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C++ PRIMER(Notes TB Ch.

0)

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Function main
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- identifies the start of the program
- always in format int main(){}
- int tells the compiler that the main function returns an int value to the OS.
- returns a value of 0 "i.e. at end, 'return 0'"
- 0 return value indicates normal completion.
- nonzero return value signifies an error in the main

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*P.2. Preprocessor Directives and Macros*
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*P.5. Objects, Pointers, and References*
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- C++ is unique in that objects can be from built-in types(e.g. primitive data
types) or a class type.
- in java, objects are ALWAYS instances of classes and primitive data types
are not objects.
- an object is an area of computer's memory containing data of a kind determined by
its type.
- objects can be declared inside other objects.
- class-type objects are often built from other classes and primitive data
objects.

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Object Lifetimes
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- objects have a lifetime that is associated with their use
- after objects have been used, keeping them around would be wasting memory.
- Creation: happens when the object is declared.
- can supply optional initialization values in declaration statement.
- upon object declaration execution, the computer allocates space for the
object
and its optional initialization value
- global objects declared outside the scope of the main
- therefore created upon declaration, before the main executes
- not often recommended bc they waste space
- local objects are either declared within a function or declared within a
class.

OBJECT DECLARATION

Form:
type-name name; //e.g. int i;
type-name name = intitial-value; //e.g. string s = "hello";
type-name name(parameter-list); //e.g. point p(x,y);

- the object name is declared in order to reference the specific type-name.

- Destruction:
- Global objects are destroyed after the main function executes.
- objects declared within a function are destroyed when that function is
exited.
- objects declared within a class are destroyed when the class(an object
itself) containing them is destroyed.

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Pointers
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Dynamically Created Objects
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