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# Mechanics Mechanical Vibration Acoustics

## What you can learn about

 Longitudinal waves
 Huygens principle
 Interference
 Fraunhofer and Fresnel
diffraction

Principle:
A plane ultrasonic wave is subjected
to diffraction at single slits of vari-
ous widths and at various double
slits. The intensity of the diffracted
and interfering partial waves are au-
tomatically recorded using a motor-
driven, swivel ultrasound detector
and a PC.

## What you need:

Goniometer with reflecting mirror 13903.00 1
Power supply for goniometer 13903.99 1
Ultrasonic unit 13900.00 1
Power supply f. ultrasonic unit, 5 VDC, 12 W 13900.99 1
Ultrasonic transmitter on stem 13901.00 1
Ultrasonic receiver on stem 13902.00 1
Object holder for ultrasonic 13904.00 1
Diffraction objects for ultrasonic 13905.00 1
RS 232 data cable 14602.00 1
Measuring tape, l = 2m 09936.00 1
Screened cable, BNC, l = 75 cm 07542.11 1
Adapter, BNC-socket/4 mm plug pair 07542.27 1
Measure Software Goniometer 14523.61 1
PC, Windows 95 or higher
The angular distribution of the intensity of a plane ultrasonic wave diffract-
Complete Equipment Set, Manual on CD-ROM included ed at a slit.
Ultrasonic diffraction at different single
and double slit systems P2151515
1. Record the intensity of an ultra-
sonic wave diffracted by various
slits and double slits as a function
of diffraction angle.
2. Determine the angular positions
of the maximum and minimum
values and compare them with the
theoretical results.

72 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG D - 37070 Gttingen
LEP
Ultrasonic diffraction at different single and double slit systems 1.5.15
-15

Longitudinal waves, Huygens principle, Interference, 1. Record the intensity of an ultrasonic wave diffracted by var-
Fraunhofer and Fresnel diffraction. ious slits and double slits as a function of diffraction angle.
2. Determine the angular positions of the maximum and mini-
Principle mum values and compare them with the theoretical results.
A plane ultrasonic wave is subjected to diffraction at single
slits of various widths and at various double slits. The intensi- Set-up and Procedure
ty of the diffracted and interfering partial waves are automati- Set up the experiment as shown in Fig. 1. Exact adjustment of
cally recorded using a motor-driven, swivel ultrasound detec- the experimental set-up is important!
tor and a PC.

## Equipment Adjustment of the goniometer:

Goniometer with reflecting mirror 13903.00 1 Use the adjusting screws at the back of the mirror and
Power supply for goniometer 13903.99 1 under its stem to set the mirror by eye to a vertical position
Ultrasonic unit 13900.00 1 and align it to the zero line of the goniometer table.
Power supply f. ultrasonic unit, 5 VDC, 12 W 13900.99 1 Slide the transmitter tightly against the mirror and align it
Ultrasonic transmitter on stem 13901.00 1 to the height of the centre of the mirror.
Ultrasonic receiver on stem 13902.00 1 Slide the transmitter back to fit the 16 cm long adjusting
Object holder for ultrasonic 13904.00 1 rod in the hole in the centre of the mirror. The rod must
Diffraction objects for ultrasonic 13905.00 1 point directly to the middle of the transmitter. Should this
RS 232 data cable 14602.00 1 not be the case, again use the adjusting screws to re-
Measuring tape, l = 2m 09936.00 1 adjust the mirror. Remove the rod so that the transmitter
Screened cable, BNC, l = 75 cm 07542.11 1 can be brought to the focal point of the mirror. The dis-
Adapter, BNC-socket/4 mm plug pair 07542.27 1 tance from the centre of the mirror must be exactly
Measure Software Goniometer 14523.61 1 15.5 cm (measuring tape).
PC, Windows 95 or higher

## Fig. 1: Experimental set-up.

PHYWE series of publications Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE SYSTEME GMBH & Co. KG D-37070 Gttingen 21515-15 1
LEP
1.5.15 Ultrasonic diffraction at different single and double slit systems
-15

To adjust the height of the receiver, turn it with its swing Note:
arm as near as possible to the mirror. It might be neces- Faulty intensity modulation may occur in spectra as a result of
sary here to first unlock the transport stop (to do this, pull interference in the measurement field. To keep such interfer-
the yellow screw of the swing arm beneath the goniometer ence as small as possible, do not carry out experiments in too
table). Bring the receiver to the same height as the trans- narrow rooms or in the direct vicinity of reflecting surfaces
mitter. (walls, cupboards etc.). It is recommended that the measuring
Set the receiver swing arm to zero. The axis of the receiv- and supply instruments be installed behind the mirror if possi-
er must correspond with the goniometer zero line. ble. Further to this, the person carrying out the experiment
Bring the receiver to the end of the swing arm. should not stand too close to the measurement field.
When adjustment is properly made, the axes of the mirror, Should asymmetries occur in the intensities in spectra, these
transmitter and receiver must be on a common line and can as a rule be avoided by slightly turning the object holder
this must be exactly above the zero line of the goniometer around the 90 line on the goniometer table.
table.
Fit the object holder with its centering pin in the central
Theory and Evaluation
socket of the goniometer table, with the feet of the holder
pointing to the mirror. Position the holder on the 90 line on When a wave hits a slit then, acc. to Huygens principle,
the goniometer table. spherical waves are emanated from each point of the slit
To prepare the slit and double slit, carefully insert the cor- opening. The individual partial waves interfere with each other
responding metal sheets in the guide grooves of the object behind the obstacle. According to their phase position, they
holder, then align these exactly centrally symmetrical with intensify each other in certain directions, or extinguish each
the zero line of the goniometer table. other. In the direction of the incident waves (w = 0) (see Fig. 2),
To avoid interfering sound reflections, use the carrier foam all partial waves have the same phase and intensify each
as wave absorbent. Place it between the object holder and other.
mirror, tightly against the holder and with its opening sym-
metrically towards the diffraction object.

Connection of instruments:
Connect the transmitter to the diode socket of the ultrasonic
unit that is marked TR1, and operate it in Con continuous
mode. Connect the receiver to the left BNC socket (prior to the
amplifier). Further, use the BNC cable to connect the analog
output of the ultrasonic unit with the input of the control unit
(pay attention to the polarity of the adapter), and the latter unit
to the PC by means of the RS 232 data cable.
For control of the goniometer, connect the socket underneath
the goniometer plate with the control unit.
With the Cal key of the control unit pressed (release of the
motor drive) position the swing arm at 0. Following this,
deactivate the Cal function.
Use the software to set the range of swing of the receiver to
50. Fig. 2: Diagram of diffraction at a slit.
To ensure proportionality between the input signal of the
receiver and its analog output signal, avoid operating the
ultrasonic unit amplifier in the saturation range. Should such a
case occur and the OVL diode light up, reduce either the With sound waves, the sound pressure p(w) is represented as
transmitter amplitude or the input amplification of the receiv- a function of the diffraction angle w by the so-called slit func-
er. It is purposeful here to adjust the amplification at the zero tion:
position of the receiver so that the OVL diode just no longer
lights up. pb
sin sin w
p1w 2  b
l sin u pb
b using u  sin w (1)
5 Measurements are described in the following. pb u l
sin w
1st Measurement (see Fig. 3): l
Interference pattern of a slit of width b = 6 cm.
2nd Measurement (see Fig. 4): Where b is the slit width, l the wavelength of the sound and p
Interference pattern of a slit of width b = 4 cm. the alternating sound pressure that is recorded by the sound
3rd Measurement (see Fig. 6): receiver.
Interference pattern of a double slit of slit width b = 2.5 cm Equation (1) is also valid, in squared form, for transversal elec-
and slit separation s = 5.5 cm. tromagnetic waves (optics), as in this case the intensity is
4th and 5th Measurement (see Fig. 7): given by the square of the amplitude.
Set the measurement mode to repeat measurement. For w = 0, an indefinite expression is obtained, as both the
Interference pattern of a double slit of slit width b = 2.0 cm numerator and the denominator are null. Application of the
and slit separation s = 5.0 cm. Subsequently repeat mea- lHospital rule shows, however, that for w = 0, the quotient
surement with a single slit of width b = 2.0. assumes the value 1. Zero positions are at sin u = 0, i.e. at

2 21515-15 PHYWE series of publications Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE SYSTEME GMBH & Co. KG D-37070 Gttingen
LEP
Ultrasonic diffraction at different single and double slit systems 1.5.15
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u = np (n = 1, 2, 3,...). From this, the positions of the minima As the central maximum does not generally lie exactly at 0, it
are given by: is purposeful to determine the angular distance 2 w between
two extremes lying symmetrically to the zero line. Table 1 lists
nl both 2 w angle of extremes determined from Fig. 3 and Fig. 4,
w1n2 min  arcsin where n = 1, 2, 3,... (2) as well as the wavelength values l calculated using equations
b
(2) and (3). The In/I0 ratios are also listed.
The numerator in equation (1) becomes 1 when u = 1/2(2n+1)l,
i.e. when u is an uneven multiple of p/2. Intensity maxima Table 1: Evaluation of the interference curves shown in Figs. 3
therefore lie at: and 4.

## Split width b = 6 cm, see Fig. 3:

2n  1 nl
w1n2 max  arcsin where n = 1, 2, 3,... (3)
2 b Maxima Minima
n 2w/ l/mm In/I0 2w/ l/mm
From equation (1) it also follows for the ratio of the intensities
of the maxima that: I1/I0 = 0.21, I2/I0 = 0.13, I3/I0 = 0.09, 1 24.1 8.35 0.15 18.1 9.44
I4/I0 = 0.07. Further to this, I0 r b = is valid. 2 40.7 8.35 0.11 32.7 8.45
Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 each show interference patterns of ultrason-
ic waves at single slits, but with different split widths b. The 3 59.2 8.47 0.09 50.7 8.56
two curves were recorded using the same transmitter perfor- 4 78.7 8.45 0.07 69.4 8.54
mance.
5 90.9 8.55

## Split width b = 4 cm, see Fig. 4:

Maxima Minima
n 2w/ l/mm In/I0 2w/ l/mm
1 37.4 8.55 0.17 27.1 9.37
2 63.9 8.47 0.10 52.3 8.81
3 96.9 8.55 0.07 77.8 8.37

## The mean value of the wavelength values listed in Table 1 is:

l = (0.8620.034) cm.
The transmitter operates at a frequency of f = 40 kHz. From
c = f l (c = 343.4 ms-1 at T = 20C) it follows that, in com-
plete agreement with the experiment, l = 0.858 cm.
The curves in Figs. 3 and 4 also show that, at a constant emit-
ter performance, the intensity of the maximum of zero order
becomes less when the slit width is reduced. For the corre-
Fig. 3: Interference pattern of ultrasonic waves diffracted at a sponding quotients the experiment gives:
slit of b = 6 cm.
I0(6 cm)/I0(4 cm) = 3.45 V/2.63 V = 1.3  b(6 cm)/ b(4 cm) = 1.5.

## Fig. 5 shows a diagram of diffraction at a double slit. The slit

width is again given by d and the distance apart of homolo-
gous partial waves by the slit separation s.

Fig. 4: Interference pattern of ultrasonic waves diffracted at a Fig. 5: Diagram of diffraction at a double slit.
slit of b = 4 cm.

PHYWE series of publications Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE SYSTEME GMBH & Co. KG D-37070 Gttingen 21515-15 3
LEP
1.5.15 Ultrasonic diffraction at different single and double slit systems
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With a double slit, the intensity distribution is given by: Table 2: Evaluation of the interference curve shown in Fig. 6.
Double split s = 5.5 cm and b = 2.5 cm.

sin a sin w b
pb
l
p1w2 r 2 cos a s sin w b
p Maxima Minima
(4)
l
a sin w b
pb
k 2w/ l/mm 2w/ l/mm
l
0 9.0 8.63
The slit function is now additionally modulated by a cos func-
tion. The minima of the individual slits (1st class minima) are 1 16.9 8.08 27.6 8.75
still as previously. Additional 2nd class minima occur, howev- 2 32.9 7.79 47.1 8.79
er, namely there where the cos function is null. This is always
3 57.0 8.75 67.0 8.67
the case for:
4 74.1 8.28 89.5 8.60
2k  1
w 1k2 min  arcsin l where k = 0, 1, 2, 3,... (5)
2s

Additional 2nd class maxima occur when the cos factor is 1, With a little skill, the dimensions of the double slit can now be
i.e. when: so chosen, that the 1st minimum of the single slit (1st class
minimum) coincides with a minimum of the double slit (2nd
class minimum). This is the case, for example, when s = 5/2 b,
w 1k 2 max  arcsin
kl
where k = 0, 1, 2, 3,... (6) as the 1st minimum of the single slit then coincides with the
s
3rd minimum of the double slit. Fig. 7 shows such a case, with
Fig. 6 shows the interference pattern of a double slit having the recording of the double slit curve superimposed on the
s = 5.5 cm and b = 2.5 cm. single slit curve.
Table 2 shows the corresponding evaluation and the values for
l calculated from equations 5 and 6. A mean value of l = It can be seen that the single slit curve envelopes the double
(0.8480.035) cm is obtained. In Fig. 6, at w  20, a slight split curve.
indentation is to be seen, that is concordant to the position of
the first minimum of the single slit.

Fig. 6: Interference pattern of ultrasonic waves diffracted at a Fig. 7: Interference pattern of ultrasonic waves diffracted at a
double slit of s = 5.5 cm and b = 2.5 cm. double slit of s = 5.0 cm and b = 2.0 cm. (The single slit
curve always envelopes the double split curve)

4 21515-15 PHYWE series of publications Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE SYSTEME GMBH & Co. KG D-37070 Gttingen