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16th Edition

Electrical Sector December 2015

Consulting Application Guide


15 th Edition
Consulting
Application
Guide
Eaton Corporation
Electrical Sector
1111 Superior Ave.
Cleveland, OH 44114
United States
877-ETN-CARE (877-386-2273)
Eaton.com

2011 Eaton Corporation


All other trademarks are property
of their respective owners.
All Rights Reserved
Printed in USA
Publication No. CA08104001E
September 2011
2015 Consulting Application Guide
October 2015 Contents
Sheet 00 001

i Introduction 22 Panelboards

Technical Lighting Control Systems


Discussion 1 Power Distribution Systems Low 23 Pow-R-Command
Voltage
Power Management Distribution BuswayPow-R-Way III
2 Connectivity & Monitoring Equipment 24 Low Voltage
Power
Management 3 Advanced & Electronic Metering 25 Transfer Switches
Products
Power Circuit Breakers &
Medium Voltage 4 Protective and Predictive Relays 26 Insulated-Case Circuit Breakers
Switchgear Circuit
Selector Guide Metal-Clad SwitchgearVacClad-W Breakers Molded-Case Circuit Breakers
5 Medium Voltage Drawout Vacuum Breakers & Safety 27 & Enclosures
Switches
Metal-Enclosed SwitchgearMEF Front-Access Switching Devices
6 Medium Voltage Drawout Vacuum Breakers 28 Low Voltage
Metal-Enclosed SwitchgearMEB & MSB Motor Control Centers
7 Medium Voltage Vacuum Breakers 29 Low Voltage
Metal-Enclosed SwitchgearMVS Medium Motor Starters &
Medium 8 Voltage Load Interrupter Fusible Switch 30 ContactorsLow Voltage
Control
Voltage
Products Adjustable Frequency Drives
Equipment 9 FusesMedium Voltage 31 Low Voltage
Motor Starters (AMPGARD) Control/GF/Current & Voltage Relays
10 Medium Voltage 32 & Pilot Devices

11 BuswayMedium Voltage 33 Uninterruptible Power Supplies

Power Surge Protection (SPD) &


Medium Voltage 12 Transfer SwitchesMedium Voltage
Quality 34 Power Conditioning Products
Transformer
Selector Guide Primary Unit Substations Power Factor Capacitors
13 Secondary 1000V & Above 35 & Harmonic Filters
Secondary Unit Substations
14 Secondary Below 1000V 36 Resistance Grounding Systems

Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment


15 Unitized Power Centers 37 (No Longer Available)
Unit
Substations & 16 Substation Transformers 38 Coordinated Electrical Houses
Transformers
Solar (PV)
17 Pad-Mounted Transformers 39 Systems Interconnect
Cat Generator Paralleling
18 Spot Network Equipment 40 Switchgear
Distribution Dry-Type Power System Studies
19 TransformersLow Voltage
41 & Field Services
Metal-Enclosed Drawout
Low 20 SwitchgearLow Voltage
Voltage
Distribution
Equipment 21 SwitchboardsLow Voltage

CA08104001E For more information, visit: www.eaton.com/consultants


2015 Consulting Application Guide
Copyright October 2015
Sheet 00 002

Dimensions, Weights and Ratings


Dimensions, weights and ratings given in this catalog are approximate and should not
be used for construction purposes. Drawings containing exact dimensions are available
upon request. All listed product specifications and ratings are subject to change without
notice. Photographs are representative of production units.

ANSI Voltage Classifications


Please note that in the text of the Consulting Application Guide, the term low voltage
generally refers to system voltages of 1000 volts and lower. The term medium voltage
generally refers to system voltages of 1000 volts and up to 38 kV.

Terms and Conditions


Individual product list prices are published in Eatons Price and Availability Digest (PAD).
All orders accepted by Eaton are subject to the general terms and conditions as set
forth in Selling Policy SP03000001E.

Technical and Descriptive Publications


This publication contains technical data for the proper selection of many products
and systems. It may not cover all product details and/or application considerations.
Additional information is available in the form of technical information publications
and illustrated brochures. If additional product information is required, contact your
local Eaton field salesperson or distributor, call 1-800-525-2000 or visit our website
at www.eaton.com.

Compliance with Nuclear Regulation 10 CFR 21


Eaton products are sold as commercial grade products not intended for application
in facilities or activities licensed by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission
for atomic purposes, under 10 CFR 21. Further certification will be required for use of
these products in a safety-related application in any nuclear facility licensed by the
U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

WARNING
The installation and use of Eaton products should be in accordance with the provisions
of the U.S. National Electrical Code and/or other local codes or industry standards that
are pertinent to the particular end use. Installation or use not in accordance with these
codes and standards could be hazardous to personnel and/or equipment.
CAT, Caterpillar, its respective logos and Caterpillar Yellow, as well as corporate and
product identity used herein, are trademarks of Caterpillar and may not be used without
permission.

These catalog pages do not purport to cover all details or variations in equipment, nor to provide
for every possible contingency to be met in connection with installation, operation or maintenance.
Should further information be desired or should particular problems arise which are not covered
sufficiently for the purchasers purposes, the matter should be referred to the local Eaton products
distributor or sales office. The contents of this catalog shall not become part of or modify any
prior or existing agreement, commitment or relationship. The sales contract contains the entire
obligation of Eatons Electrical Sector. The warranty contained in the contract between the parties
is the sole warranty of Eaton. Any statements contained herein do not create new warranties or
modify the existing warranty.

Copyright 2015 Eaton, All Rights Reserved

For more information, visit: www.eaton.com/consultants CA08104001E


Introduction i-1
October 2015
Sheet i 001

Welcome New Features of the Consulting i


Welcome to the 16th Edition of the Consulting Application Application Guide16th Edition
Guide. This document is designed to assist an electrical
The 16th Edition of the Consulting Application Guide ii
consultant or a power system design engineer in the layout
contains many new products, services and application-
and specification of equipment. In this expanded edition,
specific information. The Power Distribution Systems tab
you will find complete details on our extensive line of
distribution, control and power quality products and
has been updated, and the entire book has been organized to 1
make it easy to locate items. It is a reference guide that
services. Please be sure to browse the various sections
should be on your bookshelf so that as questions arise, you
to gain a sense of Eatons overall capabilities.
can quickly locate the data and pass it on to your customers 2
The 16th Edition of the Consulting Application Guide is or clients. We have included two brand new sections in this
currently available in electronic format onlyaccessed via edition, one for solar (PV) systems and another dedicated
www.eaton.com/consultants or from our PowerEdge app to electrical vehicle supply equipment. Detailing Eatons 3
available in the Apple app store. We created this guide offering in these areas, these new sections show how Eaton
to make it easy for you to do business with us to and meet is innovating new products to meet the new power and
your various needs. infrastructure demands of the world. 4
Contents Page
Eaton is a Global Leader in Power 5
Similar to the 15th Edition, we have grouped the contents
Distribution, Power Quality, Control page to allow you to easily find products that share similar
and Automation, and Monitoring Products electrical characteristics and/or applications. These
6
groupings include:
At Eaton, we believe that a reliable, efficient and safe power
Power management products
system is the foundation of every successful enterprise.
Through innovative technologies, cutting-edge products and Medium voltage equipment 7
our highly skilled services team, we empower businesses Unit substations and transformers
around the world to achieve a powerful advantage. Low voltage distribution equipment
8
In addition, Eaton is committed to creating and maintaining Circuit breakers and safety switches
powerful customer relationships built on a foundation of Control products
excellence. From the products we manufacture to our Power quality products 9
dedicated customer service and support, we know whats
important to you.
10
Solutions
Eaton takes the complexity out of power systems
management with a holistic and strategic approach,
11
leveraging our industry-leading technology, solutions
and services. We focus on the following three areas in
all that we do:
12
Reliabilitymaintain the appropriate level of power
continuity without disruption or unexpected downtime 13
Efficiencyminimize energy usage, operating costs,
equipment footprint and environmental impact 14
Safetyidentify and mitigate electrical hazards to protect
what you value most
15
Our new guide shows the breadth of our combined power
distribution, control, quality and management product
offerings. Also included are tabs dedicated to our engineer- 16
ing services operation. You may select with confidence
from the products for residential, commercial and industrial
power distribution and control. While Eaton celebrates its 17
100th year, our heritage is rich with more than 200 years of
innovation and leadership from acquisitions and legendary
brands. This experience has resulted in many innovations 18
in distribution and industrial control productseach
incorporating leading-edge technology to provide the
highest value to our customers. Our engineers and scientists 19
are recognized throughout the industry and around the
world as experts in a wide range of disciplines including:
photoelectric optical technology, arc interruption, vacuum 20
technology, digital and analog electronics, communications
technology and the application of power semiconductors.
21

CA08104001E For more information, visit: www.eaton.com/consultants


i-2 Introduction
October 2015
Sheet i 002

i Updated Information Eaton


Currently, the printed 15th edition of the Consulting Eaton is dedicated to ensuring that reliable, efficient
Application Guide is currently out of date. Please refer and safe power is available when its needed most. With
ii our website at www.eaton.com/consultants for the most unparalleled knowledge of electrical power management
up-to-date version. You can also access up-to-date informa- across industries, experts at Eaton deliver customized,
tion via our PowerEdge application available on the Apple app integrated solutions to solve our customers most critical
1 store. Also on this page, users will find product spotlights, challenges.
hot topic coverage, technical papers, listings of Launch and
Learn presentations, newsletters and training materials. Our focus is on delivering the right solution for the
2 Please visit this Consultant Resource Page and bookmark application. But, decision makers demand more than
it in your browser. Refer back to this page to stay current on just innovative products. They turn to Eaton for an
Eatons electrical business. unwavering commitment to personal support that makes
3 customer success a top priority. For more information,
visit www.eaton.com/electrical.
Delivering the Promise of Power
4 Through the Power of Information
Theres no doubt about it: Accurate product and application
5 information makes for better decisions, better systems and
satisfied customers. Thats why weve completely revised
and updated the 16th Edition of the Consulting Application
6 Guide. This volume is your point-of-entry, your touchstone
and your guide to the most innovative products and support
services in the business.
7
Comments?
E-mail: marketingsupportEG@eaton.com
8 Or write: Eaton Corporation
1000 Cherrington Parkway
Moon Township, PA 15108-4312
9 Attn: Catalog Department

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For more information, visit: www.eaton.com/consultants CA08104001E


Power Distribution Systems 1.0-1
April 2016
Sheet 01 001

Power Distribution
Systems
Contents i
Power Distribution Systems Suggested Ground
System Design Fault Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4-6 ii
Basic Principles. . . . . . . . . . . 1.1-1 Grounding/Ground Fault Protection
Modern Electric Power GroundingEquipment,
Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1-1 System, MV System, 1
Goals of System Design . . . 1.1-2 LV System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4-9
Voltage Classifications; BILs Ground Fault Protection . . . . 1.4-11
Basic Impulse Levels . . . . . 1.1-3 Lightning and Surge 2
Three-Phase Transformer Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4-14
Winding Connections . . . . 1.1-5 Grounding Electrodes . . . . . 1.4-14
Types of SystemsRadial, MV Equipment Surge 3
Loop, Selective, Two-Source, Protection Considerations . 1.4-14
Sparing Transformer, Spot Surge Protection . . . . . . . . . . 1.4-14
Network, Distribution . . . . 1.1-6
4
Types of Surge
Health Care Facility Protection Devices . . . . . . . 1.4-15
Design Considerations . . . 1.1-15 Power Quality 5
Generator Systems . . . . . . 1.1-18 Terms, Technical Overview . . 1.4-18
Generator System Design SPD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4-19
Types of Generators. . . . . . . 1.2-1 Harmonics and 6
Generator Systems . . . . . . . 1.2-2 Nonlinear Loads . . . . . . . . . 1.4-21
Generator Grounding. . . . . . 1.2-3 UPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4-25
Generator Controls. . . . . . . . 1.2-4 Other Application Considerations
7
Generator Short-Circuit Secondary Voltage . . . . . . . . 1.4-31
Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . 1.2-4
Generator Protection . . . . . . 1.2-5
Energy Conservation . . . . . . 1.4-32 8
Building Control Systems . . 1.4-33
System Analysis Distributed Energy
Systems Analysis . . . . . . . . . 1.3-1 Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4-33 9
Short-Circuit Currents . . . . . 1.3-2 Cogeneration . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4-33
Fault Current Waveform PV System Design
Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3-3 Considerations . . . . . . . . . . 1.4-34 10
Fault Current Calculations Emergency Power. . . . . . . . . 1.4-35
and Methods Index . . . . . . 1.3-4 Peak Shaving. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4-36
Determine X and R from 11
Sound Levels. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4-36
Transformer Loss Data . . . 1.3-19
Reference Data
Voltage Drop
Considerations . . . . . . . . . . 1.3-20
IEEE Protective Relay 12
Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5-1
System Application Considerations
Codes and Standards . . . . . . 1.5-6
Capacitors and
Motor Protective 13
Power Factor . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4-1
Device Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5-7
Overcurrent Protection Chart of Short-Circuit
and Coordination . . . . . . . . 1.4-3 Currents for Transformers . . 1.5-9 14
Protection of Conductors. . . 1.4-5 Transformer Full Load
Circuit Breaker Cable Amperes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5-10
Temperature Ratings . . . . . 1.4-5 Impedances Data . . . . . . . . . 1.5-11
15
Zone Selective Interlocking . 1.4-5 Transformer Losses . . . . . . . 1.5-12
Ground Fault Protection . . . 1.4-6 Power Equipment Losses . . . 1.5-13 16
NEMA Enclosure Definitions. . 1.5-13
Cable R, X, Z Data . . . . . . . . . 1.5-15
Conductor Ampacities . . . . . 1.5-17 17
Conductor Temperature
Ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5-17
Formulas and Terms. . . . . . . 1.5-20
18
Seismic Requirements . . . . . 1.5-21
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Designing a Distribution System
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CA08104001E For more information, visit: www.eaton.com/consultants


1.0-2 Power Distribution Systems
April 2016
Sheet 01 002

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For more information, visit: www.eaton.com/consultants CA08104001E


Power Distribution Systems 1.1-1
April 2016 System Design
Sheet 01 003

Basic Principles The basic principles or factors requiring Modern Electric Power i
consideration during design of the
The best distribution system is one power distribution system include: Technologies
that will, cost-effectively and safely,
Functions of structure, present Several new factors to consider in ii
supply adequate electric service to
and future modern power distribution systems
both present and future probable
Life and flexibility of structure result from two relatively recent
loadsthis section is included to aid
in selecting, designing and installing Locations of service entrance and
changes. The first recent change is 1
utility deregulation. The traditional
such a system. distribution equipment, locations
dependence on the utility for problem
and characteristics of loads,
The function of the electric power locations of unit substations
analysis, energy conservation mea- 2
distribution system in a building or surements and techniques, and a
Demand and diversity factors simplified cost structure for electricity
an installation site is to receive power
of loads
at one or more supply points and
Sources of power; including
has changed. The second change is less 3
to deliver it to the individual lamps, obvious to the designer yet will have
motors and all other electrically normal, standby and emergency an impact on the types of equipment
operated devices. The importance (see Tab 40) and systems being designed. It is the 4
of the distribution system to the Continuity and quality of diminishing quantity of qualified build-
function of a building makes it almost power available and required ing electrical operators, maintenance
imperative that the best system be (see Tab 33) departments and facility engineers. 5
designed and installed. Energy efficiency and management Modern electric power technologies
In order to design the best distribution Distribution and utilization voltages may be of use to the designer and
system, the system design engineer Bus and/or cable feeders building owner in addressing these
6
must have information concerning the Distribution equipment and new challenges. The advent of micro-
loads and a knowledge of the various processor devices (smart devices)
types of distribution systems that are
motor control
into power distribution equipment has
7
Power and lighting panelboards
applicable. The various categories of expanded facility owners options and
and motor control centers
capabilities, allowing for automated
buildings have many specific design
challenges, but certain basic principles Types of lighting systems communication of vital power system
8
are common to all. Such principles, Installation methods information (both energy data and
system operation information) and
if followed, will provide a soundly Power monitoring systems
electrical equipment control.
9
executed design. Electric utility requirements
These technologies may be grouped as:
10
Power monitoring and control
Building management systems
interfaces 11
Lighting control
Automated energy management
12
Predictive diagnostics
Various sections of this guide cover
the application and selection of such 13
systems and components that may be
incorporated into the power equipment
being designed. See Tabs 2, 3, 4, 23 14
and 41.
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CA08104001E For more information, visit: www.eaton.com/consultants


1.1-2 Power Distribution Systems
System Design April 2016
Sheet 01 004

i Goals of System Design 2. Minimum Initial Investment: 4. Maximum Flexibility and


The owners overall budget for Expendability: In many industrial
When considering the design of an first cost purchase and installation manufacturing plants, electrical
electrical distribution system for of the electrical distribution sys- utilization loads are periodically
ii a given customer and facility, the tem and electrical utilization relocated or changed requiring
electrical engineer must consider equipment will be a key factor changes in the electrical distribu-
alternate design approaches that in determining which of various tion system. Consideration of
1 best fit the following overall goals. alternate system designs are to be the layout and design of the
selected. When trying to minimize electrical distribution system to
1. Safety: The No. 1 goal is to design initial investment for electrical accommodate these changes must
2 a power system that will not equipment, consideration should be considered. For example, pro-
present any electrical hazard to be given to the cost of installation, viding many smaller transformers
the people who use the facility, floor space requirements and or loadcenters associated with a
3 and/or the utilization equipment possible extra cooling require- given area or specific groups of
fed from the electrical system. ments as well as the initial machinery may lend more flexibility
It is also important to design a purchase price. for future changes than one large
4 system that is inherently safe for transformer; the use of plug-in
the people who are responsible for 3. Maximum Service Continuity: busways to feed selected equip-
electrical equipment maintenance The degree of service continuity ment in lieu of conduit and wire
5 and upkeep. and reliability needed will vary may facilitate future revised
depending on the type and use equipment layouts.
The National Electrical Code of the facility as well as the loads
6 (NEC), NFPA 70 and NFPA 70E, or processes being supplied by the In addition, consideration must be
as well as local electrical codes, electrical distribution system. For given to future building expansion,
provide minimum standards and example, for a smaller commercial and/or increased load require-
7 requirements in the area of wiring office building, a power outage ments due to added utilization
design and protection, wiring of considerable time, say several equipment when designing the
methods and materials, as well hours, may be acceptable, whereas electrical distribution system.
8 as equipment for general use with in a larger commercial building or In many cases considering trans-
the overall goal of providing safe industrial plant only a few minutes formers with increased capacity
electrical distribution systems may be acceptable. In other facilities or fan cooling to serve unexpected
9 and equipment. such as hospitals, many critical loads as well as including spare
The NEC also covers minimum loads permit a maximum of additional protective devices and/
requirements for special 10 seconds outage and certain or provision for future addition of
10 occupancies including hazardous loads, such as real-time computers, these devices may be desirable.
locations and special use type cannot tolerate a loss of power for Also to be considered is increasing
facilities such as health care even a few cycles. appropriate circuit capacities or
11 facilities, places of assembly, Typically, service continuity and
quantities for future growth.
theaters and the like, and the reliability can be increased by: Power monitoring communication
equipment and systems located in systems connected to electronic
12 these facilities. Special equipment A. Supplying multiple utility power metering can provide the trending
and special conditions such as sources or services. and historical data necessary for
emergency systems, standby
13 systems and communication
B. Supplying multiple connection future capacity growth.
paths to the loads served.
systems are also covered in
the code. C. Using short-time rated power
14 circuit breakers.
It is the responsibility of the design
engineer to be familiar with the D. Providing alternate customer-
15 NFPA and NEC code requirements owned power sources such as
as well as the customers facility, generators or batteries supplying
process and operating procedures; uninterruptable power supplies.
16 to design a system that protects
personnel from live electrical E. Selecting the highest quality elec-
conductors and uses adequate trical equipment and conductors.
17 circuit protective devices that will F. Using the best installation methods.
selectively isolate overloaded or
faulted circuits or equipment as G. Designing appropriate system
18 quickly as possible. alarms, monitoring and diagnostics.
H. Selecting preventative mainte-
19 nance systems or equipment to
alarm before an outage occurs.

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Power Distribution Systems 1.1-3
April 2016 System Design
Sheet 01 005

5. Maximum Electrical Efficiency 7. Maximum Power Quality: Coupled with this information, a
(Minimum Operating Costs): The power input requirements knowledge of the major types of electric i
Electrical efficiency can generally of all utilization equipment has power distribution systems equips the
be maximized by designing to be considered including the engineers to arrive at the best system
systems that minimize the losses acceptable operating range of design for the particular building. ii
in conductors, transformers and the equipment and the electrical
utilization equipment. Proper distribution system has to be It is beyond the scope of this guide to
voltage level selection plays a designed to meet these needs. present a detailed discussion of loads 1
key factor in this area and will For example, what is the required that might be found in each of several
be discussed later. Selecting input voltage, current, power types of buildings. Assuming that the
equipment, such as transformers, factor requirement? Consider- design engineer has assembled the 2
with lower operating losses, ation to whether the loads are necessary load data, the following
generally means higher first cost affected by harmonics (multiples pages discuss some of the various
and increased floor space require- of the basic 60 Hz sine wave) or types of electrical distribution systems 3
ments; thus, there is a balance generate harmonics must be taken that can be used. The description of
to be considered between the into account as well as transient types of systems, and the diagrams
owners utility energy change voltage phenomena. used to explain the types of systems 4
for the losses in the transformer on the following pages omits the
or other equipment versus the The above goals are interrelated location of utility revenue metering
owners first cost budget and and in some ways contradictory. equipment for clarity. A discussion of 5
cost of money. As more redundancy is added to short-circuit calculations, coordination,
the electrical system design along voltage selection, voltage drop, ground
6. Minimum Maintenance Cost: with the best quality equipment fault protection, motor protection and 6
Usually the simpler the electrical to maximize service continuity, other specific equipment protection
system design and the simpler flexibility and expandability, and is also presented.
the electrical equipment, the less power quality, the more initial 7
the associated maintenance costs investment and maintenance
and operator errors. As electrical are increased. Thus, the designer
Voltage Classifications
systems and equipment become must weigh each factor based ANSI and IEEE standards define 8
more complicated to provide on the type of facility, the loads various voltage classifications for
greater service continuity or to be served, the owners past single-phase and three-phase systems.
flexibility, the maintenance costs experience and criteria. The terminology used divides voltage 9
and chance for operator error classes into:
increases. The systems should be Summary
designed with an alternate power It is to be expected that the engineer Low voltage 10
circuit to take electrical equipment will never have complete load infor- Medium voltage
(requiring periodic maintenance) mation available when the system is High voltage
out of service without dropping designed. The engineer will have to Extra-high voltage
11
essential loads. Use of drawout expand the information made avail-
type protective devices such as Ultra-high voltage
able to him on the basis of experience
breakers and combination starters with similar problems. Of course, it Table 1.1-1 presents the nominal system
12
can also minimize maintenance is desirable that the engineer has as voltages for these classifications.
cost and out-of-service time. much definite information as possible
Utilizing sealed equipment in concerning the function, requirements,
13
lieu of ventilated equipment may and characteristics of the utilization
minimize maintenance costs and devices. The engineer should know
out-of-service time as well. whether certain loads function
14
separately or together as a unit, the
magnitude of the demand of the loads
viewed separately and as units, the rated
15
voltage and frequency of the devices,
their physical location with respect
to each other and with respect to the
16
source and the probability and possi-
bility of the relocation of load devices 17
and addition of loads in the future.

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1.1-4 Power Distribution Systems
System Design April 2016
Sheet 01 006

Table 1.1-1. Standard Nominal System Table 1.1-4. Pad Mounted and Overhead Table 1.1-6. Dry-Type Transformers Voltage
i Voltages and Voltage Ranges Distribution Switchgear, Voltage and and Basic Lightning Impulse Insulation
(From IEEE Standard 141-1993) Insulation Levels Levels (BIL)From ANSI/IEEE C57.12.01-1998)
Voltage Nominal System Voltage Rated Maximum Impulse Nominal BIL (kV Crest) 2
ii Class Three-Wire Four-Wire Voltage Level (kV rms) Withstand (kV) System
Pad Mount Switchgear (per IEEE C37.74-2014) Voltage
Low 240/120 208Y/120 (kV rms)
15.5 95
1 voltage 240
480
240/120
480Y/277
27 125 1.2 10 20 30
38 150 2.5 20 30 45
600
Overhead Switchgear (per IEEE C37.60-2012) 5.0 30 45 60
2 Medium
voltage
2400
4160
4160Y/2400
8320Y/4800 15 95
8.7 45 60 95

4800 12000Y/6930 15.5 110 15.0 60 95 110


6900 12470Y/7200 27 125 25.0 95 3 110 125 150
3 13,200 13200Y/7620 38 150
34.5 125 3 150 200
13,800 13800Y/7970 2 BIL values in bold typeface are listed as
38 170
23,000 20780Y/12000 standard. Others listed are in common use.
4 34,500
46,000
22860Y/13200
24940Y/14400 Table 1.1-5. Liquid-Immersed
Optional higher levels used where exposure
to overvoltage occurs and higher protection
69,000 34500Y/19920 Transformers Voltage and Basic margins are required.
High 115,000
Lightning Impulse Insulation Levels (BIL) 3 Lower levels where surge arrester
5 voltage 138,000 (From ANSI/IEEE C57.12.00) protective devices can be applied with
161,000 Applica- Nominal BIL lower spark-over levels.
230,000 tion System (kV Crest) 1
6 Extra-high 345,000 Voltage Voltage Recommendations by
voltage 500,000 (kV rms)
765,000
Motor Horsepower
Distribu- 1.2 30
7 Ultra-high 1,100,000 tion 2.5 45
Some factors affecting the selection
voltage 5.0 60
of motor operating voltage include:
8.7 75 Motor, motor starter and cable
8 BILBasic Impulse Levels 15.0 95 first cost
25.0 150 125
ANSI standards define recommended Motor, motor starter and cable
and required BIL levels for: 34.5 200 150 125
9 46.0 250 200
installation cost
Metal-clad switchgear 69.0 350 250 Motor and cable losses
(typically vacuum breakers) Power 1.2 45 30 Motor availability
10 Metal-enclosed switchgear (typically 2.5 60 45
Voltage drop
5.0 75 60
load interrupters, switches) Qualifications of the building
8.7 95 75
Pad-mounted and overhead operating staff; and many more
11 distribution switchgear
15.0 110 95
25.0 150
The following table is based in part
Liquid immersed transformers 34.5 200
on the above factors and experience.
12 Dry-type transformers 46.0
69.0
250
350
200
250

Because all the factors affecting the
Table 1.1-2 through Table 1.1-6 contain 115.0 550 450 350
selection are rarely known, it is only
an approximate guideline.
13 those values. 138.0
161.0
650
750
550
650
450
550
Table 1.1-2. Metal-Clad Switchgear Table 1.1-7. Selection of Motor Horsepower
230.0 900 825 750 650 Ratings as a Function of System Voltage
Voltage and Insulation Levels 345.0 1175 1050 900
14 (From IEEE Std. C37.20.2-2015) 500.0 1675 1550 1425 1300 Motor Voltage Motor System
765.0 2050 1925 1800 (Volts) hp Range Voltage
Rated Maximum Impulse
Voltage (kV rms) Withstand (kV) 1 BIL values in bold typeface are listed as
15 standard. Others listed are in common use.
460
2300
up to 500
250 to 2000
480
2400
4.76 60 4000 250 to 3000 4160
8.25 95
4600 250 to 3000 4800
16 15.0 95
13,200 above 2000 13,800
27.0 125
38.0 150
17 Table 1.1-3. Metal-Enclosed Switchgear
Voltage and Insulation Levels
18 (From IEEE Std. C37.20.3-2013)
Rated Maximum Impulse
Voltage (kV rms) Withstand (kV)
19 4.76 60
8.25 95
15.0 95
20 27.0 125
38.0 150

21

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Power Distribution Systems 1.1-5
April 2016 System Design
Sheet 01 007

Table 1.1-7. Three-Phase Transformer Winding Connections


Phasor Notes i
Diagram

DELTA-DELTA Connection 1. Suitable for both ungrounded and effectively grounded sources. ii
2. Suitable for a three-wire service or a four-wire service with a mid-tap ground.
Phasor H2 X2
Diagram:
1

H1 H3 X1 X3 2
Angular Displacement (Degrees): 0

DELTA-WYE Connection 1. Suitable for both ungrounded and effectively grounded sources. 3
2. Suitable for a three-wire service or a four-wire grounded service with
Phasor H2 X2 XO grounded.
Diagram:
3. With XO grounded, the transformer acts as a ground source for the 4
secondary system.
X1 X0
4. Fundamental and harmonic frequency zero-sequence currents in the secondary
H1 H3
lines supplied by the transformer do not flow in the primary lines. Instead the 5
X3 zero sequence currents circulate in the closed delta primary windings.
Angular Displacement (Degrees): 30 5. When supplied from an effectively grounded primary system does not see load
unbalances and ground faults in the secondary system. 6
WYE-DELTA Connection 1. Suitable for both ungrounded and effectively grounded sources.
2. Suitable for a three-wire service or a four-wire delta service with a mid-tap ground.
Phasor
Diagram:
H2 X2 3. Grounding the primary neutral of this connection would create a ground source 7
for the primary system. This could subject the transformer to severe overloading
during a primary system disturbance or load unbalance.
X1
4. Frequently installed with mid-tap ground on one leg when supplying 8
combination three-phase and single-phase load where the three-phase
H1 H3 load is much larger than single-phase load.
X3
Angular Displacement (Degrees): 30 5. When used in 25 kV and 35 kV three-phase four-wire primary systems,
ferroresonance can occur when energizing or de-energizing the transformer
9
using single-pole switches located at the primary terminals. With smaller kVA
transformers the probability of ferroresonance is higher.
WYE-WYE Connection 1. Suitable for both ungrounded and effectively grounded sources.
10
2. Suitable for a three-wire service only, even if XO is grounded.
Phasor H2 X2 3. This connection is incapable of furnishing a stabilized neutral and its use may
Diagram:
result in phase-to-neutral overvoltage (neutral shift) as a result of unbalanced 11
phase-to-neutral load.
X0
4. If a three-phase unit is built on a three-legged core, the neutral point of the
H1 H3 X1 X3
primary windings is practically locked at ground potential. 12
Angular Displacement (Degrees): 0
13
GROUNDED WYE-WYE Connection 1. Suitable for four-wire effectively grounded source only.
2. Suitable for a three-wire service or for four-wire grounded service with
Phasor
Diagram:
H2 X2 XO grounded. 14
3. Three-phase transformers with this connection may experience stray flux tank
heating during certain external system unbalances unless the core configuration
H0 X0 (four or five legged) used provides a return path for the flux.
4. Fundamental and harmonic frequency zero-sequence currents in the secondary
15
H1 H3 X1 X3
lines supplied by the transformer also flow in the primary lines (and primary
neutral conductor).
Angular Displacement (Degrees): 0
5. Ground relay for the primary system may see load unbalances and ground
16
faults in the secondary system. This must be considered when coordinating
overcurrent protective devices.
6. Three-phase transformers with the neutral points of the high voltage and low 17
voltage windings connected together internally and brought out through an
HOXO bushing should not be operated with the HOXO bushing ungrounded
(floating). To do so can result in very high voltages in the secondary systems. 18
DELTA-DELTA Connection with Tap 1. Suitable for both ungrounded and effectively grounded sources.
2. Suitable for a three-wire service or a four-wire service with a mid-tap ground.
Phasor
Diagram:
H2 X2 3. When using the tap for single-phase circuits, the single-phase load kVA should 19
X4 not exceed 5% of the three-phase kVA rating of the transformer. The three-phase
rating of the transformer is also substantially reduced.
20
H1 H3 X1 X3

Angular Displacement (Degrees): 0 21

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1.1-6 Power Distribution Systems
System Design April 2016
Sheet 01 008

i Types of Systems Low voltage feeder circuits run from A fault on the secondary low voltage
the switchgear or switchboard assem- bus or in the source transformer will
In many cases, power is supplied by blies to panelboards that are located interrupt service to all loads. Service
the utility to a building at the utilization closer to their respective loads as cannot be restored until the necessary
ii voltage. In these cases, the distribution shown in Figure 1.1-1. repairs have been made. A low voltage
of power within the building is achieved feeder circuit fault will interrupt service
Each feeder is connected to the switch- to all loads supplied over that feeder.
through the use of a simple radial
1 distribution system.
gear or switchboard bus through a
circuit breaker or other overcurrent A modern and improved form of the
In cases where the utility service voltage protective device. A relatively small conventional simple radial system
2 is at some voltage higher than the number of circuits are used to distribute distributes power at a primary voltage.
utilization voltage within the building, power to the loads from the switch- The voltage is stepped down to
the system design engineer has a choice gear or switchboard assemblies and utilization level in the several load
3 of a number of types of systems that panelboards. areas within the building typically
may be used. This discussion covers through secondary unit substation
Because the entire load is served from transformers. The transformers are
several major types of distribution
a single source, full advantage can be
4 systems and practical modifications
taken of the diversity among the loads.
usually connected to their associated
of them. load bus through a circuit breaker, as
This makes it possible to minimize the shown in Figure 1.1-2. Each secondary
1. Simple radial installed transformer capacity. However,
5 the voltage regulation and efficiency
unit substation is an assembled unit
2. Loop-primary system consisting of a three-phase, liquid-
of this system may be poor because filled or air-cooled transformer, an inte-
radial secondary system of the low voltage feeders and single
6 3. Primary selective system source. The cost of the low voltage-
grally connected primary fused switch,
and low voltage switchgear or switch-
secondary radial system feeder circuits and their associated circuit board with circuit breakers or fused
breakers are high when the feeders are
7 4. Two-source primary long and the peak demand is above
switches. Circuits are run to
secondary selective system the loads from these low voltage
1000 kVA. protective devices.
8 5. Sparing transformer system
6. Simple spot network
Primary Fused Switch
9 7. Medium voltage distribution
system design Transformer

10 1. Simple Radial System 600V Class


The conventional simple radial system Switchboard
receives power at the utility supply
11 voltage at a single substation and steps
the voltage down to the utilization level. Distribution
In those cases where the customer Dry-Type
12 receives his supply from the primary Transformer
system and owns the primary switch Distribution MCC Distribution Lighting
and transformer along with the second- Panel Panel Panelboard
13 ary low voltage switchboard or switch-
gear, the equipment may take the form
of a separate primary switch, separate
14 transformer, and separate low voltage
Figure 1.1-1. Simple Radial System
switchgear or switchboard. This equip-
ment may be combined in the form of
15 an outdoor pad-mounted transformer 52 Primary Main Breaker
with internal primary fused switch
and secondary main breaker feeding
16 an indoor switchboard. 52 52 52 52 52 52 Primary Feeder Breakers
Another alternative would be a
17 secondary unit substation where
the primary fused switch, transformer
and secondary switchgear or switch-
18 board are designed and installed as
a close-coupled single assembly.

19 In those cases where the utility owns


the primary equipment and transformer,
Secondary Unit
the supply to the customer is at the Substation
Primary
20 utilization voltage, and the service
Cables
equipment then becomes low voltage
main distribution switchgear or
21 a switchboard.
Figure 1.1-2. Primary and Secondary Simple Radial System

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Power Distribution Systems 1.1-7
April 2016 System Design
Sheet 01 009

Because each transformer is located In addition, if only one primary fuse on sectionalizing switches and primary
within a specific load area, it must a circuit opens, the secondary loads are load break fused switch as shown i
have sufficient capacity to carry the then single phased, causing damage to in Figure 1.1-4 or utilizing three
peak load of that area. Consequently, low voltage motors. on-off switches or a four-position
if any diversity exists among the load sectionalizing switch and vacuum ii
area, this modified primary radial Another approach to reducing costs fault interrupter (VFI) internal to the
system requires more transformer is to eliminate the primary feeder transformer saving cost and reducing
capacity than the basic form of the breakers completely, and use a single footprint. 1
simple radial system. However, primary main breaker or fused switch
because power is distributed to the for protection of a single primary When pad-mounted compartmental-
load areas at a primary voltage, losses feeder circuit with all secondary unit ized transformers are used, they are 2
are reduced, voltage regulation is substations supplied from this circuit. furnished with loop-feed oil-immersed
improved, feeder circuit costs are Although this system results in less ini- gang-operated load break sectionaliz-
reduced substantially, and large tial equipment cost, system reliability is ing switches and Bay-O-Net expulsion 3
low voltage feeder circuit breakers reduced drastically because a single fuses in series with partial range back-
are eliminated. In many cases the fault in any part of the primary conductor up current-limiting fuses. By operating
interrupting duty imposed on the would cause an outage to all loads the appropriate sectionalizing switches, 4
load circuit breakers is reduced. within the facility. it is possible to disconnect any section
of the loop conductors from the rest
This modern form of the simple radial 2. Loop Primary System of the system. In addition, it is possible 5
system will usually be lower in initial Radial Secondary System to disconnect any transformer from
investment than most other types of the loop.
primary distribution systems for build- This system consists of one or more 6
ings in which the peak load is above PRIMARY LOOPS with two or more A key interlocking scheme is normally
1000 kVA. A fault on a primary feeder transformers connected on the loop. recommended to prevent closing all
sectionalizing devices in the loop. Each
circuit or in one transformer will cause This system is typically most effective
when two services are available from primary loop sectionalizing switch and
7
an outage to only those secondary
loads served by that feeder or trans- the utility as shown in Figure 1.1-3. Each the feeder breakers to the loop are
former. In the case of a primary main primary loop is operated such that one interlocked such that to be closed they 8
bus fault or a utility service outage, of the loop sectionalizing switches is require a key (which is held captive
service is interrupted to all loads until kept open to prevent parallel operation until the switch or breaker is opened)
the trouble is eliminated. of the sources. When secondary unit and one less key than the number of 9
substations are used, each transformer key interlock cylinders is furnished.
Reducing the number of transformers may have its own duplex (2-load break An extra key is provided to defeat the
per primary feeder by adding more switches with load side bus connection) interlock under qualified supervision. 10
primary feeder circuits will improve
the flexibility and service continuity
of this system; the ultimate being one 11
secondary unit substation per primary Primary Main Breaker 1 52 52 Primary Main Breaker 2
feeder circuit. This of course increases
the investment in the system but
minimizes the extent of an outage Tie
52
12
52 52 Breaker 52 52 Loop Feeder Breaker
resulting from a transformer or
primary feeder fault.
Loop A 13
Primary connections from one secondary Loop B
unit substation to the next secondary
unit substation can be made with NC NO NC NC 14
Fault Sensors
double lugs on the unit substation
primary switch as shown, or with
separable connectors made in 15
manholes or other locations.
Depending on the load kVA connected 16
to each primary circuit and if no ground
fault protection is desired for either the
primary feeder conductors and trans- 17
NC NC NO NC NC NC
formers connected to that feeder or
the main bus, the primary main and/or
feeder breakers may be changed to 18
primary fused switches. This will sig-
nificantly reduce the first cost, but also
decrease the level of conductor and 19
equipment protection. Thus, should
a fault or overload condition occur,
downtime increases significantly and 20
Secondary Unit Substations Consisting of:
higher costs associated with increased Duplex Primary Switches/Fused Primary Switches/
damage levels and the need for fuse Transformer and Secondary Main Feeder Breakers
replacement is typically encountered. 21
Figure 1.1-3. Loop PrimaryRadial Secondary System

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1.1-8 Power Distribution Systems
System Design April 2016
Sheet 01 010

In addition, the two primary main cable has been faulted, the loop sec-
i Loop
Feeder
Loop
Feeder
breakers, which are normally closed, tionalizing switches on each side of the
and primary tie breaker, which is faulted conductor can be opened, the
Load Break normally open, are either mechanically loop sectionalizing switch that had
ii Loop Switches or electrically interlocked to prevent been previously left open then closed
paralleling the incoming source lines. and service restored to all secondary
For slightly added cost, an automatic unit substations while the faulted
1 throw-over scheme can be added conductor is replaced. If the fault
between the two main breakers and should occur in a conductor directly
Fused tie breaker. During the more common on the load side of one of the loop
2 Disconnect
Switch event of a utility outage, the automatic feeder breakers, the loop feeder
transfer scheme provides significantly breaker is kept open after tripping and
reduced power outage time. the next load side loop sectionalizing
3 switch manually opened so that the
The system in Figure 1.1-3 has higher faulted conductor can be sectionalized
costs than in Figure 1.1-2, but offers and replaced.
4 increased reliability and quick restora-
tion of service when 1) a utility outage Note: Under this condition, all secondary
occurs, 2) a primary feeder conductor unit substations are supplied through the
other loop feeder circuit breaker, and thus
5 Figure 1.1-4. Secondary Unit Substation fault occurs, or 3) a transformer fault
all conductors around the loop should be
Loop Switching or overload occurs.
sized to carry the entire load connected to
Should a utility outage occur on one of the loop. Increasing the number of primary
6 the incoming lines, the associated pri- loops (two loops shown in Figure 1.1-8)
Main Source Alternate Source will reduce the extent of the outage from a
mary main breaker is opened and the
3-Position conductor fault, but will also increase the
tie breaker closed either manually or
7 Selector Switch
through an automatic transfer scheme.
system investment.

Vacuum Fault
When a primary feeder conductor fault When a transformer fault or overload
8 Interrupter (VFI)
occurs, the associated loop feeder occurs, the transformer primary fuses
breaker opens and interrupts service open, and the transformer primary
to all loads up to the normally open switch manually opened, disconnecting
9 primary loop load break switch the transformer from the loop, and
(typically half of the loads). Once it is leaving all other secondary unit
determined which section of primary substation loads unaffected.
10

11 Primary Metal-Clad
Figure 1.1-5. VFI /Selector Switch Switchgear Lineup
Combination 52 52 Primary Main Breaker

12 Bus A 52 Bus B

Loop Feeder Loop Feeder 52 52 52 52 Primary Feeder Breaker


13
Feeder A1 Feeder B1 Feeder B2
4-Position To Other
14 Partial Range T-Blade Feeder A2 Substations
Current-Limiting Fuse Sectionalizing
Load-Break NO
Bay-O-Net
15 Expulsion Fuse
Switch
NC

16 NO Typical Secondary Unit


Substation Duplex Primary
Switch/Fuses
Transformer/600V Class
17 NC
Secondary Switchgear

NO
18 Figure 1.1-6. Pad-Mounted Transformer
Loop Switching NC

19
Figure 1.1-7. Basic Primary SelectiveRadial Secondary System
20

21

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Power Distribution Systems 1.1-9
April 2016 System Design
Sheet 01 011

This means limited cable space espe-


Primary cially if double lugs are furnished for i
Feeders each line as shown in Figure 1.1-7 and
52 should a faulted primary conductor
Load Break have to be changed, both lines would ii
Loop A Loop A Switches have to be de-energized for safe
changing of the faulted conductors.
A second alternative is utilizing a 1
In cases where only one primary line three-position selector switch internal
is available, the use of a single primary Fuses to the transformer, allowing only one
breaker provides the loop connections
to the loads as shown here. primary feeder to be connected to 2
the transformer at a time without the
Figure 1.1-8. Single Primary Feeder need for any interlocking. The selector
Loop System switch is rated for load-breaking. 3
If overcurrent protection is also
A basic primary loop system that required, a vacuum fault interrupter
uses a single primary feeder breaker (VFI), also internal to the transformer, 4
connected directly to two loop feeder may be utilized, reducing floor space.
switches which in turn then feed the
Figure 1.1-9. Duplex Fused Switch in
loop is shown in Figure 1.1-8. In this Two Structures In Figure 1.1-7 when a primary feeder 5
basic system, the loop may be normally fault occurs, the associated feeder
operated with one of the loop section- One alternate to the duplex switch breaker opens and the transformers
alizing switches open as described arrangement, a non-load break selector normally supplied from the faulted 6
above or with all loop sectionalizing switch mechanically interlocked with feeder are out of service. Then manu-
switches closed. If a fault occurs in the a load break fused switch can be used ally, each primary switch connected to
basic primary loop system, the single as shown in Figure 1.1-10. The non- the faulted line must be opened and 7
loop feeder breaker trips, and secondary load break selector switch is physically then the alternate line primary switch
loads are lost until the faulted conductor located in the rear of the load break can be closed connecting the trans-
is found and eliminated from the loop fused switch, thus only requiring one former to the live feeder, thus restoring 8
by opening the appropriate loop structure and a lower cost and floor service to all loads. Note that each of the
sectionalizing switches and then space savings over the duplex primary circuit conductors for Feeder
reclosing the breaker. arrangement. The non-load break A1 and B1 must be sized to handle the 9
switch is mechanically interlocked to sum of the loads normally connected
3. Primary Selective System prevent its operation unless the load to both A1 and B1. Similar sizing of
Secondary Radial System break switch is opened. The main Feeders A2 and B2, etc., is required. 10
disadvantage of the selector switch is
The primary selectivesecondary that conductors from both circuits are If a fault occurs in one transformer,
radial system, as shown in Figure 1.1-7, terminated in the same structure. the associated primary fuses blow 11
differs from those previously described and interrupt the service to just
in that it employs at least two primary the load served by that transformer.
feeder circuits in each load area. It is
Primary
Service cannot be restored to the loads
normally served by the faulted
12
designed so that when one primary Feeders
circuit is out of service, the remaining transformer until the transformer
feeder or feeders have sufficient
Non-Load Break
is repaired or replaced. 13
capacity to carry the total load. Half Selector Switches Cost of the primary selective
of the transformers are normally Inter- secondary radial system is greater
connected to each of the two feeders. lock Load Break than that of the simple primary radial 14
When a fault occurs on one of the Disconnect
system of Figure 1.1-1 because of the
primary feeders, only half of the
Fuses additional primary main breakers, tie
load in the building is dropped.
breaker, two-sources, increased number 15
Duplex fused switches as shown in of feeder breakers, the use of primary-
Figure 1.1-7 and detailed in Figure 1.1-9 duplex or selector switches, and the
may be utilized for this type of system. greater amount of primary feeder 16
Each duplex fused switch consists of cable required. The benefits from the
two (2) load break three-pole switches reduction in the amount of load lost
each in their own separate structure, when a primary feeder is faulted, plus 17
connected together by busbars on the the quick restoration of service to all
load side. Typically, the load break or most of the loads, may more than
switch closest to the transformer
Figure 1.1-10. Fused Selector Switch in
offset the greater cost. Having two 18
One Structure
includes a fuse assembly with fuses. sources allows for either manual or
Mechanical and/or key interlocking automatic transfer of the two primary
is furnished such that both switches main breakers and tie breaker should
19
cannot be closed at the same time one of the sources become unavailable.
(to prevent parallel operation) and
interlocking such that access to
20
either switch or fuse assembly
cannot be obtained unless both 21
switches are opened.

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1.1-10 Power Distribution Systems
System Design April 2016
Sheet 01 012

The primary selective-secondary radial Each transformer secondary is If the loss of voltage was due to a
i system, however, may be less costly or arranged in a typical double-ended failure of one of the transformers in
more costly than a primary loop unit substation arrangement as shown the double-ended unit substation, then
secondary radial system of Figure 1.1-3 in Figure 1.1-11. The two secondary the associated primary fuses would
ii depending on the physical location main breakers and secondary tie open taking only the failed transformer
of the transformers while offering breaker of each unit substation are out of service, and then only the sec-
comparable downtime and reliability. again either mechanically or electrically ondary loads normally served by the
1 The cost of conductors for the two interlocked to prevent parallel operation. faulted transformer would have to be
types of systems may vary greatly Upon loss of secondary source voltage transferred to the opposite transformer.
depending on the location of the on one side, manual or automatic In either of the above emergency
2 transformers and loads within the transfer may be used to transfer the conditions, the in-service transformer
facility and greatly override primary loads to the other side, thus restoring of a double-ended unit substation
switching equipment cost differences power to all secondary loads. would have to have the capability of
3 between the two systems. serving the loads on both sides of the
This arrangement permits quick tie breaker. For this reason, transform-
4. Two-Source Primary restoration of service to all loads when ers used in this application have equal
4 Secondary Selective System
a primary feeder or transformer fault kVA rating on each side of the double-
occurs by opening the associated ended unit substation and the normal
This system uses the same principle secondary main and closing the operating maximum load on each
5 of duplicate sources from the power secondary tie breaker. If the loss transformer is typically about 2/3 base
supply point using two primary main of secondary voltage has occurred nameplate kVA rating. Typically these
breakers and a primary tie breaker. because of a primary feeder fault with transformers are furnished with
6 The two primary main breakers and the associated primary feeder breaker fan-cooling and/or lower than normal
primary tie breaker being either opening, then all secondary loads temperature rise such that under
manually or electrically interlocked normally served by the faulted feeder emergency conditions they can carry
7 to prevent closing all three at the same would have to be transferred to the on a continuous basis the maximum
time and paralleling the sources. Upon opposite primary feeder. This means load on both sides of the secondary tie
loss of voltage on one source, a manual each primary feeder conductor must be breaker. Because of this spare trans-
8 or automatic transfer to the alternate sized to carry the load on both sides of former capacity, the voltage regulation
source line may be used to restore all the secondary buses it is serving provided by the double-ended unit
power to all primary loads. under secondary emergency transfer substation system under normal
9 . conditions is better than that of the
systems previously discussed.
10 The double-ended unit substation
arrangement can be used in conjunction
52 52 Primary Main Breakers
with any of the previous systems
11 52 discussed, which involve two primary
sources. Although not recommended,
52 52 52 52 Primary Feeder Breakers if allowed by the utility, momentary
12 re-transfer of loads to the restored
source may be made closed transition
To Other Substations To Other Substations (anti-parallel interlock schemes would
13 Typical
have to be defeated) for either the
Double-Ended
primary or secondary systems. Under
Unit this condition, all equipment interrupt-
14 Substation ing and momentary ratings should be
suitable for the fault current available
from both sources.
15
For double-ended unit substations
equipped with ground fault systems
16 special consideration to transformer
neutral grounding and equipment
operation should be madesee
17 Primary Fused Switch Transformer Tie Breaker Secondary Main Breaker
Grounding and Ground Fault
Protection in Section 1.4. Where
two single-ended unit substations are
Figure 1.1-11. Two-Source PrimarySecondary Selective System
18 connected together by external tie
conductors, it is recommended that
a tie breaker be furnished at each end
19 of the tie conductors.

20

21

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Power Distribution Systems 1.1-11
April 2016 System Design
Sheet 01 013

5. Sparing Transformer System Referring to Figure 1.1-12, it is apparent The sparing transformer system
The sparing transformer system concept
that the sparing concept backs up operates as follows: i
primary switch and primary cable
came into use as an alternative to the failure as well. Restoration of lost or All main breakers, including
capital cost intensive double-ended failed utility power is accomplished the sparing main breaker, are ii
secondary unit substation distribution similarly to primary selective scheme normally closed; the tie breakers
system (see Two-Source Primary previously discussed. It is therefore are normally open
Secondary Selective System). It essen- important to use an automatic thro- Once a transformer (or primary 1
tially replaces double-ended substations wover system in a two source lineup cable or primary switch/fuse) fails,
with single-ended substations and one of primary switchgear to restore utility the associated secondary main
or more sparing transformer substa- power as discussed in the Two-Source breaker is opened. The associated 2
tions all interconnected on a common Primary schemesee Figure 1.1-11. tie breaker is then closed, which
secondary bus (see Figure 1.1-12). restores power to the single-ended
A major advantage of the sparing substation bus 3
Generally no more than three to five transformer system is the typically
single-ended substations are on a Schemes that require the main to
lower total base kVA of transformation. be opened before the tie is closed
sparing loop. In a double-ended substation design,
each transformer must be rated to
(open transition), and that allow 4
The essence of this design philosophy any tie to be closed before the
is that conservatively designed and carry the sum of the loads of two busses substation main is opened,
loaded transformers are highly reliable and usually requires the addition of (closed transition) are possible 5
electrical devices and rarely fail. There- cooling fans to accomplish this rating.
fore, this design provides a single com- In the sparing concept, each trans- With a closed transition scheme, it is
mon backup transformer for a group of former carries only its own load, which common to add a timer function that 6
transformers in lieu of a backup trans- is typically not a fan-cooled rating. Major opens the tie breaker unless either
space savings is also a benefit of this main breaker is opened within a
former for each and every transformer.
system in addition to first cost savings. time interval. 7
This system design still maintains a
high degree of continuity of service. This closed transition allows power
to be transferred to the sparing
transformer without interruption, such 8
as for routine maintenance, and then
back to the substation. This closed
transition transfer has an advantage in 9
some facilities; however, appropriate
K K K interrupting capacities and bus bracing
must be specified suitable for the 10
momentary parallel operation.
In facilities without qualified electrical 11
power operators, an open transition
Sparing Transformer
with key interlocking is often a
prudent design. 12
K K
Note: Each pair of main breaker/tie breaker
key cylinders should be uniquely keyed to
prevent any paralleled source operations. 13
Careful sizing of these transformers
Typical Secondary Busway Loop as well as careful specification of the 14
transformers is required for reliability.
Low temperature rise specified with
continuous overload capacity or 15
K K
upgraded types of transformers
should be considered.
Typical Single-Ended Substation 16
One disadvantage to this system is
the external secondary tie system,
Figure 1.1-12. Sparing Transformer System
see Figure 1.1-12. As shown, all single- 17
ended substations are tied together
on the secondary with a tie busway or
cable system. Location of substations 18
is therefore limited because of voltage
drop and cost considerations.
19

20

21

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1.1-12 Power Distribution Systems
System Design April 2016
Sheet 01 014

Routing of busway, if used, must be The network relay is usually a solid- The optimum size and number of
i carefully layed out. It should also be state microprocessor-based compo- primary feeders can be used in the
noted, that a tie busway or cable fault nent integrated into the protector spot network system because the
will essentially prevent the use of the enclosure that functions to automati- loss of any primary feeder and its
ii sparing transformer until it is repaired. cally close the protector only when the associated transformers does not
Commonly, the single-ended substa- voltage conditions are such that its result in the loss of any load even
tions and the sparing transformer associated transformer will supply for an instant. In spite of the spare
1 must be clustered. This can also be power to the secondary network loads, capacity usually supplied in network
an advantage, as more kVA can be and to automatically open the protec- systems, savings in primary switch-
supported from a more compact tor when power flows from the sec- gear and secondary switchgear costs
2 space layout. ondary to the network transformer. often result when compared to a radial
The purpose of the network protector system design with similar spare
6. Simple Spot Network Systems is to protect the integrity of the net- capacity. This occurs in many radial
3 The AC secondary network system work bus voltage and the loads served systems because more and smaller
is the system that has been used for from it against transformer and pri- feeders are often used in order to
many years to distribute electric power mary feeder faults by quickly discon- minimize the extent of any outage
4 in the high-density, downtown areas necting the defective feeder- when a primary fault event occurs.
of cities, usually in the form of utility transformer pair from the
network when backfeed occurs. In spot networks, when a fault occurs
5 grids. Modifications of this type of on a primary feeder or in a transformer,
system make it applicable to serve The simple spot network system the fault is isolated from the system
loads within buildings. resembles the secondary-selective through the automatic tripping of the
6 The major advantage of the secondary radial system in that each load area primary feeder circuit breaker and all
network system is continuity of is supplied over two or more primary of the network protectors associated
service. No single fault anywhere feeders through two or more trans- with that feeder circuit. This operation
7 on the primary system will interrupt formers. In network systems, the does not interrupt service to any loads.
service to any of the systems loads. transformers are connected through After the necessary repairs have been
Most faults will be cleared without network protectors to a common made, the system can be restored to
8 interrupting service to any load. bus, as shown in Figure 1.1-13, from normal operating conditions by closing
Another outstanding advantage that which loads are served. Because the the primary feeder breaker. All network
the network system offers is its flexibil- transformers are connected in parallel, protectors associated with that feeder
9 ity to meet changing and growing load a primary feeder or transformer fault will close automatically.
conditions at minimum cost and does not cause any service interrup-
tion to the loads. The paralleled The chief purpose of the network bus
minimum interruption in service to normally closed ties is to provide for
10 other loads on the network. In addition transformers supplying each load
the sharing of loads and a balancing
to flexibility and service reliability, the bus will normally carry equal load
currents, whereas equal loading of of load currents for each primary
secondary network system provides service and transformer regardless of
11 exceptionally uniform and good the two separate transformers supply-
the condition of the primary services.
voltage regulation, and its high ing a substation in the secondary-
efficiency materially reduces the selective radial system is difficult to Also, the ties provide a means for
12 costs of system losses. obtain. The interrupting duty imposed isolating and sectionalizing ground
on the outgoing feeder breakers in the fault events within the switchgear
Three major differences between the network will be greater with the spot network bus, thereby saving a portion
13 network system and the simple radial network system. of the loads from service interruptions,
system account for the outstanding yet isolating the faulted portion for
advantages of the network. First, corrective action.
14 a network protector is connected in
the secondary leads of each network
transformer in place of, or in addition
15 to, the secondary main breaker, as Typical Feeder
shown in Figure 1.1-13. Also, the Primary Circuit
secondaries of each transformer in To Other
16 a given location (spot) are connected Network Transformer
Networks

together by a switchgear or ring bus


from which the loads are served over Network Protector
17 short radial feeder circuits. Finally, the Fuses
primary supply has sufficient capacity Optional Main, 50/51
to carry the entire building load with- Relaying and/or
18 out overloading when any one primary Network Disconnect Tie Tie
Drawout
feeder is out of service. Low Voltage
LV Feeder NC NC Switchgear
19 A network protector is a specially
designed heavy-duty air power breaker,
spring close with electrical motor-charged Customer Customer Customer
20 mechanism, with a network relay to Loads Loads Loads

control the status of the protector


(tripped or closed). Figure 1.1-13. Three-Source Spot Network
21

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Power Distribution Systems 1.1-13
April 2016 System Design
Sheet 01 015

The use of spot network systems 7. Medium Voltage Distribution


provides users with several important
System Design
i
advantages. First, they save trans- Utility #1 Utility #2
former capacity. Spot networks permit A. Single Bus, Figure 1.1-14
equal loading of transformers under ii
all conditions. Also, networks yield The sources (utility and/or generator(s)) Normal Standby
lower system losses and greatly are connected to a single bus. All feeders
improve voltage conditions. The are connected to the same bus. 1
voltage regulation on a network
system is such that both lights and Utility
power can be fed from the same 2
load bus. Much larger motors can G
52 NC 52 NO
be started across-the-line than on a
simple radial system. This can result in 3
simplified motor control and permits
the use of relatively large low voltage Loads
motors with their less expensive 4
control. Finally, network systems Figure 1.1-15. Single Bus with Two-Sources
52 52
provide a greater degree of flexibility
in adding future loads; they can be Retransfer to the Normal can be 5
connected to the closest spot Main Bus closed transition subject to the approval
network bus. of the utility. Closed transition momen-
tarily (510 cycles) parallels both 6
Spot network systems are economical utility sources. Caution: when both
for buildings that have heavy concen- 52 sources are paralleled, the fault current
trations of loads covering small areas, available on the load side of the main 7
with considerable distance between device is the sum of the available fault
areas, and light loads within the One of Several Feeders current from each source plus the motor
distances separating the concentrated fault contribution. It is recommended 8
loads. They are commonly used in Figure 1.1-14. Single Bus that the short-circuit ratings of the
hospitals, high rise office buildings, bus, feeder breakers and all load side
and institutional buildings where a This configuration is the simplest equipment are rated for the increased 9
high degree of service reliability is system; however, outage of the utility available fault current. If the utility
required from the utility sources. results in total outage. requires open transfer, the disconnec-
Spot network systems are especially
Normally the generator does not have
tion of motors from the bus must be 10
economical where three or more ensured by means of suitable time delay
adequate capacity for the entire load.
primary feeders are available. on reclosing as well as supervision
A properly relayed system equipped
Principally, this is due to supplying with load shedding, automatic voltage/
of the bus voltage and its phase with 11
respect to the incoming source voltage
each load bus through three or frequency control may be able to
maintain partial system operation. This busing scheme does not preclude
more transformers and the reduction
in spare cable and transformer the use of cogeneration, but requires
12
Any future addition of breaker sections
capacity required. the use of sophisticated automatic syn-
to the bus will require a shutdown of
They are also economical when the bus, because there is no tie breaker.
chronizing and synchronism checking
controls, in addition to the previously
13
compared to two transformer double- mentioned load shedding, automatic
B. Single Bus with Two Sources from the
ended substations with normally
opened tie breakers. Utility, Figure 1.1-15 frequency and voltage controls. 14
Same as the single bus, except that This configuration is more expensive
Emergency power should be connected two utility sources are available. than the scheme shown in Figure 1.1-14,
to network loads downstream from This system is operated normally with but service restoration is quicker. Again, 15
the network, or upstream at primary the main breaker to one source open. a utility outage results in total outage to
voltage, not at the network bus itself. Upon loss of the normal service, the the load until transfer occurs. Extension
transfer to the standby normally of the bus or adding breakers requires 16
open (NO) breaker can be automatic a shutdown of the bus.
or manual. Automatic transfer is
preferred for rapid service restoration If paralleling sources, reverse current, 17
especially in unattended stations. reverse power and other appropriate
relaying protection should be added
as requested by the utility. 18

19

20

21

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1.1-14 Power Distribution Systems
System Design April 2016
Sheet 01 016

C. Multiple Sources with Tie Breaker, In Figure 1.1-17, closing of the tie Summary
i Figure 1.1-16 and Figure 1.1-17 breaker following the opening of a The medium voltage system configura-
This configuration is similar to configu- main breaker can be manual or auto- tions shown are based on using metal-
ration B. It differs significantly in that matic. However, because a bus can clad drawout switchgear. The service
ii both utility sources normally carry the be fed through two tie breakers, the continuity required from electrical
loads and also by the incorporation control scheme should be designed systems makes the use of single-source
of a normally open tie breaker. The to make the selection. systems impractical.
1 outage to the system load for a utility The third tie breaker allows any bus In the design of a modern medium
outage is limited to half of the system. to be fed from any utility source.
Again, the closing of the tie breaker can voltage system, the engineer should:
2 be manual or automatic. The statements 1. Design a system as simple as
Caution for Figures 1.1-15, 1.1-16 and
made for the retransfer of scheme B 1.1-17: If continuous paralleling of possible.
apply to this scheme also.
3 sources is planned, reverse current,
2. Limit an outage to as small a
reverse power and other appropriate
portion of the system as possible.
Utility #1 Utility #2 relaying protection should be added.
4 When both sources are paralleled for 3. Provide means for expanding the
any amount of time, the fault current system without major shutdowns.
available on the load side of the main
5 device is the sum of the available 4. Relay the system so that only the
fault current from each source plus faulted part is removed from
the motor fault contribution. It is service, and damage to it is mini-
6 52 NC 52 NC required that bus bracing, feeder mized consistent with selectivity.
breakers and all load side equipment 5. Specify and apply all equipment
NO is rated for the increased available within its published ratings and
7 Bus #1
52
Bus #2
fault current. national standards pertaining to
the equipment and its installation.
8 52 52

9 Utility #1 Utility #2 Utility #3


Load Load

10 Figure 1.1-16. Two-Source Utility with


Tie Breaker
If looped or primary selective distribu-
11 tion system for the loads is used, the 52 NC 52 NC 52 NC
buses can be extended without a shut-
down by closing the tie breaker and
12 transferring the loads to the other bus. Bus #1
NO
Bus #2
NO
Bus #3
52 52
This configuration is more expensive
13 than B. The system is not limited to two
buses only. Another advantage is that 52 NO 52 Typical Feeder 52 52 52 NO
the design may incorporate momentary
14 paralleling of buses on retransfer after Tie Busway
the failed line has been restored to pre-
vent another outage. See the Caution for Figure 1.1-17. Triple-Ended Arrangement
15 Figures 1.1-15, 1.1-16 and 1.1-17.

16

17

18

19

20

21

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Power Distribution Systems 1.1-15
April 2016 System Design
Sheet 01 017

Health Care Facilities NFPA 101-2009Life Safety Code The electrical system requirements for
NFPA 110-2010Standard for Emer- the essential electrical system (EES) i
Health care facilities are defined by gency and Standby Power Systems vary according to the type of health
NFPA (National Fire Protection Agency) NFPA 111-2010Standard on Stored
care facility. Health care facilities are
as Buildings or portions of buildings Electrical Energy Emergency and categorized by NFPA 99 as Type 1, ii
in which medical, dental, psychiatric, Standby Power Systems Type 2 or Type 3 facilities. Some
nursing, obstetrical, or surgical care example health care facilities, classified
are provided. Due to the critical nature These NFPA guidelines represent the by type, are summarized in the 1
of the care being provided at these most industry recognized standard following Table 1.1-8.
facilities and their increasing depen- requirements for health care electrical
dence on electrical equipment for pres- design. However, the electrical design Table 1.1-8. Health Care Facilities 2
ervation of life, health care facilities engineer should consult with the Description Definition EES Type
have special requirements for the authorities having jurisdiction over
design of their electrical distribution the local region for specific electrical
Hospitals NFPA 99 Chap. 13 Type 1
Nursing homes NFPA 99 Chap. 17 Type 2
3
systems. These requirements are distribution requirements. Limited care
typically much more stringent than facilities NFPA 99 Chap. 18 Type 2
commercial or industrial facilities. Health Care Electrical System Ambulatory 4
The following section summarizes Requirements surgical
some of the unique requirements facilities NFPA 99 Chap. 14 Type 3 1
of health care facility design. Health care electrical systems usually Other health 5
consist of two parts: care facilities NFPA 99 Chap. 14 Type 3 1
There are several agencies and organi- 1 If electrical life support or critical care areas
zations that develop requirements 1. Non-essential or normal are present, then facility is classified as Type 1. 6
for health care electrical distribution electrical system.
system design. The following is a 2. Essential electrical system.
Type 1 Essential Electrical
listing of some of the specific NFPA Systems (EES) 7
(National Fire Protection Agency) All electrical power in a health care
standards that affect health care facility is important, though some Type 1 essential electrical systems
facility design and implementation: loads are not critical to the safe opera- (EES) have the most stringent require- 8
tion of the facility. These non-essential ments for providing continuity of
NFPA 37-2010Standard for electrical service and will, therefore,
or normal loads include things such
Stationary Combustion Engines as general lighting, general lab equip- be the focus of this section. Type 1 9
and Gas Turbines ment, non-critical service equipment, EES requirements meet or exceed
NFPA 70-2011National patient care areas, etc. These loads are the requirements for Type 2 and
Electrical Code not required to be fed from an alternate Type 3 facilities. 10
NFPA 99-2005Health Care Facilities source of power.

11
Normal Source Normal Source Normal Source Emergency Power Supply

G
12

13

14

15

16
Non-Essential Loads Non-Essential Loads

17
Manual Transfer Switch 18
Equipment Life Safety Critical
Delayed Automatic Transfer Switch System Branch Branch
Emergency System
19
Automatic (Non-Delaying)
Transfer Switch Essential Electrical System
20
Figure 1.1-18. Typical Large Hospital Electrical SystemType 1 Facility
21

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1.1-16 Power Distribution Systems
System Design April 2016
Sheet 01 018

Sources: Type 1 systems are required Table 1.1-9. Type 1 EES Applicable Codes B. Critical branchsupplies power
i to have a minimum of two independent Description Standard Section for task illumination, fixed equip-
sources of electrical powera normal ment, selected receptacles and
source that generally supplies the Design NFPA 99 4.4.1.1.1 selected power circuits for areas
ii entire facility and one or more alter- Sources NFPA 99 4.4.1.1.4 thru
4.4.4.1.1.7.2
related to patient care. The
nate sources that supply power when Uses NFPA 99 4.4.1.1.8 (1-3) purpose of the critical branch
the normal source is interrupted. The Emergency is to provide power to a limited
1 alternate source(s) must be an on-site Power Supply number of receptacles and loca-
generator driven by a prime mover Classification NFPA 110 4 tions to reduce load and minimize
unless a generator(s) exists as the Distribution NFPA 99 4.4.2 the chances of fault conditions.
2 normal power source. In the case NEC 517.30 The transfer switch(es) feeding the
where a generator(s) is used as the critical branch must be automatic
normal source, it is permissible for the Systems and Branches of Service: The type. They are permitted to have
3 alternate source to be a utility feed. Type 1 EES consists of two separate appropriate time delays that will
Alternate source generators must be power systems capable of supplying follow the restoration of the life
classified as Type 10, Class X, Level 1 power considered essential for life safety branch, but should have
4 gensets per NFPA 110 Tables 4.1(a) and safety and effective facility operation power restored within 10 seconds
4.2(b) that are capable of providing during an interruption of the normal of normal source power loss.
power to the load in a maximum of power source. They are the emergency The critical branch provides power
5 10 seconds. Typically, the alternate system and the equipment system. to circuits serving the following
sources of power are supplied to the areas and functions:
1. Emergency systemconsists of
loads through a series of automatic
6 and/or manual transfer switches (see
circuits essential to life safety and 1. Critical care areas.
critical patient care.
Tab 25). The transfer switches can 2. Isolated power systems in
be non-delayed automatic, delayed The emergency system is an electrical special environments.
7 automatic or manual transfer depending sub-system that must be fed from an 3. Task illumination and selected
on the requirements of the specific automatic transfer switch or series of receptacles in the following
branch of the EES that they are feeding. automatic transfer switches. This patient care areas: infant
8 It is permissible to feed multiple emergency system consists of two nurseries, medication prep
branches or systems of the EES from mandatory branches that provide power areas, pharmacy, selected
a single automatic transfer switch to systems and functions essential to acute nursing areas, psychiatric
9 provided that the maximum demand life safety and critical patient care. bed areas, ward treatment
on the EES does not exceed 150 kVA. rooms, nurses stations.
This configuration is typically seen A. Life safety branchsupplies
10 in smaller health care facilities that power for lighting, receptacles 4. Specialized patient care task
must meet Type 1 EES requirements and equipment to perform the illumination, where needed.
(see Figure 1.1-19). following functions: 5. Nurse call systems.
11 6. Blood, bone and tissue banks.
1. Illumination of means of egress.
Normal Source 2. Exit signs and exit direction signs. 7. Telephone equipment rooms
12 3. Alarms and alerting systems.
and closets.
Alternate 8. Task illumination, selected
4. Emergency communications
Source receptacles and selected power
13 systems.
circuits for the following: general
G 5. Task illumination, battery care beds (at least one duplex
chargers for battery powered receptacle), angiographic labs,
14 lighting, and select receptacles cardiac catheterization labs,
at the generator. coronary care units, hemodialysis
6. Elevator lighting control, com- rooms, selected emergency
15 munication and signal systems. room treatment areas, human
7. Automatic doors used for egress. physiology labs, intensive care
units, selected postoperative
16 Non-Essential
Loads These are the only functions recovery rooms.
permitted to be on the life safety 9. Additional circuits and single-
Entire Essential branch. Life safety branch equip-
17 Electric System ment and wiring must be entirely
phase fraction motors as needed
for effective facility operation.
(150 kVA or Less) independent of all other loads
and branches of service. This
18 Figure 1.1-19. Small Hospital Electrical includes separation of raceways,
SystemSingle EES Transfer Switch boxes or cabinets. Power must be
supplied to the life safety branch
19 from a non-delayed automatic
transfer switch.
20

21

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Power Distribution Systems 1.1-17
April 2016 System Design
Sheet 01 019

Table 1.1-10. Type 1Emergency System The following equipment must be and must be shed in the event the
Applicable Codes arranged for delayed automatic or generator enters an overload condition. i
Description Standard Section manual transfer to the emergency
power supply: Ground fault protectionper NFPA 70
General NFPA 99 4.4.2.2.2 NEC Article 230.95, ground fault ii
NEC 517.31 1. Select heating equipment. protection is required on any feeder or
Life safety NFPA 99 4.4.2.2.2.2 2. Select elevators. service disconnect 1000 A or larger on
branch NEC 517.32
3. Supply, return and exhaust
systems with line to ground voltages 1
Critical branch NFPA 99 4.4.2.2.2.3 of 150 V or greater and phase-to-phase
NEC 517.33 ventilating systems for surgical, voltages of 600 V or less. For health care
obstetrical, intensive care,
Wiring NFPA 99 4.4.2.2.4
coronary care, nurseries and
facilities (of any type), a second level of 2
NEC 517.30(C) ground fault protection is required to
emergency treatment areas. be on the next level of feeder down-
2. Equipment systemconsists of 4. Supply, return and exhaust stream. This second level of ground 3
major electrical equipment necessary ventilating systems for airborne fault is only required for feeders that
for patient care and Type 1 operation. infectious/isolation rooms, labs and serve patient care areas and equipment
The equipment system is a subsystem
medical areas where hazardous intended to support life. 100% selective 4
materials are used. coordination of the two levels of ground
of the EES that consists of large electrical fault protection must be achieved with a
equipment loads needed for patient 5. Hyperbaric facilities.
care and basic hospital operation. 6. Hypobaric facilities.
minimum six-cycle separation between 5
the upstream and downstream device.
Loads on the equipment system that 7. Autoclaving equipment.
are essential to generator operation are New in the 2011 NEC, ground fault
required to be fed by a non-delayed 8. Controls for equipment listed above. protection is now allowed between
6
automatic transfer switch. 9. Other selected equipment in the generator(s) and the EES transfer
kitchens, laundries, radiology switch(es). However, NEC 517.17(B) pro-
The following equipment must be rooms and central refrigeration hibits the installation of ground fault
7
arranged for delayed automatic transfer as selected. protection on the load side of a transfer
to the emergency power supply: switch feeding EES circuits (see Figure
Table 1.1-11. Type 1Equipment System
1.1-20additional level of ground fault).
8
1. Central suction systems for medical Applicable Codes
and surgical functions. Careful consideration should be used in
Description Standard Section applying ground fault protection on the
2. Sump pumps and other equipment
essential electrical system to prevent
9
required for the safe operation of General NFPA 99 4.4.2.2.3
NEC 517.34 a ground fault that causes a trip of the
a major apparatus.
Equipment NFPA 99 4.4.2.2.3 (3-5) normal source to also cause a trip on 10
3. Compressed air systems for NEC 517.34(A)-(B) the emergency source. Such an event
medical and surgical functions. could result in complete power loss of
4. Smoke control and stair Any loads served by the generator that both normal and emergency power 11
pressurization systems. are not approved as outlined above as sources and could not be recovered
part of the essential electrical system until the source of the ground fault
5. Kitchen hood supply and exhaust
systems, if required to operate must be connected through a separate was located and isolated from the
system. To prevent this condition,
12
during a fire. transfer switch. These transfer switches
must be configured such that the loads NEC 700.26 removes the ground fault
will not cause the generator to overload protection requirement for the 13
Normal Source Normal Source(s)
G
14
Generator Breakers are
Typically Supplied with
480/277V 480/277V 1 480/277 V 1 Ground Fault Alarm 15
1000 A Service 1000 A Service 1000 A Service Only. (NEC 700.26)
GF GF GF
or Larger Entrance or Larger Entrance or Larger Entrance
Ground Fault 16
is Permitted
Additional Level Between Generator
GF GF GF GF GF of Ground Fault
Protection
GF GF GF GF GF GF and EES Transfer
Switches.
17
(NEC 517.17(B))

Non-Essential Loads Non-Essential Loads 18

19
GF = Ground Fault Protection Required Additional Level of Ground Fault is
not Permitted on Load Side of EES
Essential Electrical System Transfer Switches. (NEC 517.17a(2)) 20
Figure 1.1-20. Additional Level of Ground Fault Protection
1 Ground fault protection is required for service disconnects 1000 A and larger or systems with less than 600 V phase-to-phase and greater than 150 V to 21
ground per NEC 230.95.

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1.1-18 Power Distribution Systems
System Design April 2016
Sheet 01 020

emergency system source. Typically, Maintenance and Testing trained in development and execution
i the emergency system generator(s) Regular maintenance and testing of of annual preventative maintenance
are equipped with ground fault alarms the electrical distribution system in procedures of health care facility
that do not automatically disconnect a health care facility is necessary to electrical distribution systems.
ii power during a ground fault. ensure proper operation in an emer-
gency and, in some cases, to maintain Paralleling Emergency Generators
Table 1.1-12. Ground Fault Protection
government accreditation. Any health
1 Applicable Codes
care facility receiving Medicare or Without Utility Paralleling
Description Standard Section In many health care facilities (and
Medicaid reimbursement from the
government must be accredited by other large facilities with critical
2 Services
Feeders
NEC
NEC
230.95
215.10 the Joint Commission on Accreditation loads), the demand for standby
Additional level NEC 517.17 of Health Care Organizations (JCAHO). emergency power is large enough
NFPA 99 4.3.2.5 JCAHO has established a group of to require multiple generator sets to
3 Alternate source NEC 700.26 standards called the Environment of power all of the required essential
NEC 701.26 Care, which must be met for health electrical system (EES) loads. In many
care facility accreditation. Included in cases, it becomes more flexible and
4 Wet procedure locationsA wet these standards is the regular testing easier to operate the required multiple
procedure location in a health care of the emergency (alternate) power generators from a single location using
facility is any patient care area that system(s). Diesel-powered EPS instal- generator paralleling switchgear.
5 is normally subject to wet conditions lations must be tested monthly in Figure 1.1-21 on Page 1.1-19 shows
while patients are present. Typical wet accordance with NFPA 110 Standard an example of a typical one-line for a
procedure locations can include oper- for Emergency and Standby Power paralleling switchgear lineup feeding
6 ating rooms, anesthetizing locations, Systems. Generators must be tested the EES.
dialysis locations, etc. (Patient beds, for a minimum of 30 minutes under
A typical abbreviated sequence of
toilets and sinks are not considered the criteria defined in NFPA 110.
7 wet locations.) These wet procedure
operation for a multiple emergency
One method to automate the task of generator and ATS system follows.
locations require special protection
monthly generator tests is through the Note that other modes of operation
to guard against electric shock. The
8 ground fault current in these areas use of Power Xpert communications. such as generator demand priority and
With the Power Xpert integrated meter- automated testing modes are available
must be limited to not exceed 6 mA.
ing, monitoring and control system, a but are not included below. (Reference
9 In areas where the interruption of power facility maintenance director can initiate Tab 41 for complete detailed
is permissible, ground fault circuit a generator test, control/monitor sequences of operation.)
interrupters (GFCI) can be employed. loads, meter/monitor generator test
10 GFCIs will interrupt a circuit when points and create a JCAHO compliant
1. Entering emergency mode
ground fault current exceeds 5 mA report automatically from a central PC. a. Upon loss of normal source,
(1 mA). The report contains all metered values, automatic transfer switches
11 test results, date/time information, etc. send generator control system
In areas where the interruption of necessary to satisfy JCAHO require- a run request.
power cannot be tolerated, protection ments. This automated generator testing
12 from ground fault currents is accom- procedure reduces the labor, training
b. All available generators are
plished through the use of an isolated started. The first generator up
and inaccuracies that occur during to voltage and frequency is
power system. Isolated power systems manual emergency power system tests.
13 provide power to an area that is iso- (See Power Monitoring Tab 2.)
closed to the bus.
lated from ground (or ungrounded). c. Unsheddable loads and load
This type of system limits the amount Table 1.1-14. Maintenance and Testing shed Priority 1 loads are pow-
14 of current that flows to ground in Applicable Codes ered in less than 10 seconds.
the event of a single line-to-ground Description Standard Section d. The remaining generators are
fault and maintains circuit continuity.
synchronized and paralleled
15 Electronic line isolation monitors (LIM) Grounding NFPA 99 4.3.3.1
to the bus as they come up to
are used to monitor and display leakage Emergency power NFPA 99 4.4.4.1.1
system JCAHO EC.2.14(d) voltage and frequency.
currents to ground. When leakage
16 current thresholds are exceeded, visible Generator NFPA 110 8.4 e. As additional generators are
and/or audible alarms are initiated to Transfer switches NFPA 110 8.3.5, 8.4.6 paralleled to the emergency
alert occupants of a possible hazardous bus, load shed priority levels
Breakers NFPA 99 4.4.4.1.2
17 condition. This alarm occurs without NFPA 110 8.4.7 are added, powering their
interrupting power to allow for the associated loads.
safe conclusion of critical procedures. Routine maintenance should be f. The system is now in
18 Table 1.1-13. Wet Procedure Location
performed on circuit breakers, transfer emergency mode.
switches, switchgear, generator equip- 2. Exit from emergency mode
Applicable Codes
ment, etc. by trained professionals
19 Description Standard Section to ensure the most reliable electrical a. Automatic transfer switches
General NFPA 99 4.3.2.2.9 system possible. See Tab 41 for Eatons sense the utility source is
NEC 517.20 Electrical Services & Systems (EESS), within acceptable operational
20 Isolated power NFPA 99 4.3.2.6 which provides engineers, tolerances for a time duration
systems NEC 517.160 set at the automatic transfer
switch.
21

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Power Distribution Systems 1.1-19
April 2016 System Design
Sheet 01 021

b. As each automatic transfer With Utility Paralleling Many health care facilities are taking
switch transfers back to utility Today, many utilities are offering their advantage of these utility incentives i
power, it removes its run customers excellent financial incen- by adding generator capacity over
request from the generator tives to use their on-site generation and above the NFPA requirements.
plant. capacity to remove load from the utility Figure 1.1-22 on Page 1.1-20 shows ii
c. When the last automatic trans- grid. These incentives are sometimes an example one-line of a health care
fer switch has retransferred to referred to as limited interruptible facility with complete generator
the utility and all run requests rates (LIP). Under these incentives, backup and utility interconnect. 1
have been removed from the utilities will greatly reduce or eliminate NFPA 110 requirements state that the
generator plant, all generator kWhr or kW demand charges to their
circuit breakers are opened. customers with on-site generation
normal and emergency sources must 2
be separated by a fire-rated wall.
d. The generators are allowed capabilities. In exchange, during times
of peak loading of the utility grid, the The intent of this requirement is so that
to run for their programmed
utility can ask their LIP rate customers a fire in one location cannot take out 3
cool-down period.
to drop load from the grid by using both sources of power. To meet this
e. The system is now back in their on-site generation capabilities. requirement, the paralleling switchgear
automatic/standby mode. must be split into separate sections
4
Health care facilities are ideally suited with a tie bus through a fire-rated wall.
to take advantage of these programs For more information on generator
because they already have significant paralleling switchgear, see Tab 40.
5
on-site generation capabilities due to
the code requirements described.
6
Utility
7
Transformer Generators X = Number of Units
8
Utility G1 G2 Gx
Metering
9
Typical
Generator
Breaker
Service Main 10

Normal Bus Emergency Bus 11


Optional Optional Electrically
Electrically Operated Stored
Energy Breakers
12
Operated
Stored EF1 EF2 EFx
F1 F2 Fx
Energy
Breakers 13

14
Equipment Life Safety Critical Load Shed/Load
ATS # 1 ATS # 2 ATS # X Add ATS Units
Non-Essential
Loads
15
Optional Closed
EP1 EP2 Typical
Panelboards
EPX Transition 16
Paralleling of
Generators and
Utility
17
Figure 1.1-21. Typical One-Line for a Paralleling Switchgear Lineup Feeding the Essential Electrical System (EES)
18

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1.1-20 Power Distribution Systems
System Design April 2016
Sheet 01 022

i Utility Fire-Rated Wall


or Separation Barrier

ii Transformer
Generators X = Number of Units

Utility G1 G2 Gx
1 Metering
Utility
Closed
Protective Typical
2 Relay
Transition
Paralleling of Generator
Generators and Breaker
Service Main Utility, Plus
3 Soft Loading/
Unloading
Normal Bus Emergency Bus
4 TIE Optional TIE
Optional Electrically Operated
Electrically Stored Energy
5 Operated
Field Installed
Cable or Busway
Breakers
Stored F1 F2 Fx EF1 EF2 EFx
Energy
6 Breakers

7 Equipment Life Safety Critical Load Shed/


ATS # 1 ATS # 2 ATS # X Load Add
Non-Essential ATS Units
8 Loads

EP1 EP2 EPX Typical


9 Panelboards

Figure 1.1-22. Typical One-Line Health Care Facility with Complete Generator Backup and Utility Interconnect
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Power Distribution Systems 1.2-1
April 2016 Generator System Design
Sheet 01 023

Generators and a supply-side bonding jumper to Types of Generators


i
be installed from the source of a
Generator Systems separately derived system to the first Generators can be either synchronous
disconnecting means in accordance or asynchronous. Asynchronous
with 250.30(A)(2). Another new generators are also referred to as ii
requirement, 250.30(C)Outdoor induction generators. The construction
Sourcehas been added, and requires is essentially the same as an induction
a grounding electrode connection at motor. It has a squirrel-cage rotor and 1
the source location when the separately wound stator. An induction generator
derived system is located outside is a motor driven above its designed
of the building or the structure synchronous speed thus generating 2
being supplied. power. It will operate as a motor if it
is running below synchronous speed.
Typical Diesel GensetCaterpillar Article 445.19Generators Supplying The induction generator does not have 3
Multiple Loadshas been revised an exciter and must operate in parallel
Introduction to require that the generator have with the utility or another source. The
The selection and application overcurrent protection per 240.15(A) induction generator requires VARs from 4
when using individual enclosures an external source for it to generate
of generators into the electrical
tapped from a single feeder. power. The induction generator
distribution system will depend on
the particular application. There are Article 517.17(B)Feeder GFP (Health
operates at a slip frequency so its 5
output frequency is automatically
many factors to consider, including Care Facilities)now allows, but does locked in with the utility's frequency.
code requirements, environmental not require, multiple levels of GFPE
constraints, fuel sources, control upstream of the transfer switch when An induction generator is a popular
6
complexity, utility requirements and the choice is made to provide GFPE choice for use when designing
load requirements. The health care on the alternate power source cogeneration systems, where it will
requirements for legally required (i.e., generator). operate in parallel with the utility.
7
emergency standby generation This type of generator offers certain
systems are described starting on Article 701.6(D)Signals (Legally advantages over a synchronous
Page 1.1-15. Systems described in Required Standby Systems)now generator. For example, voltage and
8
this section are applicable to health requires ground fault indication for frequency are controlled by the utility;
care requirements, as well as other legally required standby systems of thus voltage and frequency regulators
facilities that may require a high more than 150 V to ground and OCPDs are not required. In addition, the
9
degree of reliability. The electrical rated 1000 A or more. generator construction offers high
supply for data centers, financial reliability and little maintenance.
institutions, telecommunications, Types of Engines Also, a minimum of protective relays
10
government and public utilities Many generator sets are relatively and controls are required. Its major
also require high reliability. Threats disadvantages are that it requires
of disaster or terror attacks have
small in size, typically ranging from
VARs from the system and it normally
11
several kilowatts to several megawatts.
prompted many facilities to require These units are often required to come cannot operate as a standby/
complete self-sufficiency for emergency generator.
continuous operation.
online and operate quickly. They need 12
to have the capacity to run for an
Synchronous generators, however,
extended period of time. The internal
2011 NEC Changes Related to are the most common. Their output is
combustion engine is an excellent
determined by their field and governor 13
Generator Systems choice as the prime mover for the
controls. Varying the current in the
majority of these applications. Turbines
Article 250.30Grounding Separately DC field windings controls the voltage
Derived AC Systemshas been
may also be used. Diesel-fueled
output. The frequency is controlled 14
engines are the most common, but
completely rewritten for clarity and by the speed of rotation. The torque
other fuels used include natural gas,
for usability. Most notably, the term applied to the generator shaft by
equipment bonding jumper was
digester gas, landfill gas, propane,
the driving engine controls the power 15
biodiesel, crude oil, steam and others.
changed to supply-side bonding output. In this manner, the synchro-
jumper (see 250.30(A)(2)). This was Some campuses and industrial nous generator offers precise control
necessary to ensure proper identifica- facilities use and produce steam over the power it can generate. In 16
tion and installation of bonding for heating and other processes. cogeneration applications, it can be
conductors within or on the supply These facilities may find it economically used to improve the power factor of
side of service equipment and feasible to produce electricity as a the system. 17
between the source of a separately byproduct of the steam production.
derived system and the first discon- These installations would typically
necting means. The other require- be classified as a cogeneration facility
18
ments for grounded systems were producing a fairly constant power
renumbered to accommodate the output and operating in parallel with
250.30(A)(2) change. 250.30(B)(3) the electric utility system.
19
Ungrounded Systemshas been
added, and this language requires
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1.2-2 Power Distribution Systems
Generator System Design April 2016
Sheet 01 024

Generator Systems Multiple Isolated Standby Generators Multiple generator systems have a
i The second type of generator system more complex control and protection
Emergency Standby Generator System is a multiple isolated set of standby requirement as the units have to be
There are primarily three types of generators. Figure 1.2-2 shows synchronized and paralleled together.
ii generator systems. The first and multiple generators connected to The generators are required to share
simplest type is a single generator a paralleling bus feeding multiple the load proportionally without swings
that operates independently from transfer switches. The utility is the or prolonged hunting in voltage or
1 the electric utility power grid. normal source for the transfer switches. frequency for load sharing. They may
This is typically referred to as an The generators and the utility are never also require multiple levels of load
emergency standby generator continuously connected together in this shedding and/or load restoration
2 system. Figure 1.2-1 shows a single scheme. Multiple generators may be schemes to match generation capacity.
standby generator, utility source required to meet the load requirements Multiple Generators Operating in
and a transfer switch. In this case, the (N system). Generators may be applied
3 load is either supplied from the utility in an N+1 or a 2N system for improved
Parallel with Utility System
or the generator. The generator and system reliability. The third type of system is either one
the utility are never continuously with a single or multiple generators
4 connected together. This simple radial that operate in parallel with the utility
system has few requirements for Utility system. Figure 1.2-3 shows two
protection and control. It also has the
G1 G2 generators and a utility source feeding
5 least impact on the complete electric a switchgear lineup feeding multiple
power distribution system. It should Switchgear
loads. This system typically requires
be noted that this type of generator generator capacity sufficient to carry
6 system improves overall electrical the entire load or sophisticated load
reliability but does not provide the ATS-1 ATS-2
shedding schemes. This system will
redundancy that some facilities require require a complete and complex
7 if the generator fails to start or is out protection and control scheme. The
for maintenance. electric utility may have very stringent
Load 1 Load 2 and costly protection requirements
8 for the system. IEEE standard 1547
Utility describes the interconnection require-
Figure 1.2-2. Multiple Isolated Set of ments for paralleling to the utility.
9 G1 Standby Generators
In an N system, where N is the number Utility
of generators required to carry the
10 load; if a generator fails or is out for
G1 G2

maintenance, then the load may be


dropped. This is unacceptable for most Switchgear
11 critical 24/7 operations. In an N + 1
ATS
system, N is the number of generators
12 needed to carry the load and 1 is
an extra generator for redundancy.
If one generator fails to start or is out
13 Load for maintenance, it will not affect the Load 1 Load 2 Load 3
load. In a 2N system, there is complete
100% redundancy in the standby
14 Figure 1.2-1. Emergency Standby generation system such that the failure Figure 1.2-3. Multiple Generators Operating
Generator System of one complete set of generators in Parallel with Utility System
will not affect the load.
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Power Distribution Systems 1.2-3
April 2016 Generator System Design
Sheet 01 025

Generator Fundamentals The application of generators requires derived system and a four-pole transfer
A generator consists of two primary
special protection requirements. switch is required or ground fault relays i
The size, voltage class, importance could misoperate and unbalanced neu-
components, a prime mover and an and dollar investment will influence tral current may be carried on ground
alternator. The prime mover is the the protection scheme associated with conductors. ii
energy source used to turn the rotor the generator(s). Mode of operation
of the alternator. It is typically a An IEEE working group has studied the
will influence the utility companys practice of low resistance grounding
diesel combustion engine for most interface protection requirements. 1
emergency or standby systems. of medium voltage generators within
Paralleling with the electric utility is the general industry. This working
In cogeneration applications, the the most complicated of the utility
prime mover may come from a steam group found that, for internal generator
driven turbine or other source. On
inter-tie requirements. IEEE ANSI 1547 ground faults, the vast majority of the 2
provides recommended practices. damage is done after the generator
diesel units, a governor and voltage
regulator are used to control the speed breaker is tripped offline, and the field
and power output.
Generator Grounding and Bonding and turbine are tripped. This is due to 3
(Ref. NEC 2011, Article 250.30(A)(1) the stored energy in the generator flux
The alternator is typically a synchro- that takes several seconds to dissipate
nous machine driven by the prime and (2)) 4
after the generator is tripped offline.
mover. A voltage regulator controls its Generator grounding methods need It is during this time that the low
voltage output by adjusting the field. to be considered and may affect the resistance ground allows significant
The output of a single generator or distribution equipment and ratings. amounts of fault current to flow into 5
multiple paralleled generator sets is Generators may be connected in delta the ground fault. Because the large fault
controlled by these two inputs. The or wye, but wye is the most typical currents can damage the generators
alternator is designed to operate at a connection. A wye-connected generator winding, application of an alternate 6
specified speed for the required output can be solidly grounded, low impedance protection method is desirable during
frequency, typically 60 or 50 Hz. The grounded, high impedance grounded this time period. One of the solutions
voltage regulator and engine governor or ungrounded. Section 1.4 discusses set forth by this working group is 7
along with other systems define the general grounding schemes, benefits a hybrid high resistance grounding
generators response to dynamic of each and protection considerations. (HHRG) scheme as shown in
load changes and motor starting A solidly grounded generator may have Figure 1.2-4. In the HHRG scheme, 8
characteristics. a lower zero sequence impedance than the low resistance ground (LRG)
its positive sequence impedance. In this is quickly tripped offline when the
Generators are rated in power and
case, the equipment will need to be rated generator protection senses the 9
voltage output. Most generators are
for the larger available ground fault ground fault. The LRG is cleared
designed to operate at a 0.8 power
current. The generators neutral may at the same time that the generator
factor. For example, a 2000 kW
generator at 277/480 V would have a be connected to the system-neutral; if breaker clears, leaving the high 10
it is, the generator is not a separately resistance ground portion connected
kVA rating of 2500 kVA (2000 kW/
derived system and a three-pole transfer to control the transient overvoltages
08 pf) and a continuous
current rating
of 3007A 2500 kVA 480V 3 . switch is used. If the generators neutral during the coast-down phase of the 11
is bonded to ground separate from the generator, thereby all but eliminating
Typical synchronous generators system-neutral, it is a separately generator damage.
for industrial and commercial 12
power systems range in size from
1003000 kVA and from 208 V13,800 V.
Other ratings are available and these HRG 13
discussions are applicable to those 51G
ratings as well. Gen
86
R 59G
14
Generators must be considered in the R LRG
Phase 87GN
short-circuit and coordination study Relays
as they may greatly impact the rating 15
of the electrical distribution system.
This is especially common on large
installations with multiple generators 16
and systems that parallel with the
utility source. Short-circuit current
contribution from a generator 17
typically ranges from 8 to 12 times
full load amperes. Figure 1.2-4. Hybrid High Resistance Grounding Scheme
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1.2-4 Power Distribution Systems
Generator System Design April 2016
Sheet 01 026

Generator Controls A synch-scope is typically supplied The subtransient reactance Xd will


i The engine generator set has controls
on paralleling gear. The synch-scope range from a minimum of approxi-
displays the relative relationship mately 9% for a two-pole, wound-rotor
to maintain the output frequency between voltage phasors on the machine to approximately 32% for a
ii (speed) and voltage. These controls
consist of a governor and voltage
generator to be paralleled and the low-speed, salient-pole, hydro-generator.
bus. If the generator is running slower The initial symmetrical fault current
regulator. As loads change on the than the bus (less than 60 Hz) then the can be as much as 12 times full
1 system, the frequency and voltage needle on the scope will spin in the load current.
will change. The speed control will counterclockwise direction. If it is
then adjust the governor to correct running faster, then it will rotate in Depending on the generator type,
2 for the load (kW) change. The the clockwise direction. The greater the zero sequence impedance may be
voltage regulator will change the the frequency difference, the faster less than the subtransient reactance
field current to adjust the voltage is the rotation. It is important that the and the ground fault current substan-
3 to the desired voltage value. These generators are in phase before they tially higher than the three-phase
are the basic controls found on all are paralleled. Severe damage will short-circuit current. For example, a
synchronous generators. occur if generators are paralleled 2500 kVA, 480/277 V, four-pole, 2/3
4 Multiple generator systems require out-of-phase. pitch standby generator has a 0.1411
per unit subtransient reactance Xd
more sophisticated controls. Generators and a 0.033 per unit zero sequence Xo
are paralleled in a multi-generator Generator Short-Circuit
5 system and they must share the load.
reactance. The ground current is
Characteristics approximately a third larger than the
These systems often have a load shed three-phase fault current. The ground
scheme, which adds to the complexity.
6 If a short circuit is applied directly to fault current can be reduced to the
Multiple generator schemes need a the output terminals of a synchronous three-phase level by simply adding a
master controller to prevent units from generator, it will produce an extremely small reactance between the generator
7 being connected out-of-phase. The high current initially, gradually decaying neutral and ground while still being
sequence of operation is to send a to a steady-state value. This change considered solidly grounded.
start signal to all generators simulta- is represented by a varying reactive The electric power system analysis
8 neously. The first unit up to frequency impedance. Three specific reactances must be performed based on the worst-
and voltage will be permitted to close are used for short-circuit fault currents. case operating conditions. Typically
its respective breaker and energize the They are: this is when all sources are paralleled.
9 paralleling bus. Breakers for the other If the system can operate with both
Subtransient reactance Xd, which is
generators are held open, not permit- the utility supply and generators in
ted to close, until certain conditions used to determine the fault
10 current during the first 1 to 5 cycles parallel, then the equipment must be
are met. Once the paralleling bus is rated for the combined fault current
energized, the remaining generators Transient reactance Xd, which is
used to determine the fault current plus motor contribution. If the generator
must be synchronized to it before and utility will not be paralleled, then
11 the generators can be paralleled. during the next 5 to 200 cycles
both cases will need to be looked at
Synchronization compares the voltage Synchronous reactance Xd, which is
independently and the worst case used
phasors angle and magnitude. Both used to determine the steady- state
12 generators must be operating at the fault current
for selecting the equipment ratings.
same frequency and phase-matched
within typically 5 to 10 degrees with
13 each other. The voltage magnitude
typically must be within 20 to 24%.
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Power Distribution Systems 1.2-5
April 2016 Generator System Design
Sheet 01 027

Generator Protection
Generator protection will vary and
Generator Protection ANSI/IEEE i
Std 242-1986
depend on the size of the generator,
type of system and importance of the ii
generator. Generator sizes are defined 1 1 1
1
as: small1000 kVA maximum up
51 Alternate 32 40
to 600 V (500 kVA maximum when Location
51V
1
above 600 V); medium over 1000 kVA
to 12,500 kVA maximum regardless
of voltage; largefrom 12,500 2
50,000 kVA. The simplest is a single
generator system used to feed emer- 1 3
gency and/or standby loads. In this
Gen 51G 87 3
case, the generator is the only source
available when it is operating and 1
it must keep operating until the
51 Preferred 4
normal source returns. Location Gen

Figure 1.2-5 Part (A) shows minimum 1


recommended protection for a single 51G
5
generator used as an emergency or
standby system. Phase and ground
time overcurrent protection (Device (A) (A) Single Isolated Generator on Low Voltage System (B) 6
(B) Multiple Isolated Generator on Medium Voltage System
51 and 51G) will provide protection for
external faults. For medium voltage
generators, a voltage controlled time Figure 1.2-5. Typical Protective Relaying Scheme for Small Generators 7
overcurrent relay (Device 51V) is
recommended for the phase protec-
tion as it can be set more sensitive
8
R
than standard overcurrent relays and
is less likely to false operate on normal
overloads. This scheme may not
9
provide adequate protection for
50/5A 87-1
internal generator faults when no 10
other power source exists. Local
generator controllers may offer 50/5A 87-2
additional protection for voltage 11
and frequency conditions outside
the generators capabilities.
50/5A 87-3
Figure 1.2-5 Part (B) shows the 12
recommended protection for multiple,
isolated, medium voltage, small
generators. Additional protection 13
may be desired and could include
generator differential, reverse power,
and loss of field protection. Differential Gen 14
protection (Device 87) can be accom-
plished with either a self-balancing
set of CTs as in Figure 1.2-6 or with 15
a percentage differential scheme as
in Figure 1.2-7 on Page 1.2-6. The
percentage differential scheme 16
offers the advantage of reducing the
Figure 1.2-6. Self-Balancing Generator
possibility for false tripping due to
CT saturation. The self-balancing
Differential Relay Scheme 17
scheme offers the advantages of
increased sensitivity, needing three
current transformers in lieu of six, 18
and the elimination of current
transformer external wiring from
the generator location to the generator 19
switchgear location.
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1.2-6 Power Distribution Systems
Generator System Design April 2016
Sheet 01 028

Reverse power protection (Device 32)


i is used to prevent the generator
from being motored. Motoring could Grounding
Resistor
damage (with other hazards) the prime
ii mover. A steam turbine could overheat 51G

and fail. A diesel or gas engine could


either catch fire or explode. A steam
1 turbine can typically withstand approx-
imately 3% reverse power where a
diesel engine can withstand up to 25%
2 reverse power.
Loss of field protection (Device 40) is 87

3 needed when generators are operating


01
in parallel with one another or the R1
PC
power grid. When a synchronous R1

4 generator loses its field, it will continue 02 R2


to generate power as an induction Gen
generator obtaining its excitation from OC
R2

5 the other machines on the system. 03 R3


During this condition, the rotor will 87G R3
quickly overheat due to the slip
6 frequency currents induced in it. Loss
of excitation in one machine could
jeopardize the operation of the other
7 machines beyond their capability and 52

the entire system.

9
To Main Bus
OC = Operating coil
PC = Permissive coil
10
Figure 1.2-7. Generator Percentage Differential Relay (Phase Scheme)
and Ground Differential Scheme Using a Directional Relay
11

12

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Power Distribution Systems 1.2-7
April 2016 Generator System Design
Sheet 01 029

Typical protection for larger generators


is shown in Figure 1.2-8. It adds i
phase unbalance and field ground
fault protection. Phase unbalance 3
(Device 46) or negative sequence
87B
ii
overcurrent protection prevents the 81U/O
generators rotor from overheating
damage. Unbalanced loads, fault 1
conditions or open phasing will
27/59
produce a negative sequence current
to flow. The unbalanced currents 2
induce double system frequency
currents in the rotor, which quickly
causes rotor overheating. Serious 3 1 1 1 3
damage will occur to the generator if 51V 40 32 46
the unbalance is allowed to persist.
3 1 4
Other protection functions such as 87G
87
under/overvoltage (Device 27/59) could 60
be applied to any size generator. The Voltage Regulator and 5
voltage regulator typically maintains Metering Circuits
the output voltage within its desired 1
output range. This protection can 1 64 6
provide backup protection in case the 49
voltage regulator fails. Under/over
frequency protection (Device 81U/81O) 7
could be used for backup protection Gen
for the speed control. Sync check E

relays (Device 25) are typically applied 8


as a breaker permissive close function
where generators are paralleled.
Many modern protective relays are 51G
9
microprocessor-based and provide a
full complement of generator protection 10
functions in a single package. The cost
per protection function has been
drastically reduced such that it is 11
feasible to provide more complete Figure 1.2-8. Typical Protective Relaying Scheme for Large Generator
protection even to smaller generators.
IEEE ANSI 1547 provides recommended 12
practices for utility inter-tie protection.
If the system has closed- transition or
paralleling capability, additional pro- 13
tection may be required by the utility.
Typically, no additional protection is
required if the generator is paralleled 14
to the utility for a maximum of 100
msec or less. Systems that offer soft
transfer, peak shaving or co-generation 15
will require additional utility inter-tie
protection. The protection could
include directional overcurrent and 16
power relays and even transfer trip
schemes. Please consult your local
utility for specific requirements. 17

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1.2-8 Power Distribution Systems
Generator System Design April 2016
Sheet 01 030

i Generator Set Sizing Typical rating definitions for diesel Electrical rating definitions for natural
gensets are: standby, prime plus 10, gas powered gensets are typically
and Ratings continuous and load management defined as standby or continuous with
(paralleled with or isolated from definitions similar to those mentioned
ii Many factors must be considered utility). Any diesel genset can have above for diesels. Natural gas gensets
when determining the proper size or several electrical ratings depending recover more slowly than diesel gensets
electrical rating of an electrical power on the number of hours of operation when subjected to block loads. Diesel
1 generator set. The engine or prime per year and the ratio of electrical engines have a much more direct path
mover is sized to provide the actual load/genset rating when in operation. from the engine governor and fuel
or real power in kW, as well as speed The same diesel genset can have a delivery system to the combustion
2 (frequency) control through the use
of an engine governor. The generator
standby rating of 2000 kW at 0.8 power chamber and this results in a very
factor (pf) and a continuous rating of responsive engine-generator. A natural
is sized to supply the kVA needed at 1825 kW at 0.8 pf. The lower continuous gas engine is challenged with air-fuel
3 startup and during normal running rating is due to the additional hours flow dynamics and a much more indi-
operation and it also provides voltage of operation and higher load that the rect path from the engine governor
control using a brushless exciter and continuous genset must carry. These (throttle actuator) and fuel delivery
4 voltage regulator. Together the engine additional requirements put more system (natural gas pressure regulator,
and generator provide the energy stress on the engine and generator fuel valve and actuator, carburetor
necessary to supply electrical loads and therefore the rating is decreased mixer, aftercooler, intake manifold) to
5 in many different applications to maintain longevity of the equipment. the combustion chamber and this results
encountered in todays society. in a less responsive engine-generator.
Different generator set manufacturers Diesel gensets recover about twice as
The generator set must be able to
6 supply the starting and running
use basically the same diesel genset fast as natural gas gensets.
electrical rating definitions and these
electrical load. It must be able to are based on international diesel For the actual calculations involved
pick up and start all motor loads and
7 low power factor loads, and recover
fuel stop power standards from for sizing a genset, there are readily
organizations like ISO, DIN and others. accessible computer software programs
without excessive voltage dip or A standby diesel genset rating is that are available on the genset manu-
extended recovery time. Nonlinear
8 loads like variable frequency drives,
typically defined as supplying varying facturers Internet sites or from the
electrical loads for the duration of a manufacturers dealers or distributors.
uninterruptible power supply (UPS) power outage with the load normally These programs are used to quickly
systems and switching power supplies
9 also require attention because the SCR
connected to utility, genset operating and accurately size generator sets for
<100 hours per year and no overload their application. The programs take
switching causes voltage and current capability. A prime plus 10 rating is into consideration the many different
waveform distortion and harmonics.
10 The harmonics generate additional
typically defined as supplying varying parameters discussed above, including
electrical loads for the duration of a the size and type of the electrical loads
heat in the generator windings, and power outage with the load normally (resistive, inductive, SCR, etc.), reduced
11 the generator may need to be upsized connected to utility, genset operating voltage soft starting devices (RVSS),
to accommodate this. The type of 500 hours per year and overload motor types, voltage, fuel type, site
fuel (diesel, natural gas, propane, etc.) capability of 10% above its rating for conditions, ambient conditions and
12 used is important as it is a factor in 1 hour out of 12. A continuous rating other variables. The software will
determining generator set transient is typically defined as supplying optimize the starting sequences of the
response. It is also necessary to unvarying electrical loads (i.e., base motors for the least amount of voltage
13 determine the load factor or average loaded) for an unlimited time. The load dip and determine the starting kVA
power consumption of the generator management ratings apply to gensets needed from the genset. It also provides
set. This is typically defined as the load in parallel operation with the utility transient response data, including
14 (kW) x time (hrs. while under that or isolated/islanded from utility and voltage dip magnitude and recovery
particular load) / total running time. these ratings vary in usability from duration. If the transient response is
When this load factor or average <200 hours per year to unlimited unacceptable, then design changes can
15 power is taken into consideration
with peak demand requirements
usage. Refer to generator set manufac- be considered, including oversizing
turers for further definitions on load the generator to handle the additional
and the other operating parameters management ratings, load factor or kvar load, adding RVSS devices to
16 mentioned above, the overall electrical average power consumption, peak reduce the inrush current, improving
rating of the genset can be determined. demand and how these ratings are system power factor and other methods.
Other items to consider include the typically applied. Even though there is The computer software programs are
17 unique installation, ambient, and site some standardization of these ratings quite flexible in that they allow changes
requirements of the project. These across the manufacturers, there also to the many different variables and
will help to determine the physical exists some uniqueness with regard to parameters to achieve an optimum
18 configuration of the overall system. how each manufacturer applies their design. The software allows, for
generator sets. example, minimizing voltage dips
or using paralleled gensets vs. a
19 single genset.

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Power Distribution Systems 1.2-9
April 2016 Generator System Design
Sheet 01 031

Genset Sizing Guidelines Generator Set Installation Hazardous waste considerations


for fuel, antifreeze, engine oil i
Some conservative rules of thumb and Site Considerations Meeting local building and
for genset sizing include:
There are many different installation electrical codes
1. Oversize genset 2025% parameters and site conditions Genset exposure (coastal
ii
for reserve capacity and for that must be considered to have a conditions, dust, chemicals, etc.)
motor starting. successful generator set installation. Properly sized starting systems 1
2. Oversize gensets for unbalanced The following is a partial list of areas (compressed air, batteries
loading or low power factor to consider when conducting this and charger)
running loads. design. Some of these installation Allowing adequate space for 2
parameters include: installation of the genset and for
3. Use 1/2 hp per kW for motor loads. maintenance (i.e., air filter removal,
Foundation type (crushed rock,
4. For variable frequency drives, concrete, dirt, wood, separate oil changing, general genset 3
oversize the genset by at concrete inertia pad, etc.) inspection, etc)
least 40%. Flex connections on all systems that
Foundation to genset vibration
dampening (spring type, cork are attached to the genset and a 4
5. For UPS systems, oversize the rigid structure (fuel piping, founda-
genset by 40% for 6 pulse and and rubber, etc.)
tion vibration isolators, exhaust, air
15% for 6 pulse with input filters or Noise attenuation (radiator fan intake, control wiring, power cables, 5
12 pulse. mechanical noise, exhaust noise, radiator flanges/duct work, etc.)
air intake noise)
6. Always start the largest motor Diesel fuel day tank systems
first when stepping loads.
Combustion and cooling air (pumps, return piping)
6
requirements
Fuel storage tank (double walled,
For basic sizing of a generator system, Exhaust backpressure requirements
the following example could be used: Emissions permitting
fire codes) and other parameters 7
Delivery and rigging requirements Please see the generator set manufac-
Step 1: Calculate Running Amperes turers application and installation
Motor loads: Genset derating due to high guidelines for proper application 8
200 hp motor. . . . . . . . . . . . .156 A
altitudes or excessive ambient and operation of their equipment.
temperatures
100 hp motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78 A 9
60 hp motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 A
Lighting load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68 A
Miscellaneous loads . . . . . . . . . .95 A
10
Running amperes . . . . . . . . . . .445 A

Step 2: Calculating Starting Amperes


11
Using 1.25 Multiplier
Motor loads: 12
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .195 A
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98 A
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60 A
13
Lighting load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68 A
Miscellaneous loads . . . . . . . . . .95 A 14
Starting amperes . . . . . . . . . . .516 A

Step 3: Selecting kVA of Generator 15


Running kVA =
(445 A x 480 V x 1.732)/
1000 = 370 kVA 16
Starting kVA =
(516 A x 480 V x 1.732)/ 17
1000 = 428 kVA
Solution
Generator must have a minimum
18
starting capability of 428 kVA and Figure 1.2-9. Typical Genset Installation
minimum running capability of 370 kVA. 19
Note: Courtesy of Caterpillar, Inc.
Also, please see section Factors
Governing Voltage Drop on
Page 1.3-21 for further discussion 20
on generator loading and reduced volt-
age starting techniques for motors.
21

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1.2-10 Power Distribution Systems
April 2016
Sheet 01 032

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Power Distribution Systems 1.3-1
April 2016 System Analysis
Sheet 01 033

Systems Analysis The principal types of computer Short-circuit calculations define


i
programs used to provide system momentary and steady-state fault
A major consideration in the studies include: currents for LV and MV breaker and
design of a distribution system is to fuse duty and bus bracings at any
Short circuitidentify three-phase ii
ensure that it provides the required selected location in the system, and also
and line-to-ground fault currents determine the effect on the system
quality of service to the various
and system impedances after removal of utility power due to
loads. This includes serving each
load under normal conditions and, Arc flashcalculates arc flash breaker operation or scheduled power 1
under abnormal conditions, providing energy levels, which leads to the outages. Computer software programs
the desired protection to service selection of personal protective can identify the fault current at any
and system apparatus so that equipment (PPE) bus, in every line or source connected 2
interruptions of service are minimized Circuit breaker dutyidentify to the faulted bus, or to it and every
consistent with good economic and asymmetrical fault current based adjacent bus, or to it and every bus
mechanical design. on X/R ratio that is one and two buses away, or 3
Protective device coordination currents in every line or source in the
Under normal conditions, the impor- system. The results of these calculations
determine characteristics and set-
tant technical factors include voltage
tings of medium voltage protective permit optimizing service to the loads 4
profile, losses, load flow, effects of while properly applying distribution
relays and fuses, and entire low
motor starting, service continuity and apparatus within their intended limits.
voltage circuit breaker and fuse
reliability. The prime considerations
coordination
5
under faulted conditions are apparatus The following additional studies
protection, fault isolation and service Load flowsimulate normal should be considered depending
continuity. During the system prelimi- load conditions of system upon the type and complexity of the 6
nary planning stage, before selection voltages, power factor, line distribution system, the type of facility
of the distribution apparatus, several and transformer loadings and the type of loads to be connected
distribution systems should be ana- Motor startingidentify system to the system: 7
lyzed and evaluated, including both eco- voltages, motor terminal voltage,
Harmonic analysis
nomic and technical factors. During this motor accelerating torque, and
stage, if system size or complexity war- motor accelerating time when Transient stability 8
rant, it may be appropriate to provide a starting large motors Insulation coordination
thorough review of each system under Grounding study
both normal and abnormal conditions. Switching transient 9
Eatons Electrical Services & Systems
division can provide the studies 10
enumerated above.

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1.3-2 Power Distribution Systems
System Analysis April 2016
Sheet 01 034

i Short-Circuit Currents The AC component is not constant secondary current. Limiting the power
if rotating machines are connected source fault capacity will thereby
General to the system because the impedance reduce the maximum fault current from
of this apparatus is not constant. The the transformer.
ii The amount of current available in a
short-circuit fault is determined by the
rapid variation of motor and generator
impedance is due to these factors: The electric network that determines
capacity of the system voltage sources the short-circuit current consists of an
1 and the impedances of the system, Subtransient reactance (x d" ), deter- AC driving voltage equal to the pre-fault
including the fault. Voltage sources mines fault current during the first system voltage and an impedance
include the power supply (utility or cycle, and after about 6 cycles this corresponding to that observed when
2 on-site generation) plus all rotating value increases to the transient reac- looking back into the system from the
machines connected to the system at tance. It is used for the calculation fault location. In medium and high
the time of the fault. A fault may be of the momentary interrupting and/or voltage work, it is generally satisfactory
3 either an arcing or bolted fault. In an momentary withstand duties of to regard reactance as the entire
arcing fault, part of the circuit voltage is equipment and/or system. impedance; resistance may be
consumed across the fault and the total neglected. However, this is normally
Transient reactance (x d' ), which deter-
4 fault current is somewhat smaller than
mines fault current after about 6 cycles
permissible only if the X/R ratio of the
for a bolted fault, so the latter is the medium voltage system is equal to or
worst condition, and therefore is the and this value in 1/2 to 2 seconds more than 25. In low voltage (1000 V
increases to the value of the synchro-
5 value sought in the fault calculations.
nous reactance. It is used in the setting
and below) calculations, it is usually
worthwhile to attempt greater accuracy
Basically, the short-circuit current is of the phase OC relays of generators by including resistance with reactance
determined by applying Ohms Law and medium voltage circuit breakers.
6 to an equivalent circuit consisting of
in dealing with impedance. It is for this
Synchronous reactance (xd ), which reason, plus ease of manipulating the
a constant voltage source and a time- various impedances of cables and
varying impedance. A time-varying determines fault current after steady-
7 impedance is used in order to account state condition is reached. It has no buses and transformers of the low
effect as far as short-circuit calculations voltage circuits, that computer studies
for the changes in the effective voltages are recommended before final selection
of the rotating machines during the are concerned, but is useful in the
8 fault. In an AC system, the resulting determination of relay settings. of apparatus and system arrangements.
short-circuit current starts out higher in Transformer impedance, in percent, is When evaluating the adequacy
magnitude than the final steady-state of short-circuit ratings of medium
9 value and asymmetrical (due
defined as that percent of rated primary
voltage circuit breakers and fuses,
voltage that must be applied to the
to the DC offset) about the X-axis. transformer to produce rated current both the rms symmetrical value and
10 The current then decays toward a flowing in the secondary, with second- asymmetrical value of the short-circuit
lower symmetrical steady-state value. ary shorted through zero resistance. current should be determined.
The time-varying characteristic of the Therefore, assuming the primary
impedance accounts for the symmetri- For low voltage circuit breakers and
11 cal decay in current. The ratio of the
voltage can be sustained (generally fuses, the rms symmetrical value
referred to as an infinite or unlimited should be determined along with
reactive and resistive components (X/R supply), the maximum current a trans-
ratio) accounts for the DC decay, see either: the X/R ratio of the fault
12 Figure 1.3-1. The fault current consists
former can deliver to a fault condition is at the device or the asymmetrical
the quantity of (100 divided by percent short- circuit current.
of an exponentially decreasing direct- impedance) times the transformer rated
13 current component superimposed
upon a decaying alternating-current.
The rate of decay of both the DC and Total CurrentA Wholly Offset
Asymmetrical Alternating Wave
14 AC components depends upon the
ratio of reactance to resistance (X/R) 3.0
rms Value of Total Current
of the circuit. The greater this ratio, Alternating Component -
2.5
15 the longer the current remains higher Symmetrical Wave
than the steady-state value that it rms Value of
2.0
would eventually reach. Alternating Component
16 The total fault current is not symmetrical 1.5
Scale of Curent Values

with respect to the time-axis because


of the direct-current component, hence 1.0
17 it is called asymmetrical current. The
DC component depends on the point 0.5
on the voltage wave at which 1 2 3 4
18 the fault is initiated.
0

See Table 1.3-2 for multiplying factors 0.5


19 that relate the rms asymmetrical value
of total current to the rms symmetrical 1.0
value, and the peak asymmetrical Direct ComponentThe Axis
20 value of total current to the rms 1.5 of Symmetrical Wave Time in Cycles of
a 60 Hz Wave
symmetrical value.
2.0
21
Figure 1.3-1. Structure of an Asymmetrical Current Wave

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Power Distribution Systems 1.3-3
April 2016 System Analysis
Sheet 01 035

Fault Current Waveform Relationships i


The following Figure 1.3-2 describes Based on a 60 Hz system and t = 1/2 cycle
the relationship between fault (ANSI/IEEE C37.13.1990/10.1.4)
current peak values, rms symmetrical 260
-----------------
ii
values and rms asymmetrical values 120 -
Ip ---------------- -----------
depending on the calculated X/R ratio. Peak multiplication factor = ----- = 2 1 + e X R = 2 1 + e X R
I 1
The table is based on the following
general formulas:
2 260

t
-------------
---------------------------------
120 2
2
1. Ip = I 2 1 + e X R I rms asym
---------------------------------
XR
-------------
XR
rms multiplication factor = ------------------------------ = 1 + 2e = 1 + 2e
I 3
2t
---------------
Example for X/R =15
XR
2. I rms asym = I 1 + 2e 4
-------
Peak mf = 2 1 + e 15 = 2.5612
Where:
5
I = Symmetrical rms current
2
Ip = Peak current -----------
rms mf = 1 + 2e
15
= 1.5217 6
e = 2.718
=2f 7
f = Frequency in Hz
t = Time in seconds 8

9
2.8

2.7 10
PEAK MAXIMUM ASYMMETRICAL

RMS MAXIMUM ASYMMETRICAL


Based Upon: rms Asym = DC 2 + rms Sym2
2.6 with DC Value
RMS SYMMETRICAL

Taken at Current Peak 11

RMS SYMMETRICAL
2.5

2.4 12
2.3
13
2.2 1.8
R
TO

14
C
FA

2.1 1.7
N
PEAK MULTIPLICATION FACTOR =

O
TI

RMS MULTIPLICATION FACTOR =


CA

2.0 1.6
15
LI
IP
LT

1.9 1.5
U
M

OR 16
AK

CT
PE

1.8 FA 1.4
TION
ICA
1.7
TIP
L 1.3
17
UL
1.6 SM 1.2
RM
18
1.5 1.1

1.4
1 1.5 2 2.5 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
19
CIRCUIT X/R RATIO (TAN PHASE)
20
Figure 1.3-2. Relation of X/R Ratio to Multiplication Factor
21

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1.3-4 Power Distribution Systems
System Analysis April 2016
Sheet 01 036

i Fault Current Calculations Synchronous motorsuse 5.0 times Medium Voltage Motors
motor full load current (impedance
value of 20%). If known, use actual values otherwise
The calculation of asymmetrical
use the values indicated for the same
currents is a laborious procedure since
ii the degree of asymmetry is not the
When the motor load is not known, type of motor.
the following assumptions generally
same on all three phases. It is common
practice for medium voltage systems,
are made: Calculation Methods
1 to calculate the rms symmetrical fault 208Y/120 V Systems The following pages describe various
current, with the assumption being methods of calculating short-circuit
Assume 50% lighting and 50%
made that the DC component has currents for both medium and low
2 decayed to zero, and then apply
motor load
voltage systems. A summary of
a multiplying factor to obtain the first or the types of methods and types of
half-cycle rms asymmetrical current, calculations is as follows:
3 which is called the momentary Assume motor feedback contribu-
tion of twice full load current of Medium voltage
current. For medium voltage systems
transformer switchgearexact
(defined by IEEE as greater than
4 1000 V up to 69,000 V) the multiplying or
method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 1.3-5
factor is established by NEMA and Medium voltage
ANSI standards depending upon the 240/480/600 V Three-Phase, Three-Wire or switchgearquick
5 operating speed of the breaker. For Four-Wire Systems check table . . . . . . . . . . . Page 1.3-7
low voltage systems, short-circuit Assume 100% motor load Medium voltage
study software usually calculates the switchgear
6 symmetrical fault current and the or Example 1verify
faulted system X/R ratio using ANSI ratings of breakers . . . . Page 1.3-8
Assume motors 25% synchronous
guidelines. If the X/R ratio is within the Medium voltage
7 standard, and the breaker interrupting
and 75% induction
switchgear
current is under the symmetrical fault or Example 2verify
value, the breaker is properly rated. ratings of breakers
8 If the X/R ratio is higher than ANSI Assume motor feedback contribu- with rotating
standards, the study applies a multi- tion of four times full load current loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 1.3-9
plying factor to the symmetrical of transformer
9 calculated value (based on the
Medium voltage
480Y/277 V Systems in Commercial Buildings switchgear Example 3
X/R value of the system fault) and verify ratings of
compares that value to the breaker Assume 50% induction motor load
10 symmetrical value to assess if it is
breakers with
or generators . . . . . . . . . . . Page 1.3-10
properly rated. In the past, especially
Medium voltage
using manual calculations, a multiply- Assume motor feedback contribu-
11 ing factor of 1.17 (based on the use tion of two times full load current fusesexact method . . Page 1.3-11
of an X/R ratio of 6.6 representing of transformer or source Power breakers
a source short-circuit power factor asymmetry
12 of 15%) was used to calculate the derating factors . . . . . . . Page 1.3-11
asymmetrical current. These values Molded-case
take into account that medium voltage breakersasymmetry
13 breakers are rated on maximum derating factors . . . . . . . Page 1.3-12
asymmetry and low voltage breakers Short-circuit
are rated average asymmetry.
14 calculations
To determine the motor contribution short cut method
during the first half-cycle fault current, for a system . . . . . . . . . . Page 1.3-13
15 when individual motor horsepower Short-circuit
load is known, the subtransient calculationsshort
reactances found in the IEEE Red Book cut method for
16 should be used in the calculations. end of cable . . . . . . . . . . Page 1.3-15
When the system motor load is Short-circuit
unknown, the following assumptions calculations
17 generally are made: short cut method
for end of cable
Induction motorsuse 4.0 times chart method . . . . . . . . . Page 1.3-16
18 motor full load current (impedance
Short-circuit currents
value of 25%).
chart of transformers
Note: For motors fed through adjustable 3003750 kVA. . . . . . . . . Page 1.5-9
19 frequency drives or solid-state soft starters,
there is no contribution to fault current, unless
1) they have an internal run contactor or
20 2) they have a bypass contactor.

21

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Power Distribution Systems 1.3-5
April 2016 System Analysis
Sheet 01 037

Fault Current Calculations a voltage = maximum rated voltage


divided by K (for example, 4.76/1.24 =
greater than the available system fault
current of 20,000 A, the breaker is i
for Specific Equipment 3.85). If this breaker is applied in a acceptable (assumes the breakers
Exact Method system rated at 2.4 kV, the calculated momentary and fault close rating is
fault current must be less than 36 kA. also acceptable). ii
The purpose of the fault current calcu- For example, consider the following case: Note: If the system available fault current
lations is to determine the fault current were 22,000 A symmetrical, this breaker
at the location of a circuit breaker, fuse Assume a 12.47 kV system with could not be used even though the 1
or other fault interrupting device in 20,000 A symmetrical available. In Maximum Symmetrical Interrupting
order to select a device adequate for the order to determine if an Eaton Type Capability is greater than 22,000 because
calculated fault current or to check the 150 VCP-W 500 vacuum breaker is Test 1 calculation is not satisfied. 2
thermal and momentary ratings of non- suitable for this application, check
interrupting devices. When the devices the following: For approximate calculations, Table 1.3-1
to be used are ANSI-rated devices, the provides typical values of % reactance 3
fault current must be calculated and the From Table 5.4-1B in Tab 5, Section 5.4 (X) and X/R values for various rotating
device selected as per ANSI standards. under column Rated Maximum equipment and transformers. For sim-
The calculation of available fault current
Voltage V = 15 kV, under column plification purposes, the transformer 4
Rated short-circuit Current I = 18 kA, impedance (Z) has been assumed to be
and system X/R rating is also used to Rated Voltage Range Factor K = 1.3. primarily reactance (X). In addition, the
verify adequate busbar bracing and
momentary withstand ratings of Test 1 for V/Vo x I or 15 kV/12.47 kV x 18 resistance (R) for these simplified cal- 5
kA = 21.65; also check K x I (which culations has been ignored. For detailed
devices such as contactors. calculations, the values from the IEEE
is shown in the column headed
Medium Voltage VCP-W Maximum Symmetrical Interrupting Red Book Standard 141, for rotating 6
Capability) or 1.3 x 18 kA = 23.4 kA. machines, and ANSI C57 and/or C37
Metal-Clad Switchgear Because both of these numbers are for transformers should be used.
The applicable ANSI Standards, C37 7
is the latest applicable edition. The Table 1.3-1. Reactance X
following is a review of the meaning System Reactance X Used for Typical Values and Range
of the ratings. (See Tab 5, Section 5.4.) Component Short-Circuit Close and Latch on Component Base 8
Duty (Momentary) % Reactance X/R Ratio
The Rated Maximum Voltage
This designates the upper limit of Two-pole turbo generator
Four-pole turbo generator
X
X
X
X
9 (714)
15 (1217)
80 (40120)
80 (40120)
9
design and operation of a circuit
breaker. For example, a circuit breaker Hydro generator with damper wedges X X 20 (1332) 30 (1060)
with a 4.76 kV rated maximum voltage and synchronous condensers
10
cannot be used in a 4.8 kV system. Hydro generator without damper windings 0.75X 0.75X 16 (1650) 30 (1060)
All synchronous motors 1.5X 1.0X 20 (1335) 30 (1060)
K-Rated Voltage Factor Induction motors above 1000 hp, 1800 rpm 1.5X 1.0X 17 (1525) 30 (1540) 11
The rated voltage divided by this factor and above 250 hp, 3600 rpm
determines the system kV a breaker can All other induction motors 50 hp and above 3.0X 1.2X 17 (1525) 15 (240)
be applied up to the short-circuit kVA Induction motors below 50 hp and Neglect Neglect 12
rating calculated by the formula all single-phase motors
Distribution system from remote X X As specified 15 (515)
3 Rated SC Current Rated Max. Voltage transformers or calculated 13
Note: Interrupting capabilities of some of Current limiting reactors X X As specified 80 (40120)
todays vacuum breakers may have K = 1, or calculated
whereby the interrupting current is constant Transformers 14
across its entire operating range. OA to 10 MVA, 69 kV X X 8.0 18 (724)

Rated Short-Circuit Current


OA to 10 MVA, above 69 kV X X 8.0 to 10.5
Depends on
18 (724)
15
FOA 1230 MVA X X 20 (730)
This is the symmetrical rms value of primary
FOA 40100 MVA X X windings BIL 38 (3244)
current that the breaker can interrupt
at rated maximum voltage. It should
rating 16
be noted that the product 3 x 4.76 x Table 1.3-2. Typical System X/R Ratio Range (for Estimating Purposes)
29,000 = 239,092 kVA is less than the
nominal 250,000 kVA listed. This rating Type of Circuit X/R Range 17
(29,000 A) is also the base quantity Remote generation through other types of circuits such as transformers rated 10 MVA 15 or less
that all the related capabilities are or smaller for each three-phase bank, transmission lines, distribution feeders, etc.
referred to. Remote generation connected through transformer rated 10 MVA to 100 MVA 1540
18
for each three-phase bank, where the transformers provide 90% or more
Maximum Symmetrical Interrupting of the total equivalent impedance to the fault point
Capability Remote generation connected through transformers rated 100 MVA or larger 3050 19
This is expressed in rms symmetrical for each three-phase bank where the transformers provide 90% or more
amperes or kiloamperes and is K x I of the total equivalent impedance to the fault point
rated; 29,000 x 1.24 = 35,960 rounded Synchronous machines connected through transformers rated 25100 MVA 3050 20
to 36 kA. for each three-phase bank
Synchronous machines connected through transformers rated 100 MVA and larger 4060
This is the rms symmetrical current
that the breaker can interrupt down to
Synchronous machines connected directly to the bus or through reactors 40120 21

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1.3-6 Power Distribution Systems
System Analysis April 2016
Sheet 01 038

The Close and Latch Capability The ANSI Standard C37.010 allows the Step 3: Reduce the reactance network
i This is also a related quantity use of the X values only in determin- to an equivalent reactance. Call this
expressed in rms asymmetrical ing the E/X value of a fault current. The reactance XI.
amperes by 1.6 x maximum R values are used to determine the X/R
ii symmetrical interrupting capability. ratio, in order to apply the proper Step 4: Set up the same network for
multiplying factor, to account for the resistance values.
For example, 1.6 x 36 = 57.6 or 58 kA, or
1.6 K x rated short-circuit current. total fault clearing time, asymmetry, Step 5: Reduce the resistance network
1 and decrement of the fault current. to an equivalent resistance. Call this
Another way of expressing the close resistance RI. The above calculations
and latch rating is in terms of the peak The steps in the calculation of fault
of XI and RI may be calculated by
2 current, which is the instantaneous currents and breaker selection are
several computer programs.
value of the current at the crest. ANSI described hereinafter:
Standard C37.09 indicates that the ratio Step 1: Collect the X and R data of the Step 6: Calculate the E/XI value, where
3 of the peak to rms asymmetrical value circuit elements. Convert to a common E is the prefault value of the voltage at
for any asymmetry of 100% to 20% kVA and voltage base. If the reactances the point of fault nominally assumed
(percent asymmetry is defined as the and resistances are given either in 1.0 pu.
4 ratio of DC component of the fault in ohms or per unit on a different voltage X
per unit to 2 ) varies not more than Step 7: Determine X/R = ------I as
or kVA base, all should be changed previously calculated. RI
2% from a ratio of 1.69. Therefore, the to the same kVA and voltage base. This
5 close and latch current expressed in caution does not apply where Step 8: Go to the proper curve for
terms of the peak amperes is = 1.6 x the base voltages are the same as the type of fault under consideration
1.69 x K x rated short-circuit current. the transformation ratio. (three-phase, phase-to-phase, phase-
6 to-ground), type of breaker at the loca-
In the calculation of faults for the pur- Step 2: Construct the sequence
poses of breaker selection, the rotating tion (2, 3, 5 or 8 cycles), and contact
networks and connect properly for parting time to determine the multi-
7 machine impedances specified in ANSI the type of fault under consideration. plier to the calculated E/XI.
Standard C37.010 Article 5.4.1 should Use the X values required by ANSI
be used. The value of the impedances Standard C37.010 for the interrupting See Figures 1.3-3, 1.3-4 and 1.3-5 for
8 and their X/R ratios should be obtained duty value of the short-circuit current. 5-cycle breaker multiplying factors.
from the equipment manufacturer. At Use Figure 1.3-5 if the short circuit is
initial short-circuit studies, data from fed predominantly from generators
9 manufacturers is not available. Typical removed from the fault by two or more
values of impedances and their X/R
ratios are given in Table 1.3-1.
10
130 130 130

11 120 120 120


8

7
5

110 110
12 110
4
6

12
10
5

8
100 100 100 6
4

13 4
3

90 90 90
3

14 80 80 80
TIME
Ratio X/R

Ratio X/R
Ratio X/R

TIME

70 70 70
ING

15
RT
ING

60 60 60
PA
ART

16
T
AC

50 50 50
T P

NT
AC

CO

40
NT

40 40
17
CO

30 30 30
5-CYCLE 5-CYCLE 5-CYCLE
BREAKER
18 20
BREAKER
20 20
BREAKER

10 10
19 10

1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4
20 Multiplying Factors for E / X Amperes Multiplying Factors for E / X Amperes Multiplying Factors for E / X Amperes

Figure 1.3-3. Three-phase Fault Multiplying Figure 1.3-4. Line-to-Ground Fault Multiplying Figure 1.3-5. Three-phase and Line-to-Ground
21 Factors that Include Effects of AC and Factors that Include Effects of AC and Fault Multiplying Factors that Include Effects
DC Decrement DC Decrement of DC Decrement Only

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Power Distribution Systems 1.3-7
April 2016 System Analysis
Sheet 01 039

transformations or the per unit reac- The ANSI standards do not require the Application Quick Check Table i
tance external to the generation is 1.5 inclusion of resistances in the calcula-
times or more than the subtransient tion of the required interrupting and For application of circuit breakers in a
reactance of the generation on a com- close and latch capabilities. Thus the radial system supplied from a single
mon base. Also use Figure 1.3-5 where calculated values are conservative. source transformer. Short-circuit duty ii
the fault is supplied by a utility only. However, when the capabilities of was determined using E/X amperes
existing switchgears are investigated, and 1.0 multiplying factor for X/R ratio
Step 9: Interrupting duty short-circuit the resistances should be included. of 15 or less and 1.25 multiplying 1
current = E/XI x MFx = E/X2.
factor for X/R ratios in the range of
For single line-to-ground faults, the
Step 10: Construct the sequence 15 to 40.
(positive, negative and zero) networks
symmetrical interrupting capability 2
is 1.15 x the symmetrical interrupting Application Above 3,300 ft (1,000 m)
properly connected for the type of fault capability at any operating voltage,
under consideration. Use the The rated one-minute power frequency
X values required by ANSI Standard
but not to exceed the maximum withstand voltage, the impulse with- 3
symmetrical capability of the breaker. stand voltage, the continuous current
C37.010 for the Close and Latch
duty value of the short-circuit current. Section 5 of ANSI C37 provides rating, and the maximum voltage rating
further guidance for medium voltage must be multiplied by the appropriate 4
Step 11: Reduce the network to an breaker application. correction factors below to obtain
equivalent reactance. Call the reac- modified ratings that must equal or
tance X. Calculate E/X x 1.6 if the Reclosing Duty exceed the application requirements. 5
breaker close and latch capability is ANSI Standard C37.010 indicates the
given in rms amperes or E/X x 2.7 if Note: Intermediate values may be obtained
reduction factors to use when circuit
the breaker close and latch capability breakers are used as reclosers. Eaton
by interpolation. 6
is given in peak or crest amperes. VCP-W breakers are listed at 100% Table 1.3-3. Altitude Derating
rating factor for reclosing.
Step 12: Select a breaker whose: Altitude in Correction Factor 7
Feet (Meters) Current Voltage
a. Maximum voltage rating exceeds
the operating voltage of the system: 3300 (1006) (and below)
5000 (1524)
1.00
0.99
1.00
0.95
8
E V max 10,000 (3048) 0.96 0.80
b. -------- I ----------------- KI
X2 Vo
Table 1.3-4. Application Quick Check Table 9
See Table 6.0-1, Tab 6. Source Operating Voltage
Transformer kV
Where: MVA Rating 10
I = Rated short-circuit current Motor Load 2.4 4.16 6.6 12 13.8

Vmax = Rated maximum voltage


100% 0%
11
of the breaker 1 1.5
1.5 2 50 VCP-W 250
VD = Actual system voltage 2 2.5 12 kA 50 VCP-W 250 150 VCP-W 500 150 VCP-W 500 150 VCP-W 500 12
2.5 3 10.1 kA 23 kA 22.5 kA 19.6 kA
KI = Maximum symmetrical 3 3.75
interrupting capacity
3.75 5 50 VCP-W 250 13
c. E/X x 1.6 m rms closing and 5 7.5 36 kA 50 VCP-W 250
33.2 kA
latching capability of the breaker 7.5 10 50 VCP-W 350
10 1 10 49 kA 14
and/or 10 12 1
E/X x 2.7 m Crest closing and 12 15 50 VCP-W 350 75 VCP-W 500
latching capability of the breaker. 46.9 kA 41.3 kA 15
15 20
20 1 20 Breaker Type and 150 VCP-W 750 150 VCP-W 750
25 symmetrical interrupting capacity 35 kA 30.4 kA 16
30 at the operating voltage

50 1 150 VCP-W 1000


46.3 kA
150 VCP-W 1000
40.2 kA
17
1 Transformer impedance 6.5% or more, all other transformer impedances are 5.5% or more.
18

19

20

21

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1.3-8 Power Distribution Systems
System Analysis April 2016
Sheet 01 040

Application on Symmetrical Current Rating Basis For Three-Phase Fault


i E
I 3-Phase -----
Example 1Fault Calculations X
Given a circuit breaker interrupting and momentary rating in the table below,
ii verify the adequacy of the ratings for a system without motor loads, as shown.
where X is ohms per phase and E is
the highest typical line-to-neutral
Table 1.3-5. Short-Circuit Duty operating voltage or
1 Type V Max. Three-Phase Symmetrical Interrupting Capability Close and Latch or IB
Breaker at V Max. Max. KI at 4.16 kV Oper. Voltage Momentary I 3-Phase ------
X
2 50VCPW250 4.76 kV 29 kA 36 kA 4.76
----------- (29) = 33.2 kA I1
58 kA I3
where X is per unit reactance
4.16
LG symmetrical interrupting capability IB is base current
3 36 kA 1.15 (33.2) = 38.2 kA I2
Base current I B = 3.75 MVA
= 0.52kA
Note: Interrupting capabilities I1 and I2 at operating voltage must not exceed maximum 3 4.16 kV
4 symmetrical interrupting capability Kl.
I1 0.52
Check capabilities I1, I2 and I3 on the following utility system where there is no I 3-Phase ----- ---------------------- 8.6 kA Sym.
X 0.0604
5 motor contribution to short circuit.

On 13.8 kV System, 3.75 MVA Base 9 (is less than 15)


System X
R
6 13.8 kV
would use 1.0 multiplying factor for
3.75 MVA- = 0.01 pu or 1%
Z = --------------------------------
375 MVA short-circuit duty, therefore, short-
X circuit duty is 8.6 kA sym. for three-
7 R
= 15
phase fault I1 and momentary duty is
2X
2
2 2 2
Z = X + R = R -------- + 1 8.6 x 1.6 = 13.7 kA I3.
375 MVA R 2
8 Available For Line-to-Ground Fault
Z 1 1
R ----------------------- ------------------ 0.066%
----------------
3E 3I B
9 2 266 15.03 I LG ---------------------------- ----------------------------
X
-------- + 1 2X 1 + X 0 2X 1 + X 0
2
13.8 kV
R
For this system, X0 is the zero sequence
10 reactance of the transformer, which
3750 kVA X = X
----- R = 15 (0.066) = .99% is equal to the transformer positive
R sequence reactance and X1 is the posi-
11 tive sequence reactance of the system.
Transformer Standard 5.5% Impedance
has a 7.5% Manufacturing Tolerance Therefore,
12 4.16 kV
5.50 Standard Impedance 3(0.52)
0.41 (7.5% Tolerance) I LG 9.1 kA Sym.
Transformer Z = 2(0.0604) + 0.0505
13 50VPC-W250 5.09%
Using 1.0 multiplying factor (see
Table 1.3-6), short-circuit duty = 9.1 kA
14 Sym. LG (I2)
Answer
15 Figure 1.3-6. Example 1One-Line Diagram The 50VCP-W250 breaker capabilities
exceed the duty requirements and
From transformer losses per unit or may be applied.
16 percent R is calculated
With this application, shortcuts could
31,000 Watts Full Load 24.2 kW have been taken for a quicker check of
6,800 Watts No Load R -------------------------------- 0.0065 pu or 0.65%
17 3750 kVA the application. If we assume unlimited
24,200 Watts Load Losses short circuit available at 13.8 kV and
that Trans. Z = X
18 Transformer X = Z R
2 2 2
(5.09) (0.65) =
2
25.91 0.42 = 25.48 I B 0.52
Then I 3-Phase ------ ------------------ 9.5 kA Sym.
X = 5.05% X 0.055
19
X/R ratio 15 or less multiplying factor
X R X/R is 1.0 for short-circuit duty.
20 13.8 kV System 0.99% 0.066% 15
Transformer 5.05% 0.65% 8 The short-circuit duty is then 9.5 kA
System Total 6.04% 0.716% 9 Sym. (I1, I2) and momentary duty is
9.5 x 1.6 kA = 15.2 kA (I3).
21 or 0.0604 pu 0.00716 pu

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Power Distribution Systems 1.3-9
April 2016 System Analysis
Sheet 01 041

Example 2Fault Calculations


Given the system shown with motor 13.8 kV System i
loads, calculate the fault currents X = 15
and determine proper circuit breaker 21 kA Sym. Available
selection.
13.8 kV R ii
X = 5.5% X
All calculations on per unit basis. 7500 kVA Z = 5.53% = 10
R = 0.55% R
7.5 MVA base 1
7.5 MVA- = 0.628 kA
Base Current IB = ------------------------------ 6.9 kV
3 6.9 kV 1 2
X R X/R
13.8 kV System 3
X = 0.628 (6.9) = 0.015 0.015 0.001 15 X X
21 (13.8) = 25 = 35
Transformer 0.055 0.0055 10 2 R 3
R 4
197A FL 173A FL
Total Source Transformer 0.070 pu 0.0065 pu 11 X''d = 20% X''d = 25%

3000 hp Synchronous Motor


5
X = 0.20 (0.628) = 0.638 pu at 7.5 MVA Base 3000 hp
0.197 1.0 PF 2500 hp
Ind.
6
Syn.
2500 hp Ind. Motor
7
X = 0.25 (0.628) = 0.908 pu at 7.5 MVA Base Figure 1.3-7. Example 2One-Line Diagram
0.173

E I B- Source of Interrupting Momentary X X (1) 1 8


I 3-Ph ----- ----- where X on per unit base Short-Circuit Current E/X Amperes E/X Amperes R R (X) R
X X
I3 Source Transformer 0.628 0.628 11 11 = 157
= 8.971 = 8.971
Table 1.3-6. Multiplying Factor for E/X 0.070 0.070 0.070 9
Amperes (ANSI C37.010, 1979, Figures 1.1-8, I1 3000 hp Syn. Motor 0.628 0.628 25 = 39
= 0.656 = 0.984 25
1.1-9 and 1.1-10) (1.5) 0.638 0.638 0.638

System Type VCP-W Vacuum I1 2500 hp Syn. Motor 0.628


= 0.461
0.628
= 0.691 35 35 = 39
10
X/R Circuit Breaker (1.5) 0.908 0.908 0.908
Rated Interrupting Time, 5-Cycle I3F = 10.088 10.647 Total 1/R = 235
Type of Fault or 10.1 kA x 1.6 11
17.0 kA Momentary Duty
Ratio Three- LG Three-Phase
Phase and LG
Source of Short Circuit
I B = 0.628 = 0.062
Total X = -------- ------------------
12
Local Remote
I 3F 10.1

1 1.00 1.00 1.00 X


System ----- = 0.062 (235) = 14.5 is a Multiplying Factor of 1.0 from Table 1.3-6
13
15 1 1.00 1.00 1.00 R
20 1.00 1.02 1.05
25
30
1.00
1.04
1.06
1.10
1.10
1.13
Table 1.3-7. Short-Circuit Duty = 10.1 kA 14
36 1.06 1.14 1.17 Breaker V Three-Phase Symmetrical Interrupting Capability Close and Latch
Type Max. or Momentary
40
45
1.08
1.12
1.16
1.19
1.22
1.25
at V Max. Max. KI at 6.9 kV Oper. Voltage
15
50 1.13 1.22 1.27 75VCP-W500 8.25 kV 33 kA 41 kA 8.25 (33) = 39.5 kA 66 kA
55 1.14 1.25 1.30 6.9
60 1.16 1.26 1.32 150VCP-W500 15 kV 18 kA 23 kA 15 (18) (39.1) = 23 kA 37 kA 16
65 1.17 1.28 1.33 6.9
70 1.19 1.29 1.35 (But not to exceed KI)
75 1.20 1.30 1.36 17
80 1.21 1.31 1.37 Answer
85 1.38
Either breaker could be properly
90
95
1.22

1.32

1.39
1.40 applied, but price will make the type 18
100 1.23 1.33 1.41 150VCP-W500 the more economical
selection.
100
120
1.24
1.24
1.34
1.35
1.42
1.43
19
130 1.24 1.35 1.43
1 Where system X/R ratio is 15 or less, the
multiplying factor is 1.0.
20

21

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1.3-10 Power Distribution Systems
System Analysis April 2016
Sheet 01 042

Example 3Fault Calculations Answer


i Check breaker application or generator bus for the system of generators shown. The 50VCP-W250 breaker could be
Each generator is 7.5 MVA, 4.16 kV 1040 A full load, IB = 1.04 kA applied.
ii Sub transient reactance Xd = 11% or, X = 0.11 pu

1 Gen X
----- ratio is 30
R

2 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 3
and
XS X X X X RS R R R R

3 XS X-
G1 G2 G3
or XS X
----- and R S ---- Therefore, System --------- ----
R Gen X
----- 30
3 3 RS R R
4
Since generator neutral grounding reactors are used to limit the ILG to I3-phase or
below, we need only check the I3 short-circuit duty.
5
I B I B I B 31B 3(1.04) 4.16 kV
IB Phase -----
- + ------ + ------ + ------------ ----------------------- 28.4 kA Symmetrical E/X amperes
X X X X 0.11
6
X
System ----- of 30 is a Multiplying Factor of 1.04 from Table 1.3-6.
7 R
Short-circuit duty is 28.4 (1.04) = 29.5 kA Symmetrical
8 Three-Phase Symmetrical Interrupting Capability Figure 1.3-8. Example 3One-Line Diagram
Breaker Type V Max. at V Max. Max. KI at 4.16 kV Oper. Voltage
50VCP-W250 4.76 kV 29 kA 36 kA 4.76
9 4.16
(29) = 33.2 kA

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

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Power Distribution Systems 1.3-11
April 2016 System Analysis
Sheet 01 043

Medium Voltage Fuses Step 3Construct the sequence Low Voltage Power Circuit i
networks using reactances and connect
Fault Calculations properly for the type of fault under BreakersFault Calculations
consideration and reduce to a single
There are two basic types of medium equivalent reactance. The steps for calculating the fault cur- ii
voltage fuses. The following definitions rent for the selection of a low voltage
are taken from ANSI Standard C37.40. Step 4Construct the sequence power circuit breaker are the same as
networks using resistances and those used for medium voltage circuit 1
Expulsion Fuse (Unit) connect properly for the type of breakers except that where the con-
A vented fuse (unit) in which the fault under consideration and reduce nected loads to the low voltage bus
expulsion effect of the gases produced to a single equivalent resistance. 2
by internal arcing, either alone or aided includes induction and synchronous
by other mechanisms, results in current Step 5Calculate the E/XI value, motor loads. The assumption is made
interruption. where E is the prefault value of the that in 208Y/120 V systems the contri-
voltage at the point of fault normally bution from motors is two times the full 3
Current-Limiting Fuse (Unit) assumed 1.0 in pu. For three-phase load current of step-down transformer.
A fuse unit that, when its current- faults E/XI is the fault current to be This corresponds to an assumed 50%
responsive element is melted by a used in determining the required motor aggregate impedance on a kVA 4
current within the fuses specified interrupting capability of the fuse. base equal to the transformer kVA
current-limiting range, abruptly rating or 50% motor load. For 480 V,
introduces a high resistance to
Note: It is not necessary to calculate a 480Y/277 V and 600 V systems, the 5
single phase-to-phase fault current. This assumption is made that the contribution
reduce current magnitude and current is very nearly 3 /2 x three-phase
duration, resulting in subsequent from the motors is four times the full
current interruption.
fault. The line-to-ground fault may exceed
the three-phase fault for fuses located in load current of the step-down trans- 6
generating stations with solidly grounded former, which corresponds to an assumed
There are two classes of fuses; neutral generators, or in delta-wye trans- 25% aggregate motor impedance on a
power and distribution. They are formers with the wye solidly grounded, kVA base equal to the transformer kVA 7
distinguished from each other by where the sum of the positive and negative rating or 100% motor load.
the current ratings and minimum sequence impedances on the high voltage
melting type characteristics. side (delta) is smaller than the impedance of In low voltage systems that contain 8
the transformer. generators, the subtransient reactance
The current-limiting ability of a should be used.
current-limiting fuse is specified by For single line-to-ground fault: 9
If the X/R to the point of fault is greater
its threshold ratio, peak let-through X I X I (+) + X I () + X I (0) than 6.6, a derating multiplying factor
current and I2t characteristics.
(MF) must be applied. The X/R ratio is
Interrupting Ratings of Fuses calculated in the same manner as that
10
E
If ------- 3 for medium voltage circuit breakers.
Modern fuses are rated in amperes XI
rms symmetrical. They also have a Calculated symmetrical amperes x 11
listed asymmetrical rms rating that Step 6Select a fuse whose MF breaker interrupting rating.
is 1.6 x the symmetrical rating. published interrupting rating
The multiplying factor MF can be 12
exceeds the calculated fault current.
Refer to ANSI/IEEE C37.48 for fuse calculated by the formula:
interrupting duty guidelines. Figure 1.3-2 should be used where
X/R
older fuses asymmetrically rated are 2 1 2.718 13
Calculation of the Fuse Required
involved. MF
Interrupting Rating: 2.29
Step 1Convert the fault from The voltage rating of power fuses used If the X/R of system feeding the
the utility to percent or per unit on on three-phase systems should equal breaker is not known, use X/R = 15.
14
a convenient voltage and kVA base. or exceed the maximum line-to-line
voltage rating of the system. Current For fused breakers by the formula:
Step 2Collect the X and R data of all limiting fuses for three-phase systems 15
2 X/R
the other circuit elements and convert should be so applied that the fuse 1 2 2.718
to a percent or per unit on a conve- MF
voltage rating is equal to or less than 1.25
nient kVA and voltage base same as 1.41 x nominal system voltage.
16
that used in Step 1. Use the substran- If the X/R of the system feeding the
sient X and R for all generators and breaker is not known, use X/R = 20.
motors. 17
Refer to Table 1.3-8 for the standard
ranges of X/R and power factors used in
testing and rating low voltage breakers. 18
Refer to Table 1.3-9 for the circuit
breaker interrupting rating multiplying
factors to be used when the calculated 19
X/R ratio or power factor at the point
the breaker is to be applied in the
power distribution system falls outside 20
of the Table 1.3-8 X/R or power factors
used in testing and rating the circuit
breakers. MF is always greater than 1.0. 21

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1.3-12 Power Distribution Systems
System Analysis April 2016
Sheet 01 044

i Molded-Case Breakers and Low Voltage Circuit Breaker


Insulated Case Circuit Interrupting Derating Factors
ii BreakersFault Calculations Refer to Table 1.3-8 for the standard Established standard values include
ranges of X/R and power factors the following:
The method of fault calculation is the
used in testing and rating low voltage
same as that for low voltage power Table 1.3-8. Standard Test Power Factors
1 circuit breakers. Again, the calculated
breakers. Refer to Table 1.3-9 for
the circuit breaker interrupting rating Interrupting Power Factor X/R Test
fault current x MF breaker interrupting Rating in kA Test Range Range
de-rating factors to be used when the
capacity. Because molded case breakers
2 are tested at lower X/R ratios, the MFs
calculated X/R ratio or power factor Molded Case Circuit Breaker
at the point the breaker is to be applied 10 or Less 0.450.50 1.981.73
are different than those for low voltage
in the power distribution system falls Over 10 to 20 0.250.030 3.873.18
power circuit breakers. Over 20 0.150.20 6.64.9
3 outside of the Table 1.3-8 X/R or power
X factors used in testing and rating the Low Voltage Power Circuit Breaker
2
1 + 2.718 R 2 circuit breakers. All 0.15 Maximum 6.6 Minimum
4 MF -----------------------------------------------------
X Normally the short-circuit power factor
1 For distribution systems where the
1 + 2.718 R 1 or X/R ratio of a distribution system
calculated short-circuit current X/R
need not be considered in applying
5 X1 R1 = test X/R value low voltage circuit breakers. This is
ratio differs from the standard values
given in the above table, circuit breaker
because the ratings established in
interrupting rating derating factors from
X2 R2 = X/R at point where breaker the applicable standard are based
6 is applied on power factor values that amply
Table 1.3-9 table should be applied.
cover most applications.
7
Table 1.3-9. Circuit Breaker Interrupting Rating Derating Factors
% P.F. X/R Interrupting Rating
8 Molded Case or Insulated Case Power Circuit Breaker
>10 kA
m/ = 10 kA m/ = 20 kA L20 kA Unfused Fused
9
50 1.73 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
30 3.18 0.847 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
10 25 3.87 0.805 0.950 1.000 1.000 1.000
20 4.90 0.762 0.899 1.000 1.000 1.000
15 6.59 0.718 0.847 0.942 1.000 0.939
12 8.27 0.691 0.815 0.907 0.962 0.898
11 10 9.95 0.673 0.794 0.883 0.937 0.870
8.5 11.72 0.659 0.778 0.865 0.918 0.849
7 14.25 0.645 0.761 0.847 0.899 0.827
12 5 19.97 0.627 0.740 0.823 0.874 0.797

Note: These are derating factors applied to the breaker and are the inverse of MF.
13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

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Power Distribution Systems 1.3-13
April 2016 System Analysis
Sheet 01 045

Short-Circuit CalculationsShortcut Method i


Determination of Short-Circuit Current
Note 1: Transformer impedance generally relates to self-ventilated rating (e.g., with OA/FA/FOA transformer use OA base). ii
Note 2: kV refers to line-to-line voltage in kilovolts.
Note 3: Z refers to line-to-neutral impedance of system to fault where R + jX = Z.
Note 4: When totaling the components of system Z, arithmetic combining of impedances as ohms Z. per unit Z. etc., is considered a 1
shortcut or approximate method; proper combining of impedances (e.g., source, cables transformers, conductors, etc.). should use
individual R and X components. This Total Z = Total R + j Total X (see IEEE Red Book Standard No. 141).

1. Select convenient kVA base for system to


2
be studied.
kVA base 2
(a) Per unit = pu impedance kVA base 2 = (pu impedance on kVA base 1)
2. Change per unit, or percent, impedance from
one kVA base to another:
kVA base 1 3
kVA base 2
(b) Percent = % impedance kVA base 2 = (% impedance on kVA base 1)
kVA base 1

percent impedance = (ohms impedance) (kVA base)


4
3. Change ohms, or percent or per unit, etc.: (a) Per unit impedance = pu Z = kV
2
1000
100
(ohms impedance) (kVA base)
(b) % impedance = % Z =
kV 2

10
5
(% impedance) (10) kV 2
(c) Ohms impedance =
kVA base 6
4. Change power-source impedance to per unit (a) if utility fault capacity given in kVA
or percent impedance on kVA base as selected
for this study: kVA base in study
7
Per-unit impedance = pu Z = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-
power-source kVA fault capacity
(b) if utility fault capacity given in rms symmetrical short circuit amperes 8
kVA base in study
Per-unit impedance = pu Z = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-
(short-circuit current) 3 (kV of source) 9
5. Change motor rating to kVA: (a) motor kVA 3 (kV) (I) where I = motor nameplate full-load amperes
(b) if 1.0 power factor synchronous motorkVA = (0.8) (hp)
(c) if 0.8 power factor synchronous motorkVA = (1.0) (hp)
10
(d) if induction motor kVA = (1.0) (hp)

Three-phase kVA Single-phase kVA


11
6. Determine symmetrical short-circuit current: (a) Base current = I Base = or
3 kV kV line-to-neutral

(b) Per unit I SC = 1.0


12
pu Z

(c) rms Symmetrical current = ISC = (pu ISC) (IBase Amperes)


13
Three-phase KVA base Single-phase kVA base
(d) rms Symmetrical current = Amperes = ---------------------------------------------------------------- or -----------------------------------------------------------------
pu Z 3 kV pu Z kV
(Three-phase kVA base) (100) Single-phase kVA base (100)
14
(e) = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- or --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
(%Z) 3 kV (%Z) kV

(g)
(kV) (1000)
= ----------------------------------- 15
3 (ohms Z)

(a) Symmetrical short-circuit kVA = kVA (kVA base) (100)- = kV 2 1000


base- = ---------------------------------------------
7. Determine symmetrical short-circuit kVA: -------------------------
pu Z %Z
----------------------------------
ohms Z 16
2
3(line-to-neutral kV) 1000
(b) = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
(ohms Z)
17
8. Determine line-to-line short-circuit current: (a) from three-phase transformerapprox. 86% of three-phase current
(b) three single-phase transformers (e.g., 75 kVA, Z = 2%) calculate same as one three-phase
unit (i.e., 3 x 75 kVA = 225 kVA, Z = 2%). 18
(c) from single-phase transformersee Page 1.3-15.

(a) synchronous motor5 times motor full load current (impedance 20%) 19
9. Determine motor contribution (or feedback) as
source of fault current: (b) induction motor4 times motor full-load current (impedance 25%) j
See IEEE
Standard No. 141
(c) motor loads not individually identified, use contribution from group of motors as follows:
on 208Y/120 V systems2.0 times transformer full-load current 20
on 240-480-600 V three-phase, three-wire systems4.0 times transformer full-load current
on 480Y/277 V three-phase, four-wire systems
In commercial buildings, 2.0 times transformers full-load current (50% motor load)
In industrial plants, 4.0 times transformer full-load current (100% motor load) 21

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1.3-14 Power Distribution Systems
System Analysis April 2016
Sheet 01 046

Example Number 1
i
How to Calculate Short-Circuit Currents at Ends of Conductors
ii A. System Diagram B. Impedance Diagram (Using Short Cut Method for Combining Impedances
and Sources).
1 A B C
Utility Source 500 MVA
Major Contribution
Utility
2
Cables
Transformer

3 1000 kV A
Switchboard Fault
5.75%
480V Cables
4 Cable Fault
Switchboard Fault

5 0.002 pu 1.00 pu 1.00 pu 1.00 pu


100 ft (30m)
3350 kcmil Cable
6 A B C
in Steel Conduit
0.0575 pu 0.027 pu 0.027 pu 0.027 pu
Switchboard Fault
Mixed LoadMotors and Lighting
7 Each Feeder100 ft (30m) of 3350 kcmil
0.027 pu
Cable in Steel Conduit Feeding Lighting and
250 kVA of Motors
Cable Fault
8 Cable Fault
Combining Series Impedances: ZTOTAL = Z1 + Z2 + ... +Zn

9 C. Conductor impedance from Table 1.5-17, Combining Parallel Impedances:


1 =
ZTOTAL
1 + 1 + ... 1
Z1 Z2 Zn
Page 1.5-15. Conductors: 3350 kcmil copper,
single conductors Circuit length: 100 ft
10 (30 m), in steel (magnetic) conduit Impedance
0.0595 pu 0.342 pu 0.0507 pu
Z = 0.00619 ohms/100 ft (30 m).
ZTOT = 0.00619 ohms (100 circuit feet) E 0.0777 pu
11 0.027 pu 0.027 pu
D. Fault current calculations (combining imped-
ances arithmetically, using approximate
12 Short Cut methodsee Note 4,
Page 1.3-13)

13 Equation
Step (See) Calculation
1 Select 1000 kVA as most convenient base, since all data except utility source is on
secondary of 1000 kVA transformer.
14
2 4(a) kVA base - = --------------------
Utility per unit impedance = Z = ------------------------------------------ 1000 - = 0.002 pu
pu
utility fault kVA 500.000
15 %Z- = 5.75
3 3(a) Transformer per unit impedance = Z = --------- ----------- = 0.0575 pu
pu
100 100

16 4 4(a) and kVA base - = -------------------


Motor contribution per unit impedance = Z = ---------------------------------------
pu
1000 - = 1.00 pu
9(c) 4 x motor kVA 4 x 250

17 5 3(a) Cable impedance in ohms (see above) = 0.00619 ohms

Cable impedance per unit = Z = (ohms)(kVA base) (0.00619)(1000)- = 0.027 pu


-------------------------------------------------- = ------------------------------------------
pu 2 2
18 (kV) (1000) (0.480) (1000)
6 6(d) Total impedance to switchboard fault = 0.0507 pu (see diagram above)

19 Symmetrical short circuit current at switchboard fault = 3-phase kVA base 1000
= = 23,720 amperes rms
Z 3 kV 0.0507 3 0.480
pu
7 6(d) Total impedance to cable fault = 0.0777 pu (see diagram above)
20
Symmetrical short circuit current at cable fault = 3-phase kVA base 1000
= = 15, 480 amperes rms
Z 3 kV 0.0777 3 0.480
pu
21
Figure 1.3-9. Example Number 1

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Power Distribution Systems 1.3-15
April 2016 System Analysis
Sheet 01 047

Example Number 2
i
Fault CalculationSecondary Side of Single-Phase Transformer

A. System Diagram Deriving Transformer R and X:


ii
480V Three-Phase Switchboard Bus at 50,000A Symmetrical, X/R = 6.6 { RX == 0.1498 Z
0.9887 Z
X
6.6 X = 6.6 R
R 1
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Z= X +R = 6.6R + R = 43.56R + R = 44.56R = 6.6753R
100 Ft. Two #2/0 Copper Conductors, Magnetic Conduit R = 0.0104 Ohms
{
X = 0.0051 Ohms
Z
2
R= R = 0.1498Z
6.6753
75 kVA Single-Phase 480-120/240V; Z = 2.8%, R = 1.64%, X = 2.27%

X = 6.6R X = 0.9887Z 3
120V
F2
Half-winding of Transformer
{ Multiply % R by 1.5
Multiply % X by 1.2 } Reference: IEEE Standard No. 141 4
240V
F1 Full-winding of Transformer

B. Impedance DiagramFault F1 C. Impedance DiagramFault F2 5

RSyst = 0.00054 RSyst = 0.00356 RSyst = 0.00054 XSyst = 0.00356 6


RCond = 0.00677 RCond = 0.00332 RCond = 0.00677 XCond = 0.00332

RTfmr = 0.0164 RTfmr = 0.0227 RTfmr = 0.0246 XTfmr = 0.0272 7


RTotal = 0.02371 RTotal = 0.02958 RTotal = 0.03191 XTotal = 0.03408
F1 F1 F2 F2
8
D. Impedance and Fault Current Calculations75 kVA Base
Note: To account for the outgoing and return paths of single-phase circuits (conductors,
systems, etc.) use twice the three-phase values of R and X. 9
75
ZSyst 0.0018 pu (From Page 1.3-13 RSyst = 2 (0.1498 x Z) = 0.00054 pu
3 0.480 50,000 Formula 4(b) )
XSyst = 2 (0.9887 x Z) = 0.00356 pu 10
kVA Base 0.0104 75
RCond = 2
ohms
ZCond = (From Page 1.3-13 = 0.00677 pu
2
kV 1000
0.48 2 1000
Formula 3(a) )
0.0051 75
11
XCond = 2 = 0.00332 pu
0.48 2 1000
Full-winding of Transformer (75 kVA Base)
1.64
RTfmr = = 0.0164 pu 12
100
2.27
XTfmr = = 0.0277 pu
100 13
1.64
Half-winding of Transformer (75 kVA Base) RTfmr = 1.5 = 0.0246 pu
100
2.27
14
XTfmr = 1.2 = 0.0272 pu
100

Impedance to Fault F1Full Winding Z= 2


0.02371 + 0.02958
2 = 0.03791 pu 15
Impedance to Fault F2Half Winding
Z= 2 2 = 0.04669 pu
Short circuit current F1 = 75 (0.03791 x 0.240 kV) = 8,243 A Symmetrical 0.03191 + 0.03408
Short circuit current F2 = 75 (0.04669 x 0.120 kV) = 13,386 A Symmetrical 16
Figure 1.3-10. Example Number 2
17
Method 1: Shortcut Methods at the load side end of the conductors Add source and conductor impedance or
can be calculated as follows. 0.00923 + 0.00273 = 0.01196 total ohms
End of Cable
This method uses the approximation 277 V/30,000 A = 0.00923 ohms Next, 277 V/0.01196 ohms = 23,160 A 18
of adding Zs instead of the accurate (source impedance) rms at load side of conductors
method of Rs and Xs. Conductor ohms for 500 kcmil conduc- 19
tor from reference data in this section X 30,000 A available
For Example: For a 480/277 V system
with 30,000 A symmetrical available in magnetic conduit is 0.00551 ohms 100 ft (30 m)
at the line side of a conductor run of per 100 ft (30 m). For 100 ft (30 m) and 2500 kcmil per phase 20
100 ft (30 m) of 2500 kcmil per phase two conductors per phase we have:
X If = 23,160 A
and neutral, the approximate fault current 0.00551/2 = 0.00273 ohms (conductor
impedance)
21
Figure 1.3-11. Short-Circuit Diagram

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1.3-16 Power Distribution Systems
System Analysis April 2016
Sheet 01 048

Method 2: Chart Approximate Method Step Five


i The chart method is based on the following: Enter the chart along the bottom horizontal scale with the
distance (in feet) from the transformer to the fault point.
Motor Contribution Draw a vertical line up the chart to the point where it inter-
ii For system voltages of 120/208 V, it is reasonable to assume sects the selected curve. Then draw a horizontal line to the
that the connected load consists of 50% motor load, and that left from this point to the scale along the left side of the chart.
the motors will contribute four times their full load current
1 into a fault. For system voltages of 240 and 480 V, it is rea- Step Six
sonable to assume that the connected load consists of 100% The value obtained from the left-hand vertical scale is the fault
motor load, and that the motors will contribute four times current (in thousands of amperes) available at the fault point.
2 their full load current into a fault. These motor contributions
have been factored into each curve as if all motors were For a more exact determination, see the formula method.
connected to the transformer terminals. It should be noted that even the most exact methods for
3 calculating fault energy use some approximations and some
Feeder Conductors assumptions. Therefore, it is appropriate to select a method
The conductor sizes most commonly used for feeders which is sufficiently accurate for the purpose, but not more
4 from molded case circuit breakers are shown. For conductor burdensome than is justified. The charts that follow make
sizes not shown, the following table has been included for use of simplifications that are reasonable under most cir-
conversion to equivalent arrangements. In some cases it cumstances and will almost certainly yield answers that are
5 may be necessary to interpolate for unusual feeder ratings. on the safe side. This may, in some cases, lead to application
Table 1.3-10 is based on using copper conductor. of circuit breakers having interrupting ratings higher than
necessary, but should eliminate the possibility of applying
Table 1.3-10. Conductor Conversion (Based on Using Copper Conductor)
6 units which will not be safe for the possible fault duty.
If Your Conductor is: Use Equivalent Arrangement

3No. 4/0 cables 2500 kcmil


7 4No. 2/0 cables 2500 kcmil 4 750 kcmil
2 500 kcmil UTILITY KVA
32000 kcmil cables 4750 kcmil 15.0 B 250 kcmil
Fault Current in Thousands of Amperes (Sym.)

5400 kcmil cables 4750 kcmil #1/0 AWG A INFINITE


8 6300 kcmil cables 4750 kcmil F #4 AWG B 500,000
C 250,000
D 150,000
800 A busway 2500 kcmil 12.5 E 100,000
F 50,000
1000 A busway 2500 kcmil
9 1600 A busway 4750 kcmil
10.0
4 750 kcmil
2 500 kcmil
Short-Circuit Current Readout 250 kcmil
#1/0 AWG
10 The readout obtained from the charts is the rms symmetrical
7.5 #4 AWG

amperes available at the given distance from the trans-


5.0
former. The circuit breaker should have an interrupting
11 capacity at least as large as this value.
2.5
How to Use the Short-Circuit Charts
12
Step One 0
0 2 5 10 20 50 100 200 500 1000 2000 5000
Obtain the following data: Distance in Feet from T ransformer to Breaker Location
13
1. System voltage Figure 1.3-12. 225 kVA Transformer/4.5% Impedance/208 V
2. Transformer kVA rating (from transformer nameplate)
14 3. Transformer impedance (from transformer nameplate)
4. Primary source fault energy available in kVA
(from electric utility or distribution system engineers) UTILITY KV
15 30
Fault Current in Thousands of Amperes (Sym.)

A INFINITE
Step Two 4 750 kcmil B 500,000
C 250,000
2 500 kcmil
Select the applicable chart from the following pages. The 250 kcmil D 150,000
16 charts are grouped by secondary system voltage, which is
25
#1/0 AWG
#4 AWG
E 100,000
F 50,000

listed with each transformer. Within each group, the chart


20 B
for the lowest kVA transformer is shown first, followed in
17 ascending order to the highest rated transformer.
F

15
Step Three
18 Select the family of curves that is closest to the available
10 4 750 kcmil
source kVA. The black line family of curves is for a source of 2 500 kcmil
250 kcmil
500,000 kVA. The lower value line (in red) family of curves is #1/0 AWG
19 for a source of 50,000 kVA. You may interpolate between 5
#4 AWG

curves if necessary, but for values above 100,000 kVA it is


appropriate to use the 500,000 kVA curves. 0
20 Step Four
0 2 5 10 20 50 100 200 500 1000 2000
Distance in Feet from T ransformer to Breaker Location
5000

Select the specific curve for the conductor size being used. If
21 your conductor size is something other than the sizes shown Figure 1.3-13. 300 kVA Transformer/4.5% Impedance/208 V
on the chart, refer to the conductor conversion Table 1.3-10.

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Power Distribution Systems 1.3-17
April 2016 System Analysis
Sheet 01 049

B 4 750 kcmil
2 500 kcmil
i
250 kcmil UTILITY KV UTILITY KVA
30 #1/0 AWG 120
Fault Current in Thousands of Amperes (Sym.)

Fault Current in Thousands of Amperes (Sym.)


#4 AWG A INFINITE A INFINITE
F B
C
500,000
250,0 0 0
B 500,000
C 250,000
ii
D 150,0 0 0 4 750 kcmil D 150,000
25 E 10 0,0 0 0 100 2 500 kcmil E 100,000
F 50,000 250 kcmil F 50,000
#1/0 AWG

20 80 B
#4 AWG 1

15 60 F 2
4 750 kcmil
2 500 kcmil
10 250 kcmil 40
#1/0 AWG
#4 AWG
4 750 kcmil
2 500 kcmil 3
250 kcmil
#1/0 AWG
5 20 #4 AWG

4
0 0
0 2 5 10 20 50 100 200 500 1000 2000 5000 0 2 5 10 20 50 100 200 500 1000 2000 5000
Distance in Feet from T ransformer to Breaker Location Distance in Feet from T ransformer to Breaker Location
5
Figure 1.3-14. 500 kVA Transformer/4.5% Impedance/208 V Figure 1.3-17. 1500 kVA Transformer/5.5% Impedance/208 V
6

60
UTILITY KVA
120 4 750 kcmil
UTILITY KVA
7
Fault Current in Thousands of Amperes (Sym.)

A INFINITE Fault Current in Thousands of Amperes (Sym.) A INFINITE


B 500,000 2 500 kcmil B 500,000
4 750 kcmil C 250,000 250 kcmil C 250,000
B #1/0 AWG
2 500 kcmil D 150,000 D 150,000
50 250 kcmil
#1/0 AWG
E 100,000
F 50,000
100 #4 AWG E 100,000
F 50,000
8
#4 AWG

40 B 80

F
F 9
30 60

10
20 40 4 750 kcmil
4 750 kcmil 2 500 kcmil
2 500 kcmil 250 kcmil
#1/0 AWG
10
250 kcmil
#1/0 AWG 20 #4 AWG 11
#4 AWG

0
0 2 5 10 20 50 100 200 500 1000 2000 5000
0
0 2 5 10 20 50 100 200 500 1000 2000 5000 12
Distance in Feet from T ransformer to Breaker Location Distance in Feet from T ransformer to Breaker Location

Figure 1.3-15. 750 kVA Transformer/5.5% Impedance/208 V Figure 1.3-18. 2000 kVA Transformer/5.5% Impedance/208 V 13

14
4 750 kcmil UTILITY KVA UTILITY KVA
60 2 500 kcmil 12
Fault Current in Thousands of Amperes (Sym.)

Fault Current in Thousands of Amperes (Sym.)

250 kcmil A INFINITE A INFINITE


B
#1/0 AWG
#4 AWG
B 500,000
C 250,000
B 500,000
C 250,000
15
D 150,000 D 150,000
50 E 100,000 10 E 100,000
F 50,000 B F 50,000

40
F
8
F 16

30
4 750 kcmil
6 4 750 kcmil
2 500 kcmil
17
2 500 kcmil 250 kcmil
250 kcmil #1/0 AWG
#1/0 AWG #4 AWG
20 4
#4 AWG
18
4 750 kcmil
2 500 kcmil
10 2 250 kcmil
#1/0 AWG
#4 AWG 19
0 0
0 2 5 10 20 50 100 200 500 1000 2000 5000 0 2 5 10 20 50 100 200 500 1000 2000 5000
Distance in Feet from T ransformer to Breaker Location Distance in Feet from T ransformer to Breaker Location
20
Figure 1.3-16. 1000 kVA Transformer/5.5% Impedance/208 V Figure 1.3-19. 300 kVA Transformer/4.5% Impedance/480 V
21

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1.3-18 Power Distribution Systems
System Analysis April 2016
Sheet 01 050

i
UTILITY KVA UTILITY KVA
30 60
Fault Current in Thousands of Amperes (Sym.)

Fault Current in Thousands of Amperes (Sym.)


A INFINITE A INFINITE
ii B 500,000
C 250,000
B 500,000
C 250,000
D 150,000 4 750 kcmil D 150,000
25 E 100,000 50 E 100,000
2 500 kcmil
F 50,000 250 kcmil F 50,000
1 20 40
#1/0 AWG
#4 AWG
4 750 kcmil B
2 500 kcmil
250 kcmil
2 15 B #1/0 AWG
#4 AWG
30
F
F

10 20
3 4 750 kcmil
4 750 kcmil
2 500 kcmil
2 500 kcmil 250 kcmil
5 250 kcmil 10 #1/0 AWG
#1/0 AWG #4 AWG
4 #4 AWG

0 0
0 2 5 10 20 50 100 200 500 1000 2000 5000 0 2 5 10 20 50 100 200 500 1000 2000 5000
Distance in Feet from T ransformer to Breaker Location Distance in Feet from T ransformer to Breaker Location
5
Figure 1.3-20. 500 kVA Transformer/4.5% Impedance/480 V Figure 1.3-23. 1500 kVA Transformer/5.5% Impedance/480 V
6

7 30
UTILITY KVA
60 4 750 kcmil
UTILITY KVA
Fault Current in Thousands of Amperes (Sym.)

Fault Current in Thousands of Amperes (Sym.)

A INFINITE 2 500 kcmil A INFINITE


B 500,000 250 kcmil B 500,000
C 250,000 #1/0 AWG C 250,000
4 750 kcmil D 150,000 D 150,000
8 25 2 500 kcmil
250 kcmil
E 100,000
F 50,000
50 B #4 AWG
E 100,000
F 50,000
#1/0 AWG
#4 AWG
20 B 40
9 F
F
15 30

10 4 750 kcmil
10 2 500 kcmil 20 4 750 kcmil
250 kcmil 2 500 kcmil
#1/0 AWG 250 kcmil
11 5
#4 AWG
10
#1/0 AWG
#4 AWG

12 0
0 2 5 10 20 50 100 200 500 1000 2000 5000
0
0 2 5 10 20 50 100 200 500 1000 2000 5000
Distance in Feet from T ransformer to Breaker Location Distance in Feet from T ransformer to Breaker Location

13 Figure 1.3-21. 750 kVA Transformer/5.5% Impedance/480 V Figure 1.3-24. 2000 kVA Transformer/5.5% Impedance/480 V

14
4 750 kcmil UTILITY KVA
30 2 500 kcmil
Fault Current in Thousands of Amperes (Sym.)

250 kcmil A INFINITE


15 B
#1/0 AWG
#4 AWG
B 500,000
C 250,000
D 150,000
25 E 100,000
F 50,000
16 20
F

17 15
4 750 kcmil
2 500 kcmil
250 kcmil
10 #1/0 AWG
18 #4 AWG

19
0
0 2 5 10 20 50 100 200 500 1000 2000 5000
Distance in Feet from T ransformer to Breaker Location
20
Figure 1.3-22. 1000 kVA Transformer/5.5% Impedance/480 V
21

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Power Distribution Systems 1.3-19
April 2016 System Analysis
Sheet 01 051

Determining X and R Values How to Estimate Short-Circuit Method 2:


i
Currents at Transformer Refer to Page 1.5-9 in the Reference
from Transformer Loss Data section, and use appropriate row of
Secondaries: data based on transformer kVA and
Method 1: ii
primary short-circuit current available.
Given a 500 kVA, 5.5% Z transformer Method 1:
This will yield more accurate results
with 9000W total loss; 1700W no-load To obtain three-phase rms symmetrical and allow for including motor short-
loss; 7300W load loss and primary short-circuit current available at circuit contribution. 1
voltage of 480 V. transformer secondary terminals,
use the formula:
2
100
I SC = I FLC ------------
%Z
2 3
where %Z is the transformer impedance
3 R = 7300 W
500
3 0.480 in percent, from Tables 1.5-6 through
1.5-11, Page 1.5-11. 4
This is the maximum three-phase sym-
metrical bolted-fault current, assuming
sustained primary voltage during fault, 5
%R = 0.0067 ohms i.e., an infinite or unlimited primary
power source (zero source impedance).
0.0067 500
%R = = 1.46% Because the power source must 6
2
10 0.48 always have some impedance, this
is a conservative value; actual fault
%X =
2 2
5.5 1.46 = 5.30% current will be somewhat less. 7
Method 2: Note: This will not include motor short-
Using same values above.
circuit contribution. 8
2
I R Losses
%R = 9
10 kVA
7300
= 1.46
10 500
10
2 2
%X = 5.5 1.46 = 5.30%
11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

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1.3-20 Power Distribution Systems
System Analysis April 2016
Sheet 01 052

Voltage Drop Considerations Computer Equipment: With the Motor Starting


i The first consideration for voltage
proliferation of data-processing and
Motor inrush on starting must be limited
computer- or microprocessor-controlled
drop is that under the steady-state manufacturing, the sensitivity of to minimize voltage dips. Table 1.3-11
ii conditions of normal load, the voltage
at the utilization equipment must be
computers to voltage has become an on the next page will help select the
proper type of motor starter for various
important consideration. Severe dips of
adequate. Fine-print notes in the NEC short duration can cause a computer motors, and to select generators of
1 recommend sizing feeders and branch to crashshut down completely, adequate size to limit voltage dip.
circuits so that the maximum voltage and other voltage transients caused See Tab 29 for additional data on
drop in either does not exceed 3%, by starting and stopping motors can reduced voltage motor starting.
2 with the total voltage drop for feeders cause data-processing errors. While Utility Systems
and branch circuits not to exceed 5%, voltage drops must be held to a mini-
for efficiency of operation. (Fine print Where the power is supplied by a
mum, in many cases computers will
3 notes in the NEC are not mandatory.) utility network, the motor inrush can
require special power-conditioning
be assumed to be small compared
In addition to steady-state conditions, equipment to operate properly.
to the system capacity, and voltage
voltage drop under transient condi- at the source can be assumed to
4 tions, with sudden high-current, short-
Industrial Plants: Where large motors
be constant during motor starting.
exist, and unit substation transformers
time loads, must be considered. The are relatively limited in size, voltage Voltage dip resulting from motor
most common loads of this type are
5 motor inrush currents during starting.
dips of as much as 20% may be per- starting can be calculated on the basis
missible in some cases, if they do not of the voltage drop in the conductors
These loads cause a voltage dip on occur too frequently. Lighting is often between the power source and
the system as a result of the voltage
6 drop in conductors, transformers and
supplied from separate transformers, the motor resulting from the inrush
and is minimally affected by voltage current. Where the utility system is
generators under the high current. dips in the power systems. However, it limited, the utility will often specify the
This voltage dip can have numerous
7 adverse effects on equipment in the
is usually best to limit dips to between maximum permissible inrush current
5 and 10% at most. One critical consid- or the maximum hp motor they will
system, and equipment and conduc- eration is that a large voltage dip can permit to be started across-the-line.
tors must be designed and sized to
8 minimize these problems. In many
cause a dropout (opening) of magnetic
Transformer Considerations
motor contactors and control relays.
cases, reduced-voltage starting of The actual dropout voltage varies con- If the power source is a transformer,
motors to reduce inrush current
9 will be necessary.
siderably among starters of different and the inrush kVA or current of the
motor being started is small compared
manufacturers. The only standard that
exists is that of NEMA, which states to the full-rated kVA or current of the
10 Recommended Limits of that a starter must not drop out at 85% transformer, the transformer voltage
Voltage Variation of its nominal coil voltage, allowing dip will be small and may be ignored.
only a 15% dip. While most starters As the motor inrush becomes a signifi-
General Illumination: Flicker in
11 incandescent lighting from voltage will tolerate considerably more voltage cant percentage of the transformer
dip before dropping out, limiting dip to full-load rating, an estimate of the
dip can be severe; lumen output drops transformer voltage drop must be
about three times as much as the 15% is the only way to ensure continu-
12 voltage dips. That is, a 10% drop in ity of operation in all cases. added to the conductor voltage drop
to obtain the total voltage drop to the
voltage will result in a 30% drop in X-Ray Equipment: Medical x-ray and motor. Accurate voltage drop calcula-
light output. While the lumen output
13 drop in fluorescent lamps is roughly
similar diagnostic equipment, such as tion would be complex and depend
CAT-scanners, are extremely sensitive upon transformer and conductor
proportional to voltage drop, if the to low voltage. They present a small, resistance, reactance and impedance,
voltage dips about 25%, the lamp will
14 go out momentarily and then restrike.
steady load to the system until the as well as motor inrush current and
instant the x-ray tube is fired. This power factor. However, an approxima-
For high-intensity discharge (HID) presents a brief but extremely high tion can be made on the basis of the
lamps such as mercury vapor, high-
15 pressure sodium or metal halide, if the
instantaneous momentary load. In low power-factor motor inrush current
some modern x-ray equipment, the (3040%) and impedance of the
lamp goes out because of an excessive firing is repeated rapidly to create transformer.
voltage dip, it will not restrike until it
16 has cooled. This will require several
multiple images. The voltage regula-
tion must be maintained within the
minutes. These lighting flicker effects For example, if a 480 V transformer
manufacturers limits, usually 2 to 3%,
can be annoying, and in the case of has an impedance of 5%, and the
17 HID lamps, sometimes serious. In
under these momentary loads, to
motor inrush current is 25% of the
ensure proper x-ray exposure.
areas where close work is being done, transformer full-load current (FLC),
such as drafting rooms, precision then the worst case voltage drop will
18 assembly plants, and the like, even be 0.25 x 5%, or 1.25%.
a slight variation, if repeated, can be
19 very annoying, and reduce efficiency. The allowable motor inrush current is
Voltage variation in such areas should determined by the total permissible
be held to 2 or 3% under motor-starting voltage drop in transformer and
20 or other transient conditions. conductors.

21

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Power Distribution Systems 1.3-21
April 2016 System Analysis
Sheet 01 053

Table 1.3-11. Factors Governing Voltage Drop


Type of Starting Starting How Starting Starting Torque per Unit of Full-Load Amperes i
Motor 1 Torque Current 2 Started Current Full Load Torque per kVA Generator
% Full-Load 3 Motor Rpm Capacity for Each

1750 1150 3 850


1% Voltage Drop ii
Design A Normal Normal Across-the-line 600700 1.5 1.35 1.25 0.0109.00936
resistance 480560 0.96 0.87 0.80 0.0136.0117 1
autotransformer 375450 0.96 0.87 0.80 0.0170.0146
Design B Normal Low Across-the-line 500600 1.5 1.35 1.25 0.0131.0109
resistance
autotransformer
400480
320400
0.96
0.96
0.87
0.87
0.80
0.80
0.0164.01365
0.0205.0170
2
Design C High Low Across-the-line 500600 0.2 to 2.5 0.0131.0109
resistance 400480 1.28 to 1.6 0.0164.01365 3
autotransformer 320400 1.28 to 1.6 0.0205.0170
Wound Rotor High Low Secondary controller 100% current
for 100%
torque







0.0655
4
Synchronous (for compressors) Low Across-the-line 300 40% Starting, 40% Pull-In 0.0218
Synchronous (for centrifugal pumps) Low Across-the-line 450550 60% Starting, 110% Pull-In 0.0145.0118
Autotransformer 288350 4 38% Starting, 110% Pull-In 0.0228.0197 5
1 Consult NEMA MG-1 sections 1 and 12 for the exact definition of the design letter.
2 In each case, a solid-state reduced voltage starter can be adjusted and controlled to provide the required inrush current and torque characteristics.
3 Where accuracy is important, request the code letter of the the motor and starting and breakdown torques from the motor vendor. 6
4 Using 80% taps.

Engine Generator Systems From the nameplate data on the motor, Example: 7
With an engine generator as the the full-load amperes of a 7-1/2 hp. Assuming a project having a
source of power, the type of starter 220 V, 1750 rpm, three-phase, squirrel- 1000 kVA generator, where the
that will limit the inrush depends on cage motor is 19.0 A. Therefore: voltage variation must not exceed
8
the characteristics of the generator. Starting current (%F.L.) = 10%. Can a 75 hp, 1750 rpm, 220 V,
Although automatic voltage regulators three-phase, squirrel-cage motor be
are usually used with all AC engine- 10 100 1000 started without objectionable lamp
9
3.45 or 345%.
generators, the initial dip in voltage is 19.0 220 3 0.40 flicker (or 10% voltage drop)?
caused by the inherent regulation of
the generator and occurs too rapidly From Table 1.3-11, a NEMA design C or
From tables in the circuit protective 10
for the voltage regulator to respond. devices reference section, the full-load
NEMA design D motor with an autotrans-
It will occur whether or not a regulator amperes of this size and type of motor
is installed. Consequently, the percent
former starter gives approximately this
is 158 A. To convert to same basis as 11
starting ratio. It could also be obtained
of initial voltage drop depends on the column 7, 158 A must be divided by
from a properly set solid-state adjust-
ratio of the starting kVA taken by the the generator capacity and % voltage
motor to the generator capacity, the
able reduced voltage starter.
drop, or: 12
inherent regulation of the generator, The choice will depend upon the
the power-factor of the load thrown torque requirements of the load since
158 = 0.0158 A per kVA
on the generator, and the percentage the use of an autotransformer starter
1000 x 10 per 1% voltage drop 13
load carried by the generator. reduces the starting torque in direct Checking against the table, 0.0158 falls
proportion to the reduction in starting within the 0.01700.0146 range. This
A standard 80% power-factor engine- current. In other words, a NEMA indicates that a general-purpose motor
14
type generator (which would be design C motor with an autotrans- with autotransformer starting can
used where power is to be supplied former would have a starting torque be used.
to motor loads) has an inherent of approximately full-load (see Table 15
regulation of approximately 40% 1.3-11) whereas the NEMA design D Note: Designers may obtain calculated
from no-load to full-load. This means information from engine generator
motor under the same conditions
that a 50% variation in load would would have a starting torque of
manufacturers. 16
cause approximately 20% variation approximately 1-1/2 times full-load. The calculation results in conservative
in voltage (50% x 40% = 20%).
Note: If a resistance starter were used for results. The engineer should provide 17
Assume that a 100 kVA, 80% PF the same motor terminal voltage, the start- to the engine-generator vendor the
engine-type generator is supplying ing torque would be the same as that starting kVA of all motors connected to
the power and that the voltage drop obtained with autotransformer type, but the
starting current would be higher, as shown.
the generator and their starting sequence. 18
should not exceed 10%. Can a 7-1/2 hp, The engineer should also specify the
220 V, 1750 rpm, three-phase, squirrel- maximum allowable drop. The engi-
cage motor be started without Shortcut Method neer should request that the engine-gen- 19
exceeding this voltage drop? Column 7 in Table 1.3-11 has been erator vendor consider the proper
worked out to simplify checking. generator size when closed-transition
Starting ratio =
The figures were obtained by using the autotransformer reduced voltage start- 20
Percent voltage drop gen. kVA 1000 formula above and assuming ers, and soft-start solid-state starter
1 kVA generator capacity and 1% are used; so the most economical
F.L. amperes volts 3 reg. of gen. method of installation is obtained. 21
voltage drop.

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1.3-22 Power Distribution Systems
System Analysis April 2016
Sheet 01 054

Voltage Drop Formulas If the receiving end voltage, load current and power factor
i (PF) are known.
Approximate Method
2 2
Voltage Drop E VD = E R cos + I R + E R sin + IX E R
ii
E VD = IR cos + IX sin
ER is the receiving end voltage.
1 where abbreviations are same as below Exact Method. Exact Method 2If receiving or sending mVA and its power
factor are known at a known sending or receiving voltage.
Exact Methods
2 Voltage drop
2 2 ZMVA R
2
- + 2ZMVA R cos R
E S = E R + ---------------------------------
Exact Method 1If sending end voltage and load PF 2
ER
3 are known.
or
2 2
E VD = E S + IR cos + IX sin E S IX cos IR sin
4 2 2 ZMVA R
2
- 2ZMVA S cos S
E R = E S + ---------------------------------
where: 2
ES
5 EVD = Voltage drop, line-to-neutral, volts
where:
ES = Source voltage, line-to-neutral, volts
ER = Receiving line-line voltage in kV
6 I = Line (Load) current, amperes
ES = Sending line-line voltage in kV
R = Circuit (branch, feeder) resistance, ohms
7 X = Circuit (branch, feeder) reactance, ohms
MVAR = Receiving three-phase mVA
MVAS = Sending three-phase mVA
cos = Power factor of load, decimal
8 Z = Impedance between and receiving ends
sin = Reactive factor of load, decimal
= The angle of impedance Z
9 R = Receiving end PF
S = Sending end PF, positive when lagging
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Power Distribution Systems 1.3-23
April 2016 System Analysis
Sheet 01 055

Voltage Drop Table 1.3-12. Temperature Correction Factors


for Voltage Drop
To select minimum conductor size:
i
1. Determine maximum desired
Voltage Drop Tables Conductor Percent Correction voltage drop, in volts.
Size Power Factors %
Note: Busway voltage drop tables are
100 90 80 70 60
2. Divide voltage drop by ii
shown in Tab 24 of this catalog. (amperes x circuit feet).
No. 14 to No. 4 5.0 4.7 4.7 4.6 4.6
Tables for calculating voltage drop for No. 2 to 3/0 5.0 4.2 3.7 3.5 3.2
3. Multiply by 100. 1
copper and aluminum conductors, in 4/0 to 500 kcmil 5.0 3.1 2.6 2.3 1.9 4. Find nearest lower voltage drop
either magnetic (steel) or nonmagnetic 600 to 1000 kcmil 5.0 2.6 2.1 1.5 1.3
value in tables, in correct column
(aluminum or non-metallic) conduit,
for type of conductor, conduit and 2
appear on Page 1.3-24. These tables Calculations power factor. Read conductor size
give voltage drop per ampere per
for that value.
100 ft (30 m) of circuit length. The To calculate voltage drop: 3
circuit length is from the beginning 1. Multiply current in amperes by 5. Where this results in an oversized
point to the end point of the circuit the length of the circuit in feet to cable, verify cable lug sizes for
regardless of the number of conductors. get ampere-feet. Circuit length is molded case breakers and fusible 4
the distance from the point of switches. Where lug size available
Tables are based on the following
origin to the load end of the circuit. is exceeded, go to next higher
conditions: rating. 5
1. Three or four single conductors in 2. Divide by 100.
a conduit, random lay. For three- Example:
3. Multiply by proper voltage drop
conductor cable, actual voltage
value in tables. Result is voltage A three-phase, four-wire lighting 6
drop will be approximately the feeder on a 208 V circuit is 250 ft
drop.
same for small conductor sizes (76.2 m) long. The load is 175 A at
and high power factors. Actual Example: 90% PF. It is desired to use aluminum 7
voltage drop will be from 10 to A 460 V, 100 hp motor, running at 80% conductors in aluminum conduit. What
15% lower for larger conductor PF, draws 124 A full-load current. It is size conductor is required to limit the
sizes and lower power factors. fed by three 2/0 copper conductors in voltage drop to 2% phase-to-phase? 8
2
2.Voltage drops are phase-to-phase, steel conduit. The feeder length is 1. VD = 208 = 4.16 V
for three-phase, three-wire or 150 ft (46 m). What is the voltage drop 100
three-phase, four-wire 60 Hz in the feeder? What is the percentage 9
circuits. For other circuits, multiply voltage drop? 2. 4.16
= 0.0000951
175 250
voltage drop given in the tables by
the following correction factors:
1. 124 A x 150 ft (46 m) = 18,600 A-ft 10
3. 0.0000951 100 = 0.00951
2. Divided by 100 = 186
Three-phase, four-wire, 4. In table, under aluminum conduc-
phase-to-neutral x 0.577 3. Table: 2/0 copper, magnetic conduit, tors, nonmagnetic conduit, 90%
11
Single-phase, two-wire x 1.155 80% PF = 0.0187 PF, the nearest lower value is
Single-phase, three-wire, 186 x 0.0187 = 3.48 V drop 0.0091. Conductor required is
phase-to-phase x 1.155 3.48 x 100 = 0.76% drop 500 kcmil. (Size 4/0 THW would
12
Single-phase, three-wire, 460 have adequate ampacity, but the
phase-to-neutral x 0.577 voltage drop would be excessive.)
4. Conclusion: 0.76% voltage drop 13
3. Voltage drops are for a conductor is very acceptable. (See NEC 2005
temperature of 75 C. They may be Article 215, which suggests that a
used for conductor temperatures voltage drop of 3% or less on a 14
between 60 C and 90 C with feeder is acceptable.)
reasonable accuracy (within 5%).
However, correction factors in 15
Table 1.3-12 can be applied if
desired. The values in the table are
in percent of total voltage drop. 16
For conductor temperature of 60 C
SUBTRACT the percentage from 17
Table 1.3-12.
For conductor temperature of 90 C
ADD the percentage from Table 1.3-12. 18

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1.3-24 Power Distribution Systems
System Analysis April 2016
Sheet 01 056

Table 1.3-13. Voltage DropVolts per Ampere per 100 Feet (30 m); Three-Phase, Phase-to-Phase
i Conductor Size Magnetic Conduit (Steel) Nonmagnetic Conduit (Aluminum or Nonmetallic)
AWG Load Power Factor, % Load Power Factor, %
or kcmil
ii 60 70 80 90 100 60 70 80 90 100
Copper Conductors
14 0.3390 0.3910 0.4430 0.4940 0.5410 0.3370 0.3900 0.4410 0.4930 0.5410
1 12 0.2170 0.2490 0.2810 0.3130 0.3410 0.2150 0.2480 0.2800 0.3120 0.3410
10 0.1390 0.1590 0.1790 0.1980 0.2150 0.1370 0.1580 0.1780 0.1970 0.2150
8 0.0905 0.1030 0.1150 0.1260 0.1350 0.0888 0.1010 0.1140 0.1250 0.1350
2 6
4
0.0595
0.0399
0.0670
0.0443
0.0742
0.0485
0.0809
0.0522
0.0850
0.0534
0.0579
0.0384
0.0656
0.0430
0.0730
0.0473
0.0800
0.0513
0.0849
0.0533
2 0.0275 0.0300 0.0323 0.0342 0.0336 0.0260 0.0287 0.0312 0.0333 0.0335
1 0.0233 0.0251 0.0267 0.0279 0.0267 0.0218 0.0238 0.0256 0.0270 0.0266
3 1/0 0.0198 0.0211 0.0222 0.0229 0.0213 0.0183 0.0198 0.0211 0.0220 0.0211
2/0 0.0171 0.0180 0.0187 0.0190 0.0170 0.0156 0.0167 0.0176 0.0181 0.0169
3/0 0.0148 0.0154 0.0158 0.0158 0.0136 0.0134 0.0141 0.0147 0.0149 0.0134
4 4/0 0.0130 0.0134 0.0136 0.0133 0.0109 0.0116 0.0121 0.0124 0.0124 0.0107
250 0.0122 0.0124 0.0124 0.0120 0.0094 0.0107 0.0111 0.0112 0.0110 0.0091
300 0.0111 0.0112 0.0111 0.0106 0.0080 0.0097 0.0099 0.0099 0.0096 0.0077
5 350 0.0104 0.0104 0.0102 0.0096 0.0069 0.0090 0.0091 0.0091 0.0087 0.0066
500 0.0100 0.0091 0.0087 0.0080 0.0053 0.0078 0.0077 0.0075 0.0070 0.0049
600 0.0088 0.0086 0.0082 0.0074 0.0046 0.0074 0.0072 0.0070 0.0064 0.0042
6 750
1000
0.0084
0.0080
0.0081
0.0077
0.0077
0.0072
0.0069
0.0063
0.0040
0.0035
0.0069
0.0064
0.0067
0.0062
0.0064
0.0058
0.0058
0.0052
0.0035
0.0029
Aluminum Conductors
7 12 0.3296 0.3811 0.4349 0.4848 0.5330 0.3312 0.3802 0.4328 0.4848 0.5331
10 0.2133 0.2429 0.2741 0.3180 0.3363 0.2090 0.2410 0.2740 0.3052 0.3363
8 0.1305 0.1552 0.1758 0.1951 0.2106 0.1286 0.1534 0.1745 0.1933 0.2115
8 6 0.0898 0.1018 0.1142 0.1254 0.1349 0.0887 0.1011 0.1127 0.1249 0.1361
4 0.0595 0.0660 0.0747 0.0809 0.0862 0.0583 0.0654 0.0719 0.0800 0.0849
2 0.0403 0.0443 0.0483 0.0523 0.0535 0.0389 0.0435 0.0473 0.0514 0.0544
1 0.0332 0.0357 0.0396 0.0423 0.0428 0.0318 0.0349 0.0391 0.0411 0.0428
9 1/0 0.0286 0.0305 0.0334 0.0350 0.0341 0.0263 0.0287 0.0322 0.0337 0.0339
2/0 0.0234 0.0246 0.0275 0.0284 0.0274 0.0227 0.0244 0.0264 0.0274 0.0273
3/0 0.0209 0.0220 0.0231 0.0241 0.0217 0.0160 0.0171 0.0218 0.0233 0.0222
10 4/0 0.0172 0.0174 0.0179 0.0177 0.0170 0.0152 0.0159 0.0171 0.0179 0.0172
250 0.0158 0.0163 0.0162 0.0159 0.0145 0.0138 0.0144 0.0147 0.0155 0.0138
300 0.0137 0.0139 0.0143 0.0144 0.0122 0.0126 0.0128 0.0133 0.0132 0.0125
11 350 0.0130 0.0133 0.0128 0.0131 0.0100 0.0122 0.0123 0.0119 0.0120 0.0101
500 0.0112 0.0111 0.0114 0.0099 0.0076 0.0093 0.0094 0.0094 0.0091 0.0072
600 0.0101 0.0106 0.0097 0.0090 0.0063 0.0084 0.0085 0.0085 0.0081 0.0060
12 750 0.0095 0.0094 0.0090 0.0084 0.0056 0.0081 0.0080 0.0078 0.0072 0.0051
1000 0.0085 0.0082 0.0078 0.0071 0.0043 0.0069 0.0068 0.0065 0.0058 0.0038

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Power Distribution Systems 1.4-1
April 2016 System Application Considerations
Sheet 01 057
Capacitors

Capacitors and Power Factor ANSI Standard C37.06 (indoor oilless Low Voltage Capacitor Switching
i
circuit breakers) indicates the preferred
ratings of Eatons Type VCP-W vacuum Circuit breakers and switches for use
Capacitor General Application breaker. For capacitor switching, with a capacitor must have a current
Considerations careful attention should be paid to rating in excess of rated capacitor ii
the notes accompanying the table. current to provide for overcurrent from
Additional application information overvoltages at fundamental frequency
is available in Tab 35 regarding The definition of the terms are in ANSI
capacitors and harmonic filters Standard C37.04 Article 5.13 (for the and harmonic currents. The following 1
latest edition). The application guide percent of the capacitor-rated current
as follows: should be used as a general guideline:
ANSI/IEEE Standard C37.012 covers the
Capacitor selection method of calculation of the Fused and unfused switches. . . . 165% 2
Where to install capacitors in a plant quantities covered by C37.06 Standard.
distribution system Molded case breaker or
Locating capacitors on reduced
Note that the definitions in C37.04 equivalent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150% 3
make the switching of two capacitors
voltage and multi-speed starters banks in close proximity to the switch- DSII power circuit breakers . . . . 135%
Harmonic considerations gear bus a back-to-back mode of 4
Magnum DS power
Eliminating harmonic problems switching. This classification requires
circuit breaker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135%
National Electrical Code a definite purpose circuit breaker
requirements (breakers specifically designed for Contactors: 5
capacitance switching). Open type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135%
Medium Voltage We recommend that such application
Capacitor Switching be referred to Eaton.
Enclosed type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150% 6
Capacitance switching constitutes The NEC, Section 460.8(C), requires
A breaker specified for capacitor the disconnecting means to be rated not
severe operating duty for a circuit switching should include as applicable: less than 135% of the rated capacitor
7
breaker. At the time the breaker opens
at near current zero, the capacitor is 1. Rated maximum voltage. current (for 600 V and below).
fully charged. After interruption, when 2. Rated frequency. See Tab 35 for switching device 8
the alternating voltage on the source ampere ratings. They are based on
side of the breaker reaches its opposite 3. Rated open wire line charging percentage of capacitor-rated current
maximum, the voltage that appears switching current. as indicated (above). The interrupting 9
across the contacts of the open breaker rating of the switch must be selected
is at least twice the normal peak line- 4. Rated isolated cable charging and
to match the system fault current
to-neutral voltage of the circuit. If a shunt capacitor switching current.
available at the point of capacitor 10
breakdown occurs across the open 5. Rated back-to-back cable application. Whenever a capacitor
contact, the arc is re-established. Due charging and back-to-back bank is purchased with less than the
to the circuit constants on the supply capacitor switching current. ultimate kvar capacity of the rack or 11
side of the breaker, the voltage across enclosure, the switch rating should
the open contact can reach three times 6. Rated transient overvoltage factor. be selected based on the ultimate
the normal line-to-neutral voltage. kvar capacitynot the initial installed 12
After it is interrupted and with 7. Rated transient inrush current and
its frequency. capacity.
subsequent alternation of the supply
side voltage, the voltage across the 8. Rated interrupting time. Refer to Tab 35 for recommended 13
open contact is even higher. selection of capacitor switching
9. Rated capacitive current devices; recommended maximum
switching life. capacitor ratings for various motor 14
types and voltages; and for required
10. Grounding of system and multipliers to determine capacitor kvar
capacitor bank. required for power factor correction. 15
Load break interrupter switches
are permitted by ANSI/IEEE Standard
C37.30 to switch capacitance, but they 16
must have tested ratings for the purpose.
Refer to Eaton Type MVS ratings.
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1.4-2 Power Distribution Systems
System Application Considerations April 2016
Sheet 01 058
Capacitors

i Motor Power Factor % ARpercent reduction in line To derate a capacitor used on a system
current due to the capacitor. A voltage lower than the capacitor
Correction capacitor located on the motor side voltage rating, such as a 240 V
of the overload relay reduces line capacitor used on a 208 V system,
ii See Tab 35 containing suggested
maximum capacitor ratings for
current through the relay. Therefore, a use the following formula:
different overload relay and/or setting Actual kvar =
induction motors switched with the may be necessary. The reduction in
1 capacitor. The data is general in nature line current may be determined by Applied Voltage
2
Nameplate kvar ----------------------------------------------------------------------
and representative of general purpose measuring line current with and 2
induction motors of standard design. Nameplate Voltage
without the capacitor or by calculation
2 The preferable means to select capacitor as follows:
ratings is based on the maximum For the kVAC required to correct the
recommended kvar information (Original PF) power factor from a given value of
% AR 100 100 COS 1 to COS 2, the formula is:
3 available from the motor manufacturer. (Improved PF)
If this is not possible or feasible, the
tables can be used. kVAC = kW (tan phase1tan phase2)
If a capacitor is used with a lower kvar
4 An important point to remember
rating than listed in tables, the % AR Capacitors cause a voltage rise.
can be calculated as follows: At light load periods the capacitive
is that if the capacitor used with the
motor is too large, self-excitation Actual kvar voltage rise can raise the voltage at
5 may cause a motor-damaging over-
% AR Listed % AR
kvar in Table
the location of the capacitors to an
voltage when the motor and capacitor unacceptable level. This voltage rise
combination is disconnected from the The tables can also be used for other can be calculated approximately by the
6 line. In addition, high transient torques motor ratings as follows: formula:
capable of damaging the motor shaft A. For standard 60 Hz motors MVA r
or coupling can occur if the motor is % VR
7 reconnected to the line while rotating
operating at 50 Hz: MVA SC
kvar = 1.71.4 of kvar listed
and still generating a voltage of % AR = 1.81.35 of % AR listed
self-excitation. MVAR is the capacitor rating and
8 B. For standard 50 Hz motors MVASC is the system short-circuit
Definitions operating at 50 Hz: capacity.
kvarrating of the capacitor in kvar = 1.41.1 of kvar listed
9 reactive kilovolt-amperes. This value % AR = 1.41.05 of % AR listed
With the introduction of variable speed
drives and other harmonic current
is approximately equal to the motor
C. For standard 60 Hz wound-rotor generating loads, the capacitor
no-load magnetizing kilovars.
10 motors: impedance value determined must
kvar = 1.1 of kvar listed not be resonant with the inductive
% AR= 1.05 of % AR listed reactances of the system.
11
Note: For A, B, C, the larger multipliers
apply for motors of higher speeds; i.e.,
12 3600 rpm = 1.7 mult., 1800 rpm = 1.65
mult., etc.

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Power Distribution Systems 1.4-3
April 2016 System Application Considerations
Sheet 01 059
Protection and Coordination

Overcurrent Protection damage or withstand characteristics, substation transformer can be coordi-


i
(e) calculation of maximum short- nated with the low voltage breakers.
and Coordination circuit currents (and ground fault Transformer damage points, based on
currents if ground fault protection is ANSI standards, and low voltage cable
Overcurrents in a power distribution ii
included) available at each protective heating limits can be plotted on this
system can occur as a result of both
device location, (f) understanding of set of curves to ensure that apparatus
normal (motor starting, transformer operating characteristics and available limitations are not exceeded.
inrush, etc.) and abnormal (overloads,
adjustments of each protective device, 1
ground fault, line-to-line fault, etc.) Ground-fault curves may also be
(g) any special overcurrent protection
conditions. In either case, the funda- requirements including utility limita- included in the coordination study
mental purposes of current-sensing
tions. Refer to Figure 1.4-1. if ground-fault protection is provided, 2
protective devices are to detect the but care must be used in interpreting
abnormal overcurrent and with proper To ensure complete coordination, the their meaning.
coordination, to operate selectively time-trip characteristics of all devices
Standard definitions have been
3
to protect equipment, property in series should be plotted on a single
and personnel while minimizing the sheet of standard log-log paper. established for overcurrent protective
devices covering ratings, operation
outage of the remainder of the system. Devices of different-voltage systems
and application systems.
4
With the increase in electric power can be plotted on the same sheet by
consumption over the past few converting their current scales, using MMotor (100 hp). Dashed line shows
decades, dependence on the contin- the voltage ratios, to the same voltage- initial inrush current, starting current 5
ued supply of this power has also basis. Such a coordination plot is during 9-sec. acceleration, and drop to
increased so that the direct costs shown in Figure 1.4-1. In this manner, 124 A normal running current, all well
of power outages have risen signifi- primary fuses and circuit breaker below CBA trip curve. 6
cantly. Power outages can create relays on the primary side of a
dangerous and unsafe conditions as
a result of failure of lighting, elevators,
SCALE X 100 = CURRENT IN AMPERES AT 480V
7
ventilation, fire pumps, security

10,000
1000

2000

3000

4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
systems, communications systems,

100

200

300

400
500
600
700
800
900
70
80
90
.5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60
1000 1000

and the like. In addition, economic loss 900


800
700
4.16 kV 250 MVA
900
800
700
8
from outages can be extremely high 600
500
600
500
as a result of computer downtime, 400 400

or, especially in industrial process 300 B


D
300
9
plants, interruption of production. 200
A 200
C
Protective equipment must be adjusted D
10
250A
and maintained in order to function 100
90
80
100
90
1000 80
properly when an overcurrent occurs, 70
60
kVA 4,160V
70
60
5.75%
but coordination begins during power 50 480/277V 50
11
40 19,600A 40
system design with the knowledgeable ANSI Three-Phase
30 Thru Fault 30
analysis and selection and application Protection Curve
20 (More Than 10 in C 1,600A 20
of each overcurrent protective device Lifetime)
12
in the series circuit from the power 24,400A
B
source(s) to each load apparatus. The 10
9
8 600A
10
9
8
objective of coordination is to localize 7
M 7
13

TIME IN SECONDS
TIME IN SECONDS

6 6

the overcurrent disturbance so that the 5


20,000A
5
4 4
protective device closest to the fault 3 3
on the power-source side has the first
chance to operate; but each preceding 2 B C
A 175A
2
14
protective device upstream toward the
power source should be capable, within 1
.9
.8 100 hp
1
.9
.8 15
its designed settings of current and .7
.6
M 124A FLC .7
.6
time, to provide backup and de-energize .5 .5
X = Available fault current
16
.4 .4
the circuit if the fault persists. Sensitivity including motor
.3 contribution. .3
of coordination is the degree to which Ground
the protective devices can minimize .2 Fault Trip .2

C
the damage to the faulted equipment.
.1 .1
17
.09 .09
To study and accomplish coordination .08
.07
.08
.07
Transformer
requires (a) a one-line diagram, the .06 .06
.05
B Inrush .05
18
Max. Three-Phase

roadmap of the power distribution .04 .04

system, showing all protective devices


4.16 kV Fault

.03 .03

A
480V Fault

and the major or important distribution


and utilization apparatus, (b) identifica-
.02 .02
19
Max.

tion of desired degrees of power .01 .01


70
80
90
100

200

300

400
500
600
700
800
900
1000

2000

3000

4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10,000

continuity or criticality of loads .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60

throughout system, (c) definition SCALE X 100 = CURRENT IN AMPERES AT 480V


20
of operating-current characteristics
(normal, peak, starting) of each Figure 1.4-1. Time-Current Characteristic Curves for Typical Power Distribution System
utilization circuit, (d) equipment Protective Devices Coordination Analysis 21

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1.4-4 Power Distribution Systems
System Application Considerations April 2016
Sheet 01 060
Protection and Coordination

ACB (175 A) coordinates selectively Maximum 480 V three-phase fault available fault current at their point of
i with motor M on starting and running indicated on the horizontal current axis. application. All breakers are equipped
and with all upstream devices, except with long-time-delay (and possibly
that CB B will trip first on low level Maximum 4160 V three-phase fault short delay) and instantaneous over-
ii ground faults. indicated, converted to 480 V basis. current trip devices. A main breaker
4160 may have short time-delay tripping to
BCB (600 A) coordinates selectively I 480V I 4160V allow a feeder breaker to isolate the
480
1 with all upstream and downstream fault while power is maintained to all
devices, except will trip before A on the remaining feeders.
The ANSI protection curves are
limited ground faults, since A has no
specified in ANSI C57.109 for liquid-
2 ground fault trips.
filled transformers and C57.12.59 for
A selective or fully coordinated system
permits maximum service continuity.
CMain CB (1600 A) coordinates dry-type transformers.
The tripping characteristics of each
selectively with all downstream
3 devices and with primary fuse D,
Illustrative examples such as shown overcurrent device in the system must
here start the coordination study from be selected and set so that the breaker
for all faults on load side of CB. nearest the fault opens to isolate the
the lowest rated device proceeding
4 DPrimary fuse (250 A, 4160 V) coor- upstream. In practice, the setting or faulted circuit, while all other breakers
dinates selectively with all secondary rating of the utilitys protective device remain closed, continuing power to
protective devices. Curve converted to sets the upper limit. Even in cases the entire unfaulted part of the system.
5 480 V basis. Clears transformer inrush where the customer owns the medium
The National Electrical Code 1
point (12 x FLC for 0.1 sec.), indicating voltage or higher distribution system,
contains specific requirements for
that fuse will not blow on inrush. the setting or rating of the lowest set
designing certain circuits with selective
6 Fuse is underneath right-half of ANSI protective device at the source deter-
coordination. Article 100 defines
three-phase withstand curve, indicating mines the settings of the downstream
selective coordination: Coordination
fuse will protect transformer for high- devices and the coordination.
(Selective), the following definition:
7 magnitude faults up to ANSI rating.
Therefore the coordination study Localization of an overcurrent condi-
Delta-wye secondary side short should start at the present setting tion to restrict outages to the circuit or
equipment affected, accomplished by
8 circuit is not reflected to the primary or rating of the upstream device and
work toward the lowest rated device. If the choice of overcurrent protective
by the relation
this procedure results in unacceptable devices and their ratings or settings.
VS
9 I P I S
settings, the setting or rating of the 1 NEC 2011 NFPA 70: National Electrical Code
VP upstream device should be reviewed. International Electrical Code Series.
Where the utility is the sole source,
Article 620.62 (elevators, dumbwaiters,
10 for L-L and L-G faults. For line-to-line they should be consulted. Where the
escalators, moving walks, wheelchair
fault, the secondary (low voltage) side owner has its own medium or higher
voltage distribution, the settings or lifts, and stairway chair lifts) requires
fault current is 0.866 x I three-phase
11 ratings of all upstream devices should Where more than one driving machine
fault current.
be checked. disconnecting means is supplied by a
However, the primary (high voltage) single feeder, the overcurrent protective
If perfect coordination is not feasible, devices in each disconnecting means
12 side fault is the same as if the secondary
then lack of coordination should be shall be selectively coordinated with
fault was a three-phase fault. Therefore
in coordination studies, the knee of the limited to the smallest part of the system. any other supply side overcurrent
13 short-time pickup setting on the sec- Application data is available for all protective device. A similar require-
ondary breaker should be multiplied by protective equipment to permit ment under Article 700.27 is as follows;
systems to be designed for adequate Emergency system(s) overcurrent
14 1 or 1.1547 overcurrent protection and coordina- devices shall be selectively coordinated
0.866 with all supply side overcurrent
tion. For circuit breakers of all types,
time-current curves permit selection of protective devices. Article 701.27
before it is compared to the minimum
15 melting time of the upstream primary instantaneous and inverse-time trips. states that Legally required standby
system(s) overcurrent devices shall be
fuse curve. In the example shown, the For more complex circuit breakers,
with solid-state trip units, trip curves selectively coordinated with all supply
knee is at 4000 A 30 sec., and the 30-
16 sec. trip time should be compared to include long- and short-time delays, side overcurrent devices.
the MMT (minimum melt time) of the as well as ground-fault tripping, with a Exception: Selective coordination
fuse curve at 4000 x 1.1547 = 4619 A. In wide range of settings and features to shall not be required between two
17 this case, there is adequate clearance provide selectivity and coordination. overcurrent devices located in series
to the fuse curve. For current-limiting circuit breakers, if no loads are connected in parallel
fuses, and circuit breakers with with the downstream device.
18 In the example shown, the ANSI integral fuses, not only are time-
three-phase through fault protection current characteristic curves available, In addition, for health care facilities,
curve must be multiplied by 0.577 but also data on current-limiting Article 517.26, Application of Other
19 and replotted in order to determine performance and protection for Articles requires that The essential
the protection given by the primary downstream devices. electrical system shall meet the
for a single line to ground fault in requirements of Article 700, except
20 the secondary. In a fully rated system, all circuit as amended by Article 517.
breakers must have an interrupting
capacity adequate for the maximum
21

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Power Distribution Systems 1.4-5
April 2016 System Application Considerations
Sheet 01 061
Protection and Coordination

All breakers must have an interrupting Protection of Conductors (Excerpts E. Tap Conductors. Tap conductors
capacity not less than the maximum
from NFPA 70-2011, Article 240.4) shall be permitted to be protected i
available short-circuit current at their against overcurrent in accordance
point of application. A selective Conductors, other than flexible cords with the following:
system is a fully rated system with and fixture wires, shall be protected ii
tripping devices chosen and adjusted against overcurrent in accordance with 1. 210.19(A)(3) and (A)(4) Household
to provide the desired selectivity. their ampacities as specified in Section Ranges and Cooking Appliances
The tripping characteristics of each 310.15, unless otherwise permitted or and Other Loads. 1
overcurrent device should not over- required in (A) through (G). 2. 240.5(B)(2) Fixture Wire.
lap, but should maintain a minimum
time interval for devices in series (to A. Power Loss Hazard. Conductor 3. 240.21 Location in Circuit. 2
allow for normal operating tolerances) overload protection shall not be
required where the interruption of 4. 368.17(B) Reduction in Ampacity
at all current values. Generally, a
maximum of four low voltage circuit the circuit would create a hazard, Size of Busway. 3
breakers can be operated selectively such as in a material handling
magnet circuit or fire pump circuit. 5. 368.17(C) Feeder or Branch Circuits
in series, with the feeder or branch (busway taps).
breaker downstream furthest from Short-circuit protection shall be 4
the source. provided. 6. 430.53(D) Single Motor Taps.
Note: FPN See NFPA 20-2003, standard
Specify true rms sensing devices in for the Installation of Stationary Pumps Circuit Breaker Cable 5
order to avoid false trips due to rapid
currents or spikes. Specify tripping
for Fire Protection. Temperature Ratings
elements with I2t or I4t feature for B. Devices Rated 800 A or Less. The UL listed circuit breakers rated 125 A or 6
improved coordination with other next higher standard overcurrent less shall be marked as being suitable
devices having I2t or I4t (such as device rating (above the ampacity for 60 C (140F), 75 C (167 F) only or
OPTIM trip units) characteristics of the conductors being protected) 60/75 C (140/167F) wire. All Eaton 7
and fuses. shall be permitted to be used, breakers rated 125 A or less are marked
provided all of the following 60/75 C (140/167 F). All UL listed circuit
In general for systems such as shown
in the example: conditions are met. breakers rated over 125 A are suitable 8
for 75 C conductors. Conductors rated
1. The settings or ratings of the 1. The conductors being protected for higher temperatures may be used,
primary side fuse and main breaker are not part of a branch circuit but must not be loaded to carry more 9
must not exceed the settings supplying more than one receptacle current than the 75 C ampacity of that
allowed by NEC Article 450. for cord-and-plug-connected size conductor for equipment marked
portable loads. or rated 75 C or the 60 C ampacity of 10
2. At 12 x IFL the minimum melting that size conductor for equipment
time characteristic of the fuse 2. The ampacity of the conductors
marked or rated 60 C. However, when
does not correspond with the
should be higher than 0.1 second.
standard ampere rating of a fuse or
applying derated factors, so long as the 11
actual load does not exceed the lower
3. The primary fuse should be to the a circuit breaker without overload
of the derated ampacity or the 75 C or
left of the transformer damage trip adjustments above its rating
curve as much as possible. The (but that shall be permitted to have
60 C ampacity that applies. 12
correction factor for a single line- other trip or rating adjustments).
to-ground factor must be applied
Zone Selective Interlocking
to the damage curve. 3. The next higher standard rating Trip elements equipped with zone 13
selected does not exceed 800 A. selective interlocking, trip without
4. The setting of the short-time delay intentional time delay unless a
element must be checked against C. Overcurrent Devices Rated Over
restraint signal is received from 14
the fuse MMT after it is corrected 800 A. Where the overcurrent
device is rated over 800 A, the a protective device downstream.
for line-to-line faults. Breakers equipped with this feature
ampacity of the conductors it
reduce the damage at the point of
15
5. The maximum fault current must protects shall be equal to or
be indicated at the load side of greater than the rating of the fault if the fault occurs at a location
between the zone of protection.
each protective device. overcurrent device as defined in 16
Section 240.6. The upstream breaker upon receipt
6. The setting of a feeder protective
device must comply with Article D. Small Conductors. Unless of the restraint signal will not trip until
240 and Article 430 of the NEC. specifically permitted in 240.4(E) its time-delay setting times out. If the 17
It also must allow the starting or 240.4(G), the overcurrent breaker immediately downstream of the
and acceleration of the largest protection shall not exceed 15 A fault does not open, then after timing
motor on the feeder while carrying for 14 AWG, 20 A for 12 AWG, and out, the upstream breaker will trip. 18
all the other loads on the feeder. 30 A for 10 AWG copper; or 15 A Breakers equipped with ground fault
for 12 AWG and 25 A for 10 AWG trip elements should also be specified 19
aluminum and copper-clad to include zone interlocking for the
aluminum after any correction ground fault trip element.
factors for ambient temperature 20
and number of conductors have
been applied.
21

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1.4-6 Power Distribution Systems
System Application Considerations April 2016
Sheet 01 062
Protection and Coordination

Ground Fault Protection Suggested Ground Fault Settings The Series G high performance,
i Article 230.95 of NEC requires ground-
current-limiting circuit breaker series
For the main devices: offers interrupting ratings to 200 kA.
fault protection of equipment shall be A ground fault pickup setting equal Frames are EGC, EGU, EGX, JGC, JGU,
ii provided for solidly grounded wye
electrical services of more than 150 V
to 2030% of the main breaker rating JGX, LGC, LGU and LGX.
but not to exceed 1200 A, and a time
to ground, but not exceeding 600 V delay equal to the delay of the short- Any of these current-limiting devices
1 phase-to-phase for each service time element, but not to exceed fuses, fused breakers or current-limit-
disconnect rated 1000 A or more. 1 second. ing breakerscannot only clear these
large faults safely, but also will limit
The rating of the service disconnect the Ip and I2t let-through significantly
2 shall be considered to be the rating
For the feeder ground fault setting:
A setting equal to 2030% of the feeder to prevent damage to apparatus
of the largest fuse that can be installed ampacity and a time delay to coordinate downstream, extending their zone
or the highest continuous current trip
3 setting for which the actual overcurrent
with the setting of the main (at least of protection. Without the current
6 cycles below the main). limitation of the upstream device,
device installed in a circuit breaker is the fault current could exceed the with-
rated or can be adjusted. If the desire to selectively coordinate
4 ground fault devices results in settings
stand capability of the downstream
The maximum allowable settings are: equipment. Underwriters
that do not offer adequate damage
1200 A pickup, 1 second or less trip Laboratories tests and lists these
protection against arcing single line-
5 delay at currents of 3000 A or greater. ground faults, the design engineer
series combinations. Application
information is available for
The characteristics of the ground-fault should decide between coordination
combinations that have been tested
and damage limitation.
6 trip elements create coordination and UL-listed for safe operation
problems with downstream devices For low voltage systems with high- downstream from MDSL, TRI-PAC,
not equipped with ground fault magnitude available short-circuit and Current Limit-R, or Series C
7 protection. The National Electrical currents, common in urban areas and breakers of various ratings, under
Code exempts fire pumps and large industrial installations, several high available fault currents.
continuous industrial processes solutions are available. High interrupt-
Protective devices in electrical
8 from this requirement. ing Series C molded case breakers,
distribution systems may be properly
It is recommended that in solidly current-limiting circuit breakers, or
coordinated when the systems are
grounded 480/277 V systems where current-limiting fuses, limiters integral
9 designed and built, but that is no
main breakers are specified to be with molded-case circuit breakers
guarantee that they will remain
equipped with ground fault trip elements (TRI-PAC) or mounted on power
coordinated. System changes and
that the feeder breakers be specified circuit breakers (MDSL) can be used to
10 additions, plus power source changes,
to be equipped with ground fault trip handle these large fault currents. To
frequently modify the protection
elements as well. provide current limiting, these devices
requirements, sometimes causing loss
must clear the fault completely within
11 of coordination and even increasing
the first half-cycle, limiting the peak
fault currents beyond the ratings of
current (Ip) and heat energy (I2t)
some devices. Consequently, periodic
let-through to considerably less than
12 what would have occurred without
study of protective-device settings
and ratings is as important for safety
the device. For a fully fusible system,
and preventing power outages
rule-of-thumb fuse ratios or more
13 accurate I2t curves can be used to
as is periodic maintenance of the
distribution system.
provide selectivity and coordination.
For fuse-breaker combinations, the
14 fuse should be selected (coordinated)
so as to permit the breaker to handle
those overloads and faults within its
15 capacity; the fuse should operate
before or with the breaker only on
large faults, approaching the interrupt-
16 ing capacity of the breaker, to minimize
fuse blowing. Recently, unfused, truly
current-limiting circuit breakers with
17 interrupting ratings adequate for the
largest systems (Type Series C, FDC,
JDC, KDC, LDC and NDC frames
18 or Type Current Limit-R) have
become available.
19

20

21

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Power Distribution Systems 1.4-7
April 2016 System Application Considerations
Sheet 01 063
Grounding/Ground Fault Protection

Grounding above ground potential. Any person The equipment grounding system
i
coming in contact with such an object must be bonded to the grounding
Grounding encompasses several while grounded could be seriously electrode at the source or service;
different but interrelated aspects of injured or killed. In addition, current however, it may be also connected
electrical distribution system design flow from the accidental grounding of to ground at many other points. ii
and construction, all of which are an energized part of the system could This will not cause problems with
essential to the safety and proper generate sufficient heat (often with the safe operation of the electrical
operation of the system and equip- arcing) to start a fire. To prevent the distribution system. Where computers, 1
ment supplied by it. Among these establishment of such unsafe poten- data processing, or microprocessor-
are equipment grounding, system tial difference requires that (1) the based industrial process control
grounding, static and lightning equipment grounding conductor pro- systems are installed, the equipment 2
protection, and connection to earth vide a return path for ground fault cur- grounding system must be designed
as a reference (zero) potential. rents of sufficiently low impedance to to minimize interference with their
prevent unsafe voltage drop, and (2) proper operation. Often, isolated 3
1. Equipment Grounding the equipment grounding conductor grounding of this equipment, or
be large enough to carry the maximum isolated electrical supply systems are
Equipment grounding is essential
ground fault current, without burning required to protect microprocessors 4
to safety of personnel. Its function is
off, for sufficient time to permit protec- from power system noise that does
to ensure that all exposed noncurrent-
tive devices (ground fault relays, circuit not in any way affect motors or other
carrying metallic parts of all structures
breakers, fuses) to clear the fault. The electrical equipment. Such systems 5
and equipment in or near the electrical
grounded conductor of the system must use single-point ground concept
distribution system are at the same
(usually the neutral conductor), although to minimize noise and still meet
potential, and that this is the zero
grounded at the source, must not be the NEC requirements. Any separate 6
reference potential of the earth.
used for equipment grounding. isolated ground mat must be tied to the
Equipment grounding is required
rest of the facility ground mat system
by both the National Electrical Code The equipment grounding conductor for NEC compliance. 7
(Article 250) and the National Electrical may be the metallic conduit or raceway
Safety Code regardless of how the of the wiring system, or a separate 2. System Grounding
power system is grounded. Equipment equipment grounding conductor, 8
grounding also provides a return path run with the circuit conductors, as System grounding connects the
for ground fault currents, permitting permitted by NEC. If a separate electrical supply, from the utility, from
protective devices to operate. Acciden- equipment grounding conductor is transformer secondary windings, or 9
tal contact of an energized conductor of used, it may be bare or insulated; if from a generator, to ground. A system
the system with an improperly insulated, the insulation must be green, can be solidly grounded (no intentional
grounded noncurrent-carry metallic green with yellow stripe or green tape. impedance to ground), impedance 10
part of the system (such as a motor Conductors with green insulation may grounded (through a resistance or
frame or panelboard enclosure) would not be used for any purpose other than reactance), or ungrounded (with no
raise the potential of the metal object for equipment grounding. intentional connection to ground. 11
3. Medium Voltage System: Grounding
Table 1.4-1. Features of Ungrounded and Grounded Systems (from ANSI C62.92) 12
Description A B C D E
Ungrounded Solidly Grounded Reactance Grounded Resistance Grounded Resonant Grounded
13
(1) Apparatus Fully insulated Lowest Partially graded Partially graded Partially graded
insulation
(2) Fault to Usually low Maximum value rarely Cannot satisfactorily be Low Negligible except when 14
ground current higher than three-phase reduced below one-half Petersen coil is short
short circuit current or one-third of values for circuited for relay
solid grounding purposes when it may
compare with solidly 15
grounded systems
(3) Stability Usually unimportant Lower than with other Improved over solid Improved over solid Is eliminated from
methods but can be grounding particularly grounding particularly consideration during 16
made satisfactory by use if used at receiving end if used at receiving end single line-to-ground
of high-speed breakers of system of system faults unless neutralizer
is short circuited to
isolate fault by relays
17
(4) Relaying Difficult Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory Requires special
provisions but can be
made satisfactory 18
(5) Arcing Likely Unlikely Possible if reactance is Unlikely Unlikely
grounds excessive
(6) Localizing Effect of fault transmitted Effect of faults localized Effect of faults localized to Effect of faults Effect of faults 19
faults as excess voltage on to system or part of system or part of system transmitted as excess transmitted as excess
sound phases to all system where they occur where they occur unless voltage on sound phases voltage on sound phases
parts of conductively
connected network
reactance is quite high to all parts of conductively
connected network
to all parts of conductively
connected network
20
(7) Double Likely Likely Unlikely unless Unlikely unless Seem to be more likely
faults reactance is quite high resistance is quite high but conclusive information
and insulation weak and insulation weak not available 21

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1.4-8 Power Distribution Systems
System Application Considerations April 2016
Sheet 01 064
Grounding/Ground Fault Protection

Table 1.4-1. Features of Ungrounded and Grounded Systems (Continued)


i Description A B C D E
Ungrounded Solidly Grounded Reactance Grounded Resistance Grounded Resonant Grounded

ii (8) Lightning
protection
Ungrounded neutral Highest efficiency and
service arresters must be lowest cost
If reactance is very high
arresters for ungrounded
Arresters for ungrounded,
neutral service usually
Ungrounded neutral
service arresters must
applied at sacrifice in cost neutral service must be must be applied at be applied at sacrifice
and efficiency applied at sacrifice in cost sacrifice in cost and in cost and efficiency
1 and efficiency efficiency
(9) Telephone Will usually be low Will be greatest in Will be reduced from Will be reduced from Will be low in magnitude
interference except in cases of double magnitude due to higher solidly grounded values solidly grounded values except in cases of double
2 faults or electrostatic fault currents but can faults or series resonance
induction with neutral be quickly cleared at harmonic frequencies,
displaced but duration particularly with high but duration may be great
3 may be great speed breakers
(10) Radio May be quite high during Minimum Greater than for Greater than for May be high during faults
interference faults or when neutral solidly grounded, solidly grounded,
is displayed when faults occur when faults occur
4 (11) Line Will inherently clear Must be isolated for Must be isolated for Must be isolated for Need not be isolated but
availability themselves if total length each fault each fault each fault will inherently clear itself
of interconnected line is in about 60 to 80 percent
5 low and require isolation of faults
from system in increas-
ing percentages as length
6 becomes greater
(12) Adaptability Cannot be interconnected Satisfactory indefinitely Satisfactory indefinitely Satisfactory with solidly- Cannot be interconnected
to interconnection unless interconnecting with reactance-grounded with solidly-grounded or reactance-grounded unless interconnected
7 system is ungrounded
or isolating transformers
systems systems systems with proper
attention to relaying
system is resonant
grounded or isolating
are used transformers are used.
Requires coordination
8 between interconnected
systems in neutralizer
settings
9 (13) Circuit Interrupting capacity Same interrupting Interrupting capacity
determined by three-
Interrupting capacity
determined by three-
Interrupting capacity
determined by three-
breakers determined by three- capacity as required for
phase conditions three-phase short circuit phase fault conditions phase fault conditions phase fault conditions
will practically always be
10 satisfactory
(14) Operating Ordinarily simple but Simple Simple Simple Taps on neutralizers must
procedure possibility of double be changed when major
11 faults introduces system switching is per-
complication in times formed and difficulty may
of trouble arise in interconnected
12 systems. Difficult to tell
where faults are located
(15) Total cost High, unless conditions Lowest Intermediate Intermediate Highest unless the arc
are such that arc tends suppressing characteris-
13 to extinguish itself, when tic is relied on to eliminate
transmission circuits may transmission circuits
be eliminated, reducing when it may be lowest
14 total cost for the particular types
of service

15 Because the method of grounding


affects the voltage rise of the unfaulted
The aforementioned definition is
of significance in medium voltage
of the three-phase current at the point
of fault. Damage to cable shields must
phases above ground, ANSI C62.92 distribution systems with long lines be checked. Although this fact is not
16 classifies systems from the point of and with grounded sources removed a problem except in small cables, it is a
view of grounding in terms of a during light load periods so that in good idea to supplement the cable
coefficient of grounding some locations in the system the shields returns of ground fault current
17 Highest Power Frequency
X0 /X1, R0 /X1 may exceed the defining to prevent damage, by installing an
limits. Other standards (cable and equipment grounding conductor.
rms Line Ground Voltage lightning arrester) allow the use of
COG = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The burdens on the current transformers
18 rms Line Line Voltage at Fault
Location with the Fault Removed
100% rated cables and arresters
must be checked also (for saturation
selected on the basis of an effectively
grounded system only where the considerations), where residually
This same standard also defines connected ground relays are used
19 systems as effectively grounded when
criteria in the above are met. In
and the current transformers supply
effectively grounded system the line-
COG .8 such a system would have current to phase relays and meters.
to-ground fault current is high and
X0 /X1 3.0 and R0 /X1 1.0. Any other
20 grounding means that does not satisfy
there is no significant voltage rise in If ground sensor current transformers
the unfaulted phases. (zero sequence type) are used they
these conditions at any point in a
system is not effectively grounded. With selective ground fault isolation must be of high burden capacity.
21 the fault current should be at least 60%

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Power Distribution Systems 1.4-9
April 2016 System Application Considerations
Sheet 01 065
Grounding/Ground Fault Protection

Table 1.4-2 taken from ANSI-C62.92 should not be limited to less than the Grounding Point
indicates the characteristics of the current transformers rating of the The most commonly used grounding i
various methods of grounding. source. This rule will provide sensitive point is the neutral of the system or the
differential protection for wye-connected neutral point created by means of a
Reactance Grounding generators and transformers against zigzag or a wye-broken delta grounding ii
It is generally used in the grounding line-to-ground faults near the neutral. transformer in a system that was oper-
of the neutrals of generators directly Of course, if the installation of ground ating as an ungrounded delta system.
connected to the distribution system fault differential protection is feasible, 1
bus, in order to limit the line-to-ground or ground sensor current transformers In general, it is a good practice that all
fault to somewhat less than the three- are used, sensitive differential relaying source neutrals be grounded with the
phase fault at the generator terminals. in resistance grounded system with same grounding impedance magnitude. 2
If the reactor is so sized, in all probability greater fault limitation is feasible. However, neutrals should not be tied
the system will remain effectively In general, ground sensor current together to a single resistor. Where
grounded. transformers (zero sequence) do not one of the medium voltage sources is 3
have high burden capacity. Resistance the utility, their consent for impedance
Resistance Grounded grounded systems limit the circulating grounding must be obtained.
Medium voltage systems in general currents of triple harmonics and limit 4
should be low resistance grounded. The neutral impedance must have a
the damage at the point of fault. This
The ground fault is typically limited to voltage rating at least equal to the rated
method of grounding is not suitable
about 200400 A but less than 1000 A for line-to-neutral connection of loads.
line-to-neutral voltage class of the sys- 5
(a cable shield consideration). With a tem. It must have at least a 10-second
properly sized resistor and relaying On medium voltage systems, 100% rating equal to the maximum future
application, selective fault isolation cable insulation is rated for phase-to- line-to-ground fault current and a 6
is feasible. The fault limit provided neutral voltage. If continued operation continuous rating to accommodate the
has a bearing on whether residually with one phase faulted to ground is triple harmonics that may be present.
connected relays are used or ground desired, increased insulation thickness 7
sensor current transformers are used is required. For 100% insulation, fault 4. Low Voltage System: Grounding
for ground fault relaying. clearance is recommended within Solidly grounded three-phase systems
one minute; for 133% insulation, one (Figure 1.4-2) are usually wye- 8
In general, where residually connected hour is acceptable; for indefinite connected, with the neutral point
ground relays are used (51N), the fault operation, as long as necessary, grounded. Less common is the red-
current at each grounded source 173% insulation is required. leg or high-leg delta, a 240 V system 9
supplied by some utilities with one
Table 1.4-2. Characteristics of Grounding winding center-tapped to provide 120 V
Grounding Classes Ratios of Symmetrical Percent Fault Per Unit Transient to ground for lighting. This 240 V, three- 10
and Means Component Parameters 1 Current LG Voltage phase, four-wire system is used where
120 V lighting load is small compared
A. Effectively
X0/X1 R0/X1 R0/X0 2 3
to 240 V power load, because the 11
1. Effective 0-3 0-1 >60 2 installation is low in cost to the utility.
2. Very effective 0-1 0-0.1 >95 <1.5 A corner-grounded three-phase delta
B. Noneffectively system is sometimes found, with 12
1. Inductance one phase grounded to stabilize all
a. Low inductance 3-10 0-1 >25 <2.3 voltages to ground. Better solutions
b. High inductance >10 <2 <25 2.73 8
are available for new installations. 13
2. Resistance
a. Low resistance 0-10 2 <25 <2.5
b. High resistance >100 (-1) <1 2.73
3. Inductance and resistance >10 >2 <10 2.73 Phase A 14
4. Resonant 5 <1 2.73 Phase B
5. Ungrounded/capacitance N
a. Range A - to -40 6 <8 3 9 Phase C
15
b. Range B -40 to 0 >8 >3 79 Neutral
1 Values of the coefficient of grounding (expressed as a percentage of maximum phase-to-phase
voltage) corresponding to various combinations of these ratios are shown in the ANSI C62.92
Appendix figures. Coefficient of grounding affects the selection of arrester ratings.
Grounded Wye
16
2 Ground-fault current in percentage of the three-phase short-circuit value. Phase B
3 Transient line-to-ground voltage, following the sudden initiation of a fault in per unit of the crest
of the prefault line-to-ground operating voltage for a simple, linear circuit. Phase C 17
4 Phase A
In linear circuits, Class A1 limits the fundamental line-to-ground voltage on an unfaulted phase to
138% of the prefault voltage; Class A2 to less than 110%. Neutral
5 See ANSI 62.92 para. 7.3 and precautions given in application sections. 18
6 Usual isolated neutral (ungrounded) system for which the zero-sequence reactance is capacitive Center-Tapped (High-Leg) Delta
(negative).
7
8
Same as NOTE (6) and refer to ANSI 62.92 para. 7.4. Each case should be treated on its own merit. Phase A 19
Under restriking arcing ground fault conditions (e.g., vacuum breaker interrupter operation),
this value can approach 500%. Phase B
9 Under arcing ground fault conditions, this value can easily reach 700%, but is essentially unlimited. Phase C
20
Corner-Grounded Delta

Figure 1.4-2. Solidly Grounded Systems


21

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1.4-10 Power Distribution Systems
System Application Considerations April 2016
Sheet 01 066
Grounding/Ground Fault Protection

Ungrounded systems (Figure 1.4-3) Selecting the Low Voltage System used as substitutes for ungrounded
i can be either wye or delta, although Grounding Method systems where high system
the ungrounded delta system is far There is no one best distribution availability is required.
more common. system for all applications. In choosing
ii among solidly grounded, resistance
With one phase grounded, the voltage
to ground of the other two phases
grounded, or ungrounded power rises 73%, to full phase-to-phase
Phase A
distribution, the characteristics of the
1 system must be weighed against the
voltage. In low voltage systems this
Phase B
Phase C requirements of power loads, lighting
is not important, since conductors
are insulated for 600 V.
loads, continuity of service, safety
2 Ungrounded Delta
and cost. A low voltage resistance grounded
Phase A system is normally grounded so that
Under ground fault conditions, each
3 Phase B
system behaves very differently. A
the single line-to-ground fault current
N exceeds the capacitive charging
Phase C solidly grounded system produces current of the system. If data for the
Ungrounded Wye high fault currents, usually with arcing, charging current is not available, use
4 and the faulted circuit must be cleared 4050 ohm resistor in the neutral
Figure 1.4-3. Ungrounded Systems on the first fault within a fraction of a of the transformer.
second to minimize damage. An
5 Resistance-grounded systems ungrounded system will pass limited In commercial and institutional
(Figure 1.4-4) are simplest with a current into the first ground faultonly installations, such as office buildings,
wye connection, grounding the neutral the charging current of the system, shopping centers, schools and hospitals,
6 point directly through the resistor. caused by the distributed capacitance lighting loads are often 50% or more
Delta systems can be grounded by to ground of the system wiring and of the total load. In addition, a feeder
means of a zig-zag or other grounding equipment. In low voltage systems, outage on first ground fault is seldom
7 transformer. Wye broken delta this is rarely more than 1 or 2 A. crucialeven in hospitals, that have
transformer banks may also be used. Therefore, on first ground fault, an emergency power in critical areas. For
ungrounded system can continue in these reasons, a solidly grounded wye
8 service, making it desirable where distribution, with the neutral used for
Phase A power outages cannot be tolerated. lighting circuits, is usually the most
Phase B
However, if the ground fault is economical, effective and convenient
9 R
N
Phase C intermittent, sputtering or arcing, a design. In some instances, it is an
high voltageas much as 6 to 8 times NEC requirement.
phase voltagecan be built up across
10 the system capacitance, from the In industrial installations, the effect
Resistance-Grounded Wye of a shutdown caused by a single
phase conductors to ground. Similar
high voltages can occur as a result ground fault could be disastrous.
11 Phase A
of resonance between system An interrupted process could cause the
capacitance and the inductances loss of all the materials involved, often
Phase B
ruin the process equipment itself, and
12 Phase C of transformers and motors in the
system. The phase-to-phase voltage sometimes create extremely danger-
N is not affected. This high transient ous situations for operating personnel.
R phase-to-ground voltage can puncture On the other hand, lighting is usually
13 insulation at weak points, such as only a small fraction of the total
motor windings, and is a frequent industrial electrical load. A solidly
Delta With Derived Neutral Resistance- cause of multiple motor failures on grounded neutral circuit conductor
14 Grounded Using Zig-Zag Transformer ungrounded systems. Locating a first is not imperative and, when required,
fault on an ungrounded system can can be obtained from inexpensive
Figure 1.4-4. Resistance-Grounded Systems be difficult. If, before the first fault is lighting transformers.
15 cleared, a second ground fault occurs Because of the ability to continue in
This derives a neutral point, which
can be either solidly or impedance- on a different phase, even on a operation with one ground fault on
different, remote feeder, it is a high-
16 grounded. If the grounding transformer
current phase-to-ground-to-phase
the system, many existing industrial
plants use ungrounded delta distribu-
has sufficient capacity, the neutral
created can be solidly grounded and fault, usually arcing, that can cause tion. Today, new installations can have
severe damage if at least one of the
17 used as part of a three-phase, four-wire
grounds is not cleared immediately.
all the advantages of service continuity
system. Most transformer-supplied of the ungrounded delta, yet minimize
systems are either solidly grounded If the second circuit is remote, enough the problems of the system, such
current may not flow to cause
18 or resistance grounded. Generator
protection to operate. This can leave
as the difficulty of locating the first
neutrals are often grounded through ground fault, risk of damage from a
a reactor, to limit ground fault (zero high voltages and stray currents on second ground fault, and damage
structures and jeopardize personnel.
19 sequence) currents to values the transient overvoltages. A high-
generator can withstand. In general, where loads will be resistance grounded wye distribution
connected line-to-neutral, solidly can continue in operation with a
20 grounded systems are used. High ground fault on the system and will
resistance grounded systems are not develop transient overvoltages.

21

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Power Distribution Systems 1.4-11
April 2016 System Application Considerations
Sheet 01 067
Grounding/Ground Fault Protection

And, because the ground point is disconnecting means rated 1000 A or


established, locating a ground fault is more on solidly grounded wye services Main
i
less difficult than on an ungrounded of more than 150 V to ground, but
system especially when a pulsing not exceeding 600 V phase-to-phase. Neutral

contactor design is applied. When Practically, this makes ground fault


Service
Transformer ii
GFR
combined with sensitive ground-fault protection mandatory on 480Y/277 V Sensor
Typical
protection, damage from a second services, but not on 208Y/120 V ser- Ground Bus Feeder

ground fault can be nearly eliminated. vices. On a 208 V system, the voltage 1
Main Bonding
Ungrounded delta systems can be to ground is 120 V. If a ground fault Jumper
converted to high-resistance grounded occurs, the arc goes out at current Typical

systems, using a zig-zag or other zero, and the voltage to ground is


Grounding
Electrode
Equipment
Grounding
4W Load
2
Conductor Conductor
grounding transformer to derive a often too low to cause it to restrike.
neutral, with similar benefits, see Therefore, arcing ground faults on 208
Tab 36. While the majority of V systems tend to be self-extinguish- Figure 1.4-5. Ground Return Sensing Method 3
manufacturing plants use solidly ing. On a 480 V system, with When an energized conductor faults
grounded systems, in many instances, 277 V to ground, restrike usually takes to grounded metal, the fault current
the high-resistance grounded distribu- place after current zero, and the arc returns along the ground return path to
4
tion will be the most advantageous. tends to be self-sustaining, causing the neutral of the source transformer.
severe and increasing damage, until This path includes the main bonding
Ground Fault Protection the fault is cleared by a protective jumper as shown in Figure 1.4-5.
5
A ground fault normally occurs in one device. A current sensor on this conductor
of two ways: by accidental contact of The NEC requires ground fault (which can be a conventional bar-type 6
an energized conductor with normally protection on the service disconnecting or window type CT) will respond to
grounded metal, or as a result of means. This protection works so fast ground fault currents only. Normal
an insulation failure of an energized that for ground faults on feeders, or neutral currents resulting from 7
conductor. When an insulation failure even branch circuits, it will often open unbalanced loads will return along
occurs, the energized conductor the service disconnect before the the neutral conductor and will not be
contacts normally noncurrent-carrying feeder or branch circuit overcurrent detected by the ground return sensor. 8
grounded metal, which is bonded to device can operate. This is highly
or part of the equipment grounding This is an inexpensive method of sensing
undesirable, and in the NEC (230.95) ground faults where protection per
conductor. In a solidly grounded a Fine Print Note (FPN) states that NEC (230.95) is desired. For it to 9
system, the fault current returns to the additional ground fault protective
source primarily along the equipment operate properly, the neutral must be
equipment will be needed on feeders grounded in only one place as indicated
grounding conductors, with a small and branch circuits where maximum in Figure 1.4-5. In many installations, 10
part using parallel paths such as build- continuity of electric service is neces-
ing steel or piping. If the ground return the servicing utility grounds the neutral
sary. Unless it is acceptable to discon- at the transformer and additional
impedance was as low as that of the nect the entire service on a ground grounding is required in the service 11
circuit conductors, ground fault currents fault almost anywhere in the system,
would be high, and the normal phase equipment per NEC (250.24(A)(2)).
such additional stages of ground In such cases, and others including
overcurrent protection would clear fault protection must be provided. multiple source with multiple, inter- 12
them with little damage. Unfortunately, At least two stages of protection are
the impedance of the ground return connected neutral ground points,
mandatory in health care facilities residual or zero sequence ground
path is usually higher, the fault itself (NEC Sec. 517.17). sensing methods should be employed. 13
is usually arcing and the impedance
of the arc further reduces the fault Overcurrent protection is designed A second method of detecting ground
current. In a 480Y/277 V system, the to protect conductors and equipment faults involves the use of a zero 14
voltage drop across the arc can be against currents that exceed their sequence sensing method, as illus-
from 70 to 140 V. The resulting ground ampacity or rating under prescribed trated in Figure 1.4-6. This sensing
fault current is rarely enough to cause time values. An overcurrent can result method requires a single, specially 15
the phase overcurrent protection from an overload, short circuit or (high designed sensor either of a toroidal
device to open instantaneously and level) ground fault condition. When or rectangular shaped configuration.
prevent damage. Sometimes, the currents flow outside the normal This core balance current transformer 16
ground fault is below the trip setting of current path to ground, supplementary surrounds all the phase and neutral
the protective device and it does not ground fault protection equipment will conductors in a typical three-phase,
trip at all until the fault escalates and be required to sense low-level ground four-wire distribution system. The 17
extensive damage is done. For these fault currents and initiate the protection sensing method is based on the fact
reasons, low level ground protection required. Normal phase overcurrent that the vectorial sum of the phase and
devices with minimum time delay protection devices provide no protection neutral currents in any distribution 18
settings are required to rapidly clear against low-level ground faults. circuit will equal zero unless a ground
ground faults. This is emphasized by fault condition exists downstream from
There are three basic means of sensing
the NEC requirement that a ground
ground faults. The most simple and the sensor. All currents that flow only 19
fault relay on a service shall have a in the circuit conductors, including
direct method is the ground return
maximum delay of one second for balanced or unbalanced phase-to-phase
method as illustrated in Figure 1.4-5.
faults of 3000 A or more.
This sensing method is based on the fact and phase-to-neutral normal or fault 20
The NEC (Sec. 230.95) requires that that all currents supplied by a trans- currents, and harmonic currents, will
former must return to that transformer. result in zero sensor output.
ground fault protection, set at no more
than 1200 A, be provided for each service
21

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1.4-12 Power Distribution Systems
System Application Considerations April 2016
Sheet 01 068
Grounding/Ground Fault Protection

However, should any conductor become neutral. In a residual sensing scheme, levels of ground fault protection are
i grounded, the fault current will return the relationship of the polarity markings desired for added service continuity.
along the ground pathnot the normal as noted by the X on each sensor Additional grounding points may be
circuit conductorsand the sensor will is critical. Because the vectorial sum of employed upstream of the residual
ii have an unbalanced magnetic flux the currents in all the conductors will sensors, but not on the load side.
condition, and a sensor output will total zero under normal, non-ground
be generated to actuate the ground faulted conditions, it is imperative Both the zero sequence and
1 fault relay. that proper polarity connections are residual sensing methods have
employed to reflect this condition. been commonly referred to as
vectorial summation methods.
2 Zero
Sequence
Sensor
Alternate
Sensor
Location Sensor Most distribution systems can use
Residual
Main Polarity
Marks
Sensors either of the three sensing methods
exclusively or a combination of the
3 Main
sensing methods depending upon
Neutral the complexity of the system and
the degree of service continuity and
4 GFR Typical
Neutral
selective coordination desired.
Feeder
Typical Different methods will be required
GFR Feeder
depending upon the number of supply
5 Typical sources, and the number and location
4W Load Typical
4W Load
of system grounding points.
6 Figure 1.4-6. Zero Sequence Sensing Method As an example, one of the more
Figure 1.4-7. Residual Sensing Method frequently used systems where
Zero sequence sensors are available continuity of service to critical loads
As with the zero sequence sensing
7 with various window openings for
method, the resultant residual sensor is a factor is the dual source system
circuits with small or large conductors, illustrated in Figure 1.4-8. This system
and even with large rectangular win- output to the ground fault relay or
integral ground fault tripping circuit uses tie-point grounding as permitted
8 dows to fit over busbars or multiple
large size conductors in parallel. Some will be zero if all currents flow only under NEC Sec. 250.24(A)(3). The use
sensors have split cores for installation in the circuit conductors. Should a of this grounding method is limited
over existing conductors without ground fault occur, the current from to services that are dual fed (double-
9 disturbing the connections. the faulted conductor will return along ended) in a common enclosure or
the ground path, rather than on the grouped together in separate enclo-
This method of sensing ground faults other circuit conductors, and the resid- sures, employing a secondary tie.
10 can be employed on the main discon- ual sum of the sensor outputs will not
nect where protection per NEC (230.95) This scheme uses individual sensors
be zero. When the level of ground fault connected in ground return fashion.
is desired. It can also be easily employed
current exceeds the pre-set current
11 in multi-tier systems where additional
and time delay settings, a ground
Under tie breaker closed operating
levels of ground fault protection are conditions, either the M1 sensor or
desired for added service continuity. fault tripping action will be initiated. M2 sensor could see neutral unbalance
12 Additional grounding points may be This method of sensing ground faults currents and possibly initiate an
employed upstream of the sensor, but can be economically applied on main improper tripping operation. However,
not on the load side. with the polarity arrangements of
service disconnects where circuit break-
13 Ground fault protection employing ers with integral ground fault protection these two sensors along with the tie
ground return or zero sequence sensing are provided. It can be used in protec- breaker auxiliary switch (T/a) and
methods can be accomplished by the tion schemes per NEC (230.95) or in interconnections as shown, this
14 use of separate ground fault relays multi-tier schemes where additional possibility is eliminated.
(GFRs) and disconnects equipped with
standard shunt trip devices or by circuit
15 breakers with integral ground fault Power Power
protection with external connections Transformer Transformer
arranged for these modes of sensing. In
16 some cases, a reliable source of control
Neutral Sensor Neutral Sensor
power is needed. Main Main
Bkr. Main Bkr. 52-1 Tie Bkr. Main Bkr. 52-2 Bkr.
The third basic method of detecting 52-1 52-T 52-2
17 ground faults involves the use of A, B, C A, B, C
multiple current sensors connected in Neutral Neutral
Neutral Sensor
a residual sensing method as illustrated
18 in Figure 1.4-7. This is a very common Typical
4-Wire
( )B5
Tie Bkr. 52-T
Typical
( )B5
( )B4
sensing method used with circuit break- ( )B4 52-T 52-T 4-Wire
M2N
M1G

M2G
M1N

Feeder
TN
TG

a a Feeder
ers equipped with electronic trip units,
19 current sensors and integral ground 33-
52-T
fault protection. The three-phase sensors 4-Wire 4-Wire
B5 B4 B4 B5 B4 B5 Load
are required for normal phase overcur- Load
Digitrip Digitrip Digitrip
20 rent protection. Ground fault sensing B4
Digitrip
B5 Main Bkr.
52-1
Main Bkr.
52-T
Main Bkr.
52-2
B4
Digitrip
B5
is obtained with the addition of an
identically rated sensor mounted on the
21 Figure 1.4-8. Dual Source SystemSingle Point Grounding
Note: This GF scheme requires trip units to be set to source ground sensing.

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Power Distribution Systems 1.4-13
April 2016 System Application Considerations
Sheet 01 069
Grounding/Ground Fault Protection

Selective ground fault tripping coordi- or a combination of all types may be GFR is an indication that any occurring
nation between the tie breaker and the employed to accomplish the desired ground fault is within the zone of the i
two main circuit breakers is achieved end results. GFR next upstream from the fault and
by pre-set current pickup and time that device will operate instantaneously
delay settings between devices GFR/1, Because the NEC (230.95) limits the to clear the fault with minimum dam- ii
GFR/2 and GFR/T. maximum setting of the ground fault age and maximum service continuity.
protection used on service equipment This operating mode permits all GFRs
The advantages of increased service to 1200 A (and timed tripping at 3000 A to operate instantaneously for a fault 1
continuity offered by this system can for one second), to prevent tripping within their zone and still provide
only be effectively used if additional of the main service disconnect on a complete selectivity between zones.
levels of ground fault protection are feeder ground fault, ground fault The National Electrical Manufacturers 2
added on each downstream feeder. protection must be provided on all the Association (NEMA) states, in their
Some users prefer individual grounding feeders. To maintain maximum service application guide for ground fault
of the transformer neutrals. In such continuity, more than two levels (zones) protection, that zone interlocking is 3
cases, a partial differential ground fault of ground fault protection will be necessary to minimize damage from
scheme should be used for the mains required, so that ground fault outages ground faults. A two-wire connection
and tie breaker. can be localized and service interrup- is required to carry the restraining 4
tion minimized. To obtain selectivity signal from the GFRs in one zone to
An example of a residual partial differ- between different levels of ground
ential scheme is shown in Figure 1.4-9. the GFRs in the next zone.
The scheme typically relies upon the
fault relays, time delay settings should 5
be employed with the GFR furthest Circuit breakers with integral ground
vector sum of at least two neutral downstream having the minimum fault protection and standard circuit
sensors in combination with each
breakers three-phase sensors. To
time delay. This will allow the GFR breakers with shunt trips activated 6
nearest the fault to operate first. by the ground fault relay are ideal for
reduce the complexity of the drawing, With several levels of protection, this ground fault protection. Many fused
each of the breakers three-phase
sensors have not been shown. It is
will reduce the level of protection for switches over 1200 A, and Eaton Type 7
faults within the upstream GFR zones. FDP fusible switches with ratings
absolutely critical that the sensors Zone interlocking was developed for from 400 to 1200 A, are listed by UL
polarities are supplied as shown, the GFRs to overcome this problem. as suitable for ground fault protection. 8
neutral sensor ratings of the mains and Fusible switches so listed must be
tie are the same, and that there are GFRs (or circuit breakers with integral equipped with a shunt trip, and be able
no other grounds on the neutral bus ground fault protection) with zone to open safely on faults up to 12 times 9
made downstream of points shown. interlocking are coordinated in a their rating.
system to operate in a time delayed
An infinite number of ground fault mode for ground faults occurring most Power distribution systems differ
protection schemes can be developed remote from the source. However, this widely from each other, depending
10
depending upon the number of alternate time delayed mode is only actuated upon the requirements of each user,
sources, the number of grounding points when the GFR next upstream from the and total system overcurrent protec-
and system interconnections involved. fault sends a restraining signal to the tion, including ground fault currents,
11
Depending upon the individual system upstream GFRs. The absence of a must be individually designed to meet
configuration, either mode of sensing these needs. Experienced and knowl-
restraining signal from a downstream
edgeable engineers must consider the
12
power sources (utility or on-site), the
Power Power effects of outages and costs of down- 13
Transformer Transformer time, safety for people and equipment,
initial and lifecycle costs, and many
other factors. They must apply protec- 14
X X
tive devices, analyzing the time-current
X X
Neutral Neutral characteristics, fault interrupting
Sensor Main Sensor Main
Main Breaker 52-1 Breaker 52-2 Main
capacity, and selectivity and coordina- 15
Breaker Breaker tion methods to provide the most safe
52-1 52-2 and cost-effective distribution system.
Phase A, Tie Breaker Phase A, Further Information 16
Phase B, 52-T Phase B, PRSC-4ESystem Neutral Ground-
Phase C Phase C
Neutral X
Neutral
ing and Ground Fault Protection
(ABB Publication)
17
Neutral Sensor X
Tie Breaker 52-T PB 2.2NEMA Application Guide
Trip Unit
Trip Unit

Typical X
X
Typical X
X
for Ground Fault Protective Devices 18
Four-Wire Four-Wire for Equipment
Feeder 52-1 52-T 52-2 Feeder
a a a IEEE Standard 142Grounding of
Industrial and Commercial Power 19
Four-Wire Load Four-Wire Load
Systems (Green Book)
Trip Unit Trip Unit Trip Unit IEEE Emerald Book (Standard 1100)
Main Breaker Tie Breaker Main Breaker
UL 96A, Installation Requirements
20
52-1 52-T 52-2
for Lightning Protection Systems
Figure 1.4-9. Dual Source SystemMultiple Point Grounding 21

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1.4-14 Power Distribution Systems
System Application Considerations April 2016
Sheet 01 070
Grounding/Ground Fault Protection

Lightning and Surge Protection The electrical distribution system and Surge Protection
i Physical protection of buildings
equipment ground must be connected
Eatons VacClad-W metal-clad switch-
to this grounding electrode system by
from direct damage from lightning a grounding electrode conductor. All gear is applied over a broad range of
ii is beyond the scope of this section.
Requirements will vary with geographic
other grounding electrodes, such as circuits, and is one of the many types
of equipment in the total system. The
those for the lightning protection sys-
location, building type and environ- tem, the telephone system, television distribution system can be subject to
1 ment, and many other factors (see antenna and cable TV system grounds, voltage transients caused by lighting
IEEE/ANSI Standard 142, Grounding and computer systems, must be bonded or switching surges.
of Industrial and Commercial Power to this grounding electrode system. Recognizing that distribution system
2 Systems). Any lightning protection
can be subject to voltage transients
system must be grounded, and the Medium Voltage Equipment Surge
lightning protection ground must be caused by lighting or switching, the
3 bonded to the electrical equipment Protection Considerations industry has developed standards to
grounding system. provide guidelines for surge protection
Transformers of electrical equipment. Those guide-
Grounding Electrodes If the voltage withstand/BIL rating of lines should be used in design and
4 the transformer is less than that of the protection of electrical distribution
At some point, the equipment and systems independent of the circuit
switchgear feeding the transformer,
system grounds must be connected breaker interrupting medium. The
5 to the earth by means of a grounding
surge protection is recommended at
industry standards are:
the transformer terminals, in line with
electrode system.
established practices. In addition, ANSI C62
6 Outdoor substations usually use a consideration should be given to using Guides and Standards for Surge
ground grid, consisting of a number of surge arresters and/or surge capacitors Protection
ground rods driven into the earth and for transformers having equal or
7 bonded together by buried copper greater withstand/BIL ratings than that IEEE 242Buff Book
conductors. The required grounding of the switchgear feeding the trans- IEEE Recommended Practice for
electrode system for a building is former for distribution systems where Protection and Coordination of
8 spelled out in the NEC Article 250. reflected voltage waves and/or reso- Industrial and Commercial Power
nant conditions may occur. Typically Systems
The preferred grounding electrode incoming voltage surges are reflected
is a metal underground water pipe in IEEE 141Red Book
9 direct contact with the earth for at least
at the transformer primary terminals
Recommended Practice for
(because of the change in impedance)
10 ft (3 m). However, because under- resulting in voltages at the ends of the Electric Power Distribution for
ground water piping is often plastic Industrial Plants
10 outside the building, or may later be
transformer primary terminals/wind-
ings of up to two times the incoming IEEE C37.20.2
replaced by plastic piping, the NEC voltage wave. System capacitance and Standards for Metal-Clad Switchgear
11 requires this electrode to be supple- inductance values combined with the
mented by and bonded to at least one transformer impedance values can Eatons medium voltage metal-clad
other grounding electrode, such as cause resonant conditions resulting and metal-enclosed switchgear that
12 the effectively grounded metal frame
of the building, a concrete-encased
in amplified reflected waves. Surge uses vacuum circuit breakers is applied
arresters/capacitors when required, over a broad range of circuits. It is one
electrode, a copper conductor ground should be located as close to the trans- of the many types of equipment in the
13 ring encircling the building, or a made former primary terminals as practical. total distribution system. Whenever a
electrode such as one or more driven switching device is opened or closed,
ground rods or a buried plate. Where Motors certain interactions of the power
14 any of these electrodes are present, Surge capacitors and, where appropri- system elements with the switching
they must be bonded together into one ate, surge arresters should be applied device can cause high frequency voltage
grounding electrode system. at the motor terminals. transients in the system. Due to the
15 One of the most effective grounding Generators
wide range of applications and variety
of ratings used for different elements
electrodes is the concrete-encased Surge capacitors and station in the power systems, a given circuit
electrode, sometimes called the Ufer
16 ground, named after the man who
class surge arresters at the machine may or may not require surge protec-
terminals. tion. Therefore, Eaton does not include
developed it. It consists of at least
surge protection as standard with its
20 ft (6 m) of steel reinforcing bars or
17 rods not less than 1/2 inches (12.7 mm)
metal-clad or metal-enclosed medium
voltage switchgear. The user exercises
in diameter, or at least 20 ft (6 m) of
the options as to the type and extent
bare copper conductor, size No. 4 AWG
18 or larger, encased in at least 2 inches
of the surge protection necessary
depending on the individual circuit
(50.8 mm) of concrete. It must be
characteristics and cost considerations.
located within and near the bottom of
19 a concrete foundation or footing that The following are Eatons recommen-
is in direct contact with the earth. Tests dations for surge protection of medium
have shown this electrode to provide voltage equipment. Please note these
20 a low-resistance earth ground even in recommendations are valid when
poor soil conditions. using Eatons vacuum breakers only.
21

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Power Distribution Systems 1.4-15
April 2016 System Application Considerations
Sheet 01 071
Grounding/Ground Fault Protection

Surge Protection Recommendations RC Snubber and/or ZORC damp 6. Capacitor SwitchingNo surge
Note: The abbreviation ZORC used in the internal transformer resonance: protection is required. Make sure i
text below refers to Surge Protection Device that the capacitors lightning
manufactured by Strike Technology (Pty) The natural frequency of transformer impulse withstand rating is equal
Ltd. An equivalent device offered by other windings can under some circumstances to that of the switchgear. ii
manufacturers, such as Type EHZ by ABB, be excited to resonate. Transformer
and Protec Z by Northern Technologies SA windings in resonance can produce 7. Shunt Reactor Switching
can also be used. elevated internal voltages that produce Provide Surge Arrester in parallel 1
insulation damage or failure. An RC with RC Snubber, or ZORC at the
1. For circuits exposed to lightning, Snubber or a ZORC applied at the reactor terminals.
surge arresters should be applied transformer terminals as indicated 2
in line with Industry standard above can damp internal winding 8. Motor Starting Reactors or Reduced
practices. resonance and prevent the production Voltage Auto-Transformers
Provide Surge Arrester in parallel
2. Transformers
of damaging elevated internal voltages.
with RC Snubber, or ZORC at the 3
This is typically required where rectifiers,
UPS or similar electronic equipment is reactor or RVAT terminals.
a. Close-Coupled to medium
voltage primary breaker: on the transformer secondary. 9. Switching Underground Cables 4
Provide transients surge pro- Surge protection not needed.
3. Arc-Furnace Transformers
tection, such as Surge Arrester
Provide Surge Arrester in parallel
in parallel with RC Snubber, or
with RC Snubber, or ZORC at the Types of Surge Protection Devices 5
ZORC. The surge protection
transformer terminals. Generally surge protective devices
device selected should be
should be located as closely as possible
located and connected at the 4. MotorsProvide Surge Arrester in to the circuit component(s) that require
6
transformer primary terminals parallel with RC Snubber, or ZORC
or it can be located inside the protection from the transients, and
at the motor terminals. For those connected directly to the terminals of
switchgear and connected on motors using VFDs, surge protec- the component with conductors that
7
the transformer side of the tion should be applied and precede
primary breaker. are as short and flat as possible to
the VFD devices as well. minimize the inductance. It is also
b. Cable-Connected to medium important that surge protection devices
8
5. GeneratorsProvide station class
voltage primary breaker: should be properly grounded for
Surge Arrester in parallel with RC
Provide transient surge protec- effectively shunting high frequency
tion, such as Surge Arrester in
Snubber, or ZORC at the generator
transients to ground.
9
terminals.
parallel with RC Snubber, or
ZORC for transformers con-
nected by cables with lengths 10
up to 75 feet. The surge protec-
tion device should be located
and connected at the transformer 11
terminals. No surge protection
is needed for transformers with
lightning impulse withstand 12
ratings equal to that of the
switchgear and connected to
the switchgear by cables at
13
least 75 feet or longer. For
transformers with lower BIL,
provide surge arrester in parallel Figure 1.4-10. Surge Protection Devices 14
with RC Snubber or ZORC.
15

16

17

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1.4-16 Power Distribution Systems
System Application Considerations April 2016
Sheet 01 072
Grounding/Ground Fault Protection

Surge Arresters Surge Capacitors ZORC


i The modern metal-oxide surge Metal-oxide surge arresters limit the A ZORC device consists of parallel
arresters are recommended because magnitude of prospective surge over- combination of Resistor (R) and Zinc
this latest advance in arrester design voltage, but are ineffective in control- Oxide Voltage Suppressor (ZnO), con-
ii ensures better performance and high ling its rate of rise. Specially designed nected in series with a Surge Capacitor.
reliability of surge protection schemes. surge capacitors with low internal The resistor R is sized to match surge
Manufacturers technical data must inductance are used to limit the rate of impedance of the load cables, typically
1 be consulted for correct application rise of this surge overvoltage to protect 20 to 30 ohms. The ZnO is a gapless
of a given type of surge arrester. turn-to-turn insulation. Recommended metal-oxide nonlinear arrester, set
Notice that published arrester MCOV values for surge capacitors are: 0.5 f to trigger at 1 to 2 PU voltage, where
2 (Maximum Continuous Operating on 5 and 7.5 kV, 0.25 f on 15 kV, and 1 PU = 1.412*(VL-L/1.732). The Surge
Voltage) ratings are based on 40 or 0.13 f on systems operating at 24 kV Capacitor is typically sized to be 0.15 to
45 C ambient temperature. In general, and higher. 0.25 microfarad. As with RC Snubber,
3 the following guidelines are recom- under normal operating conditions,
mended for arrester selections, when RC Snubber impedance of the capacitor is very
installed inside Eatons medium A RC Snubber device consists of a high, effectively isolating the resistor
4 voltage switchgear: non-inductive resistor R sized to match R and ZnO from the system at normal
surge impedance of the load cables, power frequencies, and minimizing
A. Solidly Grounded Systems: typically 20 to 30 ohms, and connected heat dissipation during normal opera-
5 Arrester MCOV rating should be in series with a Surge Capacitor C. The tion. Under high frequency transient
equal to 1.05 x VLL/(1.732 x T), Surge Capacitor is typically sized to be conditions, the capacitor offers very
where VLL is nominal line-to-line 0.15 to 0.25 microfarad. Under normal low impedance, thus effectively
6 service voltage, 1.05 factor allows operating conditions, impedance of inserting the resistor R and ZnO in
for +5% voltage variation above the capacitor is very high, effectively the power system as cable terminating
the nominal voltage according isolating the resistor R from the network, thus minimizing reflection of
7 to ANSI C84.1, and T is derating system at normal power frequencies, the steep wave-fronts of the voltage
factor to allow for operation at and minimizing heat dissipation during transients and prevents voltage dou-
55 C switchgear ambient, which normal operation. Under high frequency bling of the traveling wave. The ZnO
8 should be obtained from the transient conditions, the capacitor element limits the peak voltage magni-
arrester manufacturer for the type offers very low impedance, thus effec- tudes. The combined effects of R, ZnO,
of arrester under consideration. tively inserting the resistor R in the and Capacitor of the ZORC device
9 Typical values of T are: 0.946 to 1.0. power system as cable terminating provides optimum protection against
B. Low Resistant Grounded Systems resistor, thus minimizing reflection of high frequency transients by absorbing,
the steep wave-fronts of the voltage damping, and by limiting the peak
10 (systems grounded through
transients and prevents voltage dou- amplitude of the voltage wave-fronts.
resistor rated for 10 seconds):
Arrester 10-second MCOV capability bling of the traveling wave. The RC Please note that the ZORC is not a
Snubber provides protection against lightning protection device. If lightning
11 at 60 C, which is obtained from
high frequency transients by absorb- can occur or be induced in the electrical
manufacturers data, should be
equal to 1.05 x VLL, where VLL is ing and damping and the transients. system, a properly rated and applied
Please note RC Snubber is most effec-
12 nominal line-to-line service voltage,
tive in mitigating fast-rising transient
surge arrester must precede the ZORC.
and 1.05 factor allows for +5%
voltage variation above the voltages, and in attenuating reflections
13 nominal voltage. and resonances before they have a
chance to build up, but does not limit
C. Ungrounded or Systems the peak magnitude of the transient.
14 Grounded through impedance Therefore, the RC Snubber alone may
other than 10-second resistor: not provide adequate protection. To
Arrester MCOV rating should be limit peak magnitude of the transient,
15 equal to 1.05 x VLL/T, where VLL application of surge arrester should
and T are as defined above. also be considered.
Refer to Table 1.4-3 for recommended
16 ratings for metal-oxide surge arresters
that are sized in accordance with the
above guidelines, when located in
17 Eatons switchgear.

18

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Power Distribution Systems 1.4-17
April 2016 System Application Considerations
Sheet 01 073
Grounding/Ground Fault Protection

Surge Protection Summary Good protection: Surge Arrester Best protection: ZORC, plus proper
Minimum protection: Surge Arrester
in parallel with Surge Capacitor for surge arrester preceding ZORC where i
protection from high overvoltage needed for protection against lightning.
for protection from high overvoltage peaks and fast rising transient. This ZORC provides protection from high
peaks, or Surge Capacitor for protec- option may not provide adequate frequency voltage transients and limits ii
tion from fast-rising transient. Please surge protection from escalating peak magnitude of the transient to
note that the surge arresters or surge voltages caused by circuit resonance. 1 to 2 PU (see ZORC description on
capacitor alone may not provide When applying surge capacitors on Page 1.4-16 for more detail). Surge 1
adequate surge protection from both sides of a circuit breaker, surge arrester provides protection from
escalating voltages caused by circuit capacitor on one side of the breaker higher voltage peaks resulting from
resonance. Note that when applying must be RC Snubber or ZORC, lightning surges. 2
surge capacitors on both sides of a to mitigate possible virtual
circuit breaker, surge capacitor on current chopping. Further Information
one side of the breaker must be IEEE/ANSI Standard 142Grounding 3
RC Snubber or ZORC, to mitigate Better protection: RC Snubber in Industrial and Commercial Power
possible virtual current chopping. parallel with Surge Arrester for Systems (Green Book)
protection from high frequency
IEEE Standard 241Electric Power 4
transients and voltage peaks.
Systems in Commercial Buildings
(Gray Book)
IEEE Standard 141Electric Power
5
Distribution for Industrial Plants
(Red Book)
6
Table 1.4-3. Surge Arrester SelectionsRecommended Ratings
Service Distribution Class Arresters Station Class Arresters
Voltage Solidly Low Resistance High Resistance or Solidly Low Resistance High Resistance or
7
Line-to-Line Grounded System Grounded System Ungrounded System Grounded System Grounded System Ungrounded System
kV
Arrester Ratings kV
Nominal MCOV Nominal MCOV Nominal MCOV
Arrester Ratings kV
Nominal MCOV Nominal MCOV Nominal MCOV
8
2.30 3 2.55 3 2.55 3 2.55 3 2.55 3 2.55 3 2.55
2.40 3 2.55 3 2.55 6 5.10 3 2.55 3 2.55 6 5.10 9
3.30 3 2.55 3 2.55 6 5.10 3 2.55 3 2.55 6 5.10
4.00 3 2.55 6 5.10 6 5.10 3 2.55 6 5.10 6 5.10
4.16
4.76
6
6
5.10
5.10
6
6
5.10
5.10
6
9
5.10
7.65
6
6
5.10
5.10
6
6
5.10
5.10
6
9
5.10
7.65
10
4.80 6 5.10 6 5.10 9 7.65 6 5.10 6 5.10 9 7.65
6.60 6 5.10 6 5.10 9 7.65 6 5.10 6 5.10 9 7.65
6.90 6 5.10 6 5.10 9 7.65 6 5.10 9 7.65 9 7.65 11
7.20 6 5.10 6 5.10 10 8.40 6 5.10 9 7.65 10 8.40
8.32 9 7.65 9 7.65 12 10.20 9 7.65 9 7.65 12 10.20
8.40 9 7.65 9 7.65 12 10.20 9 7.65 9 7.65 12 10.20 12
11.00 9 7.65 9 7.65 15 12.70 9 7.65 10 8.40 15 12.70
11.50 9 7.65 10 8.40 18 15.30 9 7.65 12 10.20 18 15.30
12.00 10 8.40 10 8.40 18 15.30 10 8.40 12 10.20 18 15.30 13
12.47 10 8.40 12 10.20 18 15.30 10 8.40 12 10.20 18 15.30
13.20 12 10.20 12 10.20 18 15.30 12 10.20 12 10.20 18 15.30
13.80 12 10.20 12 10.20 18 15.30 12 10.20 15 12.70 18 15.30
14.40 12 10.20 12 10.20 21 17.00 12 10.20 15 12.70 21 17.00
14
18.00 15 12.70 15 12.70 27 22.00 15 12.70 18 15.30 27 22.00
20.78 18 15.30 18 15.30 30 24.40 18 15.30 21 17.00 30 24.40
22.00 18 15.30 18 15.30 30 24.40 18 15.30 21 17.00 30 24.40 15
22.86 18 15.30 21 17.00 18 15.30 24 19.50 36 29.00
23.00 18 15.30 21 17.00 18 15.30 24 19.50 36 29.00
24.94
25.80
21
21
17.00
17.00
24
24
19.50
19.50




21
21
17.00
17.00
24
24
19.50
19.50
36
36
29.00
29.00
16
26.40 21 17.00 24 19.50 21 17.00 27 22.00 39 31.50
33.00
34.50
27
30
22.00
24.40
30
30
24.40
24.40




27
30
22.00
24.40
36
36
29.00
29.00
45
48
36.50
39.00
17
38.00 30 24.40 30 24.40 36 29.00

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1.4-18 Power Distribution Systems
System Application Considerations April 2016
Sheet 01 074
Power Quality

i Power Quality Terms Defining the Problem Another option is to buy power condi-
Power quality problems can be resolved tioning equipment to correct any and
Technical Overview in three ways: by reducing the variations all perceived power quality problems
in the power supply (power distur- without any on-site investigation.
ii Introduction bances), by improving the load equip- Power Quality Terms
Sensitive electronic loads deployed ments tolerance to those variations, or
by inserting some interface equipment Power disturbance: Any deviation
today by users require strict require-
1 ments for the quality of power delivered (known as power conditioning equip- from the nominal value (or from some
ment) between the electrical supply selected thresholds based on load
to loads.
and the sensitive load(s) to improve the tolerance) of the input AC power
2 For electronic equipment, power compatibility of the two. Practicality characteristics.
disturbances are defined in terms of and cost usually determine the extent Total harmonic distortion or distortion
amplitude and duration by the elec- to which each option is used.
3 factor: The ratio of the root-mean-
tronic equipment operating envelope.
Many methods are used to define square of the harmonic content to the
Electronic loads may be damaged
power quality problems. For example, root-mean-square of the fundamental
and disrupted, with shortened life
4 expectancy, by disturbances. one option is a thorough on-site quantity, expressed as a percentage
of the fundamental.
investigation, which includes inspecting
The proliferation of computers, variable wiring and grounding for errors, Crest factor: Ratio between the
5 frequency motor drives, UPS systems monitoring the power supply for peak value (crest) and rms value of
and other electronically controlled power disturbances, investigating a periodic waveform.
equipment is placing a greater demand equipment sensitivity to power distur-
6 on power producers for a disturbance- bances, and determining the load Apparent (total) power factor: The
free source of power. Not only do these disruption and consequential effects ratio of the total power input in watts
types of equipment require quality (costs), if any. In this way, the power to the total volt-ampere input.
7 power for proper operation; many quality problem can be defined,
Sag: An rms reduction in the AC
times, these types of equipment are alternative solutions developed,
also the sources of power disturbances voltage, at the power frequency, for
and optimal solution chosen.
8 that corrupt the quality of power in a the duration from a half-cycle to a few
seconds. An undervoltage would have
given facility. Before applying power-conditioning
equipment to solve power quality a duration greater than several seconds.
Power quality is defined according
9 to IEEE Standard 1100 as the concept
problems, the site should be checked
Interruption: The complete loss of volt-
for wiring and grounding problems.
of powering and grounding electronic age for a time period.
Sometimes, correcting a relatively
10 equipment in a manner that is suitable inexpensive wiring error, such as a Transient: A sub-cycle disturbance
to the operation of that equipment. loose connection or a reversed neutral in the AC waveform that is evidenced
IEEE Standard 1159 notes that within and ground wire, can avoid a more by a sharp brief discontinuity of the
11 the industry, alternate definitions or expensive power conditioning solution. waveform. May be of either polarity
interpretations of power quality have and may be additive to or subtractive
been used, reflecting different points Sometimes this approach is not practical
from the nominal waveform.
of view. because of limitations in time; expense
12 is not justified for smaller installations; Surge or impulse: See transient.
In addressing power quality problems monitoring for power disturbances
at an existing site, or in the design may be needed over an extended Noise: Unwanted electrical signals
13 stages of a new building, engineers period of time to capture infrequent that produce undesirable effects
need to specify different services or disturbances; the exact sensitivities of in the circuits of control systems
mitigating technologies. The lowest the load equipment may be unknown in which they occur.
14 cost and highest value solution is and difficult to determine; and finally,
to selectively apply a combination Common-mode noise: The noise
the investigative approach tends to voltage that appears equally and in
of different products and services solve only observed problems. Thus
15 as follows: unobserved or potential problems may
phase from each current-carrying
conductor to ground.
Key services/technologies in the not be considered in the solution. For
16 power quality industry: instance, when planning a new facility, Normal-mode noise: Noise signals
there is no site to investigate. There- measurable between or among active
Power quality surveys, analysis fore, power quality solutions are often circuit conductors feeding the subject
17 and studies implemented to solve potential or per- load, but not between the equipment
Power monitoring ceived problems on a preventive basis grounding conductor or associated
Grounding products and services instead of a thorough on-site investi- signal reference structure and the active
18 Surge protection
gation. circuit conductors.
Voltage regulation
19 Harmonic solutions
Lightning protection (ground rods,
hardware, etc.)
20 Uninterruptible power supply (UPS)
or motor-generator (M-G) set
21

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Power Distribution Systems 1.4-19
April 2016 System Application Considerations
Sheet 01 075
Power Quality

Methodology for Ensuring Effective The proliferation of communication The benefit of implementing cascaded
Power Quality to Electronic Loads and computer network systems network protection is shown in i
The power quality pyramid is an has increased the need for proper Figure 1.4-12. Combined, the two
effective guide for addressing power grounding and wiring of AC and data/ stages of protection at the service
quality problems at an existing facility. communication lines. In addition to entrance and branch panel locations ii
The framework is also effective for reviewing AC grounding and bonding reduce the IEEE 62.41 recommended
specifying engineers who are design- practices, it is necessary to prevent test wave (C320 kV, 10 kA) to less than
ing a new facility. Power quality starts ground loops from affecting the signal 200 V voltage, a harmless disturbance 1
with grounding (the base of the reference point. level for 120 V rated sensitive loads.
pyramid) and then moves upward
to address the potential issues. This 2. Surge Protection If only building entrance feeder 2
protection were provided, the let-
simple, yet proven methodology, Surge protection devices (SPDs) through voltage will be approximately
will provide the most cost-effective are recommended as the next stage
approach. As we move higher up the power quality solutions. NFPA,
950 V in a 277/480 V system exposed 3
to induced lightning surges. This
pyramid, the cost per kVA of mitigating UL 96A, IEEE Emerald Book and level of let-through voltage can cause
potential problems increase and the equipment manufacturers recom-
quality of the power increases (refer mend the use of surge protectors.
degradation or physical damage of 4
most electronic loads.
to Figure 1.4-11). The SPD shunt short duration voltage
disturbances to ground, thereby Wherever possible, consultants,
preventing the surge from affecting specifiers and application engineers
5
electronic loads. When installed as should ensure similar loads are fed
part of the facility-wide design, SPDs from the same source. In this way,
disturbance-generating loads are
6
Cost Per kVA

are cost-effective compared to all


other solutions (on a $/kVA basis). separated from electronic circuits
affected by power disturbances. For
The IEEE Emerald Book recommends example, motor loads, HVAC systems
7
the use of a two-stage protection and other linear loads should be
concept. For large surge currents, separated from the sensitive process
diversion is best accomplished in control and computer systems.
8
two stages: the first diversion should
be performed at the service entrance The most effective and economic
5. Uninterruptible Power Supply to the building. Then, any residual solution for protecting a large number 9
(UPS, Gen. Sets, etc.) of loads is to install parallel SPDs at
voltage resulting from the action
4. Harmonic Distortion can be dealt with by a second the building service entrance feeder
3. Voltage Regulation protective device at the power and panelboard locations. This reduces 10
2. Surge Protection panel of the computer room the cost of protection for multiple
(or other critical loads). sensitive loads.
1. Grounding 11
Figure 1.4-11. Power Quality Pyramid
Inputhigh energy
12
1. Grounding SPD
transient disturbance; IEEE Category
CP
SPD C3 Impulse 20,000V; 10,000A
Grounding represents the foundation 480V 120/208V
20,000V
13
PEAK VOLTAGE

of a reliable power distribution


system. Grounding and wiring Computer or
Sensitive
Best achievable
performance with single SPD
problems can be the cause of up to Stage 1 Protection Loads
at main panel (950V, at Stage 1) 14
80% of all power quality problems. (Service Entrance) Stage 2 Protection
All other forms of power quality (Branch Location)
800V
System Test Parameters:
solutions are dependent upon good
IEEE C62.41[10] and C62.45 [10] 400V 15
grounding procedures.
test procedures using category; 0
480V main entrance panels; 25 uS 50 uS

100 ft (30m) of three-phase wire;


TIME (MICROSECONDS)
16
480/208V distribution transformer; Two stage (cascade
and 208V branch panel. approach) achieves best

= SPD
possible protection (less
than 200V at Stage 2) 17
Figure 1.4-12. Cascaded Network Protection 18

19

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1.4-20 Power Distribution Systems
System Application Considerations April 2016
Sheet 01 076
Power Quality

The recommended system approach Building entrance SPDs protect By twisting the installation wires, the
i for installing SPDs is summarized in the facility against large external area between wires is reduced and the
Figure 1.4-13. transients, including lightning mutual inductance affect minimized.
SPDs are bi-directional and prevent
ii transient and noise disturbances
Increasing the diameter of the installation
1. wires is of negligible benefit. Induc-
Identify Critical Loads from feeding back within a system tance is a skin effect phenomenon and
when installed at distribution or
1 branch panels
a function of wire circumference. Since
2. only a marginal reduction in inductance
Identify Non-Critical Loads Two levels of protection safeguard is achieved when the diameter of the
sensitive loads from physical
2 damage or operational upset
installation conductors is increased,
3.
the use of large diameter wire results
Identify Noise and in only minimal improvement (see
Side-Mounted SPD vs. Integral SPD
3 Disturbance Generating Loads
Directly connecting the surge sup-
Figure 1.4-15).
presser to the busbar of electrical Further benefits provided by integrated
4. distribution equipment results in surge suppression designs are the
4 Review Internal Power Distribution Layout
the best possible level of protection. elimination of field installation costs and
Compared to side-mounted devices, the amount of expensive outboard
5. connecting the SPD unit to the busbar wall space taken up by side-mounted
5 Identify Facility Exposure to eliminates the need for lead wires SPD devices.
Expected Levels of Disturbance
and reduces the let-through voltage
up to 50% (see Figure 1.4-14). Building Entrance Feeder Installation
6 6. Considerations
Apply Mitigating Equipment to: Given that surges are high frequency Installing an SPD device immediately
a) Service Entrance Main Panels disturbances, the inductance of the after the switchgear or switchboard
7 b) Key Sub-Panels installation wiring increases the main breaker is the optimal location
c) Critical Loads
let-through voltage of the protective for protecting against external distur-
d) Data and Communication Lines
device. Figure 1.4-15 shows that bances such as lightning. When placed
8 for every inch of lead length, the in this location, the disturbance is
Figure 1.4-13. System Approach for Installing SPDs let-through voltage is increased by intercepted by the SPD and reduced
There may be specific critical loads an additional 1525 V above the to a minimum before reaching the
9 within a facility that require a higher manufacturers stated suppression distribution and/or branch panel(s).
level of protection. A series SPD is best performance.
suited for protecting such loads. The use of a disconnect breaker
10 Lead length has the greatest effect on eliminates the need to de-energize
Advantages of the system approach are: the actual level of protection realized. the building entrance feeder equip-
Twisting of the installation wires is ment should the SPD fail or require
The lowest possible investment
11 in mitigating equipment to protect
the second most important installation isolation for Megger testing.
consideration.
a facility
12
208Y/120 Panelboard
13 (integrated versus side mounted SPD)

1000 Side-Mounted SPD Device


Side-Mounted SPD SPD Integrated
14
Let-Through Voltage at Bus Bar

(assuming 14-inch (355.6 mm) lead length to bus)


used for Retrofit into Panelboards,
Applications Switchboards, MCCs 800

15 600

N 400
16 SPD
Integrated SPD
SPD (direct bus bar connection)
200
17
GRO UND G RO UND
0
Surge
18 G 200
Event
G 2.00 0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00
N
\
Microseconds
19
Figure 1.4-14. Performance Comparison of Side-Mounted vs. Integrated SPD
20

21

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Power Distribution Systems 1.4-21
April 2016 System Application Considerations
Sheet 01 077
Power Quality

Reference Tab 34 for detailed


Additional Let-Through Voltage Using IEEE C1(6000V, 3000A)[3] information on SPDs. i
Additional Let-Through Voltage

Waveform (UL 1449 Test Wave)[12]


900 14 AWG
800 209V (23%) 3. Voltage Regulation
700
10 AWG
Voltage regulation (i.e., sags or over-
ii
600 4 AWG
673V (75%) voltage) disturbances are generally
500
site- or load-dependent. A variety of
400
300 mitigating solutions are available
1
200
depending upon the load sensitivity,
100
fault duration/magnitude and the
0
3 ft (914.4 mm) 1 ft (304.8 mm) specific problems encountered. It is
2
Lead Length Lead Length, recommended to install monitoring
Loose Wiring Twisted Wires Twisted Wires equipment on the AC power lines to
assess the degree and frequency of
3
Figure 1.4-15. The Effect of Installation Lead Length on Let-Through Voltage occurrences of voltage regulation
1 Additional to UL 1449 ratings. problems. The captured data will allow 4
The size or capacity of a suppressor is This increase in disturbance voltage for the proper solution selection.
measured in surge current per phase. can result in process disruption
Larger suppressers rated at approxi- and downtime. 4. Harmonics Distortion 5
mately 250 kA per phase should be
Installing Dataline Surge Protection Harmonics and Nonlinear Loads
installed at the service entrance to
survive high-energy surges associated Most facilities also have communica- Until recently, most electrical loads were 6
with lightning. tion lines that are potential sources linear. Linear loads draw the full sine
for external surges. As identified by wave of electric current at its 60 cycle
A 250 kA per phase surge rating allows
for over a 25-year life expectancy
the power quality pyramid, proper (Hz) fundamental frequencyFigure 7
grounding of communication lines is 1.4-16 shows balance single-phase,
assuming an IEEE defined high essential for dependable operation. linear loads. As the figure shows,
exposure environment. Lower surge NEC Article 800 states that all data, little or no current flows in the neutral 8
rating devices may be used; however, power and cable lines be grounded conductor when the loads are non-
device reliability and long-term and bonded. linear and balanced.
performance may be compromised.
Power disturbances such as lightning With the arrival of nonlinear electronic
9
For aerial structures, the 99.8 percentile can elevate the ground potential loads, where the AC voltage is con-
recorded lightning stroke current is between two communicating pieces verted to a DC voltage, harmonics are
less than 220 kA. The magnitude of of electronic equipment with different created because of the use of only part
10
surges conducted or induced into a ground references. The result is current of the AC sine wave. In this conversion
facility electrical distribution system is from AC to DC, the electronics are turned
considerably lower given the presence
flowing through the data cable, causing
component failure, terminal lock-up, on in the 60 cycle wave at a given point
11
of multiple paths for the surge to travel data corruption and interference. in time to obtain the required DC level.
along. It is for this reason that IEEE The use of only part of the sign wave
C62.41 recommends the C3 (20 kV, NFPA 780 D4.8 warns that surge causes harmonics.
12
10 kA) test wave for testing SPDs suppression devices should be installed
installed at building entrance feeders. on all wiring entering or leaving elec- It is important to note that the current
tronic equipment, usually power, data distortion caused by loads such as 13
SPDs with surge ratings greater than or communication wiring. rectifiers or switch mode power
250 kA are not required, however, supplies causes the voltage distortion.
higher ratings are available and may Surge suppressers should be installed That voltage distortion is caused by 14
provide longer life. at both ends of a data or communica- distorted currents flowing through an
tion cable. In those situations where impedance. The amount of voltage
Installing Panelboard Surge one end of the cable is not connected distortion depends on: 15
Protection Devices into an electronic circuit (e.g., contactor
Smaller surge capacity SPDs (120 kA coil), protection on the electronic end System impedance
per phase) are installed at branch pan- only is required. Amount of distorted current 16
elboards where power disturbances
are of lower energy, but occur much To prevent the coupling or inducing of Devices that can cause harmonic
more frequently. This level of surge power disturbances into communication disturbances include rectifiers, 17
current rating should result in a lines, the following should be avoided: thrusters and switching power sup-
greater than 25-year life expectancy. plies, all of which are nonlinear.
Data cables should not be run over
fluorescent lighting fixtures
Further, the proliferation of electronic 18
When isolated ground systems are equipment such as computers, UPS
used, the SPD should be installed such Data cables should not be in the systems, variable speed drives,
that any common mode surges are vicinity of electric motors programmable logic controllers, and 19
shunted to the safety ground. The right category cable should the like: non-linear loads have become
be used to ensure transmission a significant part of many installations.
The use of a disconnect breaker is
optional. The additional let-through
performance Other types of harmonic-producing 20
Data cables must be grounded at loads include arcing devices (arc
voltage resulting from the increased furnaces, fluorescent lights) and iron
inductance caused by the disconnect both ends when communicating
switch is about 5060 V. between buildings core storable devices (transformers, 21
especially during energization).

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1.4-22 Power Distribution Systems
System Application Considerations April 2016
Sheet 01 078
Power Quality

Nonlinear load currents vary widely present on the three phases add Harmonic Issues
i from a sinusoidal wave shape; often together in the neutral, as shown in
Harmonic currents perform no work
they are discontinuous pulses. This Figure 1.4-17, rather than cancel each
means that nonlinear loads are and result in wasted electrical energy
other out, as shown in Figure 1.4-16.
ii that may over burden the distribution
extremely high in harmonic content. Odd non-triplen harmonics are
system. This electrical overloading
classified as positive sequence
Triplen harmonics are the 3rd, 9th, may contribute to preventing an
or negative sequence and are the
existing electrical distribution system
1 15th,...harmonics. Further, triplen 1st, 5th, 7th, 11th, 13th, etc. from serving additional future loads.
harmonics are the most damaging
to an electrical system because these In general, as the order of a harmonic In general, harmonics present on
2 harmonics on the A-phase, B-phase gets higher, its amplitude becomes a distribution system can have the
and C-phase are in sequence with each smaller as a percentage of the funda- following detrimental effects:
other. Meaning, the triplen harmonics mental frequency.
3 1. Overheating of transformers and
rotating equipment.
60 Hz Fundamental
2. Increased hysteresis losses.
4
3. Decreased kVA capacity.
A Phase
4. Overloading of neutral.
5
5. Unacceptable neutral-to-ground
voltages.
6 120 6. Distorted voltage and current
Lagging waveforms.
B Phase
7 7. Failed capacitor banks.
8. Breakers and fuses tripping.
8 9. Double or ever triple sized neutrals
120
Lagging
to defy the negative effects of
C Phase triplen harmonics.
9
In transformers, generators and
uninterruptible power supplies (UPS)
10 Balance
systems, harmonics cause overheating
Neutral and failure at loads below their ratings
Current because the harmonic currents cause
11 greater heating than standard 60 Hz
current. This results from increased
Figure 1.4-16. Balanced Neutral Current Equals Zero eddy current losses, hysteresis losses
12 in the iron cores, and conductor skin
effects of the windings. In addition,
60 Hz Fundamental the harmonic currents acting on the
13 3rd Harmonic impedance of the source cause
harmonics in the source voltage, which
A Phase is then applied to other loads such as
14 motors, causing them to overheat.
The harmonics also complicate the
15 application of capacitors for power
120 factor correction. If, at a given harmonic
B Phase
Lagging
frequency, the capacitive impedance
16 equals the system reactive impedance,
the harmonic voltage and current can
reach dangerous magnitudes. At the
17 120 C Phase
same time, the harmonics create
Lagging problems in the application of power
factor correction capacitors, they
18 lower the actual power factor. The
rotating meters used by the utilities for
watthour and various measurements
19 Neutral
Triplen
do not detect the distortion component
caused by the harmonics. Rectifiers
Current with diode front ends and large DC side

20 Phase Triplen Harmonics


capacitor banks have displacement
Added in the Neutral
power factor of 90% to 95%. More
recent electronic meters are capable
21 Figure 1.4-17. Unbalanced Single-Phase Loads with Triplen Harmonics
of metering the true kVA hours taken
by the circuit.

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Power Distribution Systems 1.4-23
April 2016 System Application Considerations
Sheet 01 079
Power Quality

Single-phase power supplies for Total Harmonic Distortion Table 1.4-7. Current Distortion Limits for
computer and fixture ballasts are
Revised standard IEEE 519-1992
General Distribution Systems (120 69,000 V) i
rich in third harmonics and their Maximum Harmonic Current Distortion in
odd multiples. indicates the limits of current distor-
Percent of IL
tion allowed at the PCC (Point of ii
Individual Harmonic Order (Odd Harmonics)
Even with the phase currents perfectly Common Coupling) point on the
balanced, the harmonic currents in system where the current distortion ISC /IL <11 11 17 23 35 TDD
<h <h <h <h
the neutral can total 173% of the is calculated, usually the point of
connection to the utility or the main
<17 <23 <35 1
phase current. This has resulted in
overheated neutrals. The Information supply bus of the system. <20 3 4.0 2.0 1.5 0.6 0.3 5.0
Technology Industry Council (ITIC)
The standard also covers the harmonic
20<50
50<100
7.0
10.0
3.5
4.5
2.5
4.0
1.0
1.5
0.5
0.7
8.0
12.0
2
formerly known as CBEMA, recom-
mends that neutrals in the supply to limits of the supply voltage from the 100<1000 12.0 5.5 5.0 2.0 1.0 15.0
utility or cogenerators. >1000 15.0 7.0 6.0 2.5 1.4 20.0
electronic equipment be oversized 3 All power generation equipment is limited 3
to at least 173% of the ampacity of Table 1.4-5. Low Voltage System Classification to these values of current distortion,
the phase conductors to prevent and Distortion Limits for 480 V Systems regardless of actual ISC/IL where:
problems. ITIC also recommends Class C AN DF ISC = Maximum short-circuit current at PCC. 4
derating transformers, loading them IL = Maximum demand load current
to no more than 50% to 70% of their Special application 2 10 16,400 3% (fundamental frequency component) at PCC.
nameplate kVA, based on a rule-of- General system
Dedicated system
5
2
22,800
36,500
5%
10%
TDD = Total Demand Distortion. Even
harmonics are limited to 25% of the odd
5
thumb calculation, to compensate harmonic limits above. Current distortions
for harmonic heating effects. 2 Special systems are those where the rate that result in a DC offset, e.g., half-wave
In spite of all the concerns they
of change of voltage of the notch might
mistrigger an event. AN is a measurement
converters, are not allowed. 6
cause, nonlinear loads will continue of notch characteristics measured in
volt-microseconds, C is the impedance
Harmonic Solutions
to increase. Therefore, the design of
nonlinear loads and the systems that ratio of total impedance to impedance In spite of all the concerns nonlinear 7
at common point in system. DF is loads cause, these loads will continue
supply them will have to be designed distortion factor.
so that their adverse effects are greatly to increase. Therefore, the design
reduced. Table 1.4-4 shows the typical of nonlinear loads and the systems 8
Table 1.4-6. Utility or Cogenerator Supply that supply them will need design so
harmonic orders from a variety of Voltage Harmonic Limits
harmonic generating sources. adverse harmonic effects are greatly
Voltage 2.369 kV 69138 kV >138 kV reduced. Table 1.4-8 and depicts many 9
Range harmonic solutions along with their
Table 1.4-4. Source and Typical Harmonics
Source Typical Maximum 3.0% 1.5% 1.0% advantages and disadvantages.
Harmonics 1 individual 10
harmonic Eatons Engineering Services &
6-pulse rectifier 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19 Total 5.0% 2.5% 1.5%
Systems Group (EESS) can perform
12-pulse rectifier
18-pulse rectifier
11, 13, 23, 25
17, 19, 35, 37
harmonic harmonic studies and recommend 11
distortion solutions for harmonic problems.
Switch-mode power
supply
Fluorescent lights
3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13
3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 Vh 12
Arcing devices 2, 3, 4, 5, 7
Percentages are x 100 for each
harmonic V1
Transformer energization 2, 3, 4
1 Generally, magnitude decreases as harmonic and
13
order increases.

h = hmax 1/2 14
Vthd = 2
Vh
h=2 15
It is important for the system designer
to know the harmonic content of the
utilitys supply voltage because it will 16
affect the harmonic distortion of
the system.
17

18

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1.4-24 Power Distribution Systems
System Application Considerations April 2016
Sheet 01 080
Power Quality

Table 1.4-8. Harmonic Solutions for Given Loads


i Load Solutions Advantages Disadvantages
Type

ii Drives and rectifiers Line reactors Inexpensive May require additional compensation
includes three-phase For 6-pulse standard drive/rectifier, can
UPS loads reduce harmonic current distortion from
80% down to about 3540%
1 K-rated/drive isolation Offers series reactance (similar to line No advantage over reactors for
transformer reactors) and provides isolation for reducing harmonics unless in pairs
some transients for shifting phases
2 DC choke Slightly better than AC line reactors Not always an option for drives
for 5th and 7th harmonics Less protection for input semiconductors
85% reduction versus standard Cost difference approaches 18-pulse drive
3 12-pulse convertor
6-pulse drives and blocking filters, which guarantee
IEEE 519 compliance
Harmonic mitigating Substantial (5080%) reduction in harmonics Harmonic cancellation highly dependent
4 transformers/phase shifting when used in tandem on load balance
Must have even multiples of matched loads
Tuned filters Bus connectedaccommodates Requires allocation analysis
5 load diversity Sized only to the requirements of that system;
Provides PF correction must be resized if system changes
Broadband filters Makes 6-pulse into the equivalent Higher cost
6 of 18-pulse Requires one filter per drive
18-pulse converter Excellent harmonic control for drives High cost
above 100 hp
7 IEEE 519 compliant
Active filters Handles load/harmonic diversity High cost
Complete solution up to 50th harmonic
8 Computers/ Neutral blocking filter Eliminates the 3rd harmonic from load High cost
switch-mode Relieves system capacity May increase voltage distortion
power supplies Possible energy savings
9 Harmonic mitigating 3rd harmonic recalculated back to the load Requires fully rated circuits and
transformers When used as phase-shifted transformers, oversized neutrals to the loads
reduces other harmonics
10 Reduces voltage flat-topping
Oversized neutral/derated Tolerate harmonics rather than correct Upstream and downstream equipment
transformer Typically least expensive fully rated for harmonics
11
K-rated transformer Tolerate harmonics rather than correct Does not reduce system harmonics
Fluorescent Harmonic mitigating 3rd harmonic recalculated back to the load Requires fully rated circuits and
12 lighting transformers When used as phase-shifted transformers, oversized neutrals to the loads
reduces other harmonics
Reduces voltage flat-topping
13 K-rated transformer Tolerate harmonics rather than correct them Does not reduce system harmonics
Low distortion ballasts Reduce harmonics at the source Additional cost and typically more
expensive than system solutions
14 Welding/arcing Active filters Fast response and broadband High cost
loads harmonic correction
Reduces voltage flicker
15 Tuned filters SCR controlled tuned filters simulates SCR controlled units are high cost
an active filter response but fixed filters are reasonable
System Tuned filters Provides PF correction System analysis required to verify application.
16 solutions Lower cost compared to other systems Must be resized if system changes
Harmonic mitigating Excellent choice for new design or upgrade No PF correction benefit
transformers
17 Active filters Ideal solution and handles system diversity Highest cost

18

19

20

21

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