series by the addition of b a to each, the parameter so
where k = 1 + 2a c de, and the parameters are connected by obtained from b becoming the first parameter of the second series.
We shall say that the two series are 'complementary with respect
the relation
to the parameter b.' It will be noticed that the two series on the
(2) 2 + 3a = b + c + d + e + f + g +h. right of (3) are also complementary with respect to the para
From this formula we can, in the usual way, obtain a relation meter b.
connecting four wellpoised series of the type 9 1!'8 If we write
V (a;&,c,d,e,j,g,h) 6.9. Integrals related to Saalschutzian nearlypoised
r (l +a) r (b) r (c) r (d) r (e) r (/) r (g) r (h) series. Now in the formula 6. 7 ( 1) take p1 = f, b = l + 2k a  f,
= =r::(1,+ab,');:;r;:(1:'+ a  c) r (1 + a d) r ( l +ae) so that we can integrate on the right by means of Barnes' second
r (I +af) r (1 +ag) r (1 +ah) lemma. 'Ve are thus led to the formula
52 METHODS OF OBTAINING TRANSFORMATIONS OF HYPERGEOMETRIC SERIES 53
r (a+t) r (c+t) r (d+ t) r (e+t) r (J+t) k =a c !, and the integral on the right can be evaluated by
1
(I) 211i j r (I + 2k 2a1 t) r ( t) dt
r (1 +a c + t) r (1 +ad+ t) r (1 +a:..:.:e+tf
6.6 (1). Replacing] by d, we obtain the formula
= r
2r (c) r (d) r (e) r (I+ 2k 2a)
(k+ca} r (k+d a) r (k+e a) f(1+k a)
2
I
( ) 27Ti j 
r ( 2c d t) r
r(ta+t)f(I+actt)
( t) dt
5
F
4
[a, c, d, e, j;
1+ac, I+ad, l+ae, 2a+f2k
J r (c) r (d) r (e) r (2k 2a)
f(1+ae+t)
r
X
(I +a+ 2s) r (f+8) r (2ka f+s) r (ka Js)
 
r( s)ds
~
while one series 9 F 8 has the pumerator parameters k, I+ lk, la, r {2ka+ 28) r (I +k f+s) '
!+ ta,j, k+ca, k+da, k+ea, I +2kaf, and the other
where k= I+ 2acde.
F is complementary to this with respect to the parameter
9 8
I+ 2k a f. The nearlypoised series are Saalschiitzian in type. This formula leads to a relation involving two Saalschtitzian
One is of the first kind and the other of the second kind. When nearlypoised series 6 F 5 and two wellpoised 9 F 8 which are com
j is a negative integer the relation reduces to 4.5 (3), while if plementary with respect to the parameter 2k  a f. One of the
1 + 2k 2a + e f is a negative integer the relation reduces to a nearlypoised series is of the first kind and one of the second kind.
transformation of a Saalschiitzian nearlypoised series 5 F 4 of the When I is a negative integer the relation reduces to 4.5 (4), and
first kind into a wellpoised 9 F 8 This is equivalent to the trans when 2k 2a + e I is a negative integer the relation reduces to
formation obtained from 4.5 (3) by the reversal of series, referred the corresponding transformation of a nearlypoised series of the
to in 4.6. first kind.
As a particular case of (1) take d = 1 +!a, e =!+!a, so that Generalizations of 4.5 (5) and (6) can be found in a manner
54 TRANSFORMATIONS OF HYPERGEOMETRIC SERIES
( 1)
4
F
3
ex, u,y, z, n;J
'!!, U'
Then evidently
and
El2 + Ea4 + Ess = 1 
S1z=El3Ezan.
n
=(v~~~Jwz), F [
(v),(w),
ux,uy,z, n;
4 3
Iv+zn, 1w+zn, u
].
We write
(14) w(4; 5, 6) = w(5; 1, 4),
(I5) W(4; 5, 6)= W(4; I, 5),
and
(I6) W(4; 5, 6)= W(4; I, 2),
(1) w (4; 5, 6) (I7) W(4; 5, 6)=W(1; 2, 3),
r (I+ A.4;56 ) r (Ie14 ) r (I24 ) r (I E"a4) r (I 45) r (Ie46) (I8) W(4; 5, 6)= W(1; 2, 4),
= r (I +n+S1~) r (1 +n+3 24 ) r (I+ n+ 334 ) r (1n 45)
r (1ne46) r (66) (I9) W (4; 5, 6) = W (I; 2, 5),
(20) W(4; 5, 6)= W(1; 5, 6),
X F [,\4;56 l+i..\4;56> Ie45 146> 23>
7 6 !A.4;5G Ine46 1ne45 I+n+Sl4 (21) W(4; 5, 6)= W(I; 4, 5).
E1a,
I + n + 324 , I
12; J
+ n + 834 '
Thus associated with a given nonterminating wellpoised
series there are 3 distinct Saalschiitzian series, 5 terminating well
and then 7 .I (2) can be written in the form poised series, and ll nonterminating wellpoised series. Also,
associated with a given terminating wellpoised 7 F 6 there are 2
(2) 8(1,2,3)=W(4;5,6).
distinct Saalschiitzian series, 3 terminating wellpoised series,
The series in W (4; 5, 6) is convergent when R(EM) > 0. and 8 nonterminating wellpoised series.
Since S (4, 5, 6) is the same as 8 (I, 2, 3) written in the reverse As in 3.5 we can work out the parameters of the various series
order there are six nonterminating wellpoised series corre associated with a given wellpoised series, either terminating or
sponding with each Saalschtitzian series. It should be noticed, nonterminating. Tables of these parameters have been given by
however that not all the six are convergent since theE'S have a Whipple* and are set out below. The second parameters of the
negative' sum. The total number of nonterminating 1F 6 derived Whipple 3. Whipple also gives tho parameters of the wellpoised seri<'s asso
from the IO equal Saalschiitzian series is 60. ciated with a. given Saalschiitzian series.
60 FURTHER TRANSFORMATIONS OJ:o'
WELLPOISED SERIES 61
wellpoised series are omitted, and only numerator parameters of Table II (cont.)
these series arc given. S(l, 2, 3) e,f. {/ 11; en, dn, 1tn }
S(4, 5, 6) lc, 1d,t. n; 1en, 1fn,lrtn
Table I. Parameters of associated series. lJfaster series S(l, 2, 4) 1nei, 1njt, g. n; 1d+rt. Ic+y, 1tn}
wellpoised and terminating S(3, 5, 6) dgn,cyn,t, n;e+t,J+i, Ign
S(l, 2, 5) den,djn,y, n;g+t, lc+rJ.dn }
s=c+d+e+f2anl 8(3,4,6) lnyl,cgn,1d, n; ld+e,1d+f, 1gn
W(l; 2) a;c,d,e,f,n }
W(2; l) a2n; cnn, rlan, ean,fan, n W(l; 4) c +de 2n I ;f, ff, den, c en,  n }
W(l; 3) s+ac;s,d,e,f, n } W(4; I) lcd+c; lnjt,lnyt,lr, ld, n
W(3; I) cas 2n; can, I +aef, I +adf, 1 +ade, n W(l; 5) f+gd;f,g, 1nel,cen, n }
W(2; 3) sen; s, dan, ean,fan, n } W(5; I) df g 2n; d f 11, d g n, I  c, t,  n
W(3; 2) c.~n; c, l +aef, 1 +adf, 1 +ade, n W(l; 2) fe1!;f,lnet,den,cen, n
W(3; 4) cdn; c, can, I +adj, 1 +ade, n W(4; 5) Idtn; 1net, 1nft,Ingt, 1d, n}
W(5; 4) d+tnl;den,dfn,dyn,t, n
8(1, 2, 3) s, c, can, n; c+Jan, c+ean, c+dan W(5; 6) den; den, dfn, dgn, Ic, n
8(4, 5, 6) I+acd, I+acj, I+ace, n; Ins, 1nc, 1+ac
S(l, 3, 4) c,d, I+aef, n; I+ae, 1+af,c+dan }
ea. n,ja n, 1 +acd, n; Inc, 1nd, e+jan The parameters tabulated for 8(1,2,3) arc 23 , 13 , E 12 , n;
8(2, 5, 6)
1n 56 , 1n E46 , 1 n E45 Those tabulated for W (1; 4) are
W(l; 2, 3) 1snc; 1s, lc; 1+acd, I+acc,1+acf S14 ; 16 , E 15 , ~; 13 , ~; 12 ,  n, and the parameters shown for W (4; 5, 6)
W(2; I, 3) Is+ac; 1s, l+n+ac; 1+acd, l+ace, I+acf
W(3; I, 2) I+a2c; 1c,1+n+ac; 1+acd,1+ace,I+acf are A4;ss; 1~;4s lE4G; "2a Eta 12.
W(1; 3, 4) 1cdn; 1c, ld; ean,fan, 1 +acd
W(2; 3, 4) e +Js; 1c+a+n, Id+a+n; e,f, 1 +acd 7 .5. Transformations of unrestricted wellpoised 7 F 6 In
W(3; I, 4) e+jcan; 1c, e+Ja; ean,Jan, 1 +acd the transformations given so far in this chapter, a parameter or
W(3; 2, 4) e+fc; lc+a+n, e+fa; e,f, I +acd a linear combination of parameters has been restricted to be a
W(3;4,5) sc; e+fa, d+fa; s,f,fan
negative integer. We now consider transformations when there
is no such restriction.*
Table II. Parameters of associated series. Master series The formula 4.4 (4) is a formula of this type. It is convenient
wellpoised and nonterminating to write
t=c+de f u 2n W (a; c, d, e, f, g)
W(4;5,6)
W(5; 4, 6)
W(5; 1, 6)
c+dnl; c, d; e,f, g
ctn; c, lt; e,f, g
1+etd; 1d+e+n, lt;e, 1nft, 1ngt
=
7
F [a, 1+1a,
6
~a,
c, d, e, f, g;
l+ac, l+ad,l+ae, 1+af,l+ag
J
W(5; I, 2) 1 +e+f 2d+n; 1d+e+n, id+J+n; 1ngt, cgn, 1
W(5; 1, 4) cd+e; 1d+e+n, c; c, cf n, cgn Now transform the series
W(4;I,5) c+e+t1; e+t+n, c; e, cjn, cgn
W(4; 1, 2) c+f+2t+n I; e+t+n./ +t+n; dgn, cgn, t W(1+2aefg; c, d, l+aJg, l+aeg, l+aej)
W(l; 2, 3) 1fgn; 1j,1g; lc,1d,t
W(l; 2, 4) eu+t; 1g, e+t+n; dgn, cun, t by 4.4 (4) and we obtain the same series 4 F 3 as occur in that
W(I; 2, 5) 1d+eg; 1g, 1d+e+n; 1gtn, cgn, Id formula. We thus find that
W(l;5,6) 1cd+2c+n; 1d+e+n, Ic+e+n;e, 1njt, 1ng
c+eJun; e+t+n, 1d+e+n; e, cfn, cgn Bailey 12.
W(1; 4, 5)
62 FURTHER TRANSFORMATIONS OF WELLPOlS ED SERIES
(1)W (a; c, d, e, f; g)
r (l +ac) r (I +ad) r (2 + 2aefg)
F [I+acf, 1+adJ, I+aef, g;J
2 + 2a c de j, I +aj, I + g j
4 3
x
r (2+ 2ac_d_=~=_!g)
= f' (1 +a) r (I+ acd) r (2 + 2ace fg)
This formula and 4.4 (4) appear to be the only formulae of
r(2+2ade/g) their type. They generalize all Whipple's formulae expressing <L
x W(1+2aefg;c,d, I+afg, 1+aeg, 1+aef). wellpoised 7 F 6 in terms of a Saalschtitzian 4 F 3 The formulae ( 1)
and (2) do not, however, generalize all Whipple's formulae ex
On duplicating this formula we obtain pressing a wellpoised series in terms of another wellpoised series.
(2) W (a; c, d, e, f, g) Apparently the generalizations of the other formulae are not of
r (I +ac) r(I +ad) r (I +a e) r (I +a f) such a simple type.
r
= (i +a) r(g) r (2+2ad e fg) r (2+ 2acef g)
7.6. Transformations of wellpoised 9F 8 The formula
r (3+ 3a cde f 2g) r (2+2acd_=_e_~jg) 4.3 (7) transforms a terminating wellpoised 9 F 8 into another
X r(2+ 2a=cdjg) r(2+ 2acdeg) series of the same type. It would seem at first sight as if we could
x W(2+3acdef2g; l+acg, I+adg, take the parameters in different sets of three and so obtain several
l+aeg, l+afg, 2+2acdejg). formulae connecting wellpoised 9 F 8 It appears however that,
If g or l+aef is a negative integer, (1) gives a relation apart from the mere reversal of series, there is only one other
between a terminating and a nonterminating wellpoised series, formula of this type, obtained byduplicating 4.3(7). This
whereas if c is a negative integer the formula reduces to one formula is*
connecting two terminating series. Similarly (2) gives, in certain
(l) F[a,l+!a, b, c, d, e,
circumstances, a relation between two series, only one of which 9 8
!a, I+ab, 1+ac, l+ad, 1+ae,
terminates.
The series on the rightof(2)can now be transformed by 4.4 (4), f, g,
I +af, 1 +ag, 1 +a+n
n; J
and we thus derive the formula
3
( ) ,F6 [
a, 1 +!a, c, d, e, j,
!a, 1+ac, l+ad, l+ae, I+af, l+ag
g; J (I +a)n (I +a b c)n (I +a bd)n (I+ ab e)n
( l +a b nn (g)n
(1 +a b)n (1 +ac)n (I+ ad)n (l+ ae)n (1 +af)n (g_ b)n
r (1 +ac) r (I +ad) r(I +ae) r (I +af)
r (l +a) r (g) r (I +acf) r (I +ad j) F [bgn, l+!(bgn), b, l+acg,
r (gf) r (2+ 2acdef Xg s !(bgn), 1gn, b+can,
X .
r(I+aef) r(2+2acdeg)
g)

and then 2
<1>1 (oc, ,8; y; z) = i (oc)q,n (f~)q,nzn,
n=O (q)q,n (y)q.n
and, more generally,
r<~>s[IX.l, IX.2, ... , oc,; z]= i (oc1)q,n(oc2)q,n (oc,)q,nzn.
PI ... , Ps n~o (q)q,n (pl)q,n ... (ps)q,n
(1)
z z z2 zs
I 2<1>1 (q, q; q2; z) =I+  I2 + 1a + ... '
q q q q
z i i z z2 z3
(2) 1p<I>I (q, q; q; z)= ~]_ +~+. + ... ,
 q  q'I 1  q 1  q~
2z 2z 2 2z3
(3) z(J>dq, I; q; z)=l+l+q+I+q2+l+q3+ ....
If we divide (2) by z~, an<l replace q, z by q2 , qe2 i.r, where xis real, geometric series does not appear to be capable of generalization
so as to apply to basic series. The transformations of wellpoised
the imaginary part of the series becomes
series, however, have their analogues for basic series, with the
qt sin x q~ sin 3x q~ sin 5x possible exception of the transformations of nonterminating
   +  3 +  5 + ... '
1q 1q 1q wellpoised 9 F 8 We first prove the analogue of Dougall's theorem,
. h. h . ~ Kk 2Kx namely*
whIC IS t e senes tor  sn   .
27T 7T (I) <I> [a, qya, qya, b,
8 7
c, d, e, q.v;
ya,  ya, aqfb, aqjc, aqjd, aqje, aqN+ 1
q]
Similarly from (3) we can derive a series connected with
dn (2K:t/7r). (aq)q,N (<UJ/cd)q,N (aq/bd)q,N (aqjbc)q,N
=
We now show that (aqjb)q,N (aqjc)q,S (aqjd)q,N (aq/bcd)q,N'
'  (1aq"z)
1<1>0 (a; z) = n ~11 . provided that bcde=a qN+l, and N is a positive integer.
2
(4)
n=O q Z
It will be noticed that the effect of the presence of the four
By subtracting series term by term, it is easily shown that elements qya, qva, va, vain the function on the left is
1<1> 0 (a; z) 1<1> 0 (a; qz) = (1 a) z 1<1>0 (aq; z), merely the insertion of the factor (laq2 n)/(1a) in the general
term of the series.
1<1> 0 (a; z) a 1<1> 0 (a; qz) = ( 1 a) 1<1> 0 (aq; z).
Eliminating the series which occurs on the right, we have The prooffollows the same general lines as the proof ofDougall's
theorem given in 5.1. Writing fin place of qN, the theorem be
1az
1<1> 0 (a; z)= 1~ <1> (a; qz), comes
z 1 0
and thus <I> [a, qya, qya, b, c, d, e, j; q]
. _ ( l  az) ( 1  aqz) .. ( 1  aq"1z)
8 7
. n va, va, aqfb, aqjc, aqid, aqfe, aqjj
1<1>o(a, z) (1z)(lqz) ... (1qn1z) l<l>o(a, q z).
= n [Q___~llq'")(1aq"/cd)(laq"/bd)(1aq 11 fbc)
(laqnjb) (1aqi'fc) (1aq"/d) (1aqn/Jf
Now make n+CO and (4) follows at once. n=l
As particular cases of this result we note that, if a= 0,
z z2 1 X
(Iaqnjbj} (1aq 11 jcj) (1aqnfdj} (laq 11 jbcdj}
(1aqnjbcd) (f aq11 jbcj) (1~njbdj) (1aqnjcdj) '
J
(5 ) 1 + 1 q+ (i q) (1 q2) + = (i z) ( 1 qz)( 1q2Z~.' provided that a 2q = bcdef, and j is of the form qs where N is a
and, if z is replaced by zja and then a+co, positive integer.
z qz2 ( _ 1)nqln(n1) zn Suppose the theorem is true when]= 1, q1, q2, ... , q<xu. We
(6) 11q +(i=qf(Iq2) ... +(lq)(lq2) ... (l~qn)+ .. . shall prove it true whenf = qN, and then the result will follow by
= (I  z) ( I  qz) ( 1  q2z) ... . induction. Now by symmetry the result is true if cord has one
of the values 1, q1 , ... , q{NU, that is if c or a2qfbcej has one
Another consequence* of (4) is that of these values. It is therefore true in particular when j = qN
(7) 1$ 0 (a; z) 1<1> 0 (b; az) = 1<1>0 (ab; z). and c has one of 2N values. But when f=qs we can multiply
8.3. The analogue of Dougall's theorem. The method of by (aqjc)q,N (aqjbcd)q,N and the formula states the equality of
Chapter IV for obtaining transformations of generalized hyper two polynomials of degree 2N in c. Thus, if we can prove the
Ja<'kson 1.
"' For the results of this paragraph see Heine, loc. cit.
68 BASIC HYPERGEOl'lETRIC SERIES
BASIC HYPERGEOMETRIC SERIES 69
equality for one more value of c, the result will be established.
This is the analogue of the transformation 4.3 (7) connecting
We choose the value c=aqN, which is a pole of the last term
two terminating wellpoised series 9 F 8 It includes the analogue
only of the series, and the result is easily verified.
of Dougall's theorem as an obvious particular case (when cd = aq).
8.4. The analogue of Saalschutz's theorem. In the formula If we substitute for k and j, and make e~co, the formula
just proved substitute for e, replace d by aqfd, and let a~o. becomes*
We thus obtain the formula*
( 2 ) (J> [a,qy'a,qy'a, c, d, e, f, g; a2q2jcdefg]
(I)
$ [b, bcqlNfdq] _
C, qN; (~/~)'l~N (dfc )q,_lv 8 7
y'a,  y'a, aqjc, aqfd, aqje, aqff, aqf g
3 2 d'
which is the analogue of Saalschtitz's theorem.
(d) ~N (dfbc) ~N '
= n[ (Iaq (laq /]g) (Iaqnjge)
n=l (1aqnfe) (laq
11
)
11
(laq /ef)J
(Iaqnjg) (1aqnjefg)
11
//)
11
(1) I+ ~ ( 1)na2nqin(Snl)(Jaq2n)
terminates and the series on the left converges, a fact which n=l
W'atson stated was probable. x u_:::aq~> l::;aq~2)_
..:,...< .._.<!.,:I__aqn~_.:_~>
It is evident that other transformations of wellpoised basic ( I  q) ( 1  q2) ... ( l  qn)
series could be worked out in a way entirely analogous to that of
Chapter VII.
=
oo
n=1
[ oo
II (I  aq11 ). I + :E
an n
~
n=d1q)(1q ) ... (1qn)
J
By putting a= I and a=q in this result, and using Jacobi's
8.6. Some limiting cases. Now in the formula 8.5 (2) make wellknown formula
c, d, e,jand g tend to infinity. The process of making c, d, e, and/ 00 (()
X
(1aq) (Iaq2) ... (1aqn1)
        _ _::...,....:.
(1q) (Iq2) ... (1qn)
x {( _ I )n qht<n1)}3 qn 00
=I+ ~ ~ ..  ,,.....,...,....~=, = n (1a.qn).
n=l ( _ I)nqtn<n1)/au (1q) (1q2) ... (Iq't) n=l
00 anqnl " For the history of these formulae see Rogers a.nd Ra.ma.nuja.n 1, or Ra.ma.nuja.n,
=1+ ~ i n Collected Papers (192i), p. 344. See also Rogers 1 and 2, Schur 1. The proof given
n=diq)(lq ) ... (Iq ) here is due to Watson 6.
72 BASIC HYPERGEOMETRIC SERIES
Evidently a large number of such formulae could be found, but (4) F (oc {3 'X y)=~~ (oc)m+n(f3)m+tt xmyn
4 , 'y, y' ' m!n!(y)m(y')n .
sufficient have been given to indicate the possibilities of the
See Appell and Kampe de Feriet, Fonctions hypergiomttriques et hypersphiriquu
transformations given in this chapter. ( 1926).
74 APPELL'S HYPERGEOMETRIC FUNCTIONS OF TWO VARIABLES 75
The double series are absolutely convergent for The series of moduli, therefore, has its terms less than those of
the series
(Ia) !xI< I, IYI <I;
(2a) lxi+IYI<I;
(3a) lxl <I, IYI <I; which is
N""
k l:r2k+oc,l(a+b)'"
(4a) I X I!+ I y I! < I. 4 r=O
To prove these statements we know that the general term of and is convergent when a+ b < l.
F 1 is For the series F 3 we find, for the general term A 111 ,nxmyn, that
A m n_ f'(y) I Am,nxmyn I< Nmoc,+~,2noc,'+P,'2(m+ n)ly,
m, n X y  f' (IX) =r'.!(PC.. :. .)=r,P~')
(
m!n!
 ambn
f' (oc + m + n) f' (p + m) r (P' + n) m~.n X
(m+n)!
f'
X
(y+m+n) f' (m+ l) f' (n+ 1) X ::1 ,
< Nmet.!+P~2 net.,'+P,'2 (;n + n)ly, ambn,
and, using Stirling's formula, we see that for large values of m
andn, and so the series P 3 is convergent when a and bare less than unity.
f'(y)
A m,nr(oc)r(p)r(p')7W ___ ILtR'l(m+n)ay Finally, for F 4 we find that
I A m,n xmyn I< N (m +n)ocl+P,2mly,nly,' j<~7n) 12
'W
} ambn
l m!n! .
Write R(oc)=oc 1 , R(P)=P1 , R(P')=fl~', R(y)=yt,
and let N be a number greater than the modulus of Let k be a positive number greater than both Iy1 and Iy1 ',
and then
r (y)/f' (oc) r <P> r {pt).
N (m + n)2k+oc,+.B, 2 {(m+n)1}2
Write also a and b for I x I and I y I Then, for all large enough I A m,n xmyn I<4k m!n!
 ambn.
values of m and n,
N Grouping together those terms of the series
IA xmyn I <c1 ambn
m,n (m + n)YlQ!I m ftt n 1 ftt' 2
LL (m + n)2k+oc 1+,812 {(m + n) 1} amb''
from which we conclude that F 1 is convergent when a and b are m!n!
for which m+n=r, we obtain
less than unity.
It can be shown in the same way that the series is divergent if
a orb is greater than unity.
r~O r2k+a,+P,2 {a'"+ cr ar1 b+ Gr ar2 b2 + ... + b'}
Similarly, if Am,nxmyn denotes the general term in F 2 , we which is less than
find that 00
L r2k+a 1+P1 2(y'a+y'b)2r,
IA xmyn I< N (m+ n~ (m+n)oc,lmfl~y~nfl,'y, ambn. r=O
m,n m!n!
and this series is convergent if v'a+ y'b < I.
Let k be a positive number greater than both fl 1  y 1 and It will be noticed that. the functions all reduce to the ordinary
P1' y1 '. Then hypergeometric series F (oc, fl; y; x) when y is zero. The first three
functions also reduce to F (oc, p; y; x) when fl' is zero.
76 APPELL'S HYPERGEOl\:lETRIC FUNCTIONS OF TWO VARIABLES 77
9.2. The partial differential equations satisfied by the
( 2) I'(f3)I'(f3')I'(yf3)I'(y'f3')
 I'(y)I'(y')
. ' '
F 2 (oc, {3, fi, y, y, x, y)
functions. Consider the function F 1 , and let
z=Fdoc; {3, {3'; y; x, y)=~~Am,nxmyn. = J:J: u.B1 vtl'1 (I u)Y.8 1 (1 v)Y',8' 1 (1 ux vy)o:dudv;
Then A = (oc+m+n)(f3+m) A .
nt+1,n (m+ 1 ) (y+m+n) m,n
(3) r ({3) r ({3')_ I'_(y f3 ~) F (oc oc'. f3 {3'. y X y)
Write.&= x:x, .p = y ~. Then, as in 1.2, we see that F satisfies 1
=
I' (y)
JJu.B v.B'1( ) u
1
3 , ' ' ' '
{(.& + .p + oc) (~ + {3)  ~ & (.& + 4> + y  l )} z = 0' taken over the triangle u ~ 0, v ~ 0, u + v ~ 1. The parameters are,
of course, supposed to be such that the double integrals are con
and a similar result is obtained by considering the relation vergent. The formulae are readily proved by expanding the inte
between A,n,n and Am,n+l' grand in powers of x and y and integrating term by term. There
Now write p, q, r, s, t for the first and second order partial appears to be no simple integral representation of this type for
derivatives, and we find that the function F 1 satisfies the equa the function F 4 .
tions The function F 1 can also be expressed by a; simple integral, the
F rX (lx)r+y (1x)s+ {y (oc+ fi+ l)x}p f3yq ocf3z = 0, } . formula being
1
[y(ly)t+x(ly)s+{y (oc+ {3' + l)y}q f3'xpocf3'z=O I'(oc)I'(yoc) ,
(4) I' (y) F 1 (oc; {3, fi ; y; x, y)
Similarly we find that the other functions satisfy the equations
F Jx {1x) r xys + {y (oc+ fi + l)x} p f3yq ocfiz = 0, }
2
l y (l  y) t  xys + {y'  (oc + {3' + l) y} q {3' xp  ocf3' z = 0 '
= J: ulli1 ( 1  u)Y1 ( l  ux).8 (1 uy).B' du.
l
F Jx (l x)r+ ys + {y (oc+ f3 + l)x} p ocf3z = 0, }. The four functions can also be expressed as double contour
3
ly (1 y)t+ xs + {y (oc' + {3' + l)y}q oc' f3'z = 0 ' integrals taken along contours of Barnes' type.
x(lx)ry2t2xys+{y(oc+f3+ l)x}p
F .r (oc+f3+ l)yqocf3z=0, 9.4. Transformations of the functions F 1 and F 2 Consider
4
y (I y)tx r 2xys +{y' ( + f3+ l)y}q
2 the integral
J:
l,
(5) = ( l  x) P (1  y)Ya P' F 1 ( y ex; (3, y f3 (3'; y; } =:, y) . (1) F 1 (oc; {3, (3'; y; x, x)
= (1x)Yo:.8/J' F (yoc, y (3{3'; y; x)
When (3'=0, (l) and (2) reduce to 2.4(1) and (4) reduces to =F(cx, f3+f3'; y; x),
1.2 (2).
The above formulae show that there are at least six solutions
(2) 1
Fdoc;f3,(3 f3+f3';x,y)=(ly)cxF(oc, (3; f3+f3';
; ~=Y),
y
of the differential equations satisfied by F 1 . It has been shown
that there are 60 integrals of these equations,* each integral in (3) F 2 (oc; {3, (3'; (3, y'; x, y)=(1x)tXF(oc, (3'; y'; f~J.
volving a function }\, and that there is a linear relation connect
Of these formulae the second shows that the function F 1
ing any four of these integrals. The 60 solutions correspond to
reduces to an ordin~ry hypergeometric function when y = f3 + (3 1
,
Kummer's 24 solutions of the hypergeometric equation.
and the third shows that F 2 similarly reduces when y = f3 (or, by
Similarly by considering the double integral 1
JJ
symmetry, when y' = {3 ).
1 1
ufJ1 vP'1 (1 u)y,81 (1 vyt'P' 1 ( 1 ux vy)rxdudv, Now, from the definition of}\, we have
(l 0
which occurs in 9.3 (2), and making the substitutions F 1 (oc; (3, {3'; y; x, y)= i
m~om.
(oc)f((f3))m F(oc+m, {3'; y+m; y)xm
Ym
(a)
(b)
U= 1u',
U=U',
V=V',
V=1v',
= i;
m=O
(oc)f (f3)m (I y).8' F (Y oc, {3'; y + m; 
m. (y)m Iy
_L)
xm
! yn, n;
3 y+!, l+exyn, 1+{3yn '
J and (2) is proved.
In the notation of Chapter III this is the relation between Fp (0; 4, i5) and
Cayley 1. t Orr 1. Fp (2; 4, 5). It can also be deduced from i.2 (1) by substituting for u in terms of
t Edwardes 1, Wat!!on 4, Whipple 6 and 7. the othor parameters and making x tend to infinity.
For the proof given here see Whipple 7.
86 80:\IE l\IISCELLANEOUS RESl!'LTS
SO)IE MISCELLANEOUS RESULTS 87
To prove (1), multiply (2) byy, changeoc, y intooc +I, y+ 1 in (3)
To prove this identity, we have
and multiply by oc, and subtract term by term. We then find that
3
F [2ot, 2{3,  n;
2
2y+1, !+oc+/3yn
J 4
F [2oc, 2{3, y, n;
3 2y, oc + ,8 + !, }  n + oc + f3 y
J
~yoc+!),.(yfJ+!)_r_~: F [oc,
{3, yn, n; ] (2y 2oc) 11 (} + oc f3 + y) 71
 (y+i)n(Y+!oe{3)" 4 a y+ I, !+ocyn, !+f3yn =
(2y);(!oc fJ+y),.
This is (1) withy+ t instead of y, and so Cayley's theorem is
proved.
When y = oc + {3, Cayley's theorem beco~es
x F [2oc, t+oc+/3y, l+oc,8, n;
4 3
!+ocf3+y, i+oc+fJ, ln+2oc2y
J
(4) {F [ococ~ :~zlJr =aFz [2!oc~ !~: :: ;;+z!J =(t+~=}+y) 114 p [oc, oc+}, 2y+n, n;
(!ocf3+y)tl
3
l+ocfJ+y, r+l, oc+fJ+t
J
a result due to Clausen.*
Similarly from Orr's theorems we obtain (l+yot)n (}+y/3)n
( 5)
F oc+f3!
J
[ oc, {3; z J F [ oc, {3; z F [ 2ot, 2{3, IX+ {3; z J
oc+f3+! a 2 2oc+2f3l, oc+fJ+k '
=
(r+.t)"(! oc f3 +y)"
(l
) F [2oc, 2{3, y, n;
4 3 2y, oc+,B+!, !n+oc+fJy
J Similarly, by changing b, w into 1 n b, 1n win the same
formula, we see that, if
(f + Y OC )n (l + Y fl)n
(Y + i )n (l  OC  fJ + Y )n
F [oc, f3, !+oc+f32yn, n; J
x 4 a l + oc y n, ! + f3 y n, ot + f3 + l .
then
(1z)o: 4 F 3 [oc, {3, 8, yoc; z2j4(1z)J =:E (y)n a zn.
* Clausen 1. t Bailey 14. y, i(fJ+S), !(fJ+S+ I) (f3+S)11 n
88 SOME MISCELLANEOUS RESULTS SOME MISCELLANEOGS RESULTS 89
As a particular case of the first of these results, take y = 8 = f3, and
and we obtain the quadratic transformation of Gauss (3) (lz)o:+fi+yS 3
_li' 2 [ot, ~: :; ZJ
(2) F[oc, /3; 4z(1z)]=F[2:x, 2f3; z].
oc+/3+~ oc+f3+i = E1 P [Sex, S/3, Sy; z] P coc, E/3, ey;
8 3 2 S,S+l 3 2
el,E+l3
z]
Again, taking S=ex + f3y + 1, we have
S__!
+~oE
F eEOC, /3, Ey; ZJ F csoc, Sf3, Sy; ZJ
3 2
, +1o~ 3 2
o1, o+1E
z] F[oc+otft~;yz+ 1]
<;' <;' '
(3) F[oc, ~;
which reduce to (1) and 1.2 (2) when y ="' +00.
_ F [ot, f3, Hoc+/3+1), i(oc+f3); 4z(lz)J In order to give a proof which is applicable to series of any
4 3 ex+f3,y,oc+f3y+l ' order, it is convenient to write
This relation and 1.2 (2) have been generalized by Darling,* A'= F [lot, I{3, 1y; ZJ
3 2
28, 2 '
and the generalizations apply to series of any order. For series of
the type 3 F 2 the formulae are B' = S1 F [8ex, 0 {3, oy; ZJ
z S, S + I  E
(2)
3
F [ot, {3, y;
2 S,
z] F [lex,
3 2
1 f3, 1y; z]
2 o, 2 E C'=
3 2
z e,e+l8 '
_EI F [ot+lo,{3+IS,y+1S;z]
 E 8
3 2
2 S, E + l  0 dB dC I
and Ll=
I.
F [sot, 8 f3, 8 y;
xa 2 8, o+ I
z] dz'
B,
dz
C
Then (2) and (3) can be written as*
8l F [oc+le, /3+1e, y+le;
+a
z]
AA'=el BB'+ 8  1 CC',
2
0 2, 8+1E (4)
eS S
X 3
F cEot, ef3, y;
2 , E + 10
ZJ ' (5) Ll =(eo) zlS. ( 1 z)S+.o:J;!yl A'.
(5) expres.ses A' in terms of B, C and their differentia.! coefficients, whereas
Darling 2. For the proofs given here see Bailey 9 and Burchnallt. (3) expresses A in terms of B', C'. The two formula.e a.re, however, equivalent.
90 SOME 1\HSCELLANEOlJS RESULTS SO~IE :MISCELLANEOUS RESULTS 9I
By comparing the coefficients of zn in (2), we see that the Prom (4), (6) and (7) we find that
formula to be proved is
A' .1 t =  a1

(I}T1oc_=_r1'!i~_r)n (yr)n z2 (Iz)'
r=O r! (n r)! (8 I  r),1 +1 (e I  r) 11 +1 d2 A d2 B d 2C
where
+ ~ ( 1)r(oc + 18 =~)_~~j,B_"__~=~ =:1)n (y+ I8r)n dz 2 ' dz 2 ' dz 2
7 =o rt(nr)!(I8r),,+I(e8r)n+l dA dB dC
,
+ ~ (1}f(oc+1Er)u(fl+ler)n(y+1er)n=O.
ii' dz dz
7= 0 r! (nr)! (1er)n+I (8er)n+ 1 A, B, c
Now consider the integral d3A d3 B d3 C
Evidently
dz 3 ' dz 3 ' dz 3
(oc8) 11 (fls)n(ys)nds
f(s)n+l(S1s)n+l(e1s)n+I'
dA
dz '
dB
dz'
dO
dz
taken round a large circle Is I= R. This integral evidently tends A, B, 0
to zero as R+ ro, and, equating to zero the sum of the residues at But, by 2.1, A, B, 0 satisfy a differential equation of the form
the poles, we obtain the rcq uired identity.
To prove (5) we consider the integral d 3y d 2y dy
dz 3 + P dz2 + Q dz + Ry = o,
(oc8) 11 ({3s)n (ys)nds
f (  s~tm+l (S l 8) 11 +1 (E f:.::_8),1+ 1' where P=S+E""l(oc+,B+y+3)z
z(1z)
where m=O, I, 2. The case when m=O has already been con It follows that
sidered and leads to (4). When m= I and 2 we find similarly that d11= P1
1
dz '
(6) A,dA = e1 B,dB + o1 0 ,d0, so that ,11 = beJPdz = bz(8++1) ( 1  Z )SHn:,8y2,
dz E3 dz 8E dz
2 2 2
where b is a constant. Thus
(7) A,d A E1 B,d B + o1 c,d 0 +a
dz2  e  S dz 2 S  E dz 2 z 2 ( l  z) ' .1 = J.l'! A 'zt8 ( 1 z)8 Hn:,8y1,
where M is a constant. Equating coefficients of zt8E we find that
where a is a constant. In the case when m = 2 the integrand is
M = E  S, and so (5) is proved.
~+0(~) and so the integral +21Ti as R+w. The term Exactly similar results are true for series of any order, and they
OC! can be proved in the same way.
ajz2 (1 z) arises from the series~ zn 2 When n ~ m 1, ( s)nm+t Similar results are also true for basic series. Thus, by con
n=O
must be replaced by (I )mn1/( 1 + s)mn 1 , and the identity to sidering the integral
be proved connects two series instead of three. The corresponding (ocs)11 ,n (~s) 11 ,n (ys)q,n ds
powers of z in (6) and (7) are then negative. f(s)q,n+l (osjq)q,n+l (esjq) 11 ,11 +1
92 SOME MISCELLANEOUS RESULTS SOME MISCELLANEOUS RESULTS 93
round a large circle, we can prove that is particularly simple. In 3.S(I) put c=f+nl, where n is a
positive integer. Then
( S) $ [oc, fJ, y; z] $ [q/oc, qjfJ, qjy; ocfJyqzjSEJ
3 2 ;:;, E 3 2 q2Jo, q2f
3
F [a, b,f+nl;J_r(e}r(eab) F [a, b, In;
2
J
_ S (q E! $ [qocjS, qfJJS, qyfS; z] <I> [ofoc, SffJ, Sjy; ocfJyqzjoE] e, 1  r <e a> r <e b) 3 2 a+ be+ 1, J
 q(oE)3 2 q2fo, q~:fo 3 2 s, q8J~: Now lete4a+b+n, and we get*
~: (q~~ $ [qocj~:, qfJjE, qyjE;
+ q (E8)3 q2jE, q'f>jE
z] $ [Efoc, ~rffJ, Ejy; ocfJyqzjoEJ.
2 E, q~:jO a,f b;J to n terms
2F 1
2 3
(2) [
This is the analogue of (2). The analogue of (3) is
_r(~_+n)_r(bn) F [a,b,f+n1;].
 r (n) r (a + b + n) 3 J, a + b + n
yi, !~rzfocf1y]l$o[oc~y; z]
2
(9) 3$2[oc, fJ,
Ramanujan's result is the particular case of (2) when a= b = !,
8(q~:) <I> [8/oc, offJ, 8/y; qz] $ [/OC, E/fJ, E/y; ZJ f= 1. The method of proof applies when f ~ a + b.
q(?J) 3 2 0, qojE 3 2
Ejq, qEj'b A more general result ist
+ E(qS) 3$ 2 [E/oc, E/fJ, E/y; qz]3$2[8/rx, SffJ, ofy; ZJ. (3) r(x+m)r(y+m) F [x,y,v+mI;Jtonterms
q (Eo) , q/S 'bfq, qS/E r(m)r(x+y+m} 3 2 v, x+y+m
If we put y = E and then let E 40, this reduces to Heine's formula
8.4 (2). = r(x+n)r(y+n) 3 F 2 [x, y, v+n1;] t om te rms.
r(n)r(x+y+n) v, x+y+n
10.4. Partial sums of hypergeometric series. A number of
We can evidently suppose that n > m. Then, in the terms of the
theorems have recently been given which express the sum of n series on the left, the factors v + r in the denominator cancel with
terms of an ordinary hypergeometric series with unit argument
factors in the numerator when r ~ m 1. Thus if we multiply by
in terms of an infinite series of the type 3 F 2 The subject had
(v)m_ 1 we obtain two polynomials in vofdegreem I. If therefore
previously received some attention from Hill and Whipple,* but
we can prove that these polynomials are equal for m values of v,
new interest was aroused by a theorem due to Ramanujan, who
we have established the result.
stated that
Now for each of them values V= n+ l, n, ... , nm+2,
(I)
1 (1)2 n+1+
;n+ 2
1 (1.3)2 1
2.4 n+2+ ...
the partial series become complete hypergeometric series which
can be summed by Saalschtitz's theorem and the verification is
immediate. When m400 the theorem gives (2), and the proof is
{1 + (!)2 + (~)
2
= { ~2 _}
2 2
r(n+t) 2.4
+ ... ton terms}. valid for all values of the parameters.
The series 3 F 2 in (2) can be transformed in many ways by the
This was proved by Watson and Darling, and generalized by
transformations of Chapter III. In particular, by using the
Whipple, Hodgkinson and Bailey. t The method used by Watson
* Hill and Whipple 1, and Hill1 and 2. Ba.iley 6.
t Watson 7, Darling 1, Whipple 9, Hodgkinson 1, Bailey 6 and 7. t Bailey 7. Three proofs are given there.
94 SOME MISCELLANEOUS RESULTS SOME :MISCELLANEOUS RESULTS 95
relation between Fp (0; 4, 5), Fp ( 4; 0, 1) and Fp (1; 0, 4), we find where a= x + y + z + n 1 and the series on the left is restricted to
that be Saalschtitzian. This reduces to (2) when we substitute for w
(4} ,8; y] ton terms and let z* oo.
2 Fdex,
The wellpoised 7 F 6 in (6) can be transformed in various ways
f3 y} { 1  (ex)n (fJ~~ 3F2 [I  IX, 1  fJ, n ;] } '
= r ( 1 +ex y} r (l + into two Saalschiitzian 4 F 3 by 4.4 (4) and 7.5 (3). In particular,
r(1y}r(1y+oc+,8} n!(y1)n 2y,n+1 using the latter formula, we find that
a result which is due to Whipple.*
Again from (2}, using the relation Fp (0; 4, 5} = Fp (0; I, 4), we (7) 3
F 2 [x, y,
v, w
z;J ton terms
find that
r(x+n) r(y+n) r(z+n)
(5) 2F 1 [ex, ,8; y] to n terms =r(n) (v+n1) (w+n1)
_ r(oc+n~r(,B+n) F [yex, y,8, y1+n;J r(w)r(wv)
r(n)r(oc+,8y+1)r(y+n) 3 2
y,y+n ' {
x r(v+n1)r(w:_x)r(wyfr(w=:Z)
whichwasgiven byHodgkinson.t In both(4)and(5)itisassumed
x F [vx, vy, vz, v+n1;]
that R (ex+ f3 + 1 y) > 0. 4 3
t', v+1w, v+n
Now Whipple's transformation 4.4 (5) can be written
r(v)r(vw)
4
F
3
[t,u,x,v, z;J y,
w
+ . 
r(w+n1) r(vx) r(vy)r(vz)
x F [wx, wy, wz, w+n1;])
r (v+wt) r (I +xu) r(1 +yu) r (1 + zu)
= r (1 + y+zu) r {I +z+x..:.:_u) r (1 +x+yu) r(1u)
4 3
w, W+ lv, w+n J'
x7
F [a, 1 +!a, wt, vt, x, y, z;
6
;ia, v, w, 1 +y+zu, 1 +z+xu, 1
J
+x+yu '
where v + w = x + y + z + l. This result was given by Darling.*
Similarly from 6.8 (3) and 7.6 (2), the relations connecting
four wellpoised 9 F 8 , by putting c = 1  n where n is a positive
where a=x+y+zu, u+v+wtxyz= 1, integer, and then letting b +a+ n, we obtain two formulae each
and one oft, x, y, z is a negative integer. of which gives the sum of n terms of the series
Put t = 1  n and let u+ 1  n. Then we find thatt
7
F
6
[a, 1+!a,
!a,
d, e,
j, g, h;
1+ad, l+ae, l+af, 1+ag, 1+ah '
J
(6)
3
F
2
[x,v,y,wz;J to nterms where 1 + 2a = d + e + f + g + h, in terms of two infinite well
_ r (v+w+n1) r (X+ n) r (y+n) r (z+n) poised series. The formulae are very complicated and their only
 r(n)r(y+z+n)r(z+X+n)r(x+y+n) interest lies in the fact of their existence.
X 7F 6 [
a, 1+!a, w+n1, v+n1, x, y, z;
1
J '
Darling 2, p. 335.
(v) 1
a(xl)a
x+l
f(x12_02n 3 _ _ {r(x+I)}3 1'(3xI)
+ 5 t,(x+l)(x+2)J ...  {r(2x)}3 ' (ii) {I+ ( 1~)3 + (;;)a+} {1 (l~)a + (;~)3 }
1xl I (xl)(x2) _ 2u{r(x+ 1)}4 3!x 2 6!x' 9!x8
= l  (I! 2 !)8+ (2!4 !)3 (3! 6!) 8 + ... ,
(vi) l3x+ 1 + 5(x+ l)(x+2)  4x{r(2x+ 1}}2'
xI\2 {(xl)(x2)1_ 2 ~_{l'(x+l)}'r(4x+l)
(iii) 2 Fdoc, p; oc+ .B+i; 4x(lx)}= 2 Fd2oc, 2f3; oc+ ,8+!; x),
(vii) l+ ( x+l; + (x+l)(x+2)J + ... 4xl {r(2x+l)}' '
(iv) (1x)a 8 p 2 [ta, l+}a, l+abc; (l~) 2]
2:r:yz 1+ab, 1 +ac
(viii) l(x+I)(y+1)(z+1) _ F

3 2
[a, I+ a
b,
b,
c;
l +a c
x] '
2x(xl)y(yl)z(zl)
+(x+ 1)(x+2)(y+ l)(y+2)(z+l)(z+2) each of the formulae (iii) and (iv) being valid inside a certain region sur
r(x+ 1) r (y+ l) r (z+ l) r (x+y+z+ 1) rounding the origin. For example, (iii) is valid inside the loop of the
=
r'(y+z+ l) r(z+x+ Ifr(x+y+ l) lemniscate l4x(1x) I= 1 which surronnds the origin. Show that inside
the other loop of this lemniscate
[Dougall and Rarnanujan. See Hardy 2.] (v) 1 Fdoc, p; IX+ ,8+ !; 4x (1x)}= aFd21X, 2P; oc+ ,8+ !; Ix).
[See Bailey t, where further formulae of this type are given. {i) and (ii)
2. Prove the results:
are due to Rama.nujan, (iii) is Gauss's quadratic transformation, and (iv)
1
+9 ( 2.4
:.~) 13 (,2.4.6
3 1
_:~) + ... =1T~'
3 3
is due to Whipple.]
(i) 15(!)
2
5. From Ex. 4 (iv) deduce 4.5(1) by multiplying by (1x) 111 +ml and
(ii) 1 + 9 Gr + 11 (~~~)' + 25 (r
5
8} 2 Y+ ... =Yi1T~tfw~ equating coefficients of x"'.
[Bailey 2.]
(iii) l5Gr + 9 (;:~Y Ja(t!::r + .. =rr~m' 6. By comparing coefficients of powers of x, prove that
1 / 1
"' r(s)r(l8s)r(I~!s)ds Prove also that
2,J ("< r(l1X8)r(l.Bs)l'(1yB) ):
,.:,. .1"r. n:::: 2
F
1
[!a,j ta;] to n + 1 tPrrn:;,
by considering the poles on the two sides of the contour, and hence :;how
that and hence that . x, n=I'(f)I'(ja)
a
Ji'
2
[ s,f1, y;J r(lIX)r(t{J)r(ty)r(o)r(S)
rc28)r(lE)l'(81X)r(8PJrcsy)
lim
,.,..._ ,.~, . {l'(J!a))2.
[The particular case whenf= !(a+5) wa,; giwn by Chapman 1.1
X
3
p
1
[oc+ 18,28,
P+ 18, y+ 1 8;]
~:+
18
13. Prove that
F4 (:x, :r.+ t {3; i' {3+ !; X, y'l)
..f rc1::x)r(l,8)r(ly)r()I'(8)
rc2 () 1'(18) r
(IX) r ( Pl r (~! y) =(ll')2o.F 1 x :x+~.o Q., zQ. __l::_ _4Y_I,
.1 21 1''1''/ /J'(1y)2'(ly)2J"
F [IX+l(, {3+1, y+l;] X
3 z 2~!,8+1 ' [Appell and Kampe de F.)rid, Fonction8 hypergeometriques et hyper
spheriques, p. 27.]
provided that R(8+1X/3y)>0.
100 EXAMPLES EXAMPLES 101
14. Prove that 17. If
F(1X, {1; y; z)F(cr:, {1; y; Z) C=zi( F [x+1,,f3+1,,y+l{,8+1{;z]
~ 3
2 ,, E +} ,, /J+ 1' 0
19. If
p(a.,M(x) = ( J)n r(n j""1X__!) Jt'( n n+ IX+ Q+ l IX+ l l _ lx)
n n!r(IX+l) ' t' ' >"2" "2" '
(iv) F. [ cc, p; :r
~. fJ; o::..~i)(1y)' <Ix)(I!J)
y J 305308.
12. Transformations of w<'llpois<'d h,1:pergeometric series, Pruc. London
Math. Soc. (2), 36 (1934), 235240.
=(1:r)"(ly)" F[cc, I+ x ,8; ,8; xy],
13. On the rl'ducibility of App('ll's function Fp Quart. J. of .llath.
(v) F [IX ,81+1XR Q , 
~ ' ' ~"'' ,...
X y
(1x)(Iy)' (1x)(ly)
J 1~.
(Oxford), 5 (Hl:34), 291292.
Some theorems concerning products of hypE'rgeometric series, Proc.
=(1y)"F[oc, ,B; l+x{3; _:l'il_;>J London Math. Soc. (2), 38 (1935), 377384.
[Bailey 15.) 15. Some infinite integrals in\ohing lll';:,:=wl functions, Proc. London
Jlath. Soc. [In course of publication.]
104 BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY 105
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J. Dougall E. E. Kummer
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F. Morley W. F. Sheppard
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