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20 Aufrufe14 Seitentalks about concrete domes around the world

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talks about concrete domes around the world

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20 Aufrufe

talks about concrete domes around the world

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Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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PAPER

Title no. 80-45

A design procedure for determining the buckling strength of concrete In the past 40 years, more than 3000 papers have

domes with prestressed concrete edge rings is presented. This proce been published on the buckling of spherical shells.

dure was developed using a conceptual model for predicting the

Comprehensive surveys of literature on the buckling of

buckling strength of concrete domes based on the available literature

on stability of spherical shells and creep of concrete. The model is spherical shells in general, and concrete domes in par

based on the assumption that the dome contains geometric imperfec ticular, are presented by Kaplan, I Hutchinson and Ko

tions in the form of spherical caps with different radii of curvature. iter," and Scordelis. J The main results of the published

The buckling strength of the dome is governed by the buckling research, significant in the development of our recom

strength of the least resistant cap. To predict the buckling strength of

a shallow concrete cap including the effects of geometric nonlinear

mended procedure for determining critical buckling

ity. creep. and material nonlinearity, a computer analysis of the load, are as follows:

buckling strength of spherical caps having several shallowness pa I. The critical buckling pressure of an elastic spheri

rameters in the critical range was performed using the BOSOR5 com cal shell can be predicted with the available computer

puter program. The effect of cracking on the buckling strength was ized models, considering the nonlinear axisymmetric

approximated by examining the stress states prior to buckling and ju

diciously selecting the time of failure.

deformations of the shell before buckling and the axi

The paper also contains the results of a survey conducted on 245 symmetric as well as the nonaxisymmetric, buckle

thin concrete domes built over large prestressed concrete tanks dur shapes. The results obtained are in agreement to within

ing the past two to three decades. These tend to substantiate the ad about 25 percent with the experimental results obtained

equacy of the proposed design procedure for such domes. Also. a

from carefully conducted tests on near perfect speci

survey of the actual geometry of a dome known to exhibit very se

vere imperfections and an evaluation of published creep buckling test

mens and specimens with specific imperfections.

results were conducted for further evaluation and validation of the 2. Buckles observed after the buckling process on ex

proposed design procedure. periments conducted on concrete and PVC domes are

nearly 2.5 JRi in diameter and are mostly located near

the boundary of the shell.

Keywords: bucklinR: compressive strength; computer programs; creep proper

ties: domes (structural forms); mathematical models; prestressed concrete:

3. The critical buckling load of a spherical shell is se

reinforced concrete: shells (structural forms); spherical shells; structural de verely affected by deviations from its perfectly spheri

sign; tanks (containers). cal shape that result in a significant change of R/t over

a large enough region of the order of magnitude of a

The purpose of this paper is to present a rational buckle size. Imperfections, which are the cause of the

procedure for predicting buckling loads for thin con discrepancy between the experimental results and those

crete spherical shells, similar to those constructed over computed based on the classical theory, result from in

prestressed water tanks. The scope of the procedure is stantaneous deformations, creep deformations, and

limited to thin shells with R/ t ~ 500. For these shells, manufacturing tolerances. The effect of imperfections

the stresses at the time of buckling are not high enough caused by instantaneous deformation is included in

that cracking would result in a significant reduction of nonlinear buckling analyses. Imperfections caused by

the critical buckling load. The procedure developed creep and manufacturing tolerances are responsible for

may be used to design thin reinforced concrete spheri observed deviations of the experimental results from

cal shells that are frequently used as roofs of cylindri those obtained through nonlinear analyses.

cal prestressed concrete water tanks. It may also be

used as the basis for developing design procedures for

Received Jan. 13, 1983, and reviewed under Institute publication policies.

spherical shell roofs of many other types of structures. Copyright 1983. American Concrete Institute. All rights reserved, including

For domes over occupied spaces, higher load factors lhe making of copies unless permission is obtained from the copyrighl propri

etors. Pertinent discussion will be published in the September-October 1984 ACI

than the ones proposed may be appropriate. JOURNAL if received by June I, 1984.

Mehdi .\'. LarKhamee is an aSSUCI(lfe 01 Sunpson Gumpert:. & Heger Inc.. Con 4. Imposed imperfections in the form show in Fig.

sulting Engineers. Arlington. Mass. He received his PhD in structural engi I have little effect on the critical buckling load if such

l1eerlllg .Iroll1 the Unn'enllY of Illmois in /lJ65 and his Schll11 malhematics from imperfections are spread over regions much smaller

:HIT in 1968. Dr. Larghamee Iw.\ per/armed re~ea,.ch and ha.~ h'rlUen papers in

Ihelieltls o/struclural dynamIcs. stabilit.r. structural analysl.'). numerical mefh than the buckle size.

()d~. uptillfi:.atlul1. hydr(Julic.~. mathematics. und al1tefll1a~- litlll propoRalfons. He S. The theoretical study of Bushnell4.5 reveals that

has IX veurs ql experience III ell,stl11eennR pructJce. teach'n)!. and manuxement, imperfections with a diameter of 4.3 -JRt result in the

Frank J. Heger. f-~4 CI. is a sentor principal at Simpson Gumpertz & Heger Inc.. largest reduction of the critical buckling load. Further

Consulling Engineers. Arlington. Mass. and San FranCISCO. Calif. He ;.1 more, imperfections result in high bending stresses at

chalfman of ACI Cummi/lee 344, C{n:ular Prestressed Concrete StruclUres. atld

the boundary of the imperfection region, as well as in

" member 0/ ACI-ASCE CCmll11lflee 445. Shear alld TorSIOn. Dr. Heger re

ceived his ScD Jrom MIT in 1'162 und has JJ I'ears' expertence in structural en side the region. The buckling behavior of an imperfect

gineertnR pran{ce (lnll teachi,,!!.. His other research work has resulted in new spherical shell resembles that of a spherical cap with the

deSign methods .lor hUrled concrete pipe und box sectlOlH. bUried plastic tanks. same geometry as the imperfection and clamped at the

und the seismIC re,Hstum.:e 0.1 pre.... tressed concrete tanks.

boundary.

6. Experimental studies performed by Krenzke and

Kiernan" on the buckling strength of spherical shells

with imposed imperfections, as shown in Fig. I, sug

gest that average local radii measured over a region of

diameter d = 2.4.JRi may be used for the determina

tion of buckling strength of an imperfect shell. The di

ameter d represents the size of the observed buckles in

the experiments. The expected buckling pressure, based

on these studies, is Pcr = 0.7 Pd' where Pd = 1.1 Et/R,mp

and R,mp is the radius of curvature of the imperfection

region.

7. A theoretical study by Huang' indicates that the

critical buckling load of clamped spherical shells is

lower than that of a shell whose boundary displace

ment conforms with the membrane boundary condition

(i.e., free to displace radially). Therefore, the buckling

load of a deep spherical shell may be conservatively ap

proximated by that of a clamped shallow shell having

the same radius of curvature. Fig. 2 shows the buckling

load for a spherical shell with boundaries that are

clamped, hinged, or free to displace radially.

8. The creep buckling load of spherical shells is a

highly sensitive function of initial geometric imperfec

tions. 8 ,'

9. The creep of a reinforced concrete specimen in

Fig. I - Geometry of imperfection creases significantly as the volume-surface ratio drops'"

(as the shell becomes thinner). This fact not only sug

1.5 gests that thin reinforced concrete shells creep more

t han massive reinforced concrete structures, but also

clouds the results obtained experimentally through test

ing of very thin microconcrete shell specimens.

10. The design procedure presented in the report of

1.0

the ACI Committee 344 " yields domes significantly

thinner than the domes designed in accordance with the

~---------------- recommendations of the International Association for

Shell and Spatial Structures.3.12-ll

0.5

BUCKLING OF CONCRETE DOMES ON

crete tanks" are in general characterized by a large ra

0.0

dius-to-thickness ratio (R/t ;;:: 500), a rise that is from

o II 10 20 so Vs to i';. of tank diameter, reinforcements located at

section middepth with areas equal to 0.2 to 0.3 percent

Fig. 2 - Comparison between analytical predictions

for buckling of deep and shallow shells with clamped of gross 'area, tapering edge thickness for cast-in-place

boundaries. simply supported boundaries, and bound domes, an edge ring prestressed to resist thrust from

aries free to displace radialIy. full dead load and partial to full live load, and a joint

488 ACI JOURNAL I November-December 1983

between the bottom of the dome edge ring and the tank in the edge zone of cast-in-place domes. The longtime

wall that is either monolithic with the wall and pro deformation of the dome in the imperfection region re

vides full continuity between wall and dome ring, or is duces the curvature and drops the pressure that pro

separated by an elastomeric pad, or is constructed in duces instability. The Hfect of creep deformation is,

such a way as to provide only a partial bending re therefore, a continual reduction of critical buckling

straint. load with time. As the dome creeps and curvature is re

These domes are either cast-in-place using regular duced, membrane and bending stresses grow larger.

concrete or built from precast concrete trapezoidal sec Since the maximum bending stress exceeds the nominal

tions connected by cast-in-place joints. Shotcrete domes membrane stress for a clamped shell, tensile stresses

were used on many older tanks and on some modern form near the boundary of the imperfection regions.

tanks. The recommendations given herein cover only The concrete cracks, and as it cracks, bending mo

monolithic cast-in-place domes; further modifications ments are reduced by material compliance as well as by

can be developed covering specific arrangements of a shift in the neutral plane. Cracking may start at pres

panels and connections for precast domes. Shotcrete sure levels much lower than the buckling load and may

domes are similar to cast-in-place concrete domes and develop further or may be arrested during the buckling

are not recommended for climates subject to freeze process. If the crack grows during buckling, a loss of

thaw conditions. buckling resistance is unavoidable.

The simplified recommendations presented are pred In addition to cracking, high compressive stresses in

icated on the following assumptions about the se concrete, developed probably at the boundaries and in

quence of construction and loading. the cracked sections, may result in a loss of material

1. Dome is supported on its falsework and while so stiffness. A loss in material stiffness will in turn result

supported is properly cured for at least 7 days after in a reduction of buckling resistance.

concrete placement.'" Falsework is removed after 7

days. A CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR DESIGN OF

2. Dome is subject to dead load (own weight) effects DOMES TO RESIST BUCKLING

for its entire life. A conceptual model that can be used to develop de

3. Maximum live load is applied after the concrete sign formulas for concrete domes on prestressed con

has aged at least 30 days for a continuous duration not crete water tanks is presented. This includes a basic

exceeding one month. model for predicting buckling resistance of domes with

We are interested in knowing the greatest lower geometric imperfections and linear elastic materials and

bound of the ultimate external pressure p that produces its extension for predicting the reduction in this resis

creep buckling of the dome during its life. The ultimate tance due to creep, cracking, and material nonlinearity.

pressure p must satisfy the inequality

Basic model

p ~ 1.4DL + 1.7LL (1) First, consider a deep-clamped spherical shell made

from concrete. Concrete creeps with time, has a non

and is applied as follows: linear stress-strain relationship in compression, and

a fraction of p equal to 1.4DL/(1.4DL + 1.7LL) is cracks when the tensile stress exceeds certain limits.

applied initially; the remaining part of p may be ap Assume that the surface of this shell contains a number

plied at any time t (t is arbitrary) and sustained for 30 of geometric imperfections, each one in the form of a

days. spherical cap as shown in Fig. 1, with various imper

The coefficients 1.4 and 1.7 are the load factors for fection diameters and various imperfection radii of

dead load and live load recommended for use in build curvature. Based on the works of Bushnell: Krenzke

ing design by ACI 318. and Kiernan,6 and Huang,' assume that the buckling

After the application of the dead load by removal of strength of this shell is governed by the lowest buckling

falsework, the shell deforms instantaneously; the de load of the imperfection regions, each assumed to be

formation of the shell consists of a constant radial clamped at its boundary. Applying this assumption to

membrane displacement plus bending deformations the imperfections in our basic model, the buckling of

that occur near the boundary of the dome as well as in the shell is governed by the buckling strength of the

the imperfection regions. The zone of boundary effects imperfection least resistant to external pressure.

for a shallow spherical shell with compressive mem For a linear elastic material with no time-dependent

brane stress is larger than that predicted by a Geckeler properties, the buckling strength of a clamped spheri

type solution. In fact, as pip,./ increases to near unity, cal cap is shown in Fig. 2. The least resistant spherical

asymptotic analysis indicates that the boundary effects cap is the one with a shallowness parameter f,. = 4,

propagate well into the interior of the region without computed based on an average radius of curvature in

decay. Therefore, the deformations of shallow shells the imperfection region. The diameter of the imperfec

cannot be estimated by the membrane deformations. tion corresponding to A = 4 is d = 4.3 ..J Rim,,!, where

A buckle starts to form and grows with time at a

large enough imperfection region; the edge taper and .Domes on small tanks. i.e. tanks with diameters less than 100 ft. are pre

stressed a day or two after casting; for these domes. buckling is robl the govern

prestressed edge beam prevent a buckle from forming ing design criteria.

R imp and 1 are the average radius of curvature and the the shell segment over the length d is 0.78 1 = 3.13 in.

average thickness of the dome over the imperfection (8 cm). In order to preclude an increased radius due to

region. imperfections greater than 1.4 times the nominal value,

For an actual deep concrete dome, consider cap-like the shell rise over any 24 ft (7 m) diameter region must

regions of the dome centered at points P on the dome not be less than 0.561 = 2.24 in. (5.7 cm). Thus, the

with diameter d = 4.3 -./Rplp where R p and t" are aver shell surface must not deviate by more than 3.13

age radius of curvature and average thickness in the re 2.24 = 0.91 in. (2.3 cm) from the theoretical shape

gion. Let us denote the maximum radius-to-thickness over any 24 ft (7 m) diameter region on the shell sur

ratio in all such regions as face.

Such imperfections reduce the buckling load to a

value that is at least 50 percent of the buckling load of

(2)

a shell with no imperfections. The resulting critical

buckling load for a concrete dome, ignoring creep, ma

The buckling load of a clamped spherical cap with A terial nonlinearity, and cracking, is then

= 4 is Pcr = 0.66 E (tl R)2. This suggests that the buck

ling load Pcr of the imperfect dome, ignoring creep,

material nonlinearity, and cracking, may be expressed

as

Prr = 0.33 E (~ r (5)

coefficient of 0.25 given in the report of ACI Commit

(3)

tee 344. 11

Effects of creep

where For an elastic shallow spherical cap, creep is ex

pected to reduce the buckling strength of the shell con

1- RII J2 (4)

siderably. To quantify the effect of creep on buckling

13,mp = l(Rlt)m strength, the following two questions must be an

swered.

A bound on the magnitude of imperfections has been 1. What is the expected magnitude of the ultimate

defined by the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code l6 creep strain?

requiring that the maximum departure from the true 2. What is the effect of creep strain on the reduction

shape should be less than or equal to the shell thickness of the buckling strength for a spherical cap?

over a chord length of 4.7 .JRi for shells with R/I ~ The magnitude of ultimate creep depends on many

250. This requirement implies that for imperfections of factors including concrete strength, volume-surface ra

the form shown in Fig. 1, the rise of the imperfection tio, duration of load, age of concrete at loading, as well

may drop from 2.771 to 1.77t, corresponding to R;m/R as the average humidity during load application. A

= 1.56 and a reduction in Pcr by about 59 percent; procedure for determining creep of a spherical shell

Therefore, 13,mp = 0.41. [The chord length of 4.7 .J1[i subjected to a load applied on the 28th day after plac

corresponds to 4.7 -./R imp 111.56 = 3.8 -./R,mpl where ing the concrete is as follows:

R,mp and 1 are the average local radius and thickness of 1. Obtain the specific creep,18 the ratio of basic creep

the imperfect region; the corresponding value of A in strain-to-stress, as a function of concrete strength f: .

the imperfection region is 3.5, and Pcr is approximately 2. Obtain the drying creep,19 assuming that there is

0.66 E(tlR,mp)2 (Fig. 2.).] always 100 percent relative humidity inside the tank.

The British Standard BS 5500 17 for metal pressure Under this assumption, the thickness of the dome be

vessels requires that the local radius of curvature, based comes the effective volume-surface ratio.

on an arc length of 2.5 .JRt , should not exceed the 3. Modify drying creep for relative humidity of the

nominal value by more than 30 percent. Therefore, environment in accordance with the correction factor

R,m/R = 1.3, and correspondingly, 13imp = 0.59. The given by Fintel and Khan. '9

selection of 2.5 .J1[i in lieu of 4.3 .JRi is more conser 4. Add drying creep to basic creep to obtain total

vative and is based on the size of the large buckles ob creep for concrete loaded on the 28th day after casting.

served experimentally after the buckling process. (Further modifications for the age of concrete at load

For reinforced concrete domes, it is proposed that ing are discussed below.)

the following bound on the magnitude of imperfections Thin domes creep significantly even when they are

be imposed to prevent failure of domes with large im subjected to live loads, such as snow loads that are as

perfections designed in conformance to this model: The sumed to act for a one-month duration. The fraction of

average radius of curvature measured over a region of total creep that takes place during a month may be ob

diameter d = 2.5 -./RI should not exceed the nominal tained from Reference 10. For example, for a 4 in.

radius of curvature by more than 40 percent. (10.2 em) thick shell, 30-day creep is approximately 25

For a dome with RII = 800 and t = 4 in. (10.2 cm), percent of the ultimate creep. Creep strain due to live

the...minimum diameter of the buckle region is d = 2.5 load should be further reduced to account for the age

-./800/2 = 71 1 = 283 in. "'" 24 ft (7 m), and the rise of of concrete at the time of the application of live load.

490 ACI JOURNAL I November-December 1983

The age of concrete at the time of live load application

cannot be assumed to be 28 days while simultaneously "

~ 2.0 D.... Lo." Cr R.H 10..

considering the ultimate creep for the dead load which ;;

~ .

occurs after infinite time. A reduction factor of 0.6 on :>o

the creep strain was used to account for the age of con

~"

crete at the time of live load application for domes built

on water tanks.

~"

,

.!:

"

The dead load creep and the live load creep of a c 1.0

dome built from an average concrete with 3750 psi ~

strength is shown in Fig. 3 as a function of shell thick ..

;;

ness. u

For cast-in-place concrete domes prestressed before .. Av.r.g. 8now Lo." Cr....

the 28th day, the creep due to dead load will be more ..

;;

than the total creep obtained from Fig. 3; the amplifi 0.0 L-_ _....L.._ _.....l ..I...._ _....J.. L-.....J

cation factor for the age of concrete at loading to be

applied to dead load is given by Fintel and Khan. 19 The

2 4

creep factors obtained from Fig. 3, after correction for Conor.t. Do... Thlc.. n In.

the age of concrete (7 days) at the time of loading, may Fig. 3 - Creep versus thickenss of a concrete dome lo

be used for design calculations. A single creep amplifi cated in an environment with an annual average out

cation factor may be calculated as the ratio of the sum side relative humidity of 50 percent (arid), 70 percent

of the creep strains due to a factored dead load applied (humid), and inside relative humidity of 100 percent

and loaded after 28 days with f.' = 3750 psi (25.9

on the 7th day and a factored live load applied as de MPA)

scribed above to the sum of the corresponding instan

taneous strains. This value is used for the determina

tion of the buckling strength of a spherical cap with properly, the states of stress near the time of buckling

time-dependent material properties. were examined to determine whether large tensile

The effect of creep strain on the reduction of the stresses had developed. The shell was considered buc

buckling strength of a concrete dome is predicted by a kled when the tensile stress, based on an uncracked

nonlinear analysis that includes the simultaneous ef shell, exceeded an arbitrary, but judiciously selected,

fects of creep, geometric nonlinearity, and stress-strain limit of 1200 psi.

nonlinearity. The analytical procedure employed is de

scribed later in this paper. Effects of material nonlinearity

The stress-strain relationship for concrete is highly

Effects of cracking nonlinear if stress exceeds 0.7 fi . In fact, we may as

To evaluate the effect of cracking, let us first con sume that for design purposes, the stress-strain relation

sider the case of linear elastic material with no time-de of concrete is a multilinear function as shown in Fig. 6

pendent properties. An analytical study by Bushnell on for a concrete with fi = 4000 psi (27.6 MPa).

a spherical shell with an imperfection having a shallow For a thin shell made from linear elastic materials,

ness parameter of" = 4 has shown bending stresses buckling will occur at nominal stress states that may be

which are approximately 1.4 times the nominal mem far below yielding. For example, a perfect dome made

brane stress just prior to buckling. of 4000 psi (27.6 MPa) concrete with R/t = 840 buck

If we consider a section subjected to a combined les when the nominal membrane stress

nominal compressive membrane stress (1 and a maxi

mum bending stress of 1.4(1, a tensile stress of 0.4(1 and R

a compressive stress of 2.4(1 will ensue at the surfaces. (J=

2t Per

For thin domes with a large R/t, the tensile stress may

be less than the tensile strength of concrete. If a tensile ~ 0.33 E(~) = 1416 psi (9.76 MPa) (6)

crack starts at the outer surface of concrete dome, it

will propagate only partially through the thickness of

the dome as the tensile stress diminishes with the crack Geometric imperfections and creep increase the ef

depth due to the shift in the neutral axis. In general, fective radius-to-thickness ratio and hence reduce the

flexural tension cracking in a shell made of linear elas nominal stress (1 even further. For shells with imperfec

tic materials is a highly localized phenomenon and does tions, the combined membrane and bending stress is

not alter the stress state or the stiffness of the shell ap significantly below 2.4(J = 2.4 x 1416 = 3400 psi (23.4

preciably. MPa). Therefore, material nonlinearity is not expected

For nonlinear materials having time-dependent prop to result in a significant reduction of buckling strength

erties, we also expect that the effects of flexural crack for very thin spherical caps made of linear elastic ma

ing on the buckling strength of the dome to be insignif terials.

icant. Although the analytical procedure used for creep Assuming that the effective radius-to-thickness ratio

buckling of shallow caps does not model cracking at buckling due to imperfections is twice the nominal

ACI JOURNAL I November-December 1983 491

value, it can then be estimated that, if the minimum the dome. The BOSOR5 program is applicable to any

nominal R/t is larger than 500, no significant reduc segmented or branched ring stiffened shell of revolu

tion of buckling strength due to material nonlinearity is tion; details of the analysis procedure and its applica

expected to occur. (If R/t is much less than 500, buck tions are given in References 21 through 26. In general,

ling is not expected to be the governing design criteria the analysis procedure involves subjecting the shell to a

for the shell.) fixed external load and computing the stress state and

When the material creeps, the bending moments the prebuckled, axisymmetric deflected configuration of

prior to buckling may grow large, and the maximum the shell at various times. Bifurcation buckling anal

compressive stress may exceed 2.4 times the nominal yses, considering nonsymmetric buckling modes, are

membrane stress assumed previously. Material nonlin made for each deflected configuration.

earity has been incorporated in the creep buckling The creep property of concrete is expressed with a

analysis model. transformed time scale t as

The model uses von Mises yield criteria that the plas

tic strain increment vector is normal to the yield sur (7)

face; therefore, incremental plastic strains are ex

pressed in terms of an effective plastic strain increment As a result of this assumption, specific creep is pro

and an effective stress defined as a = (a~ + a 22 portional to the transformed time 1; furthermore, the

a I0"2)'/,. The multilinear function shown in Fig. 4 is con analysis may be performed by equal time steps. There

sidered as the nonlinear relationship of the effective fore. the method of analysis reduces to determining the

stress to effective strain. transformed time t at which the shell buckles under the

applied loads. The axisymmetric prebuckling analysis

Analytical model and the nonsymmetric buckling analysis are described

For the analytical prediction of the buckling strength below. See Reference 25 for a more detailed descrip

of a reinforced concrete dome subject to creep, crack tion of this process.

ing, and material nonlinearity, Bushnell's BOSOR5

computer program 20 for the prediction of the buckling Axisymmetric prebuckling analysis

strength reduction of a clamped shallow cap with A = In the axisymmetric prebuckling analysis, large de

4 was used. This shell represents the least resistant im flection effects and elastic-plastic material behavior are

perfection of the dome to buckling. Its buckling load simultaneously accounted for by means of a double it

is assumed to be identical to the buckling strength of eration loop. In the inner loop, the nonlinear equa

tions, including terms due to moderately large deflec

tions, are solved by the Newton method. Material

properties, including nonlinearity and creep, are held

constant in this loop. In the outer loop, the material

properties are updated by means of a subincremental

process described in detail in Reference 21. This subin

4000

cremental process permits the use of rather large load

increments without excessive loss of accuracy in the so

'i lution. Plasticity calculations are based on the von

Do

,; Mises yield criterion and associated flow rule. Incre

.... 3000 mental flow theory is always used for the prebuckling

analysis. Iterations over the inner and outer loops con

....

II)

tinue at a given load level until the displacement vector

converges within a certain prescribed amount. In this

"0

t:

2000 way the favorable convergence property of the Newton

CJ

procedure is preserved, equilibrium is satisfied within

the degree of approximation inherent in a discrete

model, and the flow law of the material is satisfied at

every point in the structure at every load increment.

1000

Bifurcation buckling loads corresponding to non

symmetric buckling modes are calculated by selecting

o an initial number of circumferential waves n. For this

.001 .002 .003 .004 .005 .ooe .007 wave number n, the stability determinant is calculated

for each load increment. The load is increased until the

Concr.te Str.ln, In.lln.

stability determinant changes sign and one or more ei

Fig. 4 - Concrete stress strain curve and its multili genvalues are detected between two sequential steps or

near representation for BOSOR5 (1000 psi = 6.894 until the maximum allowable user-specified load has

MPa) been reached. At this point in the calculations, a series

492 ACI JOURNAL I November-December 1983

0 . 8 . - - - . . - - - - . - - -.....- - - - , : - - - - - . - - ,

of eigenvalue problems is set up and solved to deter

mine the bifurcation buckling load corresponding to the

nth circumferential wave. The value of n is changed

!

.

within a preselected range of values and the process is

repeated.

u

I I.

0.7

C

~U Crackl.,. Not IftclucIad

Numerical results

Employing the analytical model described above for

":'" 0.8

mation configuration are calculated at various times

0.8

until the shell buckles. The assumed shallow shell rep

resents the least resistant imperfection of a concrete

dome to buckling by external pressure. Using the re 0.4 L---1 ...J.... .L-_ _- - ' .........- - '

sults of this model, we expect to compute a buckling ll.8 1.0 1.8 2.0 2.8

load reduction factor which would be valid for the en eraap 8tra1n I IIl.t.llt....ou. 8tralll

tire dome. The geometry of the shallow shell consid

ered, which represents the imperfection region alone, is Fig. 5 - Reduction factor for buckling stre.ngth of. a

described below: shallow spherical concrete shell due to matenal nonlIn

earity, creep and cracking

R;mp 3000 in. (76.2 m)

t 4 in. (10 cm)

The ratios of the creep strain to the instantaneous strain

E 3.6 x 106 psi (24,800 MPa) for f/ 4000

psi (27.6 MPa) at such times were used to plot Fig. 5, which gives the

buckling reduction factor due to creep, tensile crack

/I 0.17

ing, and material nonlinearity of a concrete dome with

H 9.374 in. (23.8 cm)

O! 4.53 deg A = 4.

The component of deformation resulting from con

Note that R;m/t = 750 corresponds to a nominal ra crete creep increases the radius of curvature of the shell

dius-to-thickness ratio of 536, approximately a lower

and is equivalent to an effective reduction of the shal

bound of the R/t used in concrete domes over pre lowness parameter X. Therefore, it is not known

stressed tanks. For shells with larger radius-to-thick

whether the analysis performed for A = 4 results in "a

ness ratios, the stresses are expected to be lower and the minimum buckling load for a shell material that creeps

effect of the nonlinearity of stress-strain relationship with time. (Note that the value of X = 4 is selected

less significant. from Fig. 2 as the shallowness parameter correspond

For the shallow shell considered, the classical buck ing to the minimum buckling load of a spherical shell

ling load is Prl = 1080 psf (5270 kgflm 2). Assuming fi with a fixed Rlt, computed on the basis of linear elas

nite deformations but material linearity and elasticity tic materials with no time-dependent properties). To

(no time-dependent variation of properties), the critical test whether imperfections with larger shallowness pa

buckling load as expressed by Eq. (3) may be written as rameters (deeper shells) are more susceptible to creep

Pr, = 0.55Pd = 590 psf (2880 kgf/m 2 ). Using the buckling including material nonlinearity, a shallow shell

BOSOR5 program, the buckling strength of this shell with the same Rand t but with X = 6 was subjected to

considering creep, cracking, and material nonlinearity the same pressure levels, matching the critical trans

of concrete was predicted. These results were employed formed times corresponding to A= 4. The shell did not

to predict the values for the buckling load reduction buckle in either the axisymmetric or asymmetric modes.

factor of the concrete shell considered. The method of Therefore, critical imperfection is expected to have a

analysis consisted of applying various loads p < Pc, and shallowness parameter close to A = 4 with a buckling

analyzing the states of stress and deformation in the load, including the effects of cracking, material nonlin

shell at various times as the concrete creeps until the earity, and creep, which is not different appreciably

shell snaps through. from those obtained for A = 4 and reported herein.

When the shell buckles, the transformed time at

Note that snap-through buckling of the critical imper

buckling is the ratio of creep strain to instantaneous

fection takes place axisymmetrically; it, in turn may

strain. The analytical model does not incorporate the

trigger asymmetric snap-through buckling of the dome

effect of concrete cracking. In general, prior to insta

itself.

bility a small tensile region may exist near the bound

ary of the shallow shell. As the buckling load ap

proaches, large bending stress, and hence a tensile re BASIC DESIGN PROCEDURE

gion, develops near the center of the shell away from The procedure for the design of concrete domes over

the boundaries. We have examined the state of stress in prestressed concrete tanks to resist buckling, based on

the shell at times immediately prior to buckling and the foregoing discussion, is as follows:

have selected the time of failure as the time at which a 1. Select a trial value for dome thickness t for a dome

maximum tensile stress of 1200 psi (8.3 MPa) develops. having a given radius.

ACI JOURNAL I November-December 1983 493

2. Estimate dead load DL, based on trial dome 5. Based on the design live load, select a value for

thickness, snow load SL, and live load LL. reducing buckling strength of the dome due to creep,

3. Compute factored dead load I.4DL, factored material nonlinearity, and cracking as follows

snow load 1.7SL, and factored live load 1.7LL.

4. Select a value of capacity reduction factor ep = 0.7 (3 _ {0.44 + 0.003 (LL) for 12 ~ LL < 30

to account for the variability of concrete properties, < - 0.53 for LL ~ 30 (11)

dome construction, and accuracy of buckling analysis.

5. Select a value for the reduction factor of buckling where LL is in psf.

strength due to imperfections {3;mp = 0.5 if the average If an existing dome has been designed for less than 12

radius of curvature R;mp measured over a re~ion of di psf (58.6 kgflm 2) live load, the reduction factor for

ameter d = 2.5.JRi is not more than IAR, where R is buckling strength becomes a function of thickness

the nominal radius of curvature; otherwise, select {3imp which may be expressed as

= (R/R;mp)2.

6. Select a buckling reduction factor {3< due to creep,

material nonlinerarity, and cracking of concrete by ob {3< = 0.476 + (0.0051 - 0.046) (I - ~~) (12)

taining the creep factor under the dead load and the

snow load from Fig. 3 after correcting the dead load

creep for the age of concrete at the time of loading '9 if

different from 28 days. From the dead-load and snow where LL is in psf.

load components of creep, total creep strain and, 6. Calculate E from Eq. (9).

therefore, {3< may be computed using Fig. 5. 7. Compute the creep buckling load of the dome Po,

7. Compute incorporating the effects of geometric imperfections

and of concrete properties from

where

where (3< is obtained from Eq. (11).

E = 57,000...g;, f: in psi (9) 8. Check that p ~ Po.

8. Check that the factored total load P ~ p~ where

A survey of large concrete domes that have been

constructed over prestressed concrete water tanks by

P = I.4DL + I.7LL (10)

the major builders of prestressed concrete tanks in the

United States was conducted as a part of our study.

SIMPLIFIED DESIGN PROCEDURE

Initially, a questionnaire was prepared to assemble the

A simplified design procedure is developed based on

basic geometric and loading information about existing

the basic procedure previously described. This simpli

large thin domes. Criteria were given so that the only

fied procedure is based on the following additional as

domes included were those whose R/l ratio resulted in

.sumptions.

a safety factor of 6 or less, based on the following

The dead load of the dome is applied no sooner than

buckling equation given in the report of ACI Commit

7 days after the concrete is cast.

tee 344, and an assumed design live load of 30 psf (146

The live load is due only to snow.

The dome is designed for a minimum live load of 12 kgflm 2).

psf (58.6 kgflm 2).

The dome has a nominal thickness which is not less S(DL + LL)

~ (14)

than 2Yz in. (6.4 cm). R 0.25 E

Minimum nominal concrete strength is f: = 3000 psi

(20.7 MPa).

The simplified design procedure under these condi where DL and LL are unit dead and live loads. E is the

tions is as follows: initial elastic modulus of concrete, and S is the safety

1. Choose a trial thickness for a dome with radius R. factor which incorporates allowance for creep and is

2. Calculate the factored total load P from Eq. (10). normally between 4 and 6.

3. Select a value of ep = 0.7 to account for the vari The survey included 245 domes that were built pri

ability of concrete properties and accuracy of buckling marily in the late 1950s and throughout the 1960s,

analysis. 1970s, and early 1980s. The frequency distribution of

4. Select a value for the reduction of buckling tank diameters and the rise, thickness, radius-to-thick

strength caused by imperfections {3;mp = 0.5 based on ness ratio, and concrete strength of the surveyed domes

the premise that the average radius of curvature R;mp are shown in Fig. 6 through 10. The type of construc

measured over a region of diameter 2.5 .JRi" does not tion of the dome, dome-to-tank wall joint, and the pre

exceed 1.4 times the nominal radius of curvature stressing levei are given in Table 1.

494 ACI JOURNAL I NovemberDecember 1983

67 187

50

48

41

19

14

5

I

80 100 120 140 180 180 200 220

Tank Dlemeter, It

surveyed domes (1 ft :::: 0.3048 m)

21

2 1

I I I I I

123

Fig. 7 - Frequency distribution of dome rise to base

diameter ratio for surveyed domes

.0

31

39

22

2

25 26

20

11

10

2 3

I 3 2 1

2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 &00 &&0 800 850 700 7&0 800 8&0 100 1&0

t, tn. R/t

Fig. 8 - Frequency distribution of thickness for sur Fig. 9 - Frequency distribution of radius-to-thickness

veyed domes (l in. = 25.4 ,em) ratio for surveyed domes

ACI JOURNAL I November-December 1983 495

132 Table 1 (a) - Type of construction of surveyed

domes

Type Percent

Cast in place 74

Precast 4

Shotcrete or gunite 22

74

domes

Type Percent

30

Elastomeric pad 12

Monolithic 80

9 Partial 8

I

3500 4000 4500 5000

Table 1 (c) - Prestressing level of surveyed

domes

t ~ ,pel

Type Percent

Fig. 10 - Frequency distribution of concrete strength Full live load 96

The thickness of these domes ranges from 2 to 4.75 The following two ratios related to the design proce

in. (5.1 to 12.1 em). All the 2 in. thick domes included dures herein were also computed.

in the survey were built before 1965; in fact, after 1968 1. The ratio of Po the maximum factored total dead

I,

there is no dome among those surveyed with less than 3 and live loads that the dome can carry computed from

in. (7.6 em) of thickness. our basic design procedure, to the sum of the corre

The nominal concrete strengths are in most cases in sponding factored design loads p. This ratio represents

the range of 3500 to 4000 psi (24.1 to 27.6 MPa). None an additional margin of safety against creep buckling

of the domes surveyed had a nominal concrete strength beyond the safety factor included in our design proce

of less than 3500 psi (24.1 MPa). With the exception of dure.

several shotcrete (or gunite) domes, concrete design 2. The ratio of Po, the maximum factored total dead

strengths of more than 4000 psi (27.6 MPa) are used and live loads that the dome can carry computed from

only occasionally. our simplified design procedure, to the sum of the cor

The radius-to-thickness ratios of the domes surveyed responding factored design loads p. This ratio should

range between 500 and 960. Several domes with a ra differ from the previous ratio only by the approxima

dius-to-thickness ratio of more than 900 were built in tion in simplification.

1960s, but none in the 70s or 80s. These analyses show that the proposed simplified de

sign procedure is quite accurate, and Po does not differ

The live loads used for the original design of the from Po by more than a few percent.

I

domes vary considerably, ranging from 2 to 40 psf (9.8 The frequency distribution of the additional margin

to 195.3 kgf/m 2 ). Extremely low values of live load, of safety, over and above the requirements of the pro

much less than the minimum value specified by BOCA posed simplified design method, is given in Fig. 11 for

and the Uniform Building Code, have been used for the surveyed domes. It shows that from the 245 domes

various domes located in the southern U.S. that were surveyed, eight domes are slightly underdesigned based

designed and built from late 1950s to as recently as on the proposed methods, two have no additional mar

1980.

gin of safety, and about seven domes have small addi

To analyze the data assembled through our initial tional margins with respect to the design criteria pre

survey, the ratio of Po. the sum of the allowable dead sented herein. Out of these 17 domes, 8 were built in

plus live loads computed from the design formula of 60s,S in 70s, and 4 in 80s. Several of these domes have

ACI 344 with S = 4, to the sum of the design dead and been designed for extremely small live loads, as low as

live loads p' were computed for each dome. The 5 psf. As far as we know, these domes have survived

amount of this ratio that exceeds one represents the ad since late 60s and early or mid 70s without any prob

ditional margin of safety of the dome against buckling lems.

beyond the minimum design criteria of ACI 344. The variation with live load of the safety margin

The results indicate that 41 domes, or one out of computed in accordance to the design criteria given in

every six domes surveyed, are thinner than required by this report to that computed in accordance with ACI

the design criteria of ACI 344. This conclusion is valid 344 is given in Fig. 12. The results shown in Fig. 12 in

not only for domes designed and built before ACI 344 dicate that the design criteria of ACI 344 correspond on

recommendations were published, but also for some the average to allowable loads that are about 25 per

domes built as late as 1981. cent more conservative than the allowable loads pre-

496 ACI JOURNAL I November-December 1983

dicted from the simplified design criteria. This differ profile. If it is not assumed that the rib deflection has

ence reduces to about 12 percent when the design live been compensated, an error of I/. in. (6 mm) may en

load is very small and reaches about 35 percent for a 40 sue.

psf (195.3 kgf/m') live load. 4. The tolerances in cutting ribs and deflections of

The actual geometric and material characteristics of sheathing, etc., probably do not affect a large enough

the surveyed domes may differ from the nominal val region to cause a reduction of the buckling strength.

ues. The actual concrete strength, especially after suf On the b~sis of the peak errors assumed above. we

ficient time has elapsed for almost all creep deforma expect to have a peak geometric imperfection of less

tions to take place. is usually higher than the nominal than a I in. (25 mm) over a 20 ft (6 m) region. For a

design value. However, in certain circumstances there 3 in. (7.6 cm) thick concrete dome with R = 130 ft

is a possibility of delivery of a truckload of lower (39.6 m), this results in approximately 28 percent in

strength concrete. The concrete in a 10 yd 3 (7.6 m') crease in the radius of curvature, approximately ~!J of

mixing truck covers approximately 1000 ftc (93 me) of a the permissible imperfection of 41 percent.

3-in. (7.6-cm) dome. This area is equivalent to the area Recently, the deviations of the surface points from

of a circular disk 37 ft (9.1 m) in diameter. If concrete the true spherical shape of a 4 in. (10.1 cm) thick 240 ft

is cast in approximately circular areas, the area that (73.1 m) radius concrete dome were measured. The

contains the lower strength mix can be larger than a dome was built from 4000 psi (27.6 MPa) concrete and

buckle size. As concrete strength affects the instanta is believed to have very severe imperfections compared

neous modulus of elasticity by its square root, the ef to most concrete domes. The measured deviations are

fect on the critical buckling load of the variability in the shown in Fig. 13. Our calculations show that the radius

concrete strength is not expected to exceed the <b factor of curvature in the imperfection region is about 360 ft

of 0.7, which is equivalent to a concrete strength re (110 m), and the size of imperfection is sufficiently

duction by as much as 50 percent. large to affect buckling strengh. This results in a 13""1' =

The actual thickness of the dome is not expected to 0.45 which is only 10 percent less than the value rec

be significantly less than the design value because of the ommended herein for design purposes. Note that this

level of control exerted by the builders. Even if mea dome does not satisfy the bound we have placed on im

surable variation of thickness exists, it is not likely that perfections. The value for (3, from Fig. 5 is estimated at

a significant underthickness would extend over an area 0.51 [or from Eq. (II) at 0.50]. Therefore, the buckling

comparable in size to a 20 to 30 ft (6.1 to 9.1 m) diam strength of the dome computed from Eq. (8) is 106 psf

eter buckle, depending upon the radius and the thick (518 kgflm') or 104 psf (508 kgflm') using the simpli

ness of the shell. fied procedure, which is adequate for supporting its

The actual imperfections of a cast-in-place dome de factored dead plus live load of 102 psf (498 kgflm').

pend on the accuracy and stiffness of the formwork

and its support. One of the existing form work systems BUCKLING TESTS OF MODEL

system was designed for a 130 ft (39.6 m) radius dome Vandepitte and Rathe'7.Z8 report on a series of exper

consisting of sheathing supported on curved radial ribs iments conducted on creep buckling of spherical domes

approximately II to 12 ft (3.3 to 3.7 m) long placed 3 made of microconcrete. The domes were approxi

ft (I m) on center which, in turn. are supported on mately 0.7 cm (0.28 in.) thick with a radius of 2.43 m

concentric rings. The ribs are cut of 2 x 10 No. I (96 in.) and a rise of 0.193 m (7.6 in.). Creep buckling

southern yellow pine and have a minimum depth at the tests were conducted on specimens with and without

center of 8 V, in. (21.6 cm). The rings are comprised of prestressed edge beams. Since the clamping device may

straight W8 x 10 wide flange steel sections supported cause significant deformations or imperfections near

independently at points approximately 10 ft (3 m) apart the boundary of an unprestressed shell and thus cause

located on a series of jack-supported purlins on the top scatter in test results, only results of the experiments

of scaffold towers. conducted on specimens with prestressed edge beams

The imperfections in the geometry of the dome are were considered. The average buckling strength of the

caused by test specimens under a short-time loading was reported

I. Error in the height of wide flange support result to be Pa = 0.62 E (fIR)'. The scatter in the data was

ing from measurement error in the height of a purlin, approximately 20 percent peak.

assembly tolerances. and differential deflections. Such Total creep was measured independently on thin bars

errors affect a region of the dome of the size compara of microconcrete cast from the same batches as the test

ble to a buckle. The peak error is considered to be specimens. The bars were kept under the same condi

about I/~ in. (13 mm). tions of temperature and humidity as the test speci

2. Error caused by the deflection of wide flange sec mens. The ratio of creep strain to instantaneous strain

tions, which also affects a region comparable in size to was computed for each bar on the day that the corre

a buckle. The magnitude of this error is about Vs in. (3 sponding test specimen buckled.

mm). Creep buckling tests were conducted by subjecting

3. Error caused by the deflection of the ribs. This er the domes to various percentages of the average buck

ror may be essentially compensated for in cutting the ling load and recording the time to failure. The anal

ACI JOURNAL I November-December 1983 497

58 1.40 r-----r---"T"""----r---.,-----,

45

37

34

30

.. ..

-:-1

10

--- 1.10

.50 .75 1.0 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.0 2.25 2.50 2.75 3.0 3.211 3.50

o 10 20 30 40 110

ling load Po to factored dead and live loads p of sur

Fig. 12 - Variation with live load of the ratio of the

veyed domes

safety margin computed according to our design crite

ria to that computed in accordance to the criteria given

in ACI 344 (1 psf = 4.883 kg/1m;)

0.8 r---~r__-__,r_-__,r_-__,----r----,

0.7

0.4

,/.J.

/

. 0.3

o

o 100 200 300 400 500 800

Time In Dey.

prestressed test specimens of Vandepitte and Ralfle and

;1

the measured results.

--'o~'t .~~",,-

~ 'Il-

I

to

f - I- ' - " - - - . ,

____ I

J~,.~\ft>

" __ "

U

8'9;:-'- - - . . . _ - - - -

\ 41

plotted in Fig. 14. Note that the test specimens have a

radius-to-thickness ratio of about 350; consequently,

11

the effects of material nonlinearity and cracking on

buckling strength are much more significant than the

Fig. 13 - Difference in inches (1 in. = 25.4 mm) be concrete domes considered herein. Nevertheless. it can

tween the theoretical and the existing elevations for a 4 be concluded that our procedure is in general agree

in. (l0.2 cm) thick concrete dome covering a 185 ft ment with the test results. Note that the scatter in thc

(56.4 m) diameter prestressed concrete tank known to test results may be due to the material and geometric

have severe imperfections. variations in the test specimens.

appear to be satisfactory for our purposes. Employing Based on the studies conducted on the buckling

the calculated ultimate creep of 2.5 times the instanta strength of reinforced concrete domes built on pre

neous creep and the assumed variation of creep with stressed tanks, a conceptual model and a simplified

time based on Reference 10, the reduction factor in the procedure were developed for design of reinforced con

average buckling load of the specimens due to creep of crete domes against buckling. The proposed conceptual

concrete were computed for the elapsed time to buck- model and simplified design formulas are based on an

498 ACI JOURNAL I November-December 1983

extensive review of theoretical and experimental infor t thickness or average thickness

S safety factor in accordance with ACI 344-78.

mation on stability of domes, review of the creep phe

a halfsubtended angle of a spherical cap

nomenon in concrete materials, and an actual com {3,mp buckling strength reduction factor due to imperfection

puter analysis, using the BOSOR5 computer program, (3, buckling strength reduction factor due to creep. material

of the effect of the creep of concrete and nonlinearity nonlinearity, and cracking of concrete

of stress-strain relationship on the buckling strength of -y Poisson's ratio

E, creep strain

a dome. The effect of cracking was also incorporated

t, instantaneous strain

by examining the state of stress in the shell prior to

buckling and judiciously selecting the time of failure for A shallowness parameter = ,y12(1 - ,r) (~) "'a

design purposes as the time at which tensile region

starts to grow through the thickness. SI CONVERSIONS

The proposed design procedure is based on an as

I in. 25.4 mm = 2.54 em

sumed geometric imperfection where the average radius

1000 Iblin.' 6.894 MPa

of curvature over a region of at least 2.5 .JRT in di lib 4.448 N

ameter must not exceed the nominal radius by more I~f 4.882 kg!(m'

than 40 percent. Analysis of a method of forming of ..;];,J: in psi 0.083";]; when!: is in MPa

the dome during construction indicates that the actual

imperfections typically are less than those assumed. A

REFERENCES

survey was conducted on an existing dome to quantify I. Kaplan, A . "Buckling of Spherical Shells," Thin Shell Struc

the magnitude of the actual imperfections. The sur tures-Theory, Experiments. and Design, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Engle

veyed dome was known to exhibit very severe geomet wood Cliffs, 1974, pp. 247-288.

ric imperfections. Our analysis of the strength of this 2. Hutchinson, 1. W., and Koiter. W. T., "Postbuckling The

ory," Applied Mechanics Review, V. 23, 1970, pp. 1353-1356.

dome supports the validity of our basic approach to

3. Scordelis. Alex c., "Stability of Reinforced Concrete Domes

geometric imperfections. and Hyperbolic Paraboloid Shells," Concrete Shell Buckling, SP-67,

The conceptual model and the simplified design pro American Concrete Institute, Detroit, 1981, pp. 63-110.

cedure were applied to 245 thin concrete domes de 4. Bushnell, D., "Nonlinear Axisymmetric Behavior of Shells of

signed and built by major prestressed concrete tank Revolution," AIAA Journal, V. 5. No.3, Mar. 1967, pp. 432-439.

builders. The fact that there are at least 17 existing 5. Bushnell, D., "Symmetric and Nonsymmetric Buckling of Fi

nitely Deformed Eccentrically Stiffened Spherical Shells of Revolu

domes whose dimensions are close to the dimensions tion." AIAA Journal, V. 5, No.8, Aug. 1967. pp. 1455-1462.

that would result from our proposed design formulas is 6. Krenzke, M. A . and Kiernan, T. J., "The Effect of Initial Im

not proof but indicates that the proposed procedure is perfections on the Collapse Strength of Deep Spherical Shells," David

valid. Further, it is noteworthy that a few of these Taylor Model Basin Report 1757, Department of the Navy, Feb.

domes were designed primarily to carry their dead load 1965,34 pp.

7. Huang, N., "Unsymmetrical Buckling of Thin Shallow Spheri

with almost negligible design live loads. cal Shells," Journal of Applied Mechanics, V. 31, Transactions,

ASME, V. 86, Sept. 1964. pp. 447-457.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT 8. Shi, J. J. 1.; Connor, D. J.; and Bauld, N. R., Jr., "Applica

Financial support for the study was provided by three major pre tion of the Variational Theorem for Creep of Shallow Spherical

stressed concrete tank builders: The Crom Corporation, Gainsville, Shells," AIAA Journal, V. 8, No.3, Mar. 1970, pp. 469-476.

Fla., Natgun Corporation, Wakefield, Mass.; Preload Concrete 9. Jones, N., "Creep Buckling of a Complete Sphere," Journal of

Structures, Inc .. Garden City. N.Y.; and by Simpson Gumpertz & Applied Mechanics, V. 43, Transactions, ASME, V. 98, Sept. 1976,

Heger Inc., Consulting Engineers, Arlington, Mass. The three pre pp. 450-454.

stressed concrete tank builders also provided valuable technical co 10. Hansen, Torben c., and Mattock, Alan H., "Influence of Size

operation as well as most of the information for the survey of exist and Shape of Member on the Shrinkage and Creep of Concrete,"

ing domes. Additional information for the dome survey was pro ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 63, No.2, Feb. 1966, pp. 267-290.

vided by Crom Prestressing. Inc., and BRR Prestressed Tanks, Inc. II. ACI Committee 344, "Design and Construction of Circular

Prestressed Concrete Structures," (ACI 344R-70) (Reaffirmed 1981),

American Concrete Institute, Detroit, 1970, 16 pp.

NOTATION 12. "Recommendations for Reinforced Concrete Shells and Folded

d diameter of imperfection region Plates," International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures.

DL dead load Madrid, 1979,66 pp.

LL live load 13. Nelson, K. 0., and Henager, C. H., "Analysis of Shotcrete

H rise of dome Domes Loaded by Deadweight," Preprint No. 81-512, ASCE Con

E modulus of elasticity vention (St. Louis, Oct. 1981), American Society of Civil Engineers,

classical buckling load of a linear elastic dome New York, 1981. 11 pp.

critical buckling load of a linear elastic dome including fi 14. Dulacska, Endre, "Buckling of Reinforced Concrete Shells,"

nite deformations Proceedings, ASCE, V. 107, STI2, Dec. 1981, pp. 23812401.

p' critical buckling load of a concrete dome including finite de 15. Bi!lington, David P., Thin Shell Concrete Structures, 2nd Edi

formations, material nonlinearity, creep, and cracking tion, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1982, pp. 311-329.

factored dead and live load 16. Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, American Society of Me

nominal radius of curvature of dome chanical Engineers, New York, 1977, Section III, Divisions I and 2.

average radius of curvature of dome in an imperfection re 17. "Unfired Fusion Welded Pressure Vessels," (BS 5500-1976),

gion British Standards Institution, London, 1976.

average radius of curvature and thickness of dome over an 18. Hickey, Ken B., "Creep of Concrete Predicted from Elastic

imperfection region centered at point P Modulus Tests," Report No. C-1242, U. S. Bureau of Reclamation,

f: concrete strength Denver, Jan. 1968,29 pp.

19. Fintel, Mark, and Khan. Fazlur R., "Effects of Column Creep ASME, V. 99, Feb. 1977, pp. 54-63.

and Shrinkage in Tall Structures-Prediction of Inelastic Column 25. Bushnell, D., and GaJletly, G. D., "Stress and Buckling of In

Shortening," ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 66, No. 12, Dec. 1969, ternally Pressurized Elastic-Plastic Torispherical Pressure Vessel

pp. 957-967. Heads-Comparisons of Test and Theory," Journal oj Pressure

20. Bushnell, D., "BOSOR5-Program for Buckling of Elastic Vessel Technology. Transactions. ASME, V. 99, Feb. 1977, pp. 39

Plastic Complex Shells of Revolution Including Large Deflections and 53.

Creep," Computers & Structures. V. 6, 1976, pp. 221-239. 26. Bushnell, D., "A Strategy for the Solution of Problems In

21. Bushnell. D., "Large Deflection Elastic-Plastic Creep Analysis volving Large Deflections, Plasticity and Creep," International

of Axisymmetric Shells," Numerical Solution oj Nonlinear Struc Journal oj Numerical Methods in Engineering. V. II, 1977, pp. 683

tural Problems, AMD-V. 6, American Society of Mechanical Engi 708.

neers, New York, 1973. pp. 103-138. 27. Vandepitte, Daniel; Rathe, Jaques; and Weymeis, Godelieve,

22. Bushnell, D., "Bifurcation Buckling of Shells of Revolution "An Experimental Investigation into the Buckling and Creep Buck

Including Large Deflections, Plasticity and Creep," International ling of Shallow Spherical Caps Subjected to Uniform Radial Pres

Journal oj Solids & Structures. V. 10, 1974, pp. 1287-1305. sure," Proceedings. lASS World Congress on Shell and Spatial

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