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Engineering Structures 33 (2011) 621634

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Engineering Structures
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/engstruct

Evaluation of drift demands in existing steel frames under as-recorded far-field


and near-fault mainshockaftershock seismic sequences
Jorge Ruiz-Garca , Juan C. Negrete-Manriquez
Facultad de Ingeniera Civil, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicols de Hidalgo, Edificio C, Planta Baja, Cd. Universitaria, 58040 Morelia, Mexico

article info abstract


Article history: This paper presents results of a study aimed at evaluating the effect of aftershocks in steel framed
Received 20 July 2010 buildings. For that purpose, three frame models representing existing steel moment-resisting frames
Received in revised form were subjected to a set of as-recorded mainshockaftershock seismic sequences. For this purpose, 64
13 October 2010
as-recorded seismic sequences registered as a consequence of the 1994 Northridge and 1980 Mammoth
Accepted 10 November 2010
Available online 13 December 2010
Lakes earthquakes were considered in this study. In particular, this investigation employed 14 seismic
sequences recorded in 7 accelerographic stations in the near-fault region. An examination of the as-
Keywords:
recorded seismic sequences shows that the frequency content of the mainshock and the main aftershock
Aftershocks is weakly correlated. The response of the frame models was measured in terms of the peak and residual
Seismic sequences (permanent) drift demands at the end of the earthquakes excitation. From the results of this investigation,
Artificial seismic sequences unlike previous results based on artificial seismic sequences, it was found that as-recorded aftershocks do
Peak drift demands not significantly increase peak and residual drift demands since the predominant period of the aftershocks
Residual drift demands (i.e. frequency content) is very different from the period of vibration of the frame models. In addition, it
was shown that artificial seismic sequences could significantly overestimate median peak and residual
drift demands as well as the record-to-record variability.
2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction because of the technical difficulties in straightening and repairing


buildings with large permanent drifts and the future threat due
There is a consensus among the earthquake engineering to aftershocks [2]. Another example of the consequence of signif-
community that damage in structural elements, and some drift- icant permanent lateral displacements is a two-story steel office
sensitive nonstructural components, is primarily the result of lat- building that was severely damaged during the 1994 Northridge
eral deformation demands induced by earthquake ground shaking earthquake (Mw = 6.7) [3]. The excessive permanent displace-
in the structure. As a consequence, modern performance-based ments were a consequence of concentrated structural damage in
assessment methodologies for evaluation of existing structures the first story, with yielding noted at the base plate connections,
(e.g. FEMA 356 [1]) are based on the estimation of peak lateral dis-
and a number of column fractures at the second floor moment
placement demands that man-made structures could suffer under
connections. The extent of this damage was such that the build-
seismic excitation. However, man-made structures located in seis-
ings owner decided to demolish the structure above the founda-
mic regions are not exposed to a single seismic event (i.e. main-
tion level. However, earthquake field reconnaissance reports af-
shock), but also to a seismic sequence consisting of foreshocks,
mainshock and aftershocks. For example, after the mainshock on ter the 1994 Northridge earthquake mentioned that other existing
February 27, 2010 (Mw = 8.8) that struck the central-southern re- steel buildings could have experienced permanent lateral defor-
gion of Chile, 306 aftershocks having magnitudes greater than 5.0 mations as a consequence of the strong mainshock that affected
were recorded between February 27 and April 26. Among them, the Los Angeles area [4], but they did not report that the follow-
21 aftershocks had magnitudes greater than 6.0. In particular, his- ing aftershocks could have increased the level of damage, or even
torical earthquakes have shown that the aftershocks may increase to drive damaged buildings to the risk of collapse. Therefore, there
the damage state at the end of the mainshock. For example, sev- is a need to further understand the effects of as-recorded main-
eral dozen damaged reinforced concrete (RC) buildings in Mexico shockaftershock seismic sequences in the seismic response of ex-
City had to be demolished after the September 1985 earthquakes isting structures.
There have been several investigations aimed at studying the ef-
fect of seismic sequences on the response of civil engineering struc-
Corresponding author. Tel.: +52 443 2278545; fax: +52 443 3221002. tures [515]; some of them have been focused on the nonlinear re-
E-mail address: jruizgar@stanfordalumni.org (J. Ruiz-Garca). sponse of single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) systems [510] while
0141-0296/$ see front matter 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2010.11.021
622 J. Ruiz-Garca, J.C. Negrete-Manriquez / Engineering Structures 33 (2011) 621634

others in the response of multiple-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) sys- in earthquake-prone regions [13]. In the absence of as-recorded
tems [1115]. A pioneering analytical study of nonlinear SDOF sys- seismic sequences, the second approach could be more appropri-
tems subjected to mainshockaftershock acceleration time histo- ate for reproducing a mainshockaftershock seismic environment,
ries recorded during the 1972 Managua earthquake was carried but it has not been evaluated against results from as-recorded se-
out by Mahin [5]. He observed that the displacement ductility de- quences. Thus, there is still a need of investigating the response
mand, (i.e. peak inelastic displacement normalized with respect of structures under real (i.e. as-recorded) mainshockaftershock
to the systems yield displacement) of elastoplastic SDOF systems sequences. Available strong motion databases, such as the Pacific
slightly increased at the end of the main aftershock with respect to Earthquake Engineering NGA Database (PEER NGA) [17], provide
the mainshock. a good opportunity for employing acceleration time-histories of
It should be noted that few studies have focused their attention recorded mainshocks and their corresponding aftershocks.
on the nonlinear response of MDOF systems subjected to seismic The main objective of this paper is to gain further understanding
sequences [1115]. For example, Lee and Foutch [12] as well as Li on the effects of as-recorded mainshockaftershock sequences in
and Ellingwood [13] studied the response of two steel moment- the response of MDOF systems. For that purpose, an earthquakes
resisting frame models having 9- and 20-story heights designed ground motion ensemble of 64 seismic sequences recorded in
to be representative of typical office building construction in accelerographic stations during the 1994 Northridge and the 1980
the Los Angeles area prior to the 1994 Northridge earthquake Mammoth Lakes earthquakes was considered in this investigation.
(Mw = 6.7) when subjected to artificial seismic sequences. Both Specific goals of the research reported in this paper were:
studies employed earthquake ground motions developed during (a) to investigate the correlation between frequency content
the SAC project [16] that represent specific hazard levels (e.g. 2% of the mainshock and main aftershock, (b) to study the effect
and 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years), as mainshocks. of aftershocks on peak and residual (permanent) displacement
For instance, Li and Ellingwood [13] employed a methodology demands in MDOF systems, and (c) to investigate differences in the
proposed by Sunasaka and Kiremidjian [6] to generate artificial response due to artificial and as-recorded sequences. It should be
aftershocks by scaling the mainshock by a factor derived from noted that most of the prior studies focused their attention on the
the aftershock hazard near Eureka, California. For example, the effect of seismic sequences on the level of lateral strength demands
scale factor is 0.68 when moment magnitudes of 6.8 and 6.2 (i.e. response modification factor) and peak displacement demands
are assumed for the mainshock and aftershock, respectively, (i.e. displacement ductility demand, inelastic displacement ratio),
while a scale factor of 1.0 is adopted when equal mainshock but they did not provide statistical information about the effect of
and aftershock magnitudes are assumed. In addition, they also aftershocks on residual (permanent) displacements at the end of
derived a set of sequences by randomizing the ensemble of the mainshock. Residual drift demands have been identified as one
mainshocks and generated aftershocks in order to simulate of the most important response parameters in the evaluation of the
the stochastic dependence between them. From this study, residual capacity of damaged structures to sustain aftershocks [8]
they found that the approach of repeating the mainshock as and their evaluation play a very important role for assessment
an aftershock tends to overestimate the peak inter-story drift the seismic performance of existing structures [e.g. [18,19]].
demands in the analyzed frames as compared to the randomized Furthermore, recent studies have noted that neglecting losses from
approach. Later, Ruiz-Garca et al. [14] examined the response of residual drifts can lead to significant underestimation of economic
9 typical low-height reinforced concrete highway bridges under losses [20].
26 as-recorded mainshockaftershocks sequences gathered in the Although the reported investigation provides further informa-
subduction zone of the Mexican Pacific Coast. They found that tion about the effects of seismic sequences on existing structures,
aftershocks do not significantly increase drift demands due to it should be noted that proposing an evaluation procedure to take
the inherent overstrength in the study-case low-height highway into account the effect of aftershocks is beyond the scope of the
bridges. Using incremental dynamic analysis (i.e. scaling each research reported in this paper.
mainshockaftershock sequence to reach different levels of ground
motion intensity), they found that the effect of aftershocks tends 2. Existing steel frames and earthquake ground motions
to increase both peak and residual (permanent) drift demands considered in this study
when the bridge models behave nonlinearly during the mainshock.
The increment in drift demands depends on the level of the 2.1. Building frame models
ground motions intensity and the type of hysteretic behavior
considered in the bridge columns. More recently, Hatzigeorgiou Three regular three-bay frame models having three different
and Liolios [15] studied the response of 4 regular and 4 irregular numbers of stories (N = 4, 8, and 12), which are representative
reinforced concrete frames under five as-recorded and 40 artificial of exterior steel moment-resisting frames found in typical
seismic sequences. They concluded that the frames consistently low-to-medium height-rise existing steel office buildings, were
increased their displacement ductility demands under the five real considered in this investigation. Fig. 1 illustrates the plan view,
seismic sequences. the geometry and steel sections of the analyzed frames. It should
It should be noted that although previous studies provided in- be mentioned that all frames have uniform mass distribution
formation on the effect of seismic sequences on the response of and a non-uniform lateral stiffness distribution over the height.
structures, most of the previous studies employed artificial seis- The frame models were originally designed by Santa-Ana and
mic sequences instead of as-recorded mainshockaftershocks se- Miranda [21] using the lateral load distribution specified in the
quences to evaluate the seismic response [e.g. [613,15]]. They 1994 Uniform Building Code for a structure located in Zone 4 on
employed artificial sequences using the mainshock acceleration soil type S1 (i.e. a soil profile with either a rock-like material or
time-history as a seed for simulating the following aftershocks, ei- stiff or dense soil).
ther repeating (i.e. back-to back approach, [7,9,1113,15]) or ran- The buildings were analyzed using the nonlinear dynamic
domizing the set of mainshocks [e.g. [8,10,13]]. The first approach analysis computer program RUAUMOKO [22]. Only half of the
assumes that the ground motions features such as amplitude, fre- building was modeled due to symmetry in the buildings plan.
quency content, and strong motion duration of the mainshock and The exterior frame was modeled as a two-dimensional centerline
aftershock(s) are the same. However, this simulation procedure model, assuming fixed columns, with an additional fictitious
is the worst seismic scenario which might be unlikely to occur column. The fictitious column carries the vertical (gravity) loading
J. Ruiz-Garca, J.C. Negrete-Manriquez / Engineering Structures 33 (2011) 621634 623

TYPICAL PLANT

7.31m

FRAME ANALYSED
21.94m 7.31m

7.31m

7.315m 7.315m 7.315m


21.945m

Fig. 1. Plan view and elevation of existing steel buildings considered in this study.

from the rest of building (i.e. vertical loading carried by the Table 1
interior gravity columns) and is attached to the exterior frame Fundamental period of vibration, T1 , second-mode period of vibration, T2 , roof
yield displacement, y,roof , yield strength coefficient, Cy , and normalized modal
model through rigid frame elements to experience the same lateral
participation factor, 1 1,roof obtained for each frame model.
deformation at each floor. However, the fictitious column does not
provide the additional lateral stiffness from the interior gravity N T1 (s) T2 (s) y,roof (mm) Cy 1 1
columns. Beams and columns were modeled as frame elements 4 1.23 0.39 160 0.32 1.22
which concentrate their inelastic response in plastic hinges 8 1.95 0.69 360 0.25 1.31
located at their ends. A non-degrading bilinear momentcurvature 12 2.61 0.93 470 0.18 1.31
relationship with strain-hardening ratio equal to 2% that considers
axial load-flexural bending interaction was considered to model steel frames located in regions of high-seismicity (e.g. Califor-
the hysteretic behavior of the steel columns. The beams behavior
nia State in the United States). For this purpose, as-recorded
was modeled through a bilinear momentcurvature relationship
mainshockaftershock acceleration time histories are needed for
with strain-hardening ratio equal to 2% that includes strength
performing nonlinear dynamic analyses. In this study, the fol-
degradation due to fracture according to what has been discussed
lowing criteria were employed for identifying and selecting
in [23]. Flexural moment capacity for beams and columns was
determined using actual yield strength capacity of 337.8 MPa and mainshockaftershock seismic sequences recorded in California,
399.9 MPa, respectively. However, additional strength and stiffness United States, from the Pacific Earthquake Engineering (PEER)
due to floor slab contribution in beams was neglected. Rayleigh database [17]: (a) magnitude of main aftershock event equal to
damping equal to 5% of critical was assigned to the first and second or greater than 4.0; (b) available information about the soil con-
modes for the 4-story frame, while this damping was applied to the dition, which correspond to Soil Type A, B, C or D (i.e. bedrock
first and fourth modes for the 8- and 12-story frames. During the and stiff soils); (c) acceleration time histories recoded on stations
analysis, local P-delta effects were included (i.e. large displacement placed on free field or low-height buildings where soilstructure
analysis). Main dynamic and mechanical properties of each frame interaction effects are negligible; and (d) seismic sequences hav-
obtained from conventional modal analysis and nonlinear static ing peak ground acceleration (PGA) of the mainshock horizontal
(pushover) analysis are summarized in Table 1. component greater than 100 cm/s2 and PGA of the aftershocks
greater than 50 cm/s2 . Under these criteria 58 seismic sequences
2.2. Set of mainshockaftershock seismic sequences from two orthogonal horizontal components were identified from
the 1994 Northridge earthquake (Mw = 6.7), 30 from the 1979
2.2.1. Ensemble of mainshockaftershock seismic sequences Imperial Valley earthquake (M = 6.5), 6 from the 1980 Mammoth
This study focused its attention on the effects of after- Lakes earthquake (M = 6.2), 4 from the 1980 Livermore earth-
shocks on the inter-story drift demands induced to existing quake (M = 5.8), and one from the 1961 Hollister (M = 6.7) and
624 J. Ruiz-Garca, J.C. Negrete-Manriquez / Engineering Structures 33 (2011) 621634

a b

c d

Fig. 2. Examples of near-fault seismic sequences considered in this study: (a) Jensen Filter Plant station (comp. 22), (b) Rinaldi Receiving station (comp. 228), (c) Newhall
station (comp. 180), (d) Sylmar Converter Station (comp. 288).

a b

c d

Fig. 3. Velocity time-history of aftershocks recorded in accelerographic stations located near the causative fault during the 1994 Northridge earthquake: (a) Jensen Filter
Plant station (comp. 22), (b) Rinaldi Receiving station (comp. 228), (c) Newhall station (comp. 180), (d) Sylmar Converter Station (comp. 288).

the 1983 Coalinga earthquake (M = 6.4). In this investigation, re- spectral parameters computed from the squared velocity spectra
sults are reported from relevant observations of seismic sequences was employed in this study [24,25], which allows defining whether
recorded during the 1994 Northridge and the 1980 Mammoth a ground motion has narrowband or broadband frequency content
Lakes earthquakes. A distinct feature from previous studies is that around its central frequency or central period. For example, fol-
the catalogue contains 14 seismic sequences captured in accelero- lowing the aforementioned definitions, the relationship between
graphic stations located near the causative fault during the 1994 Tg and for all 44 ordinary and 14 near-fault mainshock and main-
Northridge earthquake. For example, seismic sequences at Rinaldi aftershock ground motions recorded during the 1994 Northridge
Receiving Station and Sylmar Converter Station located in the Los earthquake is shown in Fig. 5(a) and (b), while a similar plot for
Angeles area were considered in this study. Examples of far-field the 1980 Mammoth Lakes sequences is shown in Fig. 5(c). From the
and near-fault seismic sequences are illustrated in Fig. 2. figures, it can be seen that the relationship between the frequency
It should be noted that the aftershocks recorded in the near fault content of the mainshockaftershocks is different. For the main-
region also exhibit pulse-like features in the velocity time-history shockaftershock scenarios of the 1994 Northridge earthquake:
as illustrated in Fig. 3. Information about the selected as-recorded (1) the predominant period of the mainshocks follows a linear
seismic sequences can be found in Tables 2 and 3. trend with respect to its bandwidth (e.g. Tg decreases as in-
creases), and (2) predominant periods as well as bandwidth of
2.2.2. Relationship between mainshockaftershock frequency content main-aftershock ground motions tend to be shorter and larger,
In order to study whether the main aftershocks accelera- respectively, than the predominant period of mainshock ground
tion time-histories have similar frequency content as their corre- motions. According with the definition postulated in [25], larger
sponding mainshock time-histories, the predominant period of the values of the bandwidth are associated with broad band signals,
ground motion (Tg ) and the bandwith ( ) were selected as a mea- which means that aftershock ground motions are richer in high-
sure of the frequency content. Both frequency measures were de- frequency content than mainshock ground motions.
rived from the elastic velocity spectra. The predominant period of In addition, the relationship between the predominant period
the ground motion was defined as the period at which the maxi- of the ground motion corresponding to the mainshock and
mum ordinate of a five percent damped relative velocity spectrum main-aftershock is also shown in Fig. 6(a) and (b) for the
occurs [24]. For illustration purposes, estimation of Tg from the ve- seismic sequences recorded during the Northridge earthquake.
locity spectra of three mainshock and main-aftershock is shown The sample correlation coefficient computed for both cases was
in Fig. 4. It can clearly be seen that the mianshock and the main- 0.18 and 0.15, respectively, which means that the frequency
aftershock have very different predominant periods of ground mo- content of the mainshock and main-aftershock ground motions is
tions and, as a consequence, very different frequency content. weakly correlated from a statistical point-of-view. From the latter
In addition, an analogue measure of the ground motion spread observation, it can be concluded that the simulation approach of
about the central period, or bandwidth, as a function of the repeating the mainshock as an aftershock is not appropriate.
J. Ruiz-Garca, J.C. Negrete-Manriquez / Engineering Structures 33 (2011) 621634 625

Table 2
List of mainshockaftershock seismic sequences (far-field ground motions) considered in this investigation.

Sequence Station name MODY HRMN Component Component Earthquake PGA Tg


name magnitude (cm/s2 )

GRIF19940117 LA Griffith park observatory 0117 1231 NORTHR/0141-270.at2 270 6.7 283.6 0.51 0.61
NORTHR/0141-360.at2 360 160.4 0.88 0.57
0320 2120 NORTH392/0GPN00E.at2 0 5.3 31.2 0.49 0.60
NORTH392/0GPN90W.at2 90 54.9 0.50 0.66

HOSF19940117 LA Hollywood Stor FF 0117 1231 NORTHR/PEL090.at2 90 6.7 226.9 0.73 0.51
NORTHR/PEL360.at2 360 351.4 0.85 0.58
0117 1232 NORTH001/HOLLY090.at2 90 6.1 154.8 0.15 0.65
NORTH001/HOLLY360.at2 360 162.2 0.43 0.55
0320 2120 NORTH392/HOLLY090.at2 90 5.3 107.0 0.21 0.68
NORTH392/HOLLY360.at2 360 282.9 0.25 0.61

NFAR19940117 LA N Faring Rd 0117 1231 NORTHR/FAR000.at2 0 6.7 267.7 0.62 0.59


NORTHR/FAR090.at2 90 237.3 0.61 0.54
0320 2120 NORTH392/FAR000.at2 0 5.3 103.2 0.56 0.67
NORTH392/FAR090.at2 90 119.6 0.26 0.62

OBRE19940117 LA Obregon Park 0117 1231 NORTHR/OBR090.at2 90 6.7 348.1 0.45 0.61
NORTHR/OBR360.at2 360 552.1 0.27 0.61
0117 1232 NORTH001/OBREP090.at2 90 6.1 65.0 0.19 0.61
NORTH001/OBREP360.at2 360 55.4 0.15 0.62

WOND19940117 LA Wonderland Ave 0117 1231 NORTHR/WON095.at2 95 6.7 109.8 1.14 0.50
NORTHR/WON185.at2 185 168.7 0.85 0.52
0320 2120 NORTH392/WON095.at2 95 5.3 47.3 0.26 0.61
NORTH392/WON185.at2 185 50.6 0.27 0.64

CRES19940117 La Crescenta New York 0117 1231 NORTHR/NYA090.at2 90 6.7 174.5 0.48 0.62
NORTHR/NYA180.at2 180 155.9 0.56 0.55
0320 2120 NORTH392/NYA090.at2 90 5.3 93.0 0.48 0.63
NORTH392/NYA180.at2 180 68.6 0.51 0.62

MOOR19940117 Moorpark Fire Sta 0117 1231 NORTHR/MRP090.at2 90 6.7 189.3 1.28 0.51
NORTHR/MRP180.at2 180 286.3 0.42 0.48
0117 2333 NORTH142/MPARK090.at2 90 5.9 136.8 0.91 0.53
NORTH142/MPARK180.at2 180 180.7 0.49 0.51

NORT19940117 Northridge 17645 Saticoy St 0117 1231 NORTHR/STC090.at2 90 6.7 360.9 1.31 0.47
NORTHR/STC180.at2 180 467.7 2.29 0.45
0320 2120 NORTH392/STC090.at2 90 5.3 100.2 0.78 0.61
NORTH392/STC180.at2 180 170.9 0.23 0.59

SANT19940117 Santa Monica City Hall 0117 1231 NORTHR/STM090.at2 90 6.7 865.9 2.29 0.45
NORTHR/STM360.at2 360 362.8 2.53 0.44
0320 2120 NORTH392/STM090.at2 90 5.3 100.2 0.23 0.59
NORTH392/STM360.at2 360 75.8 0.59 0.56

SIMI19940117 Simi Valley Katherine Rd 0117 1231 NORTHR/KAT000.at2 0 6.7 860.0 0.67 0.61
NORTHR/KAT090.at2 90 627.6 0.53 0.61
0320 2120 NORTH392/KAT000.at2 0 5.3 65.5 0.34 0.67
NORTH392/KAT090.at2 90 103.4 0.32 0.65

SUNV19940117 Sun Valley Roscoe Blvd 0117 1231 NORTHR/RO3000.at2 0 6.7 297.1 1.08 0.49
NORTHR/RO3090.at2 90 434.4 1.16 0.49
0320 2120 NORTH392/RO3000.at2 0 5.3 115.0 0.27 0.63
NORTH392/RO3090.at2 90 116.9 0.54 0.61

SUNL19940117 Sunland Mt Gleason Ave 0117 1231 NORTHR/GLE170.at2 170 6.7 124.5 1.13 0.49
NORTHR/GLE260.at2 260 154.0 1.00 0.56
0320 2120 NORTH392/GLE170.at2 170 5.3 86.0 0.58 0.64
NORTH392/GLE260.at2 260 154.2 0.53 0.68

(continued on next page)


626 J. Ruiz-Garca, J.C. Negrete-Manriquez / Engineering Structures 33 (2011) 621634

Table 2 (continued)

Sequence name Station name MODY HRMN Component Earthquake magnitude PGA Tg
(cm/s2 )

ARLE19940117 Arleta Nordhoff Fire Sta 0117 1231 NORTHR/ARL090.at2 6.7 337.4 1.05 0.50
NORTHR/ARL360.at2 302.1 2.43 0.44
0117 1232 NORTH001/ARLET090.at2 6.1 98.4 0.28 0.57
NORTH001/ARLET360.at2 98.7 0.27 0.61
0320 2120 NORTH392/ARLET090.at2 5.3 117.0 0.34 0.66
NORTH392/ARLET360.at2 123.1 0.23 0.65

BEVE19940117 Beverly Hills 12520 Mulhol 0117 1231 NORTHR/MU2035.at2 6.7 604.9 0.26 0.51
NORTHR/MU2125.at2 435.8 0.26 0.58
0320 2120 NORTH392/MU2035.at2 5.3 175.6 0.28 0.63
NORTH392/MU2125.at2 161.0 0.25 0.65

BIGT19940117 Big Tujunga, Angeles Nat F 0117 1231 NORTHR/TUJ262.at2 6.7 160.1 0.29 0.62
NORTHR/TUJ352.at2 240.4 0.65 0.59
0320 2120 NORTH392/TUJ262.at2 5.3 131.6 0.26 0.63
NORTH392/TUJ352.at2 103.8 0.28 0.62

BURB19940117 Burbank Howard Rd. 0117 1231 NORTHR/HOW060.at2 6.7 117.4 0.64 0.56
NORTHR/HOW330.at2 160.1 0.28 0.61
0320 2120 NORTH392/HOW060.at2 5.3 75.4 0.27 0.61
NORTH392/HOW330.at2 67.2 0.44 0.63

CAST19940117 Castaic Old Ridge Route 0117 1231 NORTHR/ORR090.at2 6.7 557.3 0.82 0.47
NORTHR/ORR360.at2 504.3 0.95 0.51
0117 2333 NORTH142/CASTA090.at2 5.9 135.7 0.39 0.62
NORTH142/CASTA360.at2 116.6 0.31 0.59
0117 0043 NORTH151/CASTA090.at2 5.1 103.1 0.39 0.62
NORTH151/CASTA360.at2 59.1 0.31 0.59

DOWN19940117 Downey Co Maint Bldg 0117 1231 NORTHR/DWN090.at2 6.7 155.2 0.62 0.52
NORTHR/DWN360.at2 225.5 0.37 0.56
0117 1232 NORTH001/DOWNC090.at2 6.1 50.4 0.28 0.57
NORTH001/DOWNC180.at2 33.7 0.25 0.59

HOLL19940117 Hollywood Willoughby Ave 0117 1231 NORTHR/WIL090.at2 6.7 133.7 0.75 0.48
NORTHR/WIL180.at2 240.8 1.08 0.52
0320 2120 NORTH392/WIL090.at2 5.3 68.0 0.24 0.65
NORTH392/WIL180.at2 99.1 0.56 0.61

BALD19940117 LA Baldwin Hills 0117 1231 NORTHR/BLD090.at2 6.7 234.2 1.98 0.43
NORTHR/BLD360.at2 164.5 1.63 0.47
0117 1232 NORTH001/BALDW090.at2 6.1 111.4 0.29 0.60
NORTH001/BALDW360.at2 48.2 0.52 0.61
0320 2120 NORTH392/BALDW090.at2 5.3 61.1 0.53 0.61
NORTH392/BALDW180.at2 53.0 0.46 0.52

CENT19940117 LA Century City CC North 0117 1231 NORTHR/CCN090.at2 6.7 250.7 1.60 0.43
NORTHR/CCN360.at2 217.4 1.06 0.49
0117 1232 NORTH001/CNTYC090.at2 6.1 109.1 0.30 0.65
NORTH001/CNTYC360.at2 58.4 0.61 0.59
0320 2120 NORTH392/CNTYC090.at2 5.3 159.0 0.50 0.66
NORTH392/CNTYC360.at2 84.3 0.58 0.62

CITY19940117 LA City Terrace 0117 1231 NORTHR/LAC090.at2 6.7 258.0 0.32 0.57
NORTHR/LAC180.at2 310.2 0.41 0.63
0117 1232 NORTH001/CTYTE090.at2 6.1 51.3 0.24 0.65
NORTH001/CTYTE180.at2 112.3 0.19 0.57
0320 2120 NORTH392/CTYTE090.at2 5.3 32.6 0.24 0.62
NORTH392/CTYTE180.at2 60.2 0.24 0.61
J. Ruiz-Garca, J.C. Negrete-Manriquez / Engineering Structures 33 (2011) 621634 627

Table 3
List of mainshockaftershock seismic sequences (near-fault) considered in this investigation.
Sequence name Station name MODY HRMN Peer file name Earthquake magnitude PGA Tg
(cm/s2 )

JEFP19940117 Jensen Filter Plant 0117 1231 NORTHR/JEN022.at2 6.7 559.6 2.94 0.33
NORTHR/JEN292.at2 1004.0 1.09 0.49
0117 0043 NORTH151/00BN22E.at2 5.1 47.4 0.49 0.56
NORTH151/00BW22N.at2 47.4 0.49 0.56
0320 2120 NORTH392/00BN22E.at2 5.3 208.1 0.60 0.57
NORTH392/00BW22N.at2 250.4 0.42 0.62

JEFG19940117 Jensen Filter Plant Generator 0117 1231 NORTHR/0655-022.at2 6.7 559.6 2.94 0.33
NORTHR/0655-292.at2 1003.7 1.04 0.49
0117 0043 NORTH151/00GN22E.at2 5.1 70.3 0.30 0.64
NORTH151/00GW22N.at2 56.7 0.66 0.61
0320 2120 NORTH392/00GN22E.at2 5.3 154.1 0.43 0.57
NORTH392/00GW22N.at2 297.3 0.42 0.61

NEWH19940117 Newhall Fire Station 0117 1231 NORTHR/NWH090.at2 6.7 571.7 1.29 0.52
NORTHR/NWH360.at2 578.3 1.27 0.50
0117 1232 NORTH001/NEWHA090.at2 6.1 35.8 0.50 0.62
NORTH001/NEWHA360.at2 42.7 0.40 0.65
0117 1241 NORTH009/NEWHA090.at2 5.2 104.9 0.46 0.58
NORTH009/NEWHA180.at2 201.5 0.63 0.56
0320 2120 NORTH392/NEWHA090.at2 5.3 53.9 0.24 0.65
NORTH392/NEWHA360.at2 59.1 0.65 0.61

PACO19940117 Pacoima Kagel Canyon 0117 1231 NORTHR/PKC090.at2 6.7 295.2 0.86 0.47
NORTHR/PKC360.at2 424.3 0.65 0.53
0117 1232 NORTH001/PACOI090.at2 6.1 63.8 0.29 0.65
NORTH001/PACOI360.at2 78.4 0.24 0.61
0117 1241 NORTH009/PACOI090.at2 5.2 34.7 0.36 0.52
NORTH009/PACOI360.at2 52.4 0.93 0.57
0117 0043 NORTH151/PACOI090.at2 5.1 53.0 0.82 0.57
NORTH151/PACOI360.at2 21.8 0.52 0.53
0320 2120 NORTH392/PACOI090.at2 5.3 149.1 0.31 0.61
NORTH392/PACOI360.at2 223.5 0.68 0.64

RINA19940117 Rinaldi Receiving Sta 0117 1231 NORTHR/RRS228.at2 6.7 809.2 1.05 0.47
NORTHR/RRS318.at2 477.1 2.34 0.40
0320 2120 NORTH392/E-RRS228.at2 5.3 639.0 0.41 0.63
NORTH392/E-RRS318.at2 421.9 0.40 0.61

SYLM19940117 Sylmar Converter Sta East 0117 1231 NORTHR/SCE018.at2 6.7 812.2 0.83 0.41
NORTHR/SCE288.at2 483.5 2.20 0.39
0320 2120 NORTH392/E-SCE018.at2 5.3 154.8 0.88 0.63
NORTH392/E-SCE288.at2 122.6 0.22 0.65

TARZ19940117 Tarzana Cedar Hill A 0117 1231 NORTHR/TAR090.at2 6.7 1744.8 0.60 0.56
NORTHR/TAR360.at2 971.1 0.74 0.56
0117 1241 NORTH009/TARZA090.at2 5.2 67.6 0.35 0.64
NORTH009/TARZA360.at2 54.8 0.37 0.65
0320 2120 NORTH392/TARZA090.at2 5.3 365.4 0.22 0.67
NORTH392/TARZA360.at2 302.6 0.25 0.65

3. Response under seismic sequences the frame model under far-field ground motions from the 1994
Northridge earthquake.
3.1. Response under individual seismic sequences The aforementioned observation seems opposite to the results
discussed in previous studies. However, it should be recall that
At a first stage, the response of the 4-story frame model under most of the previous studies have developed investigations on
selected near-fault mainshockaftershock seismic sequences is the effect of aftershocks in the response of structures employing
examined and, therefore, displacement time-history results are artificial seismic sequences [e.g. [713,15]]. Therefore, it is of
shown in Fig. 7. It can be seen that the response of this frame model interest to examine the response of frame models under as-
is dominated by the mainshock, which means that the aftershocks recorded and artificial seismic sequences. For this purpose, let
do not increase peak displacement demands, and furthermore, us consider the as-recorded mainshockaftershock acceleration
aftershocks do not increase permanent displacements triggered time-history recorded in the Rinaldi Receiving Station (component
at the end of the mainshock. Similar observations were made for 228) during the 1994 Northridge earthquake (Fig. 2(b)). This
628 J. Ruiz-Garca, J.C. Negrete-Manriquez / Engineering Structures 33 (2011) 621634

a b c

Fig. 4. Estimation of predominant period of the ground motion from the velocity spectra of typical mainshock and main-aftershock near-fault ground motions considered
in this study: (a) Tarzana (comp. 090); (b) Rinaldi (comp. 228); (c) Jensen Filter Plant Generator (comp. 022).

a b

Fig. 5. Relationship between Tg and for mainshocks and main aftershocks: (a) far-field ground motions (1994 Northridge earthquake), (b) near-fault ground motions
(1994 Northridge earthquake), (c) far-field ground motions (1980 Mammoth Lakes earthquake).

a b

Fig. 6. Relationship of Tg for mainshock and Tg for aftershocks: (a) far-field ground motions (1994 Northridge earthquake), (b) near-fault ground motions (1994 Northridge
earthquake).

Fig. 7. Response (first-story displacement time-history) of the 4-story frame model under selected near-fault seismic sequences.
J. Ruiz-Garca, J.C. Negrete-Manriquez / Engineering Structures 33 (2011) 621634 629

a b

Fig. 8. Seismic sequences in the near-fault environment (Rinaldi Receiving station, comp. 228): (a) as-recorded; (b) back-to-back case; (c) randomized case.

a at the end of the excitation in both frames, mainly in the 4-story


frame. This observation could be explained since the calculated
predominant period of the mainshock ground motion is 1.05 s,
which is close than the first-mode period of vibration of the
4-story frame (T1 = 1.23 s, Tg /T1 = 0.33). However, the as-
recorded aftershock does not increase either peak and permanent
displacement demands in both frames, which might be explained
since the predominant period of the aftershock (Tg = 0.41 s) is
shorter than either the fundamental period of vibration of both
frames (i.e. undamaged state at the end of the mainshock) or
b the period of vibration of the damaged frames. On the other
hand, it should be noted that artificial seismic sequences lead to
larger permanent displacements of each frame at the end of the
artificial aftershock than the as-recorded sequence. In both cases,
the artificial sequence defined by the back-to-back approach leads
to the largest permanent displacement.
It is of particular interest to further investigate the effect
of the frequency content of the aftershock in the building
response. However, all the near-fault aftershocks in the ground
motion database have Tg s shorter than the buildings fundamental
Fig. 9. Displacement time-history response of frame models under as-recorded and period of vibration. Then, artificial aftershocks having different
artificial seismic sequences from the Rinaldi Receiving station (comp. 228): (a) 4- frequency content (i.e. pulse period) were generated through
story frame; and (b) 12-story frame. a velocity pulse model proposed by Menun and Fu [26]. For
example, Fig. 10(a) illustrates the recorded aftershock ground
seismic sequence is chosen since the main aftershock has the velocity time-history recorded at the Rinaldi Receiving station
largest PGA among the recorded aftershocks in the catalogue and and the fitted velocity pulse model, while Fig. 10(b) shows a
it has a (PGA)M /(PGA)A ratio equal to 0.79 (see Fig. 2(b)). In similar comparison for the aftershock acceleration time-history.
addition, artificial seismic sequences are generated by repeating As discussed by Kalkan and Kunnath [27], acceleration time-
the mainshock as the aftershock (i.e. back-to-back case) and using histories developed from velocity pulse models do not necessarily
the mainshock acceleration time-history recorded in the Sylmar match recorded acceleration time-histories. Using the as-recorded
Converter station as an aftershock (i.e. randomized case). Fig. 8 mainshock and the acceleration time-history with acceleration
shows the as-recorded and artificial seismic sequences. It can time-history obtained from the velocity pulse model, it was
clearly be seen that the artificial seismic sequences have very first verified that this artificial sequence could reproduce the
different ground motion features than the as-recorded seismic displacement time-history obtained from the real sequence.
sequence. Next, the velocity pulse model was calibrated to have different
Therefore, each frame was subjected to the as-recorded seismic pulse periods (i.e. frequency content) while keeping the same
sequence and the two artificial sequences. For instance, the peak ground acceleration of the as-recorded aftershock. The
displacement time-history obtained from the first story of the displacement time-history recorded in the first story of the 4-
4- and 12-story frame models is shown in Fig. 9. From the figure, it story frame model when subjected to as-recorded mainshock-
can be seen that the mainshock triggers permanent displacement pulse type aftershocks sequences is shown in Fig. 11. From the
630 J. Ruiz-Garca, J.C. Negrete-Manriquez / Engineering Structures 33 (2011) 621634

a drift demand (i.e. relative inter-story displacement normalized


with respect to the story height), IDR, and residual inter-story
drift demand (i.e. relative inter-story permanent displacement at
the end of the earthquakes excitation normalized with respect
to the story height), RIDR. In order to provide a context of the
frames performance, FEMA 356 [1] recommendations specify
inter-story drift index thresholds of 0.7%, 2.5% and 5% for the
immediate occupancy (IO), life safety (LS) and collapse prevention
(CP) performance levels, respectively. In addition, FEMA 356 [1]
b specifies permanent inter-story drift thresholds of 0.7% and 5% for
life safety and collapse prevention, respectively.
The distribution over the height of IDR computed from the
set of seismic sequences recorded during the 1980 Mammoth
Lakes earthquakes for the three frames models is shown in
Fig. 12. It can be seen that the mainshocks trigger inter-story drift
demands shorter than the inter-story drift thresholds linked to
the IO performance level. However, IDRs are increased due to the
aftershocks, but only the 4-story frame exceeds the IDR associated
to IO performance level. It should be noted that the increment in
Fig. 10. Comparison of as-recorded ground velocity and acceleration of main-
IDR due to aftershocks depends on the period of vibration, number
aftershock recorded at the Rinaldi Receiving station with a pulse model proposed
in [26]. of stories and the story height. In addition, it was observed that
the aftershocks increased the level of RIDR at the end of the
mainshocks, but the level of RIDR was negligible below the IO
figure, it can clearly be observed the effect of the aftershocks
performance level.
frequency content in permanent displacements at the end of the
Fig. 13 shows the height-wise distribution of IDR obtained
sequence.
for each frame under all 44 far-field and all 14 near-fault as-
recorded seismic sequences captured during the 1994 Northridge
3.2. Response of frame models under as-recorded far-field and near- earthquake. As can be expected, near-fault earthquake ground
fault seismic sequences motions induce larger IDRs than the far-field ground motions
which tends to concentrate in the ground story since it was
In order to study the influence of mainshockaftershock anticipated that the frames could develop a ground soft story
sequences in the response of existing steel frames, a series of mechanism. From the figure, it can be observed that the 4- and
nonlinear dynamic analyses were carried out for each frame 8-story frames exceed the drift thresholds associated to the life-
model when subjected to the as-recorded seismic sequences. safety level under near-fault mainshocks, but all frames experience
Later, individual results were statistically processed to obtain the IDRs smaller than those prescribed for the IO performance level
central tendency and dispersion of peak (transient) inter-story under far-field mainshock ground motions. Particularly, it can be

Fig. 11. Displacement time-history response of the 4-story frame model under as-recorded mainshock and artificial pulse-type aftershocks.

a b c

Fig. 12. Height-wise distribution of peak (transient) inter-story drift demand computed from 6 seismic sequences recorded during the 1980 Mammoth Lakes earthquakes:
(a) 4-story frame; (b) 8-story frame; and (c) 12-story frame.
J. Ruiz-Garca, J.C. Negrete-Manriquez / Engineering Structures 33 (2011) 621634 631

a b c

Fig. 13. Height-wise distribution of median peak (transient) inter-story drift demand computed from far-field and near-fault seismic sequences recorded during the 1994
Northridge earthquakes: (a) 4-story frame; (b) 8-story frame; and (c) 12-story frame.

z/H z/H z/H


a b c

RIDR [%] RIDR [%] RIDR [%]

Fig. 14. Height-wise distribution of median residual (permanent) inter-story drift demand under all 14 near-fault seismic sequences: (a) 4-story frame; (b) 8-story frame;
and (c) 12-story frame.

seen that response of the 12-story frame is more influenced by 3.3. Response of frame models under artificial seismic sequences
higher modes under near-fault ground motions than under far-
field motions. Regarding the effect of aftershocks, it can also be It should be recognized that previous results, mainly for peak
seen that the mainshock controls the response regardless of the inter-story drift demand, are opposite to some of the prior stud-
type of ground motion (i.e. the aftershocks do not increase the level ies. However, recall that with exception of the studies by Ruiz-
of drift demands). Garca et al. [14] and Hatzeorgiou and Liolios [15], preceding stud-
ies employed artificial seismic sequences, either from a repeated or
An important task in this investigation was to investigate
randomized approach. Furthermore, earthquake field reconnais-
whether the aftershocks could increase residual inter-story drift sance after the 1994 Northridge earthquake did not report dam-
demands at the end of the mainshock. Therefore, Fig. 14 shows the age in steel buildings as a consequence of aftershocks [3,4]. As
distribution over the height of RIDR corresponding to frame models shown in the previous section, the repeated and randomized ap-
under the near-fault ground motion sequences. It can be observed proach could lead to the conclusion that aftershocks consistently
that the 8-story frame experiences the largest RIDR, which is increase peak and permanent displacement demands from the
in excess of the permanent inter-story drift threshold for life- mainshock. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate the level of
safety performance level. However, permanent inter-story drift overestimation in drift demands that artificial seismic sequences
demands are not increased as a consequence of the as-recorded generated from the repeated and randomized approach induce to
aftershocks. This observation could be explained since all the as- the frames. Fig. 15 shows a comparison of the height-wise distribu-
recorded aftershocks have predominant periods shorter than about tion of IDR for all frames computed from the as-recorded and artifi-
1.0 s, which means that the predominant periods of the aftershock cial near-fault seismic sequences. Results are presented in terms of
ground motions are smaller than the first-mode period of vibration mean-plus-one-standard deviation in order to include the record-
to-record variability. As can be expected, it can be seen that artifi-
and, as expected, much smaller than the period of vibration
cial sequences trigger larger maximum IDR over all stories, while
of the damaged building (i.e. if the frame experienced non-
the level of overestimation of IDR depends on the specific story
recoverable deformations). The aforementioned observation is
and the period of vibration of the frame. For instance, IDRs in the
very important since permanent drift demands could be related to first story of each frame computed from the repeated approach are
the residual capacity of the building [8]. A similar statistical study larger about 13%, 24% and 35% than the corresponding IDRs calcu-
was conducted using the as-recorded far-field seismic sequences. lated from as-recorded sequences.
Unlike previous results for near-fault sequences, permanent drift An important finding for probabilistic assessment of buildings
demands triggered by far-field sequences were very small, and under a mainshockaftershock scenario is that the record-to-
they did not increase as a consequence of the aftershocks. record variability, measured by the logarithmic standard deviation
632 J. Ruiz-Garca, J.C. Negrete-Manriquez / Engineering Structures 33 (2011) 621634

z/H z/H z/H


a b c

Fig. 15. Height-wise distribution of peak (transient) inter-story drift demand under as-recorded and artificial (repeated approach) near-fault seismic sequences: (a) 4-story
frame; (b) 8-story frame; and (c) 12-story frame.

z/H
a z/H
b z/H
c

Fig. 16. Height-wise distribution of log standard deviation of peak (transient) inter-story drift demand under as-recorded and artificial (repeated approach) near-fault
seismic sequences: (a) 4-story frame; (b) 8-story frame; and (c) 12-story frame.

a z/H b z/H c z/H

Fig. 17. Height-wise distribution of mean plus one standard deviation of peak (transient) inter-story drift demand under as-recorded and artificial (repeated approach)
far-field seismic sequences: (a) 4-story frame; (b) 8-story frame; and (c) 12-story frame.

of IDR, computed from the artificial sequences is, in general, larger der this seismic environment, the artificial mainshockaftershock
than that computed from the as-recorded sequences. For example, sequences do not trigger significantly different mean-plus-one-
height-wise distribution of logarithmic standard deviation of IDR standard deviation IDRs than the as-recorded seismic sequences.
computed from the near-fault sequences is shown in Fig. 16. This For example, IDRs in the first story computed from the repeated
observation has impact while computing fragility curves of peak approach are larger about 13%, 33% and 6% than the corresponding
interstory drift demands and, as a consequence, in seismic hazard IDRs calculated from as-recorded sequences.
curves of peak-interstory drift demand. Finally, a comparison of mean-plus-one-standard deviation
A comparison of IDRs triggered by as-recorded and artificial RIDRs computed from as-recorded and artificial (repeated)
(repeated) far-field seismic sequences is illustrated in Fig. 17. Un- near-fault sequences is shown in Fig. 18. It can clearly be seen that
J. Ruiz-Garca, J.C. Negrete-Manriquez / Engineering Structures 33 (2011) 621634 633

a z/H
b z/H
c z/H

RIDR [%] RIDR [%] RIDR [%]

Fig. 18. Height-wise distribution of mean plus one standard deviation of residual (permanent) inter-story drift demand under as-recorded and artificial (repeated approach)
near-fault seismic sequences: (a) 4-story frame; (b) 8-story frame; and (c) 12-story frame.

the use of artificial seismic sequences tends to overestimate the of artificial sequences as well as site-specific seismic scenarios
amplitude of residual drift demands. The level of overestimation due to the particular dependency on ground motion features
depends on the number of stories and the story height. (e.g. frequency content) of mainshockaftershock ground motions.

4. Summary and conclusions Acknowledgements

The authors would like to express their gratitude to Universidad


This paper has summarized the results of an analytical study
Michoacana de San Nicols de Hidalgo and the National Council
aimed at providing further understanding on the influence of
for Science and Technology (CONACYT) in Mxico for the support
aftershocks on drift demands in regular existing moment-resisting
provided to develop the research reported in this paper.
frame buildings. This investigation focused on investigating
whether as-recorded aftershocks could increase peak (transient)
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