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Baldemiro Del valle

Chem
Prof
3/20/15
lab 5

Lab 5

Introduction:
The objective of this lab is to determine the alkalinity of a water sample. This
is significant because this procedure helps determine the ability of water to support
aquatic and algae life.

Experimental Materials:

0.1M HCl
Water sample
Magnetic stirrer
Stirring rod
Burette
Beaker
Laptop
pH meter
pH standards

Experimental Methods:
First one is to prepare a titration apparatus. Afterwards one is to use a
graduated cylinder to measure 100ml of the given water sample. This was done by
placing the water sample inside a beaker which was already placed on top of a
magnetic stirrer. A stirring rod was placed and thus generated perpetual swirling.
The pH meter, which was going to be used for the experiment, first calibrated with
buffers of pH 4, 7, and 10. With the pH meter submerged in the beaker then one is
ready to begin titration. A clean burette was filled with standard HCl with
concentration 0.1 M. Before proceeding the burette was checked for any air bubbles.
A table was made on laptop to generate a table with two columns to monitor pH and
volume (of titrant) as titration was taking place.
Data :

12 pH vs HCl (ml) Trial 1

10

8
pH

6
Series1

0
0 2 4 6 HCl(ml)8
volume 10 12 14

PH vs HCl(ml) Trial 2
12

10

6
Series1

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Trial 1 Trial 2

HCl Vol pH Hcl vol ph


0 11.138 0 11.169
0.05 11.136 0.1 11.1
0.1 11.134 0.2 11.08
0.15 11.133 0.3 11.073
0.2 11.132 0.4 11.054
0.25 11.13 0.5 10.995
0.3 11.127 0.6 10.935
0.35 11.118 0.7 10.902
0.4 11.102 0.8 10.855
0.45 11.085 0.9 10.827
0.5 11.082 1 10.802
0.55 11.06 1.1 10.773
0.6 11.047 1.2 10.731
0.65 11.015 1.3 10.677
0.7 11.013 1.45 10.649
0.75 10.987 1.5 10.648
0.8 10.969 1.6 10.604
0.85 10.958 1.7 10.579
0.9 10.942 1.8 10.546
0.95 10.931 1.9 10.524
1 10.915 2 10.484
1.05 10.895 2.1 10.46
1.1 10.869 2.2 10.422
1.2 10.84 2.3 10.391
1.3 10.817 2.4 10.355
1.4 10.791 2.5 10.33
1.5 10.764 2.6 10.301
1.6 10.755 2.7 10.273
1.7 10.726 2.8 10.228
1.8 10.664 2.9 10.184
1.9 10.628 3 10.153
2 10.589 3.1 10.112
2.1 10.586 3.2 10.079
2.2 10.548 3.3 10.043
2.3 10.546 3.4 9.99
2.4 10.522 3.5 9.948
2.5 10.491 3.6 9.917
2.6 10.457 3.7 9.863
2.7 10.421 3.8 9.799
2.8 10.402 3.9 9.743
2.9 10.368 4 9.69
3 10.33 4.1 9.621
3.1 10.272 4.2 9.541
3.2 10.242 4.3 9.46
3.3 10.21 4.4 9.347
3.4 10.157 4.5 9.256
3.5 10.141 4.6 9.156
3.6 10.101 4.7 8.906
3.7 10.063 4.8 8.535
3.8 10.03 4.9 8.337
3.9 9.983 5 8.066
4 9.943 5.5 7.607
4.1 9.885 6 7.32
4.2 9.841 6.5 7.114
4.3 9.792 7 6.902
4.4 9.741 7.5 6.724
4.5 9.67 8 6.4
4.6 9.612 8.5 6.2
4.7 9.53 9 6.139
4.8 9.461 9.5 5.881
4.9 9.341 10 5.369
5 9.233 10.5 3.409
5.1 9.06 11 3.036
5.2 8.933 11.5 2.793
5.3 8.653 12 2.668
5.4 8.272 12.5 2.555
5.5 8.03 13 2.457
5.6 7.914
5.7 7.763
5.8 7.685
5.9 7.616
6 7.545
6.1 7.487
6.2 7.434
6.3 7.392
6.4 7.351
6.5 7.298
6.6 7.263
6.7 7.234
6.8 7.205
6.9 7.16
7 7.116
7.1 7.465
7.2 7.432
7.3 7.371
7.4 7.323
7.5 7.278
7.6 7.22
7.8 7.171
7.9 7.122
8 7.089
8.1 7.149
8.2 7.114
8.3 7.047
8.4 7.007
8.5 6.962
8.6 6.906
8.7 6.829
8.8 6.768
8.9 6.72
9 6.678
9.1 6.639
9.2 6.624
9.3 6.573
9.4 6.517
9.5 6.473
9.6 6.415
9.7 6.368
9.8 6.301
9.9 6.278
10 6.246
10.1 6.421
10.2 6.382
10.3 6.319
10.4 6.201
10.5 6.079
10.6 5.945
10.7 5.708
10.8 5.412
10.9 4.56
11 4.023
11.2 3.772
11.3 3.498
11.4 3.354
11.5 3.249
11.6 3.174
11.7 3.094
11.8 3.029
11.9 2.989
12 2.933
12.1 2.887
12.2 2.847
12.3 2.811
12.4 2.777
12.5 2.753
12.6 2.722
12.7 2.693
12.8 2.666
12.9 2.64
13 2.619
13.1 2.597
13.2 2.573
13.3 2.551

Discussion

The objective was the experiment was to calculate the alkalinity of the given
water sample. The mean of the experiments were approximately 540.08 for total
alkalinity. Total alkalinity is defined as the amount of acid required to lowering the pH.
This experiment demonstrated the buffer capability of the sample. This is important
because water in natural systems must remain at a certain pH in order for the
environment to thrive. What contributed to alkalinity is the presence of CO3, HCO3 and
OH in solution.

Possible errors include accuracy of titrating, for example one was titrating in
intervals of 0.1ml, which can be very difficult to obtain exact measurements. Another
possible error was with my calculations. I kept generating a different value for T using
the second method given. Thus im not very sure about my T value given the fact that I
couldnt verify with the alternative method.