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The College of William and Mary, Fall 2017 History 240: The Crusades, MWF@9, Blair 229
Philip Daileader Email:
Office: Blair 342
Office hours: Mondays 2-3, Wednesdays 1-2, and by appointment

Course Description
Few images of the Middle Ages are as enduring as that of the crusader knight traveling to the
Holy Land. Yet the origins, nature, and consequences of the crusading movement remain lively topics of
debate. What motivated people of every social status, from kings and nobles to peasants and hermits, to
take part in the crusades? Why and how did Europe suddenly intrude so forcefully in the affairs of the
two established powerhouses of the Mediterranean, the Byzantine Empire and the House of Islam? What
were the crusades' consequences for the internal development of the medieval West, and what were their
consequences for relations between West and East? Crusades to the Holy Land are the central focus of
this course, but we will also examine the crusades in all their geographical manifestations. From the arid
plains of Spain to the frozen forests of the Baltics, the successes and failures of the crusading movement
played an important role in determining the future extent and identity of Europe.
This course will also explore problems of historical analysis as they pertain to the crusades. Most
of the assigned reading comes from primary sources. The readings range from the memoirs of a
Byzantine princess to a chronicle written by an obscure Catholic priest, from the memoirs of an Arab
warrior to poems celebrating the legendary exploits of Roland and the Cid. Byzantine, Arab, and
European contemporaries wrote about the crusades: these authors had axes to grind, skeletons in their
closets, differing degrees of knowledge about the crusades, and points of view. Through our joint
analysis, we will explore together the potential and problems of such rich and diverse source material.

Texts Available for Purchase

- Thomas Madden (ed.), Crusades: The Illustrated History, ISBN 9780472031276*
- Edward Peters (ed.), The First Crusade. The Chronicle of Fulcher of Chartres and Other Source
Materials, 2nd revised edition, ISBN 9780812216561*
- The Book of Contemplation. Islam and the Crusades, trans. P. Cobb, ISBN 9780140455137*
- The Song of Roland, trans. R. Harrison, ISBN 9780451531933
- Arab Historians of the Crusades, trans. F. Gabrieli, ISBN 9780520052246*
- The Poem of the Cid, trans. L. B. Simpson, ISBN 9780520250109
- Joinville & Villehardouin: Chronicles of the Crusades, trans. Caroline Smith, ISBN
- The Chronicle of Henry of Livonia, trans. James Brundage, ISBN 9780231128896*

* Also available on reserve at Swem library

** There is also an older Penguin edition, translated by M. R. B. Shaw rather than by Caroline Smith.
You should read the Smith translation, as the pagination differs between the two editions.

Texts on Course Blackboard (

To find these documents, look under the Course Documents section for History 240, The Crusades.
- Odo of Deuil, The Journey of Louis VII to the East
- Anna Comnena, The Alexiad of Anna Comnena, trans. E. R. A. Sewter, selections
- Anonymous, Sir Hugh of Tabarie, in Aucassin and Nicolette, trans. E. Mason.
- Norman Housley, Documents on the Later Crusades, 1274-1580, selections.
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Requirements and Grading

1. Paper #1: 25 percent. For topics, due dates, and instructions, see Paper Topics and Due Dates and
Paper Instructions on pages five and six of this syllabus. Length: five to seven pages.
2. Paper #2: 25 percent. For topics, due dates, and instructions, see Paper Topics and Due Dates and
Paper Instructions on pages five and six of this syllabus. Length: five to seven pages.
3. Quizzes on readings: 25 percent. There are eleven classes given over to discussion of the assigned
source readings. On each of those eleven class days, we will begin class with a short (five question)
selected-answer quiz concerning the assigned reading. When calculating your overall quiz grade, I will
drop the lowest quiz grade. Nota bene: the quizzes cover only the assigned sources, NOT the Madden
4. Final Examination: 25 percent. The final examination is a take-home essay examination, due no
later than Wednesday, December 13, between 10 AM and noon, at my office (Blair 342.) That date
and time corresponds to the examination slot assigned to courses meeting MWF@9. The question and
instructions for the final examination are located on page seven of this syllabus. Maximum length: eight
5. Class participation: tiebreaker. If your course grade comes out exactly between two grades (say,
between a D Minus and a D), then I will use the quality and amount of your participation in class
discussions to determine whether your course grade ought to be rounded up or rounded down.

1. Late Papers: Papers submitted between one and five days after the due date will be penalized one
full letter grade. Papers submitted six or seven days after the due date will be penalized two full letter
grades. Papers submitted more than one week after the due date will not be accepted.
2. Paper Extensions: Extensions of a due date will be granted when a medical or family emergency
warrants it, and when the emergency is properly documented.
3. Copies of Papers: It is your responsibility to keep a copy of each paper that you submit. In the
unlikely event that (1) I misplace the hard copy of your paper, and (2) I also accidentally delete the
electronic copy of your paper, you should be able to produce your copy within twenty-four hours of
being asked for it. Students unable to produce the requested copy will fail the assignment.
4. Assistance with Papers: I am always happy to discuss your ideas for your papers before the due date.
Students seeking assistance with rough drafts of their essays should use the History Writing Resources
Center (HWRC), located in Blair 347 (phone: 2213756) (e-mail:
5. Rewriting Papers: Rewrites of papers that were previously submitted for a grade will not be

The College of William & Marys Honor Code defines plagiarism as follows:
"1. Plagiarism: the presentation, with intent to deceive, or with disregard for proper scholarly
procedures of a significant scope, of any information, ideas or phrasing of another as if they were ones
own without giving appropriate credit to the original source.
a. One commits plagiarism when one includes the words of another without quotation or when one
includes the substantive work of another without properly crediting the source with footnotes, quotation
marks, or other appropriate citation.
b. A students intent may be inferred based on the extent and context of the improperly cited material
and whether the student has provided false citation or has manipulated the original text such that a
reasonable person may conclude the student did so in order to avoid detection."
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Do not plagiarize.
Electronic Devices in the Classroom
1. The use of computers for the purpose of taking notes is permitted.
2. During class, you may not use your computer for browsing the internet or for any purpose other than
note taking or consulting electronic copies of the assigned course readings. Use of your laptop for non-
course-related activities distracts your fellow students and me. Students who violate this policy will be
forbidden to bring laptops to class. They will also incur my eternal, unquenchable wrath.
3. Unless the campus emergency warning system sounds, you may not use cell phones for any purpose
during lectures or discussion sections.

Textbook Assignments
The textbook for this class is Thomas Madden, Crusades: The Illustrated History. Reading assignments
are included in the class schedule, in brackets.

Class Schedule
W Aug. 30: Introduction
F Sept. 2: Deep Background to the First Crusade

M Sept. 4: Run-up to the First Crusade {Madden, pp. 5-31}

W Sept. 6: The First Crusade: The Popular Crusade
F Sept. 8: Discussion: The Song of Roland.

M Sept. 11: The First Crusade: The Barons' Crusade {Madden, pp. 34-47}
W Sept. 13: Aftermath of the First Crusade
F Sept. 15: Discussion: Peters (ed.), The First Crusade, pp. 25-37, 47-101, 109-125.

M Sept. 18: The Templars

W Sept. 20: Crusader States: Institutions
F Sept. 22: Discussion:
1) Anna Comnena, The Alexiad of Anna Comnena, trans. E. R. A. Sewter, pp. 11-21, 293-352
2) Arab Historians of the Crusades, trans. F. Gabrieli, pp. xi-xxii, xxvi-xxxi, 3-17.

M Sept. 25: Crusader States: Colonial Societies?

W Sept. 27: Islamic Responses {Madden, 48-56}
F Sept. 29: Discussion: The Book of Contemplation. Islam and the Crusades, trans. P. Cobb, pp. xv-
xxxviii, 43-115, 123-124 (The Holy-Warrior Leopard), 139-154, 160-163, 173-180.

M Oct. 2: The Second Crusade, Part I

W Oct. 4: The Second Crusade, Part II {Madden, 60-67}
F Oct. 6: Discussion: Odo of Deuil, The Journey of Louis VII to the East, pp. xiii-xxxii,
3-143 (you do not have to read the original Latin, just the English translation).

M Oct. 9: The Crusade in Spain

W Oct. 11: The Rise of Saladin
F Oct. 13: Discussion: The Poem of the Cid, trans. L. Simpson, pp. v-xvi, 1-139.
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M Oct. 16: Fall Break: No Class

W Oct. 18: The Third Crusade, Part I
F Oct. 20: Discussion:
1) Arab Historians of the Crusades, trans. F. Gabrieli, pp. 87-168, 176-207, 214-215, 232-242,
2) Sir Hugh of Tabarie, in Aucassin and Nicolette, trans. E. Mason, pp. vii-xviii, 93-98.

M Oct. 23: The Third Crusade, Part II {Madden, 68-97}

W Oct. 25: The Fourth Crusade, Part I
F Oct. 27: Discussion: Villehardouin and Joinville, Chronicles of the Crusades, trans. Caroline Smith,
pp. xi-xxx, 5-101 (Introduction; chapters 1-10).

M Oct. 30: The Fourth Crusade, Part II {Madden, 98-117}

W Nov. 1: The Northern Crusades
F Nov. 3: Discussion: The Chronicle of Henry of Livonia, trans. J. Brundage, pp. 1-16, 25-65, 83-87,
105-9, 120-31, 152, 187-212, 238-46.

M Nov. 6: The Children's Crusade and the Albigensian Crusade

W Nov. 8: Tragedy and Oddity: The Fifth and Sixth Crusades
F Nov. 10: The Shepherds' Crusades and the Crusades against the Hohenstaufen {Madden, pp. 120-167}

M Nov. 13: The Crusades of Louis IX

W Nov. 15: The Fall of the Kingdom of Acre {Madden, pp. 167-171}
F Nov. 17: Discussion: Villehardouin and Joinville. Chronicles of the Crusades, trans. Caroline Smith,
pp. xxxi-xl; 141-159; 173-261; 328-336 (Introduction, section on Joinville; Part I, chapter 1; Part II,
chapters 3-9, 15.)

M Nov. 20: The Crusades and Their Critics

W Nov. 22: Thanksgiving Break: No Class
F Nov. 24: Thanksgiving Break: No Class

M Nov. 27: Crusade and Mission

W Nov. 29: Cultural Contact and Exchange in the Age of the Crusades
F Dec. 1: Discussion: Norman Housley, Documents on the Later Crusades:
- Document 1, The decrees of the Second Council of Lyons, 1274, pp. 16-21
- Document 2, A report sent to the college of cardinalson the problems of tax collection, pp. 21-25
- Document 8, A memorandum by Fulk of Villaret, pp. 40-47
- Document 12, Marsiglio of Padua, pp. 52-54
- Document 21, King Alfonso IV of Aragon vetoes the collection, pp. 74-76
- Document 43, Christine de Pisan, pp. 132-133
- Document 48, Cardinal Bessarion's instructions to his crusade preachers, pp. 147-154
- Document 51, Pope Sixtus IV grants the cruzada to Ferdinand and Isabella, pp. 156-163
- Document 54, Letter of Christopher Columbus, pp. 169-173
- Document 55, Letters of papal legate Raymond Peraudi, pp. 173-178.
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M Dec. 4: The Legacy of the Crusades, Part I

W Dec. 6: The Legacy of the Crusades, Part II {Madden, pp. 174-211}
F Dec. 8: AMA
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Paper Topics and Due Dates

You are required to write two papers for this course. Each paper should be approximately five to seven
pages in length. The due dates for the papers vary according to the topics that you choose. Here are your

1) The Song of Roland. Due at the end of class on Monday, Sept. 18. To what extent might Roland have
served as model for would-be crusaders? What are his defining qualities, and are those the qualities that
crusaders ought to have possessed? How does The Song of Roland portray warfare between Christians
and Muslims, and how might that depiction have impacted a knightly audience?

2) The chronicles of Fulcher of Chartres and Anonymous of Mainz (in Peters, ed., The First Crusade).
Due at the end of class on Monday, Sept. 25. What do these two chronicles teach us about the First
Crusade, both those who went on the crusade and those who fell victim to it? Why are these chroniclers
writing about the First Crusade, and how do their motives for writing seem to inform what they write?

3) The Alexiad of Anna Comnena. Due at the end of class on Monday, Oct. 2. What does Anna
Comnena think of the First Crusade, and why? How does she account for the origins of the First
Crusade, and for the crusaders' behavior? To what extent does she draw distinctions among crusaders,
and to what extent does her position as a Byzantine princess seem to influence her account?

4) The Book of Contemplation. Islam and the Crusades. Due at the end of class on Monday, Oct. 9.
How did Usamah ibn Munqidh come by his knowledge of the Franks, and what does he think of the
Franks in the Kingdom of Jerusalem? To what extent does he draw distinctions among different types
of Franks? Based on Usamah ibn Munqidh's account, how ought one to characterize life and society in
the crusader states?

5) Odo of Deuil, The Journey of Louis VII to the East. Due at the end of class on Wednesday, Oct. 18.
According to Odo of Deuil, what was it like to go on the Second Crusade? Why did the Second Crusade
go as it did? What does Odo think of his fellow French crusaders, the German crusaders, and the
Byzantines? Why did Odo write this account of the Second Crusade, and how do his motives seem to
inform what he wrote?

6) The Poem of the Cid. Due at the end of class on Monday, Oct. 23. What are the Cid's defining
qualities, and are those the qualities that a crusader ought to have possessed? Against whom does the
Cid fight, and how does The Poem of the Cid portray the Cid's fighting? What does The Poem of the
Cid tell usor not tell usabout the milieu (mid-twelfth-century Spain) in which it was written?

7) Gabrieli, ed. Arab Historians of the Crusades. Due at the end of class on Monday, Oct. 30. How do
Arab chroniclers account for the origins of the crusades? How do they depict the Franks, Saladin, and
Saladin's conquest of Jerusalem? Why do they depict them as they do? What differences are there
among the various Arab chroniclers, and how do you account for those differences?

8) Villehardouin's chronicle, in Villehardouin and Joinville, Chronicles of the Crusades. Due at the end
of class on Monday, Nov. 6. According to Villehardouin, why did the Fourth Crusade go as it did?
What does Villehardouin think of his fellow French crusaders, the Venetians, and the Byzantines? Why
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did Villehardouin write this account of the Fourth Crusade, and how do his motives seem to inform what
he wrote?

9) The Chronicle of Henry of Livonia. Due at the end of class on Monday, Nov. 13. According to Henry
of Livonia, what were the northern crusades like? What does Henry of Livonia think of German
crusaders and of the Baltic pagans? Why did Henry of Livonia write this chronicle, and how do his
motives seem to inform what he writes?

10) Joinville's chronicle, in Villehardouin and Joinville, Chronicles of the Crusades. Due at the end of
class on Wednesday, Nov. 29. According to Joinville, what was it like to go on the Seventh Crusade?
What does Joinville think of his fellow crusaders, King Louis IX, and those whom he meets during the
course of his crusade? Why did Joinville write this account, and how do his motives seem to inform
what he writes?

11) Norman Housley, Documents on the Later Crusades, 1274-1580. Due at the end of class on
Wednesday, Dec. 6. What do these documents reveal about the later crusades as regards crusading
enthusiasm and organization? What are the advantages and disadvantages of studying the crusades
through documents such as these (letters, conciliar decrees, memoranda, and so on), as opposed to
narrative chronicles?

Paper Instructions
1) Submit TWO copies of your paper: one hard copy, which must be handed in to me at the place and
time indicated under paper topics; and one electronic copy, which must be submitted via
2) Type your essay.
3) Use double-spacing between lines.
4) Have margins of 1 inch.
5) Use a twelve-point font.
6) Support your arguments and points with specific textual references. I recommend parenthetical
citation, rather than footnotes or endnotes, for papers of this length and nature.
7) Number your pages.
8) Staple the hard copy of your essay.
9) You should not use any readings other than those that I have assigned for class when writing your
essay; you should limit your discussion to the assigned pages.

To submit the electronic copy of your paper:

1. Log on to Blackboard (, or click on the icon that is on the page)
2. Select Hist. 240
3. From the home page, select Assignments from the items in the column to the left
4. Find the relevant assignment (Paper One, Paper Two, Take-home Exam); click on that assignment
5. Select Attach file, and upload your file from your own computer.

Take-home final examination

If you go to the course Blackboard site ( for History 240 and look in the course
documents folder, you will find the following two items:
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1. Thomas Madden, The Real History of the Crusades, CRISIS Magazine, April 1, 2002, (accessed November 27, 2006).
2. Karen Armstrong, Holy War: the Crusades and Their Impact on Todays World, 2nd edition
(New York: Anchor Books, 2001), pp. 373-382.

In their respective pieces, Madden and Armstrong sketch out different visions of the crusades nature
and consequences. Drawing on your knowledge of the crusades, you should write an essay that evaluates
and responds to both of these pieces. To what extent do you agree with these authors claims about the
crusades, and to what extent do you disagree? Are both pieces equally helpful (or equally unhelpful) for
those seeking to understand the crusades? Does one piece seem better than the other, and if so, why?

Please note: although I have assigned you a brief excerpt from Armstrongs book, that excerpt contains
everything that you need to assess her argument, because Armstrong puts all of her evidence and
arguments there. The rest of her book simply provides a narrative of the crusades and of Israels history.

You should follow these guidelines:

1) You may spend as much time as you like on this assignment.
2) You may consult your notes and course readings as you work on your answer.
3) You should not consult with fellow students or with the History Writing Resources Center about this
4) Because this is an examination rather than a paper, you do not need to cite sources, even when you
are referring to information that you learned from a text (say, Maddens Illustrated History of the
5) Your essay must be typed in a twelve-point font, double-spaced, and have margins of one inch.
6) The maximum length for your essay is eight pages.
7) You must submit a hard copy and an electronic copy via Blackboard
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Lecture Outlines and Word Lists

Here are lecture outlines for each of the course's lectures, as well as lists of words that might be
unfamiliar to you, presented in the order in which I anticipate saying those words.

Lecture 1: Introduction

Word List
Ladenese Epistle: Declaration of War
Jihad against Jews and Crusaders
Gene Nichol
Lloyd George
Dwight Eisenhower
David Hume
Sir Steven Runciman
St. Augustine of Hippo (d. 430)
Pope Urban II (d. 1099)
expeditio crucis/signatus cruce
Pope Leo IV (r. 847-855)
Pope John VIII (r. 872-882)

Lecture Outline
I. Everybody is Talking about the Crusades
II. Crusade = Pilgrimage + Holy War + Plenary Indulgence
III. The Plenary Indulgence: Remission of all temporal penalties due to sin
IV. The Crusades as Improvisation
V. Holy War and Pilgrimage before the Crusades
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Lecture 2: Deep Background

Word List
Pyrenees Mountains
Al-jihad al-akbar
Al-jihad al asghar
Al-Shafi'i (d. 820)
Dar al-Islam
Dar al-harb
Dar al-sulh
Pope Gregory VII (d. 1085)
Nicaean Creed
Hagia Sophia

Lecture Outline
I. The Byzantine Empire
II. The House of Islam
III. Medieval Europe
IV. Christian Schism: Catholic and Orthodox Christianity after 1054
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Lecture 3: Immediate Circumstances

Word List
Battle of Manzikert (1071)
Nizam al-Mulk
Alexius I Comnenus (r. 1081-1118)
Robert Guiscard
Kilij Arslan
Carolingian Empire
Raymond of Saint-Gilles, count of Toulouse
Guibert of Nogent

Lecture Outline
I. The Migration of the Turks
II. Byzantium Beleaguered
III. Western Europe on the Eve of the First Crusade: Feudalism
IV. Noble Violence in Medieval Europe
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Lecture 4: First Crusade, Part I

Word List
Council of Piacenza (March 1095)
Raymond of St. Gilles, Count of Toulouse
Council of Clermont (November 1095)
Deus lo volt
Bishop Adhemar of Le Puy
Walter Sans-Avoir
Ekkehard of Aura
Albert of Aachen

Lecture Outline
I. From the Council of Clermont (November 1095) to the Departure of the Popular Crusade
(April/May 1096)
A. Organizing the First Crusade
B. The Role of Peter the Hermit
C. Millenarianism
II. The March to Constantinople, April/May 1096-August 1096
A. Conflict with the Byzantines
B. Massacres of the Jews in the Rhine Valley
III. The Popular Crusade in Asia Minor, August 1096-October 1096
A. Entrapment of Germans at Xerigordon
B. Destruction of the Popular Crusade
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Lecture 5: First Crusade, Part II

Word List
Bishop Adhemar of Le Puy
Raymond of Saint-Gilles, Count of Toulouse
Hugh of Vermandois
Godfrey of Bouillon, Duke of Lorraine
Kilij Arslan, Sultan of Rum
Stephen of Blois
Peter Bartholomew
Peter Desiderius

Lecture Outline
I. Rendezvous at Constantinople
A. Leaders of the First Crusade
B. Byzantine-Crusader Negotiations
II. The March across Asia Minor
A. The Siege of Nicaea, May-June 1097
B. The Siege of Antioch, October 1097-June 1098
III. The Conquest of Jerusalem
A. Delays and Divisions among the Crusaders
B. The Fall of Jerusalem, 15 July 1099
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Lecture 6: Aftermath of the First Crusade

Word List
Tancred (nephew of Bohemond)
Baldwin of Boulogne (brother of Godfrey of Bouillon, count of Edessa, then King Baldwin I of
Pope Paschal II
Treaty of Devol (1108)
Bertram of Saint-Gilles
Haifa (captured 1100)
Sidon (captured 1110)
Tyre (captured 1124)
Baldwin of Le Bourcq (count of Edessa after Baldwin of Boulogne becomes king of Jerusalem)
Jawali (Muslim ruler of Mosul)
Ridwan (Muslim ruler of Aleppo)
Athrib (1110)
Count William II of Nevers
Duke William IX of Aquitaine
Duke Welf IV of Bavaria
Ilghazi (Muslim ruler of Aleppo)
Toghtekin (Muslim ruler of Damascus)
Roger of Salerno (Prince of Antioch)

Lecture Outline
I. Foundation of the Crusader States
A. The County of Edessa
B. The Principality of Antioch
C. The Kingdom of Jerusalem
D. The County of Tripoli
II. Adjustment and Survival in a Foreign Environment
A. The Conquest of the Coast
B. Crusader-Muslim Alliances
C. From Massacre to Recruitment
III. Crusader Setbacks, 1101-1119
A. The Third Wave: The Crusades of 1101
B. Ager sanguinis: The Field of Blood, 1119
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Lecture 7: The Templars and Other Military Orders

Word List
Guiot of Provins
Knights of Saint Lazarus
Daniel of Kiev
Hugh of Payns
Temple of Solomon (al-Aqsa mosque)
Council of Troyes (1129)
Omne datum optimum (1139)
Third Lateran Council (1179)
Saint Bernard of Clairvaux, In Praise of the New Knighthood (1128)
Isaac of ltoile
Walter Map
Crac des Chevaliers

Lecture Outline
I. The Originality of the Military Orders
A. The Fusion of Monasticism and Knighthood
II. Origins and Growth of the Military Orders
A. Problems for Pilgrims and the Creation of the Templars
B. Templar Friends and Foes
C. The Origins of the Hospitallers
III. Structure and Function of the Military Orders
A. Internal Organization
B. Role in the Defense of the Crusader States
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Lecture 8: Crusader States: Institutions

Word List
Arnulf of Chocques
Church of the Holy Sepulchre
Hugh of Le Puiset, Lord of Jaffa

Lecture Outline
I. Secular and Ecclesiastical Institutions in the Crusader States
A. Kingship in the Crusader States
B. The Ecclesiastical Hierarchy
C. Church vs. State in the Kingdom of Jerusalem
II. Feudalism in the Crusader States
A. The Place of Feudalism
B. Variations in Feudal Practice
C. Kings vs. Nobility in the Crusader States
III. The Adoption of Local Institutions

Kings of Jerusalem
- Godfrey of Bouillon, r. 1099-1100 (NB: did not actually use the title of king)
- Baldwin I, aka Baldwin of Boulogne, r. 1100-1118 (younger brother of Godfrey)
- Baldwin II, aka Baldwin of Le Bourcq, r. 11118-1131 (cousin of Baldwin I)
- Fulk (r. 1131-1143) (husband of Melisende, daughter of Baldwin II)
- Baldwin III (r. 1143-1163) (son of Fulk and Melisende)
- Amalric (r. 1163-1174) (brother of Baldwin III)
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Lecture 9: Crusader States: Colonial Societies?

Word List
William of Malmesbury
Council of Nablus, 1120
James of Vitry
Sons of Hernaud

Lecture Outline
I. The Crusades as Colonialism? No
A. International Character
B. Limited Settlement
C. Centrality of Jerusalem
D. Lack of Technological Advantage
II. The Crusades as Colonialism? Yes
A. Legal Inferiority of the Local Population
B. Economic Exploitation of the Local Population
C. The Role of the Italian City-States
III. Crusader Society in the East
A. Crusaders into Pullani
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Lecture 10: Islamic Responses

Word List
Ali ibn Tahir al-Sulami, Kitab al-Jihad (1105)
Abu Saad al Harawi, qadi of Damascus
Fadl ibn al-Khashab, qadi of Aleppo
Mawdud, atabeg of Mosul
Toghtekin, atabeg of Damascus
Battle of Tel-Danith (1115)
Ilghazi, emir of Aleppo (1118-1122)
Imad ad-Din Zengi, atabeg of Mosul (d. 1146)
madrasas (religious schools)
khanqas (hospices for Sufis)
King Fulk of Jerusalem (r. 1131-1143)
Muin al-Din Unur, atabeg of Damascus
Emperor John II (d. 1143)
Emperor Manuel Comnenus
King Baldwin III of Jerusalem (r. 1143-1163)
Kara Arslan, ruler of Diarbekir
Count Joscelin II of Edessa
Saif ad-Din Ghazi, atabeg of Mosul
Nur ad-Din, atabeg of Aleppo

Lecture Outline
I. Islamic Reactions to the First Crusade
A. Apathy and Confusion
B. Calls for jihad
II. The Struggle against the Crusader States
A. Mawdud
B. Ilghazi
III. Zengi
A. Holy Warrior or Opportunist?
B. Wars with Fellow Muslims
C. The Conquest of Edessa
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Lecture 11: The Second Crusade, Part I

Word List
Pope Eugenius III
Quantum praedecessores 1 December 1145/1 March 1146
King Louis VII of France
Bernard of Clairvaux
Conrad III, King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor
Assembly at tampes, 16 February 1147
King Roger II of Sicily
Suger, Abbot of Saint-Denis
Emperor Manuel I Comnenus (r. 1143-1180)
Bertha von Sulzbach
Sultan of Konya
Bishop Otto of Freising

Lecture Outline
I. The Launching of the Second Crusade
A. A False Start: Who Called This Crusade Anyway?
B. The Influence of Bernard of Clairvaux
II. Preparations and Departure
A. Imitating and Learning from the Past
B. Byzantium and the Reception of the Second Crusade
III. The Second Crusade on the March
A. The Journey to Constantinople
B. Conrad III in Asia Minor
C. Louis VII from Constantinople to Antioch, October 1147-March 1148
Page 20 of 38

Lecture 12: The Second Crusade, Part II

Word List
Count Joscelin II of Edessa
Prince Raymond of Antioch
Nur ad-Din, atabeg of Aleppo
Saif ad-Din, atabeg of Mosul
Unur, atabeg of Damascus
Guy of Brisebarre, lord of Beirut
Count Thierry of Flanders
Otto of Freising
Bernard of Clairvaux
Suger of Saint-Denis

Lecture Outline
I. Finale to the Second Crusade
A. Discussions at Antioch, March and April 1148
B. The Crusaders at Jerusalem, May and June 1148
C. The Siege of Damascus, 24-28 July 1148
II. The Blame Game
A. Inscrutable Will of God
B. Blaming Byzantium
C. The Consequence of Failure
III. Nur ad-Din
A. Victories over the Crusaders, 1149-1150
B. Control over Damascus, 1154
C. Nur ad-Dins Convalescence, 1157-1174
IV. The Second Crusade in Central Europe and Spain
A. The Wendish Crusade, 1147
B. The Conquest of Lisbon
Page 21 of 38

Lecture 13: The Crusade in Spain

Word List
Balearic Islands
Las Navas de Tolosa (1212)
King Fernando III of Castile (d. 1252)
King Alfonso X of Castile
Council of Nablus (1120)
Council of Vienne (1311)
Kingdom of Granada
King Fernando II of Aragon (d. 1516)
Queen Isabella of Castile (d. 1504)
Mers el-Kebir

Lecture Outline
I. Spain before the Crusades
II. Crusading Comes to Spain
III. Characteristics of the Spanish Crusades
IV. Society in Crusader Spain
V. From the Land of Three Religions to the Land of One Religion
Page 22 of 38

Lecture 14: The Rise of Saladin

Word List
Nur ad Din (d. 1174)
Saladin (d. 1193)
Abbas, vizier of Egypt
Nasr, son of Abbas
Shawar, vizier of Egypt
Dhirgam, vizier of Egypt (overthrows Shawar)
Shirkuh (Nur ad-Dins representative in Egypt, uncle of Saladin)
Count William IV of Nevers
Al-Adil, brother of Saladin, governor of Aleppo as of 1183
Izz ad-Din, governor of Mosul
Battle of Myriocephalum (1176)
Reynald of Chtillon, aka Reynald of Transjordan, Prince of Antioch

Lecture Outline
I. The Struggle for Egypt, 1153-1169
A. The Conquest of Ascalon, 1153
B. Rapprochement between the Byzantine Empire and the Kingdom of Jerusalem
C. The Invasions of 1163-1164: Deuce
D. The Invasions of 1166-1167: Advantage: Crusaders
E. The Invasions of 1168-1169: Game, Set, Match: Nur ad-Din
II. The Rise of Saladin
A. Fatimid Caliphate Abolished, 1171
B. Saladin as Heir to Nur ad-Din, 1174-1186
C. Problems in the Crusader States: Byzantine Defeat, a Leper-King, and Reynald of Chtillon

More Kings of Jerusalem

- Baldwin III (r. 1143-1163)
- Amalric (r. 1163-1174)
- Baldwin IV (r. 1174-1185)
Page 23 of 38

Lecture 15: The Third Crusade, Part I

Word List
Reynald of Chtillon
Transjordan Audita tremendi
Count Raymond III of Tripoli (1152-1187) King Philip II Augustus
Tiberias King Richard Lionheart
Zippori Emperor Frederick Barbarossa
Horns of Hattin Capetians
Tyre Plantagenets
Conrad of Montferrat Gisors, Normandy
Pope Urban III (d. 1187) Saladin tithe
Pope Gregory VIII (1187) Philippopolis

Lecture Outline
I. Jerusalem Changes Hands
A. The Horns of Hattin, 4 July 1187
B. The Conquest of Jerusalem, September-October 1187
II. The Launching of the Third Crusade
A. Tyre Holds Out
B. Response in the West
C. Organization and Preparation, 1188-1189
III. The Crusade of Frederick Barbarossa
A. Upheaval in Byzantium after 1180
B. Frederick Barbarossa and Isaac Angelus
C. Conrad of Montferrat and King Guy of Jerusalem

Kings of Jerusalem
- King Amalric (1163-1174)
- King Baldwin IV (the leper-king) (1174-1185)
- King Baldwin V (1185-1186) (nephew of Baldwin IV; he is a minor, so the Count of
Tripoli acts as regent for him)
- King Guy of Jerusalem, aka Guy of Lusignan (1186-1190) (married to Sibylla, daughter of
King Amalric and sister of Baldwin IV)

Emperors of Byzantium
- Manuel I (1143-1180)
- Alexius II Comnenus (1180-1183)
- Andronicus I Comnenus (1182-1185) (co-emperor, 1182-1183)
- Isaac Angelus (1185-1195)
Page 24 of 38

Lecture 16: The Third Crusade, Part II

Word List
Conrad of Montferrat
King Guy of Jerusalem
Peter of Blois, Passio Reginaldi (1188 or 1189)
Messina (Sicily)
Al-Adil, brother of Saladin
Al-Afdal, oldest son of Saladin, ruler of Damascus
Al-Aziz, brother of al-Afdal, sultan of Egypt
Az-Zahir, brother of Al-Afdal, ruler of Aleppo

Lecture Outline
I. The Siege of Acre, August 1189-July 1191
A. Stalemate, Suffering, and Sociability
B. Richard Lionheart and Philip II Augustus: Journey and Arrival
C. The Fall of Acre and Its Immediate Aftermath
II. Richard Lionheart and the Quest for Jerusalem, July 1191-September 1192
A. Fighting and Negotiation
B. The Treaty of September, 1192
C. The Death of Saladin, 1193
Page 25 of 38

Lecture 17: The Fourth Crusade, Part I

Word List
Al-Afdal, oldest son of Saladin, ruler of Damascus
Pope Innocent III (r. 1198-1216)
Post miserabile (15 August 1198)
Fulk of Neuilly
Count Theobald of Champagne
Count Louis of Blois
Geoffrey Villehardouin
Count Baldwin of Flanders
Enrico Dandolo, doge of Venice
Marquis Boniface of Montferrat
Philip of Swabia (king of Germany; lord of Boniface of Montferrat; married to Irene, daughter of Isaac
II Angelus, Byzantine Emperor)
Isaac II Angelus (r. 1185-1195, 1203-1204)
Alexius III Angelus (r. 1195-1203)
Alexius the Younger
Robert of Clari

Lecture Outline
I. Calling of the Fourth Crusade
A. Pope Innocent III (r. 1198-1216) Launches the Fourth Crusade
B. Mustering of the Fourth Crusade
C. Negotiations at Venice
II. The Fourth Crusade, From Venice to Constantinople
A. Problems at Venice
B. The Attack on Zara/Zadar, October-November 1202
C. The Diversion to Constantinople: How Did It Happen?
Page 26 of 38

Lecture 18: The Fourth Crusade, Part II

Word List
Martin of Pairis
Nicetas Choniates
Count Baldwin IX of Flanders
Princes of Achaea
Theodore Lascaris (son-in-law of Alexius III Angelus)

Lecture Outline
I. The Fourth Crusade at Constantinople
A. The Flight of Alexius III Angleus: July 1203
B. The Deal Falls Apart: Crusaders vs. Isaac II Angelus and Alexius the Younger, July 1203-
April 1204
C. The Conquest of Constantinople, April 1204
II. Aftermath of the Conquest of Constantinople
A. Foundation of the Latin Empire of Constantinople
B. Survival of the Byzantine Empire
C. End of the Fourth Crusade

Byzantine Emperors
- Isaac II Angelus (1185-1195, co-emperor 1203-1204) (father of Alexius the Younger)
- Alexius III Angelus (1195-1203) (brother of Isaac II Angelus)
- Alexius the Younger, aka Alexius IV Angelus (co-emperor, 1203-1204)
- Alexius V Ducas Mourtzouphlus (1204)
Page 27 of 38

Lecture 19: The Northern Crusades

Word List
Elbe River
Divina dispensatione (13 April 1147)
Non parum animus noster (1171)
Albert of Buxtehude/Albert von Buxhvden (d. 1229)
Meinhard (d. 1196)
Berthold (d. 1198)
Principality of Pskov
Principality of Novgorod
Brothers of the Militia of Christ/Livonia Brothers of the Sword
Teutonic Knights/Order of the Hospital of Saint Mary of the Germans of Jerusalem
Alexander Nevski
Battle of Lake Peipus (1242)

Lecture Outline
I. The Northern Crusades: Distinguishing Characteristics
II. The Wendish Crusade, 1147
A. The Elbe Frontier before the Wendish Crusade
B. Bernard of Clairvaux and The Calling of the Wendish Crusade
C. Failure and Success in the Wendish Crusade
III. The Baltic Crusades
A. Albert of Buxtehude and the Origins of the Baltic Crusades
B. Conquests in the North
C. The Teutonic Knights
Page 28 of 38

Lecture 20: The Albigensian Crusade and the Children's Crusade

Word List
Simon of Montfort
Battle or Muret (1213)
Fourth Lateran Council (1215)
Stephen of Cloyes
Nicholas of Cologne

Lecture Outline
I. The Cathar Heresy and the Background to the Albigensian Crusade
II. The Albigensian Crusade, 1209-1229
III. Was the Children's Crusade a crusade?
IV. The Children's Crusade of 1212: Course and Significance
Page 29 of 38

Lecture 21: Tragedy and Oddity: The Fifth and Sixth Crusades

Word List
Quia maior (1213)
Frederick II Hohenstaufen (d. 1250)
John of Brienne
Pelagius of Albano
stupor mundi
al-Aqsa mosque

Lecture Outline
I. Organizing the Fifth Crusade, 1217-1221
II. Defeat in Egypt
III. Frederick II Hohenstaufen and the Origins of the Sixth Crusade
IV. The Strange Sixth Crusade: Course and Consequences
Page 30 of 38

Lecture 22: The Crusades against the Hohenstaufen (1239-1268) and the Shepherds' Crusades (1251,

Word List
Kingdom of Sicily
Markward of Anweiler
Conrad IV of Germany (d. 1254)
Charles of Anjou
The Sicilian Vespers (1282)
Master of Hungary

Lecture Outline
I. The Crusades against the Hohenstaufen Dynasty, 1239-1268: Regime Change
II. The Sicilian Vespers of 1282
III. The Shepherds' Crusade of 1251
IV. The Shepherds' Crusade of 1320
Page 31 of 38

Lecture 23: The Crusades of King Louis IX

Word List
Battle of La Forbie (1244)
Aigues Mortes
Al-Salih Ayyub
Turan Shah
Robert of Artois
Edward Longshanks
Geoffrey of Sergines
Alice of Cyprus
King Hugh III of Cyprus/I of Jerusalem (d. 1284)
Isabella I of Beirut (d. 1282)
Baibars, Mamluk sultan of Egypt (d. 1277)
Maria of Antioch
Charles of Anjou

Lecture Outline
I. King Louis IX Takes Up the Cross: Origins of the Seventh Crusade
II. Disaster at Mansurah: The Capture of Louis IX
III. The Mamluk Revolt in Egypt (1250)
IV. The Eighth Crusade: King Louis IX Crusades Again
V. Last Decades of the Kingdom of Jerusalem
Page 32 of 38

Lecture 24: Fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem

Word List
Richard Filangieri
Temulin/Genghis Khan (d. 1227)
Baybars (d. 1277)

Lecture Outline
I. Things Fall Apart
A. Hohenstaufen vs. Local Barons, 1228-1268
B. The War of Saint Sabas, 1256-1258
C. Impoverishment of the Nobility of Outremer
II. The End of the Crusader States
A. Defeat at La Forbie, 1244
B. Mamluks and Mongols
C. Baybars and the Crusader States
D. The Final Collapse: 1289 to 1291
Page 33 of 38
Page 34 of 38

Lecture 25: The Crusades and Their Critics

Word List
Peter Comestor (d. 1179)
Roger Bacon (d. 1292)
John Gower, The Confession of the Lover (1390-1393)
Orderic Vitalis
Continuator of La chanson de la croisade albigeoise
Guilhem Figueira
Walter von der Vogelweide
Humbert of Romans, Opus tripartitum

Lecture Outline
I. Crusading Criticized
II. Crusades Criticized
A. Critics of the Albigensian Crusade
B. Critics of the Crusades against the Hohenstaufen Dynasty
C. Criticism and the Second Council of Lyons (1274)
III. Crusading Institutions Criticized
A. Criticism of Military Orders and the Templars
B. The Disbanding of the Templars
Page 35 of 38

Lecture 26: Cultural Contact and Exchange

Word List
Gerhoh of Reichersburg
Guibert of Nogent
William of Malmesbury
Gerald of Cambrai
Peter the Venerable, about of Cluny (d. 1156)
Robert of Ketton
Herman of Dalmatia aka Herman of Carinthia aka Herman the German
Dialogue of Abdia
Humbert of Romans
Gerard of Cremona (d. 1187)
Avicenna/Ibn Sna (d. 1037)
Averroes/Ibn Rushd (d. 1198)
Michael Scot (d. 1236)
Thomas Aquinas (d. 1274), On the Unity of the Intellect against the Averroists
Ibn Hazm (d. 1064), The Doves Neck Ring
Al-Khwarismi (d. c. 850), Arithmetic
Leonardo Fibonacci (d. c. 1250)

Lecture Outline
I. Knowledge of Islam
II. Islamic and Western Philosophy
III. Islamic and Western Literature
IV. The Crusades and Material Culture
V. Mathematics
Page 36 of 38

Lecture 27: Crusade and Mission

Word List
Peter the Venerable, abbot of Cluny, Summary of the Whole Heresy of the Diabolical Sect of the
Saracens (1143-1144)
Isaac of L'toile
Walter Map d. 1209
Ralph Niger d. ca. 1199
James of Vitry
Francis of Assisi (d. 1226)
Oliver of Cologne
Pope Innocent IV (1243-1254)
Francisco de Vitoria, De Indis (c. 1532)

Lecture Outline
I. Mission and Crusade in the Twelfth Century
A. Europes Inferiority Complex
B. Crusade and Mission: Popular Enthusiasm
C. Crusade or Mission: Peter the Venerable and Others
II. Mission and Crusade in the Thirteenth Century: Practice and Theory
A. The Pioneers: James of Vitry and Francis of Assisi
B. Franciscans and Dominicans as Missionaries
C. The Theoretical Justification for Crusade and Mission
Page 37 of 38

Lecture 28: The Legacy of the Crusades, Part I

Word List
Empire of Nicaea
Michael VIII Palaeologus (d. 1282)
Osman (d. c. 1324)
First Battle of Kosovo (1389)
John V Palaelogus (d. 1391)
Battle of Nicoplois (1396)
Battle of Varna (1444)
John Capistrano (d. 1456)

Lecture Outline
I. The Byzantine Empire after 1261
II. The Rise of the Ottoman Turks
III. Byzantine and Western Responses
IV. The Ottoman Conquest of Constantinople, 1453
Page 38 of 38

Lecture 29: The Legacy of the Crusades, Part II

Word List
Quia maior (1213)
Unigenitus (1343)
Hugh of St. Cher
Thomas Aquinas
Council of Vienne (1312)
Sixtus IV
Vincent Ferrer
Robert Grosseteste
Geoffrey Chaucer
John Wyclif
John Tetzel
Martin Luther
Die Totenfresser

Lecture Outline
I. Indulgence Inflation, Thirteenth to Fifteenth Centuries
A. Quia maior (1213): The Watershed
B. Plenary Indulgences and Jubilee Years
C. Theology Follows Practice, Again: The Treasury of Merits
D. Indulgences for the Dead
E. Devotional Indulgences
F. The Economics of Indulgences
II. Backlash and Conflagration
A. Unease before the Protestant Reformation
B. Protestantism and Indulgences