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How to Calculate the Anchorage and Lap Length of Steel Reinforcements

According to Eurocode 2

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Reinforcing bars should be well anchored so that the bond forces are safely transmitted to the concrete
to avoid longitudinal cracking or spalling. Transverse reinforcement shall be provided if necessary.
Types of anchorage
are shown in the gure below (Figure 8.1 EC2).
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For bent bars, the basic tension anchorage length is measured along the centreline of the bar from the
section in question to the end of the bar, where:

lbd = 1 2 3 4 5 lb,req lb,min ------------ (1)

where;
lb,min is the minimum anchorage length taken as follows:
In tension, the greatest of 0.3lb,rqd or 10 or 100mm
In compression, the greatest of 0.6lb,rqd or 10 or 100mm

lb,rqd is the basic anchorage length given by;


lb,rqd = (/4) sd/fbd -------------- (2)

Where;
sd = The design strength in the bar (take 0.87fyk)
fbd = The design ultimate bond stress (for ribbed bars = 2.251 2 fctd)
fctd = Design concrete tensile strength fctd = 0.21fck(2/3) for fck 50 N/mm2
1 is a coe cient related to the quality of the bond condition and the position of the bar during
concreting
1 = 1.0 when good conditions are obtained and
1 = 0.7 for all other cases and for bars in structural elements built with slip-forms, unless it can be
shown that good bond conditions exist
2 is related to the bar diameter:
2 = 1.0 for 32 mm
2 = (132 - )/100 for > 32 mm

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1 is for the e ect of the form of the bars assuming adequate cover.
2 is for the e ect of concrete minimum cover.

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3 is for the e ect of con nement by transverse reinforcement


4 is for the in uence of one or more welded transverse bars ( t > 0.6) along the design anchorage
length lbd
5 is for the e ect of the pressure transverse to the plane of splitting along the design anchorage
length.
The values of these coe cients can be adequately obtained by following the Table below;

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CALCULATION OF LAP LENGTH


The design lap length of reinforcements is given by;
l0 = 1 2 3 5 6 lb,rqd l0,min --------- (3)
l0,min = max{0.36 lb,rqd; 15; 200}

6 = (1/25) but between 1.0 and 1.5


where 1 is the % of reinforcement lapped within 0.65l0 from the centre of the lap

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Values of 1, 2, 3 and 5 may be taken as for the calculation of anchorage length but for the
calculation of 3, Ast,min should be taken as 1.0As(sd/fyd), with As = area of one lapped bar.

SOLVED EXAMPLE FOR ANCHORAGE LENGTH


Calculate the design tension anchorage length of X16mm bar (fyk = 460 N/mm2, concrete cover = 35mm,
Concrete cylinder strength fck = 25 N/mm2) for;

(a) When it is a straight bar


(b) When it is bent into any other shape
Assume good bond conditions

Solution
lbd = 1 2 3 4 5 lb,req lb,min
lb,rqd = (/4) sd/fbd
fbd =2.251 2 fctd
1 = 1.0 Good bond conditions
2 = 1.0 bar size 32

fctd = (ct fctk 0.05)/c --------------- (3)


where;
fctk 0.05 = characteristic tensile strength of concrete at 28 days = 1.8 N/mm2 (Table 3.1 EC2)
c = partial (safety) factor for concrete = 1.5
ct = coe cient taking account of long-term e ects on the tensile strength, this is an NDP with a
recommended value of 1.

fctd = (1.0 1.8)/1.5 = 1.2 N/mm2


fbd = 2.25 1.0 1.0 1.2 = 2.7 N/mm2

lb,rqd = (/4) sd/fbd


sd = 0.87 460 = 400.2 N/mm2>br/> lb,rqd = ( 400.2 )/(4 2.7) = 37.05

Therefore;

lbd = 1 2 3 4 5(37.05)

(a) For straight bar


1 = 1.0
2 = 1.0 0.15 (Cd )/
2 = 1.0 0.15 (35 16)/16 = 0.8218
3 = 1.0 conservative value with K = 0
4 = 1.0 N/A
5 = 1.0 conservative value

lbd = 0.8218 (37.05) = 30.4 = 30.4 16 = 486.4 mm


Say 500mm

(b) For other shape bar


1 = 1.0 bCd; = 35 is 3 = 3 16 = 48
2 = 1.0 0.15 (Cd 3)/ 1.0
2 = 1.0 0.15 (35 48)/16 = 1.121 1.0
3 = 1.0 conservative value with K = 0
4 = 1.0 N/A
5 = 1.0 conservative value
lbd = 1.0 (37.05) = 37.05 = 37.05 16 = 592 mm
Say 600mm

Compression anchorage (1 = 2 = 3 = 4 = 5 = 1.0)


lbd = 37.05

For poor bond conditions


Anchorage for Poor bond conditions = Good/0.7

Example on calculation of lap length of 4X16mm bars of a column in a multi-storey building


Since the bars are in compression,
1235 = 1.0
As calculated above, lbd = 37.05

Let us say that over 50% of reinforcement is lapped within 0.65l0 from the centre of the lap
Hence, we will take 6 = 1.5

Lap length therefore = 1.5 37.05 = 55.57 = 55.57 16 = 889.2mm


Say 900 mm

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