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Effects of GMOs

By Madysen Buckley, Nate Lyon, Jaiden Peters-Burke, Xavier Crumel, and

Tanya Meneses
What is a GMO?
Stands for Genetically Modified Organism

Can be found in Foods, Animals, and within the


Created over 10,000 years ago

Made by cross breeding/ selective breeding

Many common household foods are GMOs

Made to help improve agriculture

How GMOs affect habitat
The World Health Organization defines a GMO as an organisms whose DNA has

been altered in a non-natural way.

Currently 60%-70% of food in the U.S. are classified under GMO.

GMOs are used for

Herbicide tolerance

Virus resistance

Faster maturation (agriculture based)

How GMOs affect habitat
Environmental Factors
Pesticides affecting water

18% of land in the U.S is used for farming purposes

26% of it used for pastures

GMOs affect
How GMOs affects habitat
According to the Institute for Responsible
Technology, "Genetically modified foods have been
linked to toxic and allergic reactions, sick, sterile
and dead livestock, and damage to virtually every
organ studied in lab animals.
On the upside, biotech crops can help make
farming more profitable, boosting the economy
As well as helping with safety conditions regarding farmers,
and even help with the biological understanding of plants.
Effects of G.M.O.s on The Economy
Genetically modified crops are extremely costly to produce, which makes them
unavailable for most farmers
Many consumer groups believe by placing a patent on G.M. Crops the price of seeds
can be regulated for the benefit of the distributor
Many third world countries would most likely be unable to afford and mass
produce/harvest these types of crops
If first world nations were to increase the cost of G.M. Crops making them
unaffordable for many third world nations it is believed that the economic divide
between them would significantly increase
Are World Economies Ready For GMOs?
Genetically modified crops are extremely promising on paper. They have the ability to cure
the issue of plant disease and also contain the ability to grow in less favorable weather
conditions. The downside to this is that the process of creating genetically modified crop is
very expensive and in most third world countries where their agriculture mainly consists of
small rural farmers, genetically modified crops would be practically impossible to afford.
Recent studies have shown that constant consumption of genetically modified crops has led
to health conditions/concerns such as cancer. Genetically modified crops also have been
known to kill other species of plants and pests therefore, upsetting the ecosystem. The
process of reversing the damage of genetically modified crops on ecosystems and individuals
proves to be very challenging. Reversing the effects would most likely have a negative effect
on most economies.
Pros and Cons of GMOs on The Economy
Genetically modified organisms would be able to grow in less favorable weather conditions allowing for a
more consistent crop yield and the generation of steady profits
Genetically modified organisms can be insect/disease resistant also allowing a consistent crop yield
Genetically modified crops can allow for different types of plant species to be grown in habitats they
previously could not, therefore, allowing an area to generate profit off of a new food/product

Genetically modified crops have led to cancer in recent studies which would greatly affect the economy
Genetically modified crops are very un-affordable making it hard for third world nations in need to
purchase/produce the crops
Genetically modified crops can cross pollinate affecting other crops therefore destroying other forms of
How GMOs affect the Human Body
GMOs have been used for quite some time now but its still a little too early to say we
know if its safe enough for the human body
We have studied that GMOs leave certain material behind in our system which has
factors that can cause long-term effects
Alana Marie Burke a person who studies the field of health said GMOs can transfer
into the DNA of bacteria living inside us, and that the toxic insecticide produced by
GM corn was found in the blood of pregnant women and their unborn fetuses."
This is an example of a long-term effect that can hurt the health of humans and even
How GMOs affect the Human Body
Some other studies have shown that GMOs has poisonous substances as well and also
can cause kidney failure, tumors, and inflammatory disorders
This especially happens to animals such as cows and rats
Results of rats being tested in the past have been marked positive for tumors.
But, besides the point, if GMOs affect animals, there is still a possible is can mess
with genetical DNA of humans thus creating defects
How GMOs affect the Environment?
Genetically modified plants are modified to be insect resistant, virus resistant, or
herbicide tolerant.
Changes like this to plants can cause harmful change to the environment. Like :
Toxicity in the surrounding areas of GMOs being used.
Bugs and Insects populations changes drastically.
The Biodiversity is put at risk.
Many of these factors are jeopardized and they all
affect the environment in some way.
How GMOs affect the Environment?
Toxicity is a big problem that comes with using GMOs.

The toxicity in the GMOs brings chemical pesticides and

herbicides, which affect insects like butterflies and

bees, being the most talked about insects.

Its not just these two insects that are at risk with toxicity brought by GMOs. many

animals which are important in our ecosystem and environment are affected.
How GMOs affect the Environment?
Biodiversity is while it is critical in all ecosystems and to the sustainability of all
species, is put at risk by GMOs as OneGreenPlanet puts it. Biodiversity is the variety
of life in the world or in a particular habitat or ecosystem, if you may not know. What
is affected by GMOs in our biodiversity:

Toxic residue is left behind with the use of GMOs, which

takes away the nutrients in the soil and in the crops.
Mostly everything is dependent against each other in the environme-
nt so other things are affected.
Early Human Gene Selection
To date, scientists have engineered bacteria that produce medication-grade drugs,
crops with built-in pesticides, and beagles that glow in the dark. While these are all
relatively recent advances in scientific technology, humans have been altering the
genetics of organisms for over 30,000 years. Humans have only been extensively
modifying organisms for about fifty years. Before that, People have been selectively
breeding crops and animals with the best traits. The transformation of wolves to
modern day dogs is one example. GMOs are simply a more extensive way to select
and or edit genes.
The GMO Issue
GMOs are the issue it is today mainly because of how the european population
responded to its marketing. Originally they were widely accepted in america, and had
no restrictions whatsoever. When companies tried to transfer this product type to
Europe, but their scientists investigated and found more long term problems. They
found that GMOs cause cancer in their test subjects, and then they continued to
openly protest the use of its as food. As time went on and GMOs advanced, more
people grew opposed to it for a variety of reasons.
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