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CREATIVE I '""'""""0

GUITAR 2 L
ADVANCED
, TECHNIQUES ,m
\ iutnrie Govan

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Printed in the United Kingdom by MPG Books. Bodmin

Published by Sanctuary Pubhshing Limited, Sanctuary House. 45-53 Smclair


Road, London W14 ONS, United Kingdom

www.sanctuarypubhshing.com

Copyright Guthrie Govan, 2002

Music typesetting Cambridge Notation

Cover photograph Getty|Stone/Patnck Coughhn

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any
electronic or mechanical means, mcbding mformation storage or retrieval
systems, without perrnssion in writing from the publisher, except by a reviewer,
who may quote brief passages

While the publishers have made every reasonable effort to trace the copyright
owners for any or all of the photographs in this book, there may be some
OlTMSSlOf"lS of credits, for which we apologise

ISBN 1-86074-467-2

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CREATIVE
GUITAR 2
ADVANCED
TECHNIQUES
Gulhrie Gavan

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CD Contents 6
Foreword 8
Introduction 9

1 ALTERNATE PICKING 11
2 SWEEP/ECONOMY PICKING 34
3 LEGATO 43
4 TAPPING 57
5 EIGHT-FINGER TAPPING 68
6 PICK AND FINGERS 82
7 EXTENDING THE FRETBOARD 86
8 EXTENDED SCALES 97
9 EMULATING OTHER INSTRUMENTS 104
10 NEW CHORDAL IDEAS 113
11 THE WRONG' NOTES 119
12 APPROACHING NEW SCALES 124
13 ON THE CD 130

Afterword 132

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1 lntro/Tuning Notes 28 Pick And Fingers (Examples 6.9-6.10)
2 Alternate Picking (Examples 1.1-1.9) 29 Extending The Fretboard (Examples 7.1-7.2)
3 Alternate Picking (Examples 1.10-1.14) 30 Extending The Fretboard (Examples 7.3-7.7)
4 Alternate Picking (Examples 1.15-1.22) 31 Extending The Fretboard (Examples 7.8-7.9)
5 Alternate Picking (Examples 1.23-1.26) 32 Extending The Fretboard (Examples 7.10-7.13)
6 Alternate Picking (Examples 1.27-1.38) 33 Extending The Fretboard (Examples 7.14-7.18)
7 Alternate Picking (Examples 1.39-1.44) 34 Extended Scales (Examples 8.1-8.4)
8 Sweep/Economy Picking (Examples 2.1-2.8) 35 Extended Scales (Examples 8.5-8.9)
9 Sweep/Economy Picking (Examples 2.9-2.12) 36 Emulating Other Instruments (Examples 9.1-9.5)
10 Sweep/Economy Picking (Examples 2.13-2.17) 37 Emulating Other Instruments (Examples 9.6-9.7)
11 Legato (Examples 3.1-3.7) 38 Emulating Other Instruments (Examples 9.8-9.10)
12 Legato (Examples 3.16-3.19) 39 Emulating Other Instruments (Example 9.11)
13 Legato (Examples 3.20-3.23) 40 Emulating Other Instruments (Example 9.12)
14 Tapping (Examples 4.1-4.4) 41 Emulating Other Instruments (Example 9.13)
15 Tapping (Examples 4.5-4.8) 42 Emulating Other Instruments (Example 9.14)
16 Tapping (Examples 4.9-4.12) 43 Emulating Other Instruments (Example 9.15)
17 Tapping (Examples 4.13-4.14) 44 Emulating Other Instruments (Examples 9.16-1 7)
18 Tapping (Examples 4.15-4.18) 45 Emulating Other Instruments (Example 9.18)
19 Tapping (Examples 4.19-4.22) 46 New Chordalldeas (Examples 10.1-10.6)
20 Eight-Finger Tapping (Examples 5.1-5.4) 47 Goodbye
21 Eight-Finger Tapping (Examples 5.5-5.8) 48 japanese Track (Demo I)
22 Eight-Finger Tapping (Examples 5.10-5.12) 49 Japanese Track (Backing Track I)
23 Eight-Finger Tapping (Examples 5.13-5.18) 50 Organ Track (Demo 2)
24 Eight-Fmger Tapping (Example 5.23) 51 Organ Track (Backing Track 2a)
25 Pick And Fingers (Examples 6.1-6.3) 52 Organ Track (Backing Track 2b)
26 Pick And Fingers (Examples 6.4-6.5) 53 Fake Slide Guitar (Demo 3)
27 Pick And Fingers (Examples 6.6-6.8) 54 Fake Slide Guitar (Backing Track 3)

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On the CD, I've demonstrated each lick and example might look rhythmically confusing on paper and anything
twice, first with a click track at 80bpm and then at 'full where the sound you're getting out of the guitar is more
speed' {whatever that is!). There wasn't enough space important the actual notes in the written example.
to record absolutely everything, so I decided not to As a bonus, I've thrown in a couple of backing tracks
bother with examples like 'This is the sound of the G at the end, along with an accompanying demo solo for
major scale' - I'm trusting your abihty to read simple each. (You'll find these explained towards the end of
chord boxes and scale diagrams! the book.) Each track was designed to illustrate a
The CD contains demonstrations of anything that specific 'new direction', but I guess you could play
requires a particular playing technique, anything that whatever you liked over them!

CD produced. compded/echted and mastered by Phil Hilborne Recorded/mixed by Phil Hilborne at WM Studios, Essex. June 2002.
Web/lnfo: www.phdhilborne com or \nvv\n philhdborne.co uk.
Equipment: Guthrie Govan used PRS Guitars and amphfication by Cornford. Effects used were by Lexicon and Yamaha. Guthrie Govan
uses and endorses Cornford Amphhcation.
All guitars played by Guthrie Govan. Bass on tracks 40-3, 46-7 and SO-3 played by Guthrie Govan.
Drums on tracks 50-52 played by Pete Riley.
Bass on tracks 50-52 played by Seth Govan.
Drum and keyboard editing on tracks 48. 49. 53 and 54 by Phil Hilborne
Phil Hilborne uses and endorses PRS Guitars, Picato Strings and Cornford Amp||f|cat|on
2002 Guthrie Govan, this mstructional content Web/info: www.guthriegovan.com.
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2002 Guthrie Govan and Phil Hilborne, all tracks/backing tracks. /iiVi]\
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The aim of this book and its companion volume, interests you, whether It's in the books or not.
Creative Guitar I: Cuttmg-Edge Techniques, is to In short, these two books are quite ambitious, so
help any rock guitarist who feels stuck in a rut. They they can't even pretend to constitute any kind of all-
field all of the most common questions and encompassing guitar Bible, but my main goal was to
problems I've encountered over years of teaching get you thinking about your playing and point your
guitar. They explain the nuts and bolts of theory in an playing in some new directions.
accessible manner that you can actually use. They I hope I at least achieved that much. Above all, I
explain how to practise efficiently and diagnose hope you enjoy working through this book and its
what's going wrong in your playing. They show you companion. Remember, learning about your
lots of new licks. They promote a self-sufficient instrument should never feel like a chore: It's supposed
approach to learning to make sure you're well to be fun and rewardingi
equipped to explore any aspect of playing that See you at the other end...

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In Part 1 of this series, I tried to explain the basics of your range of playing techniques, the easier it will be
music theory from a guitarist's perspective and gave for you to figure out the best-sounding (and easiest!)
a breakdown of the most common technical problem way to reahse all those great licks you hear in your
I've seen in students playing over the years. One of head. Much of this book is based around the theme
the recurring themes throughout the previous book of expanding and extending your vocabulary, and so,
was the idea that accurate, efficient technique is the in addition to all of the technical stuff, you'll also find
result of streamhning your playing motions, moving a selection of extended scale shapes that cover an
your hands as little as possible in orderto achieve the unusually wide range, some ideas on how to coax
required notes. Another was the concept of breaking impossibly high notes out of your instrument, some
down scales (and simdarly |nt|m|dat|ng morsels of tips on how to make 'wrong' notes sound deliberate
music theory) in as many ways as possible, with the and colourful. ..and lots of unusual scales from all over
goal of turning them into valid |mprov|sat|ona| tools the world for those players who are bored with the
rather than leaving them as dry technical exercises sound of those ubiquitous pentatonics and modes of
that don't sound any good in a musical context. the major scale.
In this second book, I propose to show you how One of my favourite chapters is the one about
far you can go with these approaches. Now that you drawing |nsp|rat|on from other instruments, and I've
know the basic ideas, we can start having some real included some licks derived from instruments as
fun! I've started with an in-depth look at common diverse as the mandolin, the koto and the Hammond
techniques like alternate picking and legato, then organ to get you into the spirit of things. This might
applied the same ideas to more advanced techniques. seem like an ungrateful approach to your instrument
There's some stuff in here that you might associate - after all, guitars sound great when you play them in
with a specific musical style, but I would warn against the normal' way, so why would you want to sound
taking these preconceptions too seriously - eight- like any other Instrument? - but in defence of the idea,
finger tapping may well be popular with the I would put it to you that many innovative players
heavy-metal contingent, but you can also use it to developed their d|st|nct|ve styles using elements like
create piano-like chord volclngs and cascading scale vIolin-style vibrato, vocal-style phrasing, sax-style amp
runs that sound great with a clean tone. Conversely, setting or organ-style double-stops. At the end of the
the idea of incorporating some right-hand fingers into day, it's all music, regardless of which instrument did
your picking technique has long been considered the itfirstf The general message is that any guitarist who
province of the country player, but it sounds equally feels an urge to be more creative should start to think
effective when you step on the overdrivel of himself or herself as a musician who plays guitar
Technique is a means to an end, and the broader rather than just a guitarist. The difference might seem
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Creative Guitar @: Advanced Techniques

a little academic, but the key to playing more creatively diverse as Danny Gatton, Tuck Andress, Tom Morello,
is to consider music hohsticahy, rather than slavishly Thurston Moore, Vernon Reid, Buckethead and The
adhering to what you think a guitar is supposed to Edge. Who knows what effect it could have on your
sound like. own playing?
This approach is what made it possible for Allan Well, there's only one way to find out: check out
Holdsworth to develop his unique sound. The same the ideas laid out in the following pages and see where
approach has also given us inspirational players as they take you...

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Here's a bold, sweeping statement for you: nearly all rhythm, as in this way you'll maintain your awareness
rock guitarists are more proflclent with their fretting of where you are in the bar.
hands than they are with their picking hands. In an Once you've gotthe righttempo and feel, you can
attempt to rectify the sItuation, in this chapter I've go onto automatic pilot. Your picking hand will find
compiled some classic picking exercises. Any guitarist maintainmg that motion easier than having to keep
can benefit from a httle work on picking technique: stopping and starting. All you have to do is put your
even if you don't like the machine-gun effect that can picking hand in contact with the strings when you're
result from picking every note, you'll still find this stuff about to play a note or chord and then take it away
beneficial for the overall accuracy of your playing. again when there's a gap coming up.
As you'll see later on, there are various approaches If you're stdl not convinced, think of your picking
that you can use, but the simplest and most un|versa||y hand as an engine. Letting It run at a constant speed
useful is alternate picking, which basicahy means is preferable to starting and stopping it allthe time, so
alternation between down- and upstrokes. that It's effectively ticking over in neutral, primed and
Most players feel that there's something more ready to go whenever you want to use it.
natural about downstrokes - I suspect that gravity Here's another consideration: the more comfortable
might have something to do with this - but think of It you are with that basic down-and-up movement, the
this way: every time your hand executes two better prepared you'll be for playing passages that
downstrokes, it must have performed an upward involve a lot of string crossing. Wheneveryou have to
movement in between. Why not use that upward change from one string to another, you suddenly have
movement to pick a note rather than let it go to waste? something extra to think about, and the last thing you
As a huge advocate of laziness, I put It to you thatthis want to do is lose your place in the middle of a bar. In
immediately halves the workload of your picking hand this sItuation, the maximum possible peace of mind
Quite aside from the efflclency of movement that comes from the confidence derived from having your
it offers, alternate picking can also help with your hand remember its basic down-and-up motion. If you
timekeeping. Think of those funky Nile Rogers parts have that, all you have to do is point it at the right string.
you hear on Chic records. These are based on a Here are a few more pointers. Get in the habit of
constant 16th-note pulse, but they're full of ho|es| holding the pick between your thumb and forefinger.
Guitar parts like this sound the way they do because There are notable exceptions to this rule (more on this
the picking hand doesn't strike the string on every later), but adopting this grip facilitates a comfortable
possible 16th-note dlvlslon - it's the gaps that make hand angle, which is a good start.
it groove. However, you'll get the best results if you It's also a good idea to take a little time to analyse
keep your hand moving up and down in a constant just how much of the pick is protruding from yourthumb-
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11
Creative Guitar: Advanced Techniques

and-forefinger assembly. For preclslon playing, you'll " A sturdy pick only does what your hand tells it to
want to keep the exposed area of the pick to a minimum. do, while thinner ones have an annoying habit of
Similarly, if you wanted to write or draw something with flapping around when you attempt any sort of
any degree of accuracy, you'd hold your pencil near the speedy picking. (To stretch my writing/drawing
sharp end rather than near the rubber. Why7 Because analogy a little further, playing with a floppy pick is
this gives you more control: your hand's basic a lot like using a rubber pencil.) To be fair, thin picks
movements are occurring closer to the paper, so they're sound great for those strummy acoustic moments
projected onto It with greater preclslon. This picking lark when you want to play energetically without
works in much the same way. sounding too harsh, so always consider your context.
On a related note, the more pick you have sticking
out, the greater the danger of getting caught in the Here's a really important point: the actual movement
strings, so keeping that risk to a minimum would be of your picking hand should come from your wrist. After
another advantage of reducing that exposed area as all my harping on about efficiency, small movements
much as possible. and pencils, you might be forgiven for supposing that
Here's something else to think about: how pointed the most economical way of picking would be moving
is your pick? The importance of this criterion varies your thumb and forefinger in a 'writing' motion. In fact,
depending on whether you strike the string with the this part of your hand is already fully engrossed with
flat of the pick or the edge. As I said earlier, there are the important matter of holding onto the pick tightly
tonal differences between the two approaches - using enough to stop it slipping and changing the strength of
the flat of the pick lie holding it parallel to the string) its grip according to the tone or volume level you're
gives you a nice, full tone and not too much pick attack, trying to achieve. Expecting it to cope with moving the
whereas using the edge (with the pick at a 30-45 angle) thing around at high speeds on top of these other
gives you a scratchier tone with more top end. important duties is asking for trouble - you're better off
It seems to me that the second approach can leaving It to the second-closest part of you: your wrist.
sometimes give you that little bit of extra definition when There's 'just one more thing. ..' (I had to squeeze a
you're playing at extremely high speeds and a few extra Columbo reference in somewherel). You should think
beats per minute on the metronome scorecard, if that's about whether your picking approach works in all
the sort of thing you're into. If you use this kind of picking situations or only in your practice routine. In a gig setting,
angle, you might like to think of it like this: picking a note you'll most hkely be standing up (unless your name is
basically entails getting the pick from one side of the Robert Fripp) and perhaps moving around a little, so it's
string to the other, and your goal is to achieve this with important to ensure that your picking hand is anchored
as small a movement as possible. If your pick is angled, to the guitar in some way. I would recommend tying
getting it all the way across the string using the sharp this in with your palm-muting technique - if there's a
end obviously requires less movement than trying the part of your picking hand that already spends most of
same thing with the blunt end. Alll'm doing here is taking Its guitar-playmg life attached to unused strings, you've
the idea to its logical conclusion. (As a teenager, I used got yourself the anchorage you need and you should
to spend hours filing and sandpapering my picks to a be able to run around the stage like a chicken at an Ozzy
point. Now I've discovered Dunlop Jazz Ills and regained gig without missing a note.
control of my life.) Alternatively, you might try leaning your palm on
I would also make a case for using a relatively thick the bridge itself. This can yield some pleasing results
pick, for two reasons: when you're going for the Al DiMeola 'mutola' effect,
espec|a||y if you're playing an instrument with the
" You'll get a wider dynamic range. It's easier to get Gibson-style fixed-br|dge-and-ta||p|ece combination,
a quietnote with a hard pickthan itisto play a really as the slope of the strings between the bridge and
loud note with a soft pick. tadpiece encourages a nice, comfortable hand posItion.
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Alternate Picking

Please bear in mind, though, that this approach won't that it works at all, but you can't argue with the results
work on guitars with floating tremolo units, as on these he's achieved with it. (Just to confuse the situation
instruments, as soon as your palm touches the bridge even more, Eddie uses a relatively thin pick and holds
plate, the pitch of everything suddenly goes sharp. it between his thumb and middle finger, leaving his
Another approach to the anchoring idea is index finger flapping in the breeze. It looks odd, but
exemplified by Michael Angelo, whose picking when you see how pamlessly he switches between
technique is the model of efhciency. (If you don't picking mode and tapping mode, you start to see a
believe me, check out his instructional video.) He strange logic in his approach.)
chooses to rest his right-hand fingertips on the surface The moral of this particular story would seem to be
of the guitar's body underneath the high E string so that there are no hard-and-fast rules. I've tried to explain
that he can move his pick easily from string to string all of the little details that help with my own picking, and
without having to alter the way he's gripping It. lthink most of it is fairly logicd and scientific, so if you're
Here's something else to consider: how open or struggling to get your picking up to scratch, you'll probably
closed is your picking hand7 You might find that closing find something helpful in here. However, I accept that
your hand into a fist makes it easier to move around, everyone does things slightly differently, and as long as
but players like George Lynch (of Dokken fame) claim your picking hand is moving efficiently and feeling
that they can play certain passages faster with the relaxed, I don't think it really matters what it looks like.
unused digits of their playing hand fanned out. I
personally prefer a fairly closed hand posItion, but It's Exercises
important not to tense up your hand up too much. Anyway, let's look at a few picking exercises to help
(Perhaps I shouldn't have used the word fistearlier...) you put all of this into practice. Example 1.1 should
A good general philosophy to adopt when honing get you into the swing of things. It's a C major scale,
your picking technique is to ask yourself if your chosen and you'll note that the whole thing can be played
hand position is sufficiently versatile for your needs. using a strictly one-finger-per-fret approach. (I've
You might be particularly fond of throwing in pinched included the picking directions for this one to show
harmonics for that squealing sound or adding a httle you what they look like. The squarer symbol of the
touch of the country player's pick-and-fingers approach. two denotes a downstroke and the downwards-
Can you move easily from one technique to another pointmg arrow represents an upstroke. If these
without fundamentally altering your hand positiorU' symbols seem the wrong way around to you, bear in
After all that detailed stuff, I feel obliged to mention mind that they were originally meant to look like the
some notable players who do things completely two ends of a violin bow. A violinist would start a
differently. Steve Morse, for instance, holds his pick downstroke with the squarer end of the bow - the
between his thumb and index and middle fingers. I find 'frog' - and an upstroke with the eye-gouging end.
that this approach restricts mobility and feels a little The notation makes a little more sense when you think
cumbersome, but it clearly works for Mr Morse, who of it in this waY) You should start this exercise very
can alternately pick pretty much anything. Simdarly, my slowly so that you can keep an eye on what your
pointed-picks-are-best argument clearly doesn't apply picking hand is up to - it might well be tempted to try
to George Lynch, Robben Ford or Pat Metheny, all of two downstrokes in a row, for instance, which would
whom choose to use the side of the pick rather than completely disrupt the whole alternate-picking rhythm.
the sharp end. And of course my anchoring idea clearly You really have to adhere to the rules here, or you'll
doesn'tappealto Eddie Van Halen, who plays stuff like end up practising the wrong thing and you'll run into
the tremolo-picked melody in 'Eruption' with his right problems later on when you try to build up your speed.
wrist sticking out, well away from the surface of the Try to ensure that all of the notes are of equal volume
guitar and apparently not anchored to anything. When and that each one rings clearly for its full duration. This
I see footage of Eddie's picking hand, It amazes me is particularly applicable to the last note on each string.
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13
Creative Guitar: Advanced Techniques

Example 1.1
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E 781087
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G 710 IQ7
D 710 to7 0

A ' 7 0 10 10-87
E R qn 0^ n 7
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Example 1.2, meanwhile, uses the notes from the One interesting point arises around the notes
scale of C major rearranged in a more interesting order marked '37' in the music. You may preferto use your
known as a scale sequence. Have a look at the first ring finger here to fret these notes, in flagrant
three bars. You'll see that, rather than simply running defiance of the hallowed one-finger-per-fret principle,
from the lowest note to the highest and back again, while stickmg with your httle finger would force you
the scale is now grouped into clusters of four notes to use a larger area of your fingertip, because you'd
each. In other words, every beat contains a four-note have to fret the G and B strings in succession, rolling
mini-scale, each of which starts one note higher than from one to the other. Try both fingerings in turn. The
Its predecessor. (The second half of the exercise, of first makes It easier to achieve perfect separation
course, uses the same idea in reverse.) This is good between the notes and also tends to sound cleaner,
training for your picking hand, because there's a lot but there are times when you have no choice but to
of string crossing to negotiate. In addition, it sounds fret adjacent strings with a single finger, so you should
a little more interesting than Example 1.1f work on both.

Example 1.2

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Alternate Picking

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Example 1.3 is a variauon on the above that requires you to go up and down the scale in threes:

Example 1.3

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B 8 8 10810 10 loa 10 8 8
G 7 gllo 10 iq 10 9
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Creative Guitar @: Advanced Techniques

This exercise has the notes grouped in a triplet rhythm this time the pattern isn't quite as obvious to the
so that each group of three starts on a fresh beat. listener - especially if you try accenting the first note
Example 1.4, meanwhile, takes the same 'threes' idea of every beat! Hopefully, this one sounds a little less
but groups it in 16th notes lie four per beat) so that mechanical and predictable than Example 1.3:

Example 1.4

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Here's another way of taking a simple exercise and notes are still grouped in threes but that this time
making it sound less obvious. If you compare the note groups that fall on even-numbered beats
Example 1.5 with Example 1.3, you'll see that the have been reversed:

Example 1.5

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Alternate Picking

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I d'b
lV

And here's yet another variation. Example 1.6 should examples. Even if you lack confidence in your music-
remind you of Example 1.2 with all of the even- reading abihties, you'll have to agree that the stave at
numbered beats removed. (Incidentally, I strongly least shows you how the patterns are constructed in
recommend that you follow the written music for these a much more graphic way than the tab ever could.)

Example 1.6

A , ,
,m I I I
' i" i i
S'f,' "' '{ ,',-," " l'}j' Ljj N ' Ii ,i
m 0

E
B 0

G
D
A
E
"
n
qj
I^
UV
787810
7
10
7 9 I10
7' :i ID g7
10
7
i7 9 7
fO 8 1087
on
nj
.
'

Of course, there's more to life than going up in threes and the start of the next. At some points - halfway
and fours. Example 1.7 uses groups of six notes, so through bar 1, for instance - you have to skip a string,
there's a bigger interval between the end of one group so you'll need to work particularly hard at these points.

Example 1.7

r-- 3"
^ . 3 ' " 3" ~ r- 3" " 3" r 3" m
"~'
I

AL L .
WI '
'P
i
I J I
q "
e, e 0 0 a
3" 3"

E
B
G . 7
D 7 7 9 7 9 IQ 7 9 ID
A . 7810 7 8 10 7 8 10 8 10
E n 4^ m
CJ UV UV

`i`i`iiv
v**  `

/iiVi]\
ViVV17
Creative Guitar: Advanced Techniques

~_ 3"
h ) ) 'P
? ," ' i p I' f f p w ' pW W I' I
'"i :_3 m 3" = 3" L-3" 3"
E
B 8 b 10
G 7 9 7 9 'id 7 9 iq 7 9 id
D 7 9 10 7 9 10 9 10 to
A 10
E

" 3--, " 3-,


^ m
Am I A p , D W I m W d' dI j
1
(

) _ , SR ,_ = A =r_
E
B B
G 10 9 7 10 9 7 9 7 7
D tO 9 10 D 7 i7 10 9 7
A 10 IOB
E

" 3 " 3m " 3~, " 3"_7 " 3~ " 36 " 3~


^
i "
)/ ' ' ( 0 W W 0 W 0 0
~

e
m
0

CC} ' " W 0 0 W


) ' " " D 3
" 3-j

E
B
G
D i7 9 7 7
A 0 8 7 10 8 7 1087 1087
E q
JV^ in
UV n
U m
UV q
Q 7r

Now try something a httle more confusing. Example Consequently, each new group of five notes starts
1.8 has notes ascending in groups of five, but rather one 16th note later than the one before it, creating an
than have five notes crammed into each beat, it sticks interesting rhythmic effect. You really have to
with the more famihar-sounding 16th-note rhythm. concentrate to get this one right!

Example 1.8

b
I I J

t?j |""I ' """ " '" " '" i


El e 0 (p 0 0 I ' I I I I I

E
B
G 7 7 9
D 7 7 9 7' 9 ID -710 710 9 IQ
A 7 8 10 7810 7810 a 10 10
E n
O
0^
UV
0^
IV
`i`i`iiv
v**  `

/iiVi]\
18 ViVV
Alternate Picking

A m D m
) p'
) p {E
,pFP.pPP!:
Ill! j0 wy , |0 p e " w? ' m
m
L
m
.L V

el

E 7 7 8 7810 8
B a 8 IQ a 'ID 8 10 8 10
G 710 710 710 9 IQ IQ
D 10
A
E

And here's another application of the same idea. Have to ascending groups of five - ie some of the groups
another look at Example 1.6 and you'll see that are omitted altogether, creating a greater sense of
Example 1.9 takes the same principle and applies It movement:

Example 1.9

^ A ^ R t !2
1,l:! I '' ' ) , """'"' + ~i '
m

I I4 "
ej e 0 W

E 7 78108
B 1 - 810-- 10
G 7 9 109 110
D 7' g ID g 10 ' -----
A 7810810 - 1i
E Cl
CJ
q rb
nj

Now let's move on to intervals. Example 1.10 is a C might think of as ascending threes with the middle
major scale played in ascending thirds, which you note taken out of each group:

Example 1.10

A ,1 I I I I
i" I . . , iP )p:Fe!::
':,' 'I J , m

E 7 8 7 10 B
B 8 10 0 ID
G 7 9 7ID g 'IQ
D 7 9 7 10 g 10
A 7 8 7' ID 0 IQ
E n q^
UV

(lncidentaHy, a good way of tackling the picking in string-crossmg pattern recurs in every subsequent
the above exercise is to start off by looping the first group of Six notes.)
six notes. Once you find you can pick that Thirds generally have a melodic and pleasant quality
comfortably, you'll be pleased to find that the same about them. The same, alas, cannot be said of the
`i`i`iiv
v**  `

/iiVi]\
ViVV19
Creative Guitar : Advanced Techniques

intervals in Example 1.11. This routine demonstrates sItuation, so the bulk of the note-damping
ascending fourth intervals and, as you can see, that responsibility falls to your fretting fingers. It might
fingering problem first tackled in Example 1.2 is back seem like a trivial exercise, but try looping the first
with a vengeance. You should probably try to stick with two notes very slowly, shifting the pressure of your
the one-finger-per-fret prmciple for this one: if you try fingertip between the E and A strings as you play
any other approach, you'll have run out of fingers by each note so that only one string is actually touching
the time you get to the fifth note. (Having said that, the fret at any given moment. If you barre lightly over
you'll probably want to make an exception for the note both strings and flex the joint nearest the fingernail
marked '3?' in the music. This will allow you to get on your index finger, you'll get a feel for the general
around the running-out-of-fingers problem, if only for movement required. The next step would be to work
the briefest of moments.) on each of your other fingers in turn. The little finger
This is a great exercise for improving the accuracy won't co-operate at first, but It'll get used to the idea
of your fretting hand. The hardest part of making It after a while. Once vou've spent a little time working
sound good is in ensuring that the notes dont on this aspect of your fingering, you might well find
overlap. Each must be cut off as the next is sounded, that some of your own licks start to sound cleaner
and your picking hand is fartoo busy to deal with the and more accurate.

Example 1.11

A
. ,~ I I I ) ,p 3? F p P p el ;t

jj't , ,' :",' ' ' ' '


E 7 8 lO8 --
B a ID El 10
G 7 9 lO7 9 10"
D 7 9 IQ 7 9 10
A 7 8 ID7 8 10
E 7 n 0^
UV

Fourths sound a lot more angular than thirds and they Example 1.11 emanating from an ice-cream van, I
have a certain tension about them, which makes think you'd be puzzled
them appealing to jazz-fusion soloists and the like. The next three examples Mustrate the remaining
On the other hand, if you heard the dulcet tones of intervals in the C major scale

Example 1.12

I IP
' I"m' ' 1 P
I. IP .FP
A m m

,j,!, :1 .I ,1
,
I II I I ' 'I I' I P 'I ' h"

el e a i w

E 7 8 10 8
B 8 10 8
G 7 9 10 7 9 10
D 7 9 10 7 9 10
A IQ 7 a 10
E n 4UV
n

`i`i`iiv
v**  `

/iiVi]\
ViVV
20
Alternate Picking

Example 1.13

~ 0 R H
,0 E I I ' ' ' ' 1' ' " " "0""
''4 " ' ' ' ' " p p W P m' I
Q) a e a 0 PI ID I I I I I I

E 7 8 10 8 I
B 8 10
G 7 9 IQ 7 9 10
D 7 9 10 7 9 10
A 10 7 8 10
t
p

E '7 n q^
V 4J
t

Example 1.14
D r

2"' ' ,: ' . ,1 E " E EP E 0

'4 " ' _ _W I I


el :U D 0 0 w P : 0 '

E t 7 8 lO8 (8)
B 8 10 t
G 7 9 ID ' 7 9
D 7 9 10 7- 9 '10--
A 7 8 to
E 7 n 4 ^
nj .-

You probably found that the fifths in Example 1.12 had wouldn't want to use them all the time, but famiharity
a touch of that fourth-esque angularity about them, with intervals can certainly add variety to your choice
while the sixths in Example 1.13 had a melodic quality of notes when you're improvising.
more reminiscent of thirds and the sevenths in Now let's go all the way back to thirds and see
Example 1.14 were as hard to listen to as they were what happens when you stack a couple of them
to finger! In general, the wider intervals are harder to together. In Example 1.15, each beat contains three
play but more interesting to hear. You probably notes moving either up or down in thirds:

Example 1.15

~_ 3" """ 3"~-, ~_ 3 " 36


^ . .

"i I
}

['i; : " . " J

' ' gj "L 3 " 3 _ 3" " 3


j
E
B 8
G 7 9 7 10 9
D 7 9 10 7 9 to 7 LI IQ
A 7 10 8 7 to D ID
E n on
lV

Time now for a quick bit of jargon-busting: this different notes) and diatonic refers to the fact that
exercise demonstrates diatonic triads. A triadis the all of the triads in the exercise are constructed using
simplest type of chord lie one containing only three notes from the same basic scale. (The subject of
`i`i`iiv
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/iiVi]\
ViVV21
Creative Guitar: Advanced Techniques

triads will be covered in more detail later on. For the that way. but feel free to rewrite the exercise so that
time being, just take note of their melodic, agreeable all of the triads go in the same chrection, just for a bit
sound, and watch out for all that string crossing! And of extra picking practice.
you are picking all of these alternately, aren't you? Example 1.16 takes this idea one step further.
Just checking...) Stacking up three third intervals at a time generates
I've arranged the triads so that they ascend and the notes of diatonic seventh chords, which sound
descend alternately because I think it sounds nicer slightly more complex:

Example 1.16

A P P P
I I I I I4 I I I a D

Ny:" t;; '"'":: [, ,' !", =-'|1 L"

E 7
B (J 10 B
G 7 9 7 10 9 7lO 9
D 9 IO7 9 lO7 9 lO7 9 10
A 7 ID 8 7 ID 8 10
E n 4 ^
VV

lncdentally, all of the above exercises are worth trying has to do in Example 1 17 is hold down a chord shape.
with different rhythmic approaches. If I've written an You can let all the notes of the chord ring freely for
exercise in 16th notes, try it in triplets and vice versa. this one - your mission here is to focus more on your
You can give your fretting hand a break now. All It picking hand.

Example 1.17

h . P P . . F' . " m W :
i:, ;j T" " " ' ' ""
e I I I I I I I I I I I

E 8 8 0 8
B 8 8 8 8
G " 9 9 9 9 *
D . IQ ID 10 IQ .
A
E

This exercise boasts the highest concentration of increasing the repetmons is as hard as increasing
string crossings so far. In fact, you'll probably find it the speed.
easiest to play if you think of each pair of notes as Example 1.18 at the top of the next page is a
a unit. Try to target the first and third notes in each varlatlon on the same idea. This time, you're not
beat, letting the notes in between take care of doubling up the lowest and highest notes, so the
themselves. A good test of your success here is to pattern is shorter. Your best tactic is to target the D
see how many times in a row you can play the string on the downstroke and the top E string on the
exercise without making a mistake. You'll find that upstroke.
`i`i`iiv
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ViVV
22
Alternate Picking

Example 1.18

n Q P F
{'j: " " ' ' ' " " " P

ej
I 3 ' ' 3 P L- 3 ' ' _ 3 )

E a B
B 0 8 8 a 8
G 9 9 9 9 "
D . ID 10 0

A
E

You might have seen exercises like the following one usua|| - and located every C, E and G in this area,
described as arpeggios. An arpeggio is basicdly a chord covering all six strings. Now that Examples 1.17 and
broken up so that the notes are played in sequence 1.18 have trained your hand to cope with the string
rather than all at once. In fact all of the last four crossing, you can turn your attentions back to your
exercises were based on arpeggios, although this one fretting hand. To play an arpeggio properly, you have
is a little more ambitlousl The three component notes to dampen each note when you're finished with it,
of a C major chord are C, E and G, so for this exercise much as you had to do with the ascending fourths in
I've taken a portion of the fretboard - frets 7-10, as Example 1.11:

Example 1.19
' -3 ,
_- -- 3 - - ' e
' F P m W
P
" 4 ,'
' I
0 d
p

"
e\ e '
t 3 ' ""_ 3--j

E 8
B 0 8 B q

G 9 9
D IQ ID
A ' 7 IQ 10 7 '
E n

Here's what happens when you jumble the notes exercise so that you're skipping some notes, creating
around a bit. Example 1.20 rearranges the last bigger intervals:

Example 1.20
" 3--m
A
~" 3"
~ m.$E.m m

()":0": ;j; :" "' " '"' :Jj"0 D'


3" , 3 3" "" 3 "__ 3 -J " "" 3
E 8 12 12 8
B 0 8 8 8 8 P

G 9 9 9 9
D id iq 10 id
A ' 10 7 10 10 7' id
E n n

`i`i`iiv
v**  `

/iiVi]\
23
ViVV
Creative Guitar @: Advanced Techniques

Once you get used to it, I think you'll actually find this diagonal shapes. (Look at the tab to see the logic
one easier to pick than the straight arpeggio in Example behind this - the notes on the stave will be no help at
1.19. And it sounds nicer, too! a|||) The results sound absolutely horrible, but that's
Examples 1.21 and 1.22 really test your string- not to say that you cant use excerpts from them in
crossing abilities. They are constructed by taking all your playing - for instance, there's a very similar lick
the notes available within the one-finger-per-fret hand on Steve Val's track 'The Animal', from his celebrated
position and breaking them down into a series of Passion And Warfare album.

Example 1.21

n
I!! "
_3 3" ~3" '= A' p .,' 1' ' h, Kpp ,kp P
t! :t :b3 y,n .I a' ' '.' '
-

' 3 , ' - 3" 3" 3"

E 5 C) 7B
B 5 C) 7 EJ
G 5 C) 7 8
D 5 6 7 Cl
A 5 6 7 8
E g
V
n
V
t n

Example 1.22
" 3

, ,,, P ,., { b{p


4' 4, 3_ '"m" ~~= , Tt7
"' '; ' ,,; ' " ': '" W h" llW " '
1/"" iU "2: ' kq " " gtj ""-- ,-- " , . -3 -
m

E 8 7 C) 5
B a 7 6 R
G 8 7 6 5
D a 7 C) 5
A 8 7 G 5
E n
O
T
I
C.

The last few exercises were all about throwing as as precise as possible. This next one is more of a
many string-crossing opportunities as possible into speed lick, so I invite you to try to play it as fast as
each bar, so you'd probably benefit from playing them you can, starting first on a downstroke and then on
at a moderate speed and trying to get them sounding an upstroke:

Example 1.23

n J P
("' i ' '
' k
' P" I I ,I "~. 0

ej " I I I I I
' 6- I ' 6 ' 6 i I 6 I

E
B 0

G '9 9 9 9
D
A . 12n J |Y-12 1211012 12 ID g -1012 12' I ,: 'I J1" .
E `i`i`iiv
v**  `

/iiVi]\
24 ViVV
Alternate Picking

Which did you find easier? You're in good company more f|ex|b|e your picking technique, the better, which
either way - Paul Gilbert would choose to start with explains the inclusion of Example 1.24.
an upstroke while the equally frightening Greg Howe Here, I've shown two other ways of fingering the
maintains that he can make the lick work only if he same notes. You'll note that the string crossing occurs
picks the G-string note with a downstroke. Whatever at different places in each, presenting new challenges
the case may be, your best bet is to accent that high for your picking hand. I think that the fingering in
note every time, as this will make sure that the lick Example 1.23 is the best sounding arrangement for
retains its rhythmic definition at high speeds. playing at high speeds, but you'll be happier in the long
As you've probably guessed, my angle on all this run if you can manage all three fingerings without too
is that you should be able to pick it both ways. The much trouble.

Example 1.24

h
i') L ,
,) ||||| |||||1|||||||| III |||||j| |||ll |||Il III
' 6 i6 I' 6 I' 6 I ' - 6 i"6 I' 6 I' 6 I

E
B
G 97 7-9-7 797 797 7- -9-7-57-9-7-5 5-7-9-7-5 5 7-9-7 : :7
D 10-9-10 10910 10-9-10 10-9-10 9 9 9 9
A
E

Examples 1.25 and 1.26 demonstrate a couple more adapting the lick to work in a 16th-note context, while
Gdbertian variations. That high note on the G string Example 1.26 is a little trickier- as you play through
can really stand out from the rest if accented a httle, the pattern, the G-string note occurs once, then
and you can get some interesting rhythmic effects twice, then three times, then twice again, so staying
by putting it in more interesting places within the bar. in time all the way through the lick wIll require a lot
Example 1.25 doubles up the first two notes, thus of concentration.

Example 1.25

A
1l m t 0 p w i i
fm T : ' p P :
:,, " i i ai I i i i ~ i

E
B
G '9 9 g 9 0

D
A , 12 l' id g IOl" 12 i?, iq 9 iq 1" ,
E

`i`i`iiv
v**  `

/iiVi]\
ViVV
25
Creative Guitar: Advanced Techniques

Example 1.26

A
I . p j b p p j 0 )
a ( |0 d pI ".
' k 4 '

':, " ~ Ill' ~ |||| ' |= I ii "|||j

E
B
G '9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 0

D
A . 12-10-9MO-12 12 12-110-12 12 12 12-110-12 12 12-110-12:
E

The next few examples follow up on that rhythmic playing as it is when youre playing a flashy lead line. In
theme and take a new angle. So far, you've been picking fact, two of the areas in which I think it's particularly
all of the notes at a uniform speed (I hope!), but now useful would be funk guitar and death-metal riffing. (The
it's time to move on and take a look at your picking connection might seem a little tenuous, but trust me -
hands ability to change gear. from a picking-hand perspective, those two disparate
For the following exercises, I've indicated only the styles really do demand similar rhythmic skills.)
rhythmic outline instead of tabbing out anything too Example 1.27 alternates between 16th notes and
specific. You could start out by applying these rhythms 16th-note triplets. The best way of keeping this pattern
to a single note and then come up with some more in time is always to aim for the first note of the next
melodic-sounding licks of your own, or you could try beat so that you remain aware of the pulse of the music,
applying them to some chord shapes. Yes, it's time to which obviously remains constant throughout the
be creative! exercise, even though the actual spacing of the notes
This aspect of picking is just as important in rhythm you're playing varies from beat to beat.

Example 1.27
6 I C 6

'H"""""""""""""
Example 1.28 is trickier. lts business as usual for the guessing how much to slow down in beat 4 so that the
first three beats of the bar, and then the last beat features triplet notes fill the duration of the beat precisely, but
a triplet, which messes up everything - when you loop, this ratio will become instinctive with practice.
you'll have to start on a downstroke the first time, on an Remember, the triplet notes have to be perfectly even
upstroke the second and so on. The hardest part is in length, so don't just miss out one of the 16th notes!

Example 1.28

|Ed||:jjjjj)jjjjjjrj' J :||

Example 1.29 hones your speeding-up/slowing-down the one before it, so you'll really have to lock in with
skills a little more thoroughly. In this exercise, each the metronome and concentrate on getting even
beat is divided into a different number of notes from note spacing.
`i`i`iiv
v**  `

/iiVi]\
26 ViVV
Alternate Picking

Example 1.29
I 3 , 6 , I 3

|Ed||:j JT JTJJ555|JJJJJJJJJJJ"77 J"J :||

As you played through that last example, you might into five even notes. OK, if you're curious, let's give
have wondered why I didn't split any of the beats itago:

Example 1.30
5 I I 5 I

'H""""""""""""
Odd, isn't it? Quintuplets (groups of five notes) are few times against a metronome, you'd easily be able
pretty rare in Western music, so you don't get to hear to pace yourself so that each word started on a click.
them a lot, which is probably why they sound so weird. If you then experimented a bit with the speed of the
On the other hand, you could probably learn to like words, you'd soon find a way of making each word
them - they're commonplace in Indian classical music, expand to fit the beat without leaving a gap at the
and unusual-sounding guitarists like Bumblefoot and end. (Think 'robotic' for best results.) What you now
Shawn Lane frequently use groups of five notes in have is a bizarre slogan outlining the rhythm of
their licks. You might also have spotted this idea at the Example 1 .30.
end of Eric Johnson's 'Desert Rose', from the Ah Via I know that the above isn't the sort of thing you'd
Musicom album, or in the third bar of the main melody want to try out if you thought anyone could hear you,
from Frank Zappa's 'Peaches En Regalia', the classic but it really does help. In fact, classically trained Indian
version of which can be found on Hot Rats. percussionists have to learn a vocal system called
Quintuplets tend to sound less bizarre as you ta/as which uses different words to represent different
increase speed. For an extreme example, think of that rhythmic groupings. If you're curious, check out the
preposterous keyboard line in the middle of Michael title track of John McLaughlin's album QueA/egriato
jackson's Black Or White'. The lick might sound hear an example of this sort of thing being put into
shockingly fast, but it doesn't sound particularly odd. practice. And even if you're not curious, theres some
And yet, guess what7 Yup, it's all groups of five. amazing guitar playing on that album, not to mention
If you're finding it hard to switch between fours two of the most underrated bass players you'll ever
and fives, try to think of some words that use an hear, so you really can't lose either way!
appropriate amount of syllables (it helps if you can Meanwhile, Example 1.31 is a little more
find words in which t,he first syllable is naturally conventional. When the speed changes, it simply
accented) and use them as rhythmic templates. For doubles, so there's no complicated subdivision to
example, if you chanted 'ineff ective telemarketing' a deal with:

Example 1.31

|Et||:]jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj,,,
`i`i`iiv
v**  `

/iiVi]\
27
ViVV
Creative Guitar: Advanced Techniques

There are two types of note here: the customary 16th tightening up when the next beat comes and you revert
notes make up the first beat and a half and the next to 16ths. This exercise is reminiscent of snare-drum
half a beat comprises 32nd notes. At slower speeds, rolls, and you'll find it handy for adding a touch of
you might find the 32nd notes harder to execute, but rhythmic spice to your funk guitar parts.
as you increase the speed you'll find that the key to Example 1.32 below is a more interesting
playing them comfortably is to relax your wrist more, application of the same idea:

Example 1.32

|H||:mjjjgg9mjjjgg=Hjjjj&m:||

You'll note that lve accented the first 16th note after (E9 is always a winner at times like this). Rather than
each group of 32nd notes. Really trying to target these picking the 32nds more quietly, you'd probably find it
notes is the key to keeping the pattern in time. easier to strum less of the chord at these moments -
After a while, you might feel the urge to play the maybe just a couple of strings' worth.
32nds a little quieter than the 16ths in order to The next two examples take a different approach
compensate for their more busy sound. I think that to accenting. Here, things go back to straight 16th
this is to be encouraged, as your playing will come notes, but the accents are in less obvious places now.
across more musically in this way. As an extension of Try them out. Do they remind you of any particular
this, imagine applying Example 1.32 to a whole chord musical style?

Example 1.33

|Ft||:]jjjjjjjjj]j]jjj,,,

Example 1.34

|Et||:jjjjjj),]jj]j,jj,,,

The accents in Examples 1.33 and 1.34 represent the note of each beat. If you want to hear just how
clave and the reverse clave respectively. These are rhythmically confusing things can get, you might want
two rhythmic figures associated with Latin music, and to check out the Afro-Cuban style of the incredible
seasoned players in that genre have cultivated a feel pianist Gonzalo Rubalcaba. (Of course, if you fancy
for these patterns in the same way that we have tried sampling some more guitar-intensive Latin music, Al
to develop a feel for the click of the metronome. If you DiMeola is a good starting point.)
use these rhythms as the basis for the accents in your The next two exercises illustrate a more
rhythm playing or soloing, the results sound a little mathematical way of generating interesting accents.
more exciting than when you're just accenting the first Example 1.35 uses triplets but accents every fourth
`i`i`iiv
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/iiVi]\
28 ViVV
Alternate Picking

note, rather than every third one, thus you get three exercise, you could try a variation in which you play
accented notes per bar spread out evenly over four only the accented notes, bringing out that fighting-
beats. The results sound as if they're fighting against against-the-beat effect.
the click but without actually going out of time. You'll Example 1.36 is more tricky. This time, you're trying
hear drummers like Virgil Donati doing things like this to get five evenly spaced accents into a four-beat bar.
when they want to create a little tension in their This sounds really odd, but sometimes odd is good,
playing. Once you've got the hang of the basic as every Zappa fan knows...

Example 1.35
3 I 3 I 3 I I 3 I

|,|1:' ' ' J j J J J j JJ J 0


0

Example 1.36
5 I I 5 I I 5 I I 5

|E!||:]jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj,,,,,,

You might have spotted a general pattern emerging And so on. You can take this idea to extremes, and the
from those last two, Now here are a couple of trickier way in which it enhances your rhythmic understanding
examples: can add a new dimension to your improvisation.
However, this is only worth investigating when you're
" If you wanted to squeeze nine evenly spaced comfortable with the more common rhythmic
accents into a bar of 4/4, you would divide each subdivisions explored earlier- groups of two, three and
beat into groups of nine and then accent every four notes are found much more often in Western music.
fourth note. Now for a quick look at a more common kind of
accenting. Consider triplet-based riffs like those found
" If you wanted seven such accents in a bar of 3/4, in Michael Schenker's 'Into The Arena'. These sound
you would allocate a group of seven notes to each best when the first note of every beat is accented, so
beat, then accent every third note. you could try the following picking pattern:

Example 1.37
I 3 I 3 I 3 I 3 I
1 V M M V 1
|H||:] J ] ]J] JJ J JJ J 0
0

This is like regular alternate picking, but with one second of each pair of consecutive downstrokes. The
difference: effectively, you're resetting your picking- first one will take care of itself.
hand motion so that it greets each new beat with a Once you're comfortable with the idea of resetting
downstroke. This can often impart a better feel to what your picking hand to bring out the best in your accented
you're playing. If you find it unnatural, try to target the notes, you might try some variations like the following:
`i`i`iiv
v**  `

/iiVi]\
ViVV
29
Creative Guitar: Advanced Techniques

Example 1.38
I 3m I 3 I 3 I 3 I 3 I 3 I 3m I 3
M U' 1 M V 1 1 V 1 M V M M V 1 M V 1 V 1 V M V 1
|Eu:j7mr7mmjjTmjTjjTjjTjj=:||

OK, time to move on now. There's another kind of time the notes from the C major scale are being
popular picking exercise that places the emphasis used, rather than those from the much uglier-
on position shifting and keeps the string crossing to sounding chromatic scale, so the results should
a minimum. This area was touched on in the 'Finger sound a little more like music. Example 1.39 is a
Independence' section in Creative Guitar 1, but this good example:

Example 1.39
Bug
)_3_ V VII VIII X XII XIII XV
^ ) p 'P d * '|E
I

{'i ' ' ,J~ _ 3 ' I -3"


3" 3" 3" 3" C.,--. 3"

E 3 5 7 "y 7 8 7' B ID 0 ID 12 1o-m21312131513151715171~


B
G
D P

A
E

(8"')
XVII XV XIII XII X VIII VII V
h? P P P P a P D . ,
)
I) ' u I I I
d II| P b b .
d' "
\;J ~_ 3 "~ 3 ~3 ~ 3 " 3 ~ 3 m- "3 " 3

E 20 |9m719m7m5171513151312 13121~121081087 8 7' 5


B 0

G
D .

A
E

The general pattern of this lick will remind you of Example 1 .40 over the page is based on the same
Example 1 .3 - once again, the C major scale ascends principle, but this time alternate groups of three notes
in groups of three - but this time the fingering is have been reversed, requiring you to lead with your
completely different. In Example 1.39, you have to shift little finger for some of the position shifts that the
the position of yourfretting hand once every three notes. exercise demands:

`i`i`iiv
v**  `

/iiVi]\
30 ViVV
Alternate Picking

Example 1.40
8Uu B

2_3" v vii viii x XII XIII XV


^ ) ) 'f P 'p D
Ill!, 4j " : ' , p j 0 d

m mI
'e " ' "
3 3" m 3 3" m- 3 3" ~ 3

E 3 5 7 0 7 5 7 8 101210 lj l01213151312131517191715
B
G
D
A
E

The hardest thing about those last two exercises is shifts bigger and thus harder to play accurately, If
the sheer amount of position shifting that they you're playing an exercise like this from memory,
demand. This next one features a lower shift-per- you'll also have to concentrate a bit harder - each
bar count, but some of the note groups from the hand position now features two new notes rather
previous exercise have been omitted, making the than one:

Example 1.41
8Ua I

"36 "3m XIII


'P D "P ) _
^ VII X
I I
. -

' 4L- '. , Y


"((' ' 0 ' 0

el = =_ ~3_ ~3 ~3_ ~3_

E 7 5 3 7 5 3 10871087 131^1^131^1^17151317151~
B 0

G
D 0

A
E

(8") 7

XV XII VIII V
^ d p pl d p ft' I
) I'
)
0 p p W J P
0

b _ 3" _ 3" 3" 3" I 3" L3" =-j =-j

E 15171~1~171~1f1+1^1^1315 8101281012 5 7 8 5 7 8
B 0

G
D 0

A
E

Here's a slightly less terrifying variation on the above. I've written out only the first two bars of this one, but I'm
sure you can spot the pattern:

`i`i`iiv
v**  `

/iiVi]\
ViVV
31
Creative Guitar: Advanced Techniques

Example 1.42
8Ua " ;j
" " "I

"3--7 "36 VII V VIII etc


n
" P ' I P ' 0 b m p '
'{'i ' " ' " _ ~J' m' _ ? " 3 " 3 " 3 " 3 3 " 3
-"
E 7 5 3 7 5 3 ID 8 7 -1087 8 7 5 8 7 5 1210812108
B
G
D
A
E

Of course, you can also tackle groups of four notes below suggests one appropriate fingering for this
using this single-string approach. Example 1.43 kind of endeavour:

Example 1.43
8Uu '1

, X;,, ,X./,.p ,Xlll.. , XII , X , VIII VII

ifi"' "I '||.||1 I' ' ' ',.,',', '},


0

E 20 19m7m5m9m7m5m3m7m5m3m2m5m3m21~13-12-10812-1~87 8
B
G
D
A
E

It's a little disconcerting when you have to perform a more tonally consistent than playing the same thing
position shift in the middle of a beat, but you'll get within the confines of a single scale position - just
used to it. You could always try moving the shift think of the title track of Joe Satriani's Flying In A Blue
elsewhere in the pattern, perhaps playing the first two Dream album for a good illustration of this. In addition,
notes of each group with your little finger, but I think single-string exercises look like they sound, so trying
that the easiest way of playing it is by using the one to play stuff like this without looking at any scale charts
suggested in the music. or tablature is a very effective way of improving your
Hopefully, you'll find this single-string approach ear and fretboard knowledge. I'll leave you with the
helpful in your own playing style. Playing a simple following variation, in the hope that it gives you some
melody on one string can often sound smoother and ideas of your own:

`i`i`iiv
v**  `

/iiVi]\
32 ViVV
Alternate Picking

Example 1.44
Btu
Ill ,,V I i i |Vil VIII
^
jt'- 1' ' ' '' ' ''' j
,' ' ,

Q)

E 3 5 7 5 J 5 7 J 5 787 5 7' 8 5 78108781W781K12-1f81K11S


B
G
D
A
E

(8'") m

P X XII XIII
n
F (I:), I I ;"j I I I I I I I I
)
( A
) 'P D . D 'P' ,, r)

I.
#

E 1om2m3m2mom2m3mom2m3m5m3m2m3151213-15-17-15-13-15-17-13-15
B
G
D
A
E

`i`i`iiv
v**  `

/iiVi]\
33
ViVV
The previous chapter placed a lot of emphasis on you cast your mind back to Examples 1.17-1.19 from
efficiency of movement, and here I'll be looking at the previous chapter, you'll recall that they consisted
some other picking approaches, taking this idea to its of rows of notes on adjacent strings and turned out
logical conclusion. to be quite a challenge forthe picking hand. Think how
Let's start with a quick look at sweep picking. If much easier it would be to pick Example 1.17 like this:

Example 2.1

1\
C ': : 0 0 ." : : . " 0 p p W
." P' P ." W W .
.e. . I I I I I ' I I I I "

m q

E 8 8 . ,' M m 1 M
8 8, , V
B El 8 8 8 0

G ' 9 9 9 9
D . ID IQ IQ ID .
A
E

When you play the exercise like the one above, you to pick, but whenever you need to tackle a series of
have to change the direction of your pick only once notes on adjacent strings, sweeping is your most
per beat, whereas alternate picking makes your hand efficient option. The principle, as you've no doubt
change direction four times per beat - le every single gathered, is to use a single pickstroke wheneveryou
note! In theory, this means that sweeping the have to cross strings.
exercise requires only 25 per cent of the effort you'd Sweeping can really help you to play fast passages
otherwise need to put in when picking the same effortlessly, but it can also make your fast playing
thing alternately. sound ungainly and sloppy if you're not careful. To
That's the basic idea of sweep picking, and you the untrained eye, sweeping can look a lot like
can see how the technique got its name - the pick common-or-garden strumming, so be sure to bear in
literally sweeps across the strings as you play. mind the following important differences.
(Incidentally, youll find that some people use the
word rake to define the same movement.) The " Timing. Consider the difference between
technique isn't useful for everything you'll ever need Examples 2.2a and 2.2b:
`i`i`iiv
v**  `

/iiVi]\
ViVV
34
Sweep/Economy Picking

Example 2.2a Example 2.2b

, 6 '' 6 ,, 6 '' 6 ,

G
D
fiiii ="::.=".:
0
0
2
0
B 1111
0
2
0
0
2
m , m
.
0
0
2
m m"m" m ',' V V V V V 1MMIM M ', ',

0
1
00

2
I
0 0
I
00

? ,)
.

0
', ,

2
'.

A 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
E "t q 7 Q n A
qj
n
qj m

This is what an open C chord should look like. (If whereas in 2.2b only one note should be audible at
you're one of those people who strum all six strings a time. Technically, 2.2b is an arpeggio, which means
but don't fret the note on the bottom E string, I that, every time you pick a new note, you need to
implore you to change your ways. A C chord with a dampen the previous one. Most of this responsibility
low E in the bass is a clumsy-sounding thing.) falls on your fretting hand - as you finish with each
When you're strumming, all of the notes of the note, the relevant left-hand fingertip should release
chord should be treated as part of a single idea. When its grip just enough so that the string is no longer
playing Example 2.2a, your aim is to get every note touching the fret. Don't move your fingers too far,
of that C chord to fall on the beat, while in Example though - if you relax so much that your fingertip
2.2b the notes have to be evenly spaced, spread out leaves the string, you'll hear rogue open strings
to fill the entire duration of the beat. For this to sound ringing out, which spoils the whole effect. The best
good, you have to slow down the motion of your way of muting the strings is to pre-form the whole
picking hand in a very controlled manner. The pick shape, with all of yourfingertips resting on the right
should glide smoothly across the plane of the strings strings, and then squeeze each note when required.
(if you dig in too deep, the pick will trip over itself, Naturally, your right-hand palm can be very helpful
which sounds truly bad) and the movement should for muting unwanted strings, but when you're playing
feel slightly stepped, in the sense that you should a sweep-intensive passage, your palm alone won't
be aware of the timing of each individual note as you be equal to the task, so you really need to train your
strike it. Throughout the first six notes of Example left-hand fingertips to dampen the bulk of the notes.
2.2b, you should be thinking aboutwhere the second
beat will fall and monitoring the speed of your hand Maybe Example 2.2b was an unreasonably hard example
movements accordingly, aiming to get the pick to - muting the open strings with your left hand verges on
the top E string just in time to play it - not before! the impossible - but at least the sweeping-versus-
strumming comparison was enlightening. Heres a more
" Muting. In Example 2.2a all of the notes ring together, realistic example of how you might sweep an arpeggio:

Example 2.3
8"'" " " " " " 6" " I" : " " " " " 6" " """ 6 ' ' " " " " 6 " ._ " m
I I I

""~mmm mm~~~

{'4j, . "
L: W W
}
' d e D D " W W
V P

' 0
"'a 0

1 1 1 1 1 \ M V ', . V V 1 M M M 1 \ 1 . . . , .
E 12 IS 15 12 1215151"
B 0
13 13 13 13 0

G I,? I,?, I? I?
D
A IS 14 14 IS 15 14 14 15:
E `i`i`iiv
v**  `

/iiVi]\
35
ViVV
Creative Guitar: Advanced Techniques

Once again, this exercise comprises a C major the two picking styles, but it's well worth spending
arpeggio. You'll note that your hand briefly reverts to some time honing your skills in this area. Afterall, the
an alternate-picking approach when it reaches the top whole point of practising stuff like this is to absorb it
E string and then reverts to a sweeping motion as into your normal playing style.
soon as it can. You might find it hard to switch between Now spot the difference with this next one:

Example 2.4
8Uu

,!A :, . : ""' : , : . : " """ " . '


M 1 1 M V V 'V 1 1 M M V t 'V
E 12 15 I? L' IS 12
B 0 fj 13 f3 13
G 12 I? I? 12 "
D .14 14 0

A
E

This is essentially an eight-note pattern, and the As you can see, I chose to use a pull-off from the
lowest and highest notes aren't doubled here. As a fifth note of the pattern to the sixth, I could have
result, you'll observe how the downstroke sweep fingered the exercise with a hammer-on from the
covers all four strings but the corresponding upstroke fourth note to the fifth and then swept the last three
sweep is compromised, covering only three strings. notes (without the interruption of that pull-off), but I
If you try to get the upstroke motion to cover all four think that the way I've written it here has a more
strings, the downstroke suffers similarly. defined rhythmic feel - the fifth note marks a main
This raises a general point: whenever your beat within the bar, so it would be a shame not to
sweeping motion changes direction, what you want accent it. In fact, picking this high G not only sounds
is an even number of notes on the highest/lowest better, it also helps you to keep the lick in time at
string. In Example 2.4, things just haven't worked high speeds.
out quite that way, so you'd need to throw in a Here's another example of an occasion when
hammer-on or a pull-off to make everything add up. sweep picking steadfastly refuses to fit to a pattern:

Example 2.5a Example 2.5b


8m

n ."Am"
qbi: '' "Am" |
"= "=

E
e M 1 M V
Z! 1!" "4! '=
I?,
V V 1 1 1 V
I?
V V V 1 1 M V
12
V VMMMV
|,n
V
B 13 IJ IJ lj . . 13 13 13 13 .
G 12 I? I? r, I,? 12 12 12
D , 14 14 . . 14 14 0
A
E

`i`i`iiv
v**  `

/iiVi]\
ViVV
36
Sweep/Economy Picking

Each of these approaches has its own advantages. is to sweep whenever you can and to pick inside the
Example 2.5a, for instance, goes for rhythmic simplicity. strings whenever the path of your picking hand has to
The pick changes direction on the beat, which is handy change direction.
from the timekeeping perspective, but the actual motion The following examples show you some examples
feels a little disjointed -your pick has been happily gliding of licks and patterns that lend themselves well to sweep
along for the first three notes, and then it has to jump and economy picking. Once you've got a feel for the
across to the far side of the top E string to start a new basic picking patterns, you'll be able to come up with
sweep. This is quite an abrupt movement, and it can all sorts of new licks by applying the same principles
feel a little jerky. In effect, you're picking 'outside' the to other scales and arpeggios.
pair of strings at the point circled in the tab. Example 2.6 is a funny one. It's the kind of pentatonic
Now compare Example 2.5a with 2.5b. You'll find lick you might hear from Steve Morse or Zakk Wylde,
that the picking hand's changes of direction occur at but they would pick it alternately to produce an
really awkward points in the bar, butthey require a little aggressive and very rhythmic effect. If you sweep it as
less movement. If you look at the circled area in the indicated, youll lose a little of that vibe, but your reward
tab, you'll note that you're picking inside' - in other will be greater speed, and in the long run you'll find it
words, the pick approaches both the E and B strings easier to play at lower dynamic levels. (The alternate-
from a starting point somewhere between the two. picking approach only really works if you go for it and
Example 2.5b illustrates the basic principle of pick quite hard.) The confusing part is that your picking
economy picking, which is theoretically the most hand changes direction at such awkward parts of the
efficient way of picking absolutely anything. The idea bar, so take it very slowly at first and aim for evenness:

Example 2.6

A
0 m P 0 0 p 0 0 0 p
j'd '" " I I I
t I
m . . M M '\ ': M " " "
E
B
G '7 5 9 5 7 5 9 5 .
D 0 7 5 7 5 7 5 7 5 .
A
E

Example 2.7, meanwhile, illustrates a nice way of picking definition is to concentrate on getting the downstrokes
repeating triad patterns. The key to getting rhythmic in time. The upstrokes take longer and feel more relaxed.

Example 2.7

A
0/ 4 0 ' I 0 n W m a 0 .
0

'1,( ' 4 ' m' d W


ej
( I
' 3 I 3 J ' 3 I 3
M , V M V V 1 V V M V V
E
B 0

G '9 5 9 5 9 5 g 5
D 0 7' 7 7 7
A
E

`i`i`iiv
v**  `

/iiVi]\
ViVV37
Creative Guitar : Advanced Techniques

Example 2.8a illustrates the same idea in reverse. If you're working on a long passage using these
You'll probably find this one harder, because your ascending ideas, you might find it easier to finger
picking hand has to change direction in the middle of them as in Example 2.8b. This is still harder than
the beat rather than at the start, as was the case in Example 2.7, but at least your hand changes direction
Example 2.7. at more obvious places within the bar:

Example 2.8a Example 2.8b

h
f | , 0 ,
,,Y,4 :,, } ' ,, d " . p-m ' " ;,) I"
0
i' P
i' i'

'" 7- =- r- E T- E = r-
E
', m v vmv v m v v 1 'v v 1 m v 1 1 v 1 m v m m
B
G ' 5 9 5 9 5 9 5 9 ' ' 9 9 9 9 '
D .7 7 7 7
A . . :' 'id 7lO 7 10 7lO .
E

This next exercise might remind you of one of the make sure it reaches the first note of each beat in
many head-turning licks from Steve Val's 'The time. This lick features lots of fourths and fifths, so
Attitude Song'. You'll feel your picking hand you could apply it over chords of A minor or A7,
performing a slight snapping motion every beat to amongst others.

Example 2.9
lX V
+ VII 3~ Ill
E 1" , P , W "3~
I"
m W W W
';J " "- 3- ~ 3 " "j C
M , , m V V M V V M ',' ','
E 12
B ID ID
G 9 9 9
D 7 7 7
A 5 5
E m G

Example 2.10 is an A Aeolian mode fingered with underlying chord shape, but the symmetry of this
three notes on each string, rather than the CAGED- fingering allows you to apply the same down-up-
based shapes covered so far. This doesn't fit quite down configuration to each string, which means that
so conveniently into one hand-sized chunk of the you can achieve preposterous speeds, if that's what
neck, and it's certainly harder to visualise the you're into!

`i`i`iiv
v**  `

/iiVi]\
ViVV
38
Sweep/Economy Picking

Example 2.10

A I 6 ,PP?FE I

|"t 4 I I
.L I 4 I I I I I
C) a :U D 0 d a : I' I6I I, I 6 ^

m . im m v 1 1 v m m t, m m . m m , m v
E 7' ah id p
B C) 8 ID
G 5 7 9
D 5 7 9
A 5 7 8
E R 7 n

Example 2.11 is a similar idea, with the first and last licks. (Youll see that I've moved the fingering back a
notes removed from every other string. The result is not position for the last two strings, partially because it makes
quite a scale, not quite an arpeggio, but instead a bizarre life a little easier and partially because the overall tonality
hybrid of the two, reminiscent of certain Frank Gambale of the lick works better over A minor this way.)

Example 2.11

tia , , : ,: ,| ' ' i' " : f "


M , M M M V 1 M 1 ,' M M V
E 7 5
B 5 G 8
G 7
D
A 7 5 7 9
E T n

Example 2.12 uses everyone's favourite A minor do a lot of barring. To get every note ringing outdistinctly,
pentatonic shape but in a decidedly m-bluesy way. The you have to roll each barre from the lowest string to the
pattern used here is an easy one to spot, but it does highest so that you never hear more than one note at
place demands on your fretting fingers, which have to any given time.

Example 2.12

G.
, 6
g _ 'I I |"I ~ F"F" ,. P:. 0
P P
( ,I M 0 I '
'P
';J " ,a " e' d I ! _ ,L _L
6 '
mmm , . . mm m v v v m m m v , .mmm, 0. m
E 5 (J 5
B 5 8 5 8
G 5 7 5 7 5 7
D 5 7 5 7 5 7
A 5 7 5 7
E K n

`i`i`iiv
v**  `

/iiVi]\
ViVV 39
Creative Guitar: Advanced Techniques

Here's a suggestion: why not try to figure out backwards recordings underthe name Cacophony to hear lots more
versions of the last three examples? inthis spirit. Example 2.13takes a D majorarpeggio and
The next couple of exercises are sweep-arpeggio moves it through its various inversions, while Example
licks reminiscent of neo-classical players such as Jason 2.14 applies the same treatment to a D minor arpeggio.
Becker and Marty Friedman - check out their joint Both of these require abrupt, decisive position shifting:

Example 2.13
XIV
V
2 L b k b 'L 2
X 3 Z b, IF 4E 4E E t b, 8, 4
ha
t 'k C ,'"'' " ' ab. ..'"' ' ' ' ' ' ' "'
el Cl~~ ~"m"
_ _ _--_ 6 ' 6
'.' m"
,'
I 6
I I
'
I ! I I 6I II
M MM M
r, 5'V M
ID 5V 'I ',' V V 1 M M 1 1 V 1 V
IQ 141714 V V V V
E
B 3 7 IQ IS
G 2 7 II 14
D 4 7 12 lG
A 5 9 I? 17
E

Example 2.14
XIV
y
2 1, 4p e b 2_ 3
X 8 1_ b e i: 'E 't: "el b 2 4
^
4

t7 ' El P P P' t P ,lP 1 F 0 P ,' ' ' I' I' 'I I' IP Ip

""' ':4~_ ,:+"L ~ ,"" Y"| ,1 I I, , , ,


m m M M M ,\/ 1 V V V V V 1 M 1 1 1 V 1 V V V V V
E I 5 ID 5 to 131713
El 3 6 IQ IS
G
D
2 7 10 14
A
3 7 12 IS
E
5 B 12 17

Example 2.15 takes the first beat's worth of Example anddiminished arpeggios in a pattern that works over
2.13 and moves it up diatonically through the major D major or B minor. (Can you think of any othercontexts
scale, which means that you get to play major, minor in which this might work? Hint: modes...)

Example 2.15

IV VII
ha ^ p fL' a
VI - *tE^
.C, 't[ i ,,P'' " " P p , , 0 " ? ' ' ' ' " p p p

) M -+7 Tm _ I, I |- -j
_ -6 6 , , 6 ' -6 -J
M M M M M V, MV V V V V M 1 M M M V MV V V V V
E 2 5 7 3 5 J ID 7
B 3 5 7 8
G 2 4 6 7
D 4 5 7 9
A 5 7 g 10
E
`i`i`iiv
v**  `

/iiVi]\
40 ViVV
Sweep/Economy Picking

XI XIV

nu lX pul:Fp- "' .ul!!:FFp-


'3'c""'
el
' " ' ' "' """' '; i ii i :t
F-F-I I I I i I I I
6 ' 6 , I 6 ' ' 6
1 M M M M V M V V V V V M 1 M 1 M V M V V 'd V V
E 9 L" 1410 12151714
B 10 I? 14 15
G 9 II 12 14
D 11 I? 14 lG
A r, 14 lG 17
E

Examples 2.16 and 2.17 round things off with some Why not try to come up with some other seventh-
seventh-chord arpeggios - Dmaj7 and Dm7, to be arpeggio shapes based on this idea? Youll find that
more precise. You can see how the fingering has your hand will tend to cover more than one fretboard
been designed to keep an odd number of notes on position when you finger these arpeggios with
each string in order to facilitate smooth sweeps. sweeping in mind.

Example 2.16

3 2
D

(lb:: i"
3 4 3 I
' 4 4
"""" 3
I

V M M M V 1 M M M V
E 7 8
B 8
G 9
D 5 9 to
A 7
E W n

Example 2.17

3 I 3
e
~

9i .' '" ' i u "p " t f'


'jj!' ' ; a 2" '
I 4 4
,' , -
2

v 1 1 m v m m m 1 'd
E g b
B 8
G 8
D 5 8 10
A g
E n n

I would urge you to get as comfortable as possible playing such as accenting the right notes and getting
r
with alternate picking'before you even think about this the timing as accurate as possible.
other stuff. It might not be the easiest way to pick in When your picking hand is executing a downstroke
absolutely every situation, but it's probably the best on every beat, it serves as a kind of built-in
all-round approach and it favours aspects of your metronome, and if you compare alternate- and
`i`i`iiv
v**  `

/iiVi]\
ViVV
41
Creative Guitar: Advanced Techniques

economy-picked renditions of the same lick, you might Trust me, a lot of this stuff is actually harder to play
well find that the alternate way sounds somehow slowlythan it is at full speed. When you're holding back,
more musical. every note lasts longer and you're forced to concentrate
Economy picking, meanwhile, focuses more on on important stuff like its sound quality, dynamic
keeping movement to an absolute minimum so that intensity and timing. Once you've conquered that side
you can conserve a few calories, but this can be at the of things, the speed will come very easily to you and
expense of the natural feel you get when you're the end product will sound a lot more like music.
comfortable with alternate picking. The best way around How much you'll need sweep picking in your own
this dilemma is to practise everything very slowly. playing will depend on what kind of notes you actually
There's a strange irony here: players like Frank want to play. A lot of the traditional blues/rock soloing
Gambale, who has turned economy picking into vocabulary relies heavily on adjacent notes within a
something of an art form, describe the technique as given scale, which means that you have two or three
'speed picking', which would suggest that your main usable notes on each string, and this luxury means
incentive to learn it would be to increase your speed that you can happily wander around a scale shape
(seems reasonable!). And yet here I am preaching the without too much need for sweeping. If you dabble in
value of practising this stuff slowly. Wheres the fun jazz, however, you'll probably need to cross a lot more
in that? strings when you're soloing because a lot of the most
OK, heres my reasoning: if you treat economy authentic-sounding jazz licks consist of adjacent chord
picking merely as a means of increasing the amount tones - arpeggio shapes - which tend to feature only
of notes per second that you can churn out, you'll focus one note per string. It's harder to improvise at speed
on speed rather than accuracy. I've known players to when you're using the relatively wide intervals in an
spend months practising a sweep arpeggio at ever- arpeggio shape rather than a scale, but it's worth
increasing speeds until they finally realise that the only working on, whether you have jazz aspirations or not.
audible notes they're playing are the first and last ones, Arpeggios give your playing a different texture, which
with an indistinct, pitchless mush in between. If you many listeners would describe as 'more melodic', and
become too obsessed with speed for speed's sake, once you've attained reasonable proficiency with
theres a real danger of practising bad habits as you sweep picking, you'll find note groupings creeping into
rush towards the busy end of the metronome. And, of your solos that you would previously have dismissed
course, the more you've practised a bad habit, the as unplayable. I admit that it makes you think a little
harder it is to remedy. harder, but maybe that's not such a bad thing...

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Legato is a flashy Italian word for 'smoothly', which and legato notes can have a huge effect on the overall
should give you some clue as to what kind of sound sound of your own playing.
it describes. Picking every note gives a precise, Now let's take a moment to look at how legato
machine-gun-like effect which sometimes sounds a technique works. Of the two left-hand techniques
bit too harsh and spiky to do justice to the melody involved here, the easiest is surely the hammer-on.
you're playing. The best way of avoiding this is by As the name suggests, this involves sounding a note
tackling more notes with hammer-ons and pull-offs, by hammering a fretting-hand fingertip onto the string.
and that's basically what legato playing is all about. Since you're not picking the string, the volume of the
I should point out that the concept of legato doesn't resulting note has to be controlled by the degree of
apply only to guitar players; it's a broad musical term, force invested in the hammering motion. The more
and people who play other instruments use different you work on it, the easier youll find it to get loud,
approaches to achieve the same basic effect. A sax confident-sounding hammered notes. Just bear in
player, for instance, would achieve a legato effect by mind that you should aim to keep the actual movement
fingering a number of different notes in succession of your fingers to a minimum. At first, it might seem
but sounding all of them with one long breath into the easierto achieve volume by bringing yourfinger back,
mouthpiece. A violinist would approximate the same well away from the fingerboard, and taking a swing at
thing by performing one long, smooth bow movement the string from a distance, but this approach will slow
while fingering the various notes rather than bowing you down in the long run, not to mention increase the
down for one note, up for the next and so on (the risk of misfretting the occasional note. It's much better
classic sawing motion you see string players indulging to focus the same amount of force into a smaller, more
in when they get carried away). Your mission in this precise movement. If you've read Creative Guitar 1
chapter is to work on emulating that flowing sound. (and I strongly urge you to do SO), you'll remember the
If youre looking for some specific reference points, analogy with Bruce Lees 'one-inch punch'. Well, this
think of how Joe Satriani sounds when he plays lots is similar. Try stationing each of yourfingers just a few
of notes, then think of Steve Morse's sound when he millimetres from the strings and then, as you hammer
does the same. Joe's playing generally has a smooth, notes, imagine that you're actually trying to push the
slippery feel to it, whereas Steve's tends to have more strings through the fretboard. This might feel a little
attack and a spikier sound. They're obviously both tense and overly forceful for a while, but it's a good
stunning players, so please don't think lm trying to aid in developing an efficient fretting-hand position.
suggest that one approach is more effective than the Once this starts to feel natural, your hand will be able
other or anything like that, but their contrasting playing to relax a lot more.
styles serve to illustrate how the balance of picked There are two basic kinds of hammer-on: the easier
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Creative Guitar : Advanced Techniques

kind involves first picking a note and then hammering eschews pull-offs altogether yet is still famed for his
onto the same string while it's still vibrating, while the legato playing. Allan has a strong dislike for what he
second, more difficult kind involves hammering the describes as the 'miaowing' sound of pull-offs; if he
first note on a new string, which is variously described has to get from a ring-finger note to an index-finger
as 'hammering on from nowhere or 'left-hand note on the same string, he'll hammer on with his
hammering'. If you mastered both kinds, in theory index finger at the precise moment that the other digit
you'd be able to play absolutely anything using only leaves the string. If you've heard the man's playing
one hand - handy if you're prone to dropping your pick (and I can't recommend it enough), you'll know that
onstage or you have to turn pages of music while the results sound amazing. However, this approach
youre playing, or indeed if you just can't get enough requires two of your fingers to work in perfect
of that legato sound However, anyone who's new to synchrony, whereas with a regular pull-off the new
these techniques should start out with the general note is already there, waiting for you, so you have only
policy of picking the first note on each string, which one finger to worry about. For this reason, I think it's
means that you'll avoid all sorts of string-damping probably best to develop a good pull-off technique first
issues. Once you've got your head around the more before heading off towards Planet Holdsworth.
basic kind of hammer-on, the other kind will seem a When pulling off, it's best to move your finger
bit more approachable. downwards so that it clenches instead of straightens
The pull-off is a slightly more complex motion. For out, since the muscles dedicated to closing your hand
example, let's say you're using your ring finger to stop are stronger than the ones that open it up again. Ardent
a note at the third fret and the next note you want to fans of the Discovery Channel will doubtless have seen
play is at the first fret on the same string. If you first documentaries about those courageous headcases
make sure that your index finger is in place - pre- who catch crocodiles for a living. The reason why such
fretting the note, if you like -then you can pull off with guys have any success at all in their chosen field is
your third finger to reveal the first-fret note lurking that they understand the same principle and use it to
behind it. their advantage: a crocodile's jaws might be able to
It's tempting to think of this technique as a reverse snap shut with enough power to chew through a Land
hammer-on, but that way of thinking leads to the typical Rover, but once they are shut you can keep them that
problem of your hammered notes coming out way using even the most primitive of restraints. The
significantly louder than your pull-offs. In fact, the key crocodile's jaws are designed to bite things, and
to getting this technique sounding good lies in its very similarly our hands are designed to grip things, so in
name: pu/Poff. As your finger leaves the string, it should each case the closing set of muscles is stronger than
give it a little twang ratherthan just lifting straight off. the corresponding opening set.
This gets the string vibrating, which means that the Anyway, moving away from that whole crocodile
note will start off louder and ring for longer. business, here's a classic all-encompassing exercise
The most confusing thing about pull-off technique for analysing your legato technique. First, line up your
is that you're using one of your fingertips to control fingers on the top (skinny) E string so that each covers
the volume of a note while the responsibility of one of four adjacent frets - if you went for frets 5-B,
pressing the string down onto the right fret falls to a for instance, you'd use your index fingerto play notes
diff erent fingertip altogether. When you're hammering at the fifth fret, your middle finger for notes at the sixth
on, a single finger can tackle both of these duties, and and so on. Now pick the first-finger note and hammer
it's the force with which the note is fretted that on with your second finger, then pull off with your
determines how much the string will vibrate, so no second finger so that the first-finger note sounds out
plucking motion is needed. again. Now hammer on with the second finger
This seems like as good a time as any to mention again.. .and so on. Basically, you're using hammer-ons
Allan Holdsworth, a rare example of a player who
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Legato

and pull-offs alternately to play a trill between A and this apparent lack of independence between the ring
Bb. You should start softly, balancing the volume of and little fingers. These digits have to share a tendon
the two notes, and then aim to preserve that balance in your hand, while each of the other two fingers has a
as you build up to a louder trill. corresponding tendon of its own. I'm not offering you
Needless to say, that's not the whole exercise! So an excuse for having a weak little finger, mind; I'm just
far, youve trilled only between the first and second explaining why that one feels so much less useful than
fingers, and there are five other possible combinations: its fellow digits. You can work around this problem once
1and3,1and4,2and3,2and4,and3and4.Try you know what it is you're dealing with, so hopefully,
each trill in turn and compare them forvolume, timing when you use something like the above exercise in your
and clarity. No, really - give it a go! practice routine, you'll spend a little extra time on the
What did you find? I'm guessing that you would pairs of fingers that co-operate the least and give them
agree with at least some of the following: a chance to catch up with the others.
Here's the depressing part: so far, you've been trilling
1and3felteasierthan1and2. on the top E string pulling off quite forcefully without
angering any of the other strings. Now try the same
" 1 and 4 proved easier than you expected, given exercise on, say, the B string. This time, you might find
the comparative weakness of the little finger. that you inadvertently touch the top E as you pull off,
creating unpleasant handling noises. By experimenting
2 and 3 felt a little cramped. with the angle of your fingers relative to the plane of
the fingerboard, you should be able to persuade the
" 2 and 4 was tricky because yourthird finger wanted underside of your index fingertip to dampen the unused
to tag along every time your fourth finger tried to string, averting the danger of any actual notes being
fret a note. produced. However, you might still hear a muted clunk
from the top E, in which case you'll have to look at your
" 3 and 4 came out at about half the volume level of pulling-off technique and adjust the direction in which
any other finger combination. your finger is moving. Ideally, you want a diagonal motion
so that your fingertip simultaneously moves towards
In general, I think that pull-offs are harder to execute the floor (thus plucking the string) and away from the
when you're trilling between two adjacent fingers as fretboard (thus avoiding the other string).
you have less leverage there. Besides, you have to When you feel fairly comfortable with this exercise,
pull off extra hard to match the volume of the other you might like to try a variation where yourfingers are
trills because your fingertip has to pluck so close to spread out a little more. You could assign your fingers
the fret, an area of the strings length that feels tofrets 5, 7, 8 and 10, for instance, oradopt a similarly
particularly inflexible. spaced pattern higher up on the neck. Harder, isn't it?
Here's something that might help. Take the most Because of the increased stretch, your fingers have to
awkward pairing of fingers - 3 and 4 - as an example. channel some of their strength into keeping their
When your fourth finger pulls off, you'll feel your third distance from each other, and so getting a clean pull-
finger trying to come along with it. You have to oppose off, or indeed a clean hammer-on, seems to require
this very natural tendency by trying to push your third more effort
finger into the fretboard as the fourth finger performs You can probably make life easier for yourself if
the pull-off. It'll feel as though you're hammering the you experiment with various hand and wrist angles.
third-finger note, even though you don't need to You'll get the best and least painful results if your
because it's already fretted. This might sound strange, thumb is about halfway down the back of the neck
but I promise you, it works! and there's a bit of clearance between your hand and
For the curious, there's a physiological reason for the top E side of the fretboard. This way, yourfingers
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Creative Guitar: Advanced Techniques

are fairly straight, which means that they can splay adopting the more classical hand position outlined
out more. (Of course, your fingers need to be at least above will help you a lot.
slightly curved or you won't get a convincing snap If you're having trouble with your legato technique,
when you attempt a pull-off.) remember that your fingers will learn to find pretty
An informative if narcissistic experiment is to watch much anything easy once they've gone through the
your fretting hand in a mirror. Do your fingers look basic motions enough times.
parallel to the frets or are they at an angle? Youll get Well, that's probably enough general stuff. Now
the maximum stretching potential when your middle let's try some examples. Example 3.1 is has an A
and ring fingers are parallel to the frets and the other Aeolian fingering, and you should pick the first note on
two are spread out more diagonally. Naturally, this each string and hammer the remaining two, aiming as
healthy hand position will degenerate into the infamous always for even timing and dynamics. Meanwhile,
baseball-bat grip as soon as you start playing blues licks Example 3.2 is the corresponding descending pattern,
and bending strings, and that's absolutely fine, but requiring you to pick the first note on each string and
whenever you need to play a stretchy legato passage, pull off to the others.

Example 3.1
o."E
_ , _-_m _ .q r "3" "1
Z"' " b) " " ' (W"| _ ' " r iE r t ^ r" 'S'

'e la ,u D 0 _0 _0 "" I
G- 3 ' 3" I '3---"""""'

E ,u, 7 a 10
B .C " L C) 8 ID 10
G ". ". 5 7 9
D '"""' 5 7 9
A "L " 5 7 8
E T n
V ( <J

Example 3.2
'" 3 3i 3. . .. ,
f\ A
":!"|E 1p"d , u 0 "p" p
-. .
r'
4 t
A } ~ b I 0 0
C) ""-"- 3 , " 3 " 3 ( D < G

E 10 8 7 I ,,
B 10 8 G '"/"1
G 9 7 5 ,,,r~~i,
D 9 7 5 ,, ,, 7
A 8 7 5 ,r"m,,,
E n
C) T{ r:
U

If you number the notes (on each string in turn) from 1 Example 3.3 illustrates the 3-1-2 arrangement to get
to 3, you could describe Example 3.1 as a 1-2-3' you into the swing of things. Patterns like this use
configuration and Example 3.2 as 3-2-1 '. In theory, you each note of the scale fingering once and once only,
could jumble the notes up in any of the following orders: just like the first two examples shown above, but
they sound more interesting and they're a little harder
123 132 213 231 312 321 to play:

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Legato

Example 3.3
I 3- , I 3 , ' 3 I E6 "D
P p"" i_ r^ E P
C
>
t?, F , : ' _ ,1 _ , r7 ,
q) e ~m 4 ~( 'i 3 I ' 3 ' ' 3 '

E ,,,t 10 7 8
B " .' " . iq g 8 id
G ,n, ii 5 7
D }"R)"4 9 5 7
A I[/k 8 5 7
E a s 7

So far, you've been playing the scale in triplets, which 3.1 and 3.2 in 16th notes, the idea being to accent the
feels nice and convenient because it means that there's first note of each beat rather than the first note on each
a strong beat there whenever you have to change strings. string. This really hones your timing and makes accenting
Example 3.4, however, groups the notes of Examples a hammered or pulled note an interesting challenge.

Example 3.4
=r" 7f :|e FF Dm r\= =
^ = = . I ~ = . =
I

i!! Jl. I L I I I 1,| ,"1 ' ',i :" I " H ' I "T"" I "I I I.
g) " ZLe ') ~ J" I I"II I I lmj "" ~ {( t9'

E ,mklmt 7 B7 r>,,^
B 0
/"{/" (I 8 ID IO8 G /^L)"l
0
G '"n^' 5 7 9 g 7 5 "\1"\
D 0
/"\1"1 5 7 9 9 7 5 /mt)"k
0
A "" 5 7 8 8 7 5 ."
E r; 7 n n
O
T
C

I've applied the legato treatment to straight scale rise to some interesting phrasing, as the picked notes
fingerings, but now let's try it out on some other old tend to fall a 16th note before or after the beat. You
favourites. Example 3.5 ascends in diatonic thirds, and might find this reminiscent of many guitarists' phrasing,
the idea is to use pull-offs wherever possible. This gives particularly those from the crazy world of bebop.

Example 3.5

r _ I m
p" jpm p F IP
I I I ' F
1(|'F I I 0 0 0 0 0 0 '<~. 0 0 'a 0 I = I I ~
~
'el' :d <U 0 e ~ "

E "> 7
B " " G 8 (3 lO8 10
G "' " 5 7597 9
D "' '" S 7 5 9 7 9
A m 5 7 5 8 7 8
E S A 7 A

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Creative Guitar: Advanced Techniques

Example 3.6 features that same A Aeolian fingering, you're picking the first note on each string and also
but this time it's grouped in ascending fours. Here, any note that falls on a main beat:

Example 3.6
^
' 4

i,
L 4
1~ I I I I 1= I I I I I IA I
"e"' " ;jjt _y_g 0 u ) e <,9 e 0 )0 j 0 j I~ J ) )

E
B
G , ,rm m, ,m ,tm 5
D I" /"\/"1 7".|" 5 " 5 7 5 7 9 5 7 9 7
A "" 5 " 5 7 5 7 8 5 7 8 7 8 8
E G
ij
TI n
(J
7I n
C)
n

Now let's go back to that one-string-at-a-time approach. run out as quickly. You might think of Example 3.7 as
You can apply a pattern of more than three notes to a 3-1-2-3-2-1 configuration, and it's typical of the
each string so that your chosen scale shape doesn't legato runs you might hear in Richie Kotzen's playing:

Example 3.7
R 6_ ' "6- , e> f_tQG>

q. a
"" " I Ml I A ~ hi I ,,-, m, -,,,,, E;r"p"";, """""1"P
~1
jjk " t 4 .jLt:u a g-O y~t'~ ~0
.d

I " "" """'I I I m I I M I I"L I


G 6 "6_ ,"6

^
E '" " " " }"1 10-78-10-87
B ." " " " .". lOG 810-8 C) ID
G /"t"l"t."" 9 5 7 9 7 5
D "L/"\/"(/"\|" 9 5 797 5
A ^ " " " |"1 8 5 787 5
n C WOWC
E O V I O I O

Wasn't that fun:' Example 3.8 below shows you the applying each different pattern in turn to the entire
starting points for some variations on this idea. Try scale fingering:

Example 3.8
.----- 5 - -I -- ----- 6-- ,--------- 7----__"'
^ I I m
"!
l'(jk I I I I I m4 I I I I I I |dl ' III ,1 '|11
e 1,j:u _e e mt_ g g .~,L9, a )4 Qjt t j.yg ZLtuyme C.jJ mj gO; J

E
B
G
D
A , r"" , r"m , m~i / ,~,, mm m m "7 m ~ + + - . . . . .
E K
4j
CL
CJ
7
V
S?
CJ
CL
CP
7
V
Q
CJ
K
.J
K
.J
7
L
Q
a
K
.J
7
I
KQ'7R'7Q KTQTKWQ KQWDWCWO
u O I U I D GJ I O I O ( O D O" ( O" ( "a" ( "O

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Legato

Don't be put off by the penultimate fingering pattern followed by a semitone (TS) or a semitone followed
- you don't hear a lot of that seven-notes-in-a-beat by a tone (ST). Logically, you would handle the ST
grouping in popular music, but at moderate speeds pattern with fingers 1, 2 and 4 and the TS pattern
and upwards you'll find that it sounds quite normal. with 1, 3 and 4 (although sometimes you might find
The trick is to target the first note on each string. 1, 2 and 3 easier, particularly if you have a TT pattern
Like gas molecules, the remaining notes will then on the next string). The TT pattern requires your hand
distribute themselves evenly throughout the space to break out of that one-finger-per-fret spacing, and
allotted to them. I put it to you that it's easier to use your second finger
Now for some serious homework. Examples for the middle note, rather than your third, unless:
3.9-3.15 show seven different three-note-per-string
fingerings for each mode of the major scale in turn. youre playing right up at the top of the neck and
You might not want to learn all of these in one go, but some part of the guitars body is obstructing your
once youve tried applying the ideas from the last hand, or
examples to a few of these new fingerings, I think
you'll see the benefits of knowing as many of them " your name is Paul Gilbert and your hands are so
as possible. huge that it really doesn't matter what fingers
Incidentally, you'll notice that any one string in you use!
any one of these shapes will feature one of three
basic fingering patterns: two tones (TT), a tone Anyway, here are those modal shapes:

Example 3.9: Ionian mode

')'1 ))1))')
'I,)': )j')
'"o):))i))
' jl):)|')
' iii:)')')
')j 1))))')
" ' el G Of " d: t

')?|:)')1) )) )
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Creative Guitar c?,: Advanced Techniques

Example 3.10: Dorian mode

7 "T " " ' " 2' "


' [{g 2" 8' '" "
" T - O' " O' -
')j) )jj') )
e- ' O- O' - - -

' O' )) )! ') )|)11')


'":)i):j' ') )
'"i:)') ]')
'i":' )1)')
Example 3.11: Phrygian mode

'"j)j| )'j j ' A))i))

'")i))i)"') '"i I"))')')


) ;8: !8: ig
'8| !9|8'
M' '8'
'i ",)'ji) )1')
.,8 ,?,8)2)8) )
'- O- C?' i Or t f
- O- " O" O' ' ' '
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Legato

Example 3.12: Lydian mode

7 - O- - O- - O- - Ch O- Or -
' - O' ' O' e" : - O- e- ' O' -
1'
'
" Oi - Dt O' "
- 0 Cj ' O-
'
: ' eD: : 8
O'
"' 08 "" "-
:: 'O' 0 0 ' '
M e- - O' - O- - - - O- " O- ' O- - "

'"j;q )')"
I lei " 8" "8" "
'ii?) )j';'
6i")i):))}
n F I O- - O- Oh

')' 'If_jj ,
1> ^ ^
'I

=^L^L-==^
jr"'
~

Example 3.13: Mixolydian mode

'ji):)j')
'"i i)})')')
':i:)')) )' ) '1),)')1 li)')
Of O- ; C? . - O- C)- T D: T
n I O- O- - O' : 'O - O- i Of

'I):)
e- : 0 - . D: Qe , Oe - '
' ' e, 7 0 D: : 3 i
0 - O- - '
O- - O' - - - q: 0 Dt : : T
O- O" " ' " O" O- - e' ' - '

- - 6)- O- - O-
- ' O- : O- Q: '
, - Q: O- O- - i
' 0 0 e-
: Of Q: : O' :
- O- " e' - O' ' " `i`i`iiv
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Creative Guitar: Advanced Techniques

Example 3.14: Aeolian mode

' e1i):)'l') ) '"i))')|l )'))

'",l'lf ||1'\ ! ')?1 )1))))')

'"i: |o)j '|olg)))|]l1)

')'s))l|)ir) )
Example 3.15: Locrian mode

')i:)'!j) !'1 i '",l2)jj)|n]


' ?))|)))"1')
3 ))!)8] )
i I IB! |8loi"}
"),)2|)")?) ) I 6:))"))))1)')

52
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Legato

One way of lightening the workload here is by working Slides have the same kind of fluidity to them as
on ideas that move up the neck using only a string or hammered and pulled-off notes, so this is an effective
two. Example 3.16 shows how you could join up two combination of techniques. You'll probably recognise
adjacent positions, moving between them using slides. some Satriani-esque traits in here:

Example 3.16
8ua "1

5 I I 5

I I ghSs ghSs I I I I I ghSs ghSs


^
i i i
Z a Zj ,j 7"f"\_
j i' }
, i "p~ }" . " 0
0

.(. i '~ ~ r i , i ,, , ~ '_(_'


ej
I I
5 ' s
E 15 7 a 7 5- "7 b id 8 7" -5 7 0 7 5> "7 0 10 0 7"-
B q 0

G
D e 0

A
E

As with the seven-note groups you encountered just as easily work your way up the whole neck using
earlier in the book, these groups of five are best all of the shapes.
tackled by targeting the first note in each beat and Example 3.17 is a variation on Example 3.16 with
trusting the other notes to distribute themselves the addition of a few notes to make the pattern fit
accordingly. In this exercise, you're simply alternating into a more conventional sextuplet rhythm. Some of
between two adjacent scale shapes, but you could the slides occur in more unusual places this time:

Example 3.17
8lu

h g/iss ghSs ghSs gliss
J/ 4 .t, ~~= ' " " ' ' ' " "I ' ' ' ''m
I'
'0 'I :
?'"mm i i i L-m i i i mm i i i mm i i i
6 ' I 6 ' I 6 ' I 6
r~~% P~"%

E 'r5 787875+781087~5787 a 7' 5. "7 8 1087~


B P 0

G
D 0 0

A
E

Next, Example 3.18 brings in a second string, so you'll first note on the E string. The logical extension of this
probably want to start by picking the first note on each. is not to pick any notes at all, but I suspect you'll find
When you're comfortable with this, you could try that the index-finger note starting each E-string
hammering the first B-string note and picking only the sequence is a lot harder to hammer on from nowhere.

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Creative Guitar: Advanced Techniques

Example 3.18
Bug

^ , , g/iss , , 9//$s
A

l- 7="> I ' r _

1"3 . 0 |0' n' f0 '4 0 W 0 W ' ' ' ID 0 j0 .


0

E '45 7 8 7 5 ,1,,[, ,[N,jd" "l 7 (J 10 8 7=~=


B 0 8 G 54 "6 a IQ .
G
D .
.
A
E

Example 3.19 uses the same principle, but this time a lot more of the neck is covered for a monster A minor lick:

Example 3.19
8"'
a/iss . nli,c ghSs g/iss
^
Cl ,
-

yrruo
m m _
I
, " ~
I
"~ I m M I ~ tm_ . _
m m
I' L A ) ~
Dl ~La_ " I I I I I I I I I ~0~ '
;J " I "C~ I I I I I I

E 5 7 8 7 5 "" "" 7 8 1087~810-12-100 I" I" "" ID 12-13-12-107"


B 0 8 G Cr"C lj ID 12 10-8+10-12-13
G
D 9
A
E

(8'") 7

iA t " )" m g/iss _ t tb" ) gZ pnzrp^ , m _ g/iZ t m , p7l7Tql"* jr O


't ' ' ' ' I I ' ' ''''' '' '''
m , ~^
I .
0

E ^12-13-15-13-1", " " "" 13-15-17-15-13m5-17-19-17-15 ". " "" 17-19-20-19-17 "
B 15 I3-12t13-15-17 IB 17-15f17-18-20 20 (22) .
G
D 0
A
E

The next two examples focus on your hammering-on- hang of things. These exercises sound pleasantly
from-nowhere skills. If you follow the picking and rhythmic at high speeds because the picked notes
hammering directions accurately, you'll soon get the always occur at the start of a beat:

`i`i`iiv
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/iiVi]\
54 ViVV
Legato

Example 3.20
Btu
t 6 , I CC , I 6 , t CC ,

g.
~ 'S (J J (P (} 0

ji " " -
0
( 0 WJ W _I 0 ( N r wj (

m (H) M (H) m (FI) . (FI)


E 5 7 8 7 5 5 7 8 7 5 5 787 5 5 7 8 7 5
B 0 8 8 8 8 .
G
D 0
0

A
E

Example 3.21
BUG _ _ _ _ _ _ " 1

'__ _- -6- t , rr ' 6 j m------- rr-___ _

2. C .
J
I I I"I I I ~~~1 I I I"I I I,
f^ A W_ a J J ~~ \ I 0

,\ \ . "
Q 0 d ) 0
el

M
H ' H H ' H
E 5 7 8 7 5 5 ,~ mm 5 7 8 7 5 5 """"
B 8 8 G 5 G 8 8 8 C) 5 G 8 .
G .
D 0
0

A
E

Example 3.22 takes things a little further. Getting normal fretting hand is self-sufficent, you can keep
used to this way of playing will make you more your tapping hand positioned over the fretboard,
comfortable when you come to try some of the ready to add some extra-high notes whenever the
ideas in the following chapter, 'Tapping'. If your fancy takes you.

Example 3.22
8Uu' m

^
"A , tp\ ~) ip">
K 4 " ' M p ~P W I ' M 0 W Ap P 0 0 :
ht 4 " I
C) ' 6 I i I~, i i 6 i' ! i 6 i i i -m-i
' i i-6i J

r~~% H H H H r~~% FI H H H
E 1213151312 121712 121315131" 121712
B 0 1313 13 13 13 13
G 14 14
D 0
0

A
E

This final example is a tip of the hat to Joe Satriani's careful with your muting. (As I mentioned earlier, you
Power Cosmic'/'The Mystical Potato-Head Groove might find it helpful to cheat by using your right hand
Thing' arpeggio. In this lick, nearly every note is to grasp the neck between the nut and your picking
hammered onto a new string, so you have to be extra hand, thus keeping the open strings in check.)
`i`i`iiv
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55
Creative Guitar : Advanced Techniques

Example 3.23
ghSs gliss
4 _ + 4 , mice _^
guss 2 F 2 y"""
1 1 4
& i : 2 : ; Q P' W p21 Q = E ?' W p g/iss 0

Q) Lk ^ r 0 I I P r7 0 I P
I IP r"
6 , I 6 I " --6-
' H FI 6 H H H H H H FI H H H H H H H FI H H H
E 10'12 1Oa'12
B 0 8 IQ (J 10 .
G 7 9 7 9
D 9 12 9 I,"
A . ID 7 " 10 '
E \,r; 7 nr, k nm ,~
CJ

Hours of funl

`i`i`iiv
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ViVV
56
Tapping is a much-maligned aspect of guitar playing. quicker that way, so the end product will sound much
Some consider it uncool and can't see any point in less disjointed.
even trying it because they associate it with animal- As you will recall from the Alternate Picking
print Spandex, biting the heads off bats, peroxide- chapter, the Eddie Van Halen approach to achieving
poodle coiffure and other symptoms of Heavy Metal this is to adopt a highly irregular picking-hand position,
At Its Worst. holding the pick between thumb and middle fingerand
This is a shame because tapping is nothing more thus leaving the index finger available at all times for
than a good solution to an otherwise insurmountable tapping duties. If, however, you're used to holding the
problem. If you want to hammer on a note and your pick in the time-honoured thumb-and-forefingerfashion,
fretting-hand fingers can't cope with the stretch, why you'll probably find your middle finger the best choice
not borrow a fingertip from your other hand and use for tapped notes - it's the longest, strongest digit your
that to do the hammering? All sorts of new playing hand possesses and it's not up to much when you're
possibilities can open up for you if you apply this picking, so why not give it something to do?
principle to your playing, from impossible-sounding To make tapping work reliably, you need to find
blues licks and wide-interval fusion lines to fresh new some sort of anchor point at which your tapping hand
chord voicings and the freedom to hammer a melody can maintain contact with the guitar at all times. For
and a bass line simultaneously. Please, please don't a start, I would suggest lightly resting the wrist on
assume that only a headbanger could everfind tapping the strings that are lower in pitch than the one you're
useful or you'll miss out on all sorts of interesting stuff. playing, as this means that your hand damps the
First, lets deal with the mechanical side. Like I said, unwanted strings just as it does in its regular picking
tapping involves using a right-hand finger to hammer position. Think of the act of writing - your wrist leans
onto the fretboard, but here are some more specific on the surface of the paper and your hand
pointers. Before you even put your right hand anywhere movements feel much more precise as a result. If
near the fretboard, it's a good plan to figure out what you dont lean your wrist enough, the motion of
you're going to do with your pick while you're tapping. writing starts to feel awkward and imprecise,
If you plan to launch into a long, tapping-intensive solo, whereas if you lean too hard, your hand isn't able to
you could of course store the pick in your mouth for glide smoothly across the page and you experience
safe keeping or contemptuously toss it to the floor, but a juddering sensation on a roughly once-per-word
if you're playing a normal picked lick and theres just basis. Your hand naturally finds a balance between
one note in the middle that you want to tap, you'll need the two, and it should be able to do the same in this
some way of keeping your pick easily accessible - the guitar-playing context. (Incidentally, it's best to try to
transition between the two playing approaches will be keep the angle between your wrist and forearm as
`i`i`iiv
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57
ViVV
Creative Guitar: Advanced Techniques

straight as possible when tapping; it'll feel more governed by how forcefully you hammer on, and you
natural and will therefore be less tiring.) should be able to play the note at various dynamic levels
This approach will get you through most tapping without your finger ever having to stray too far from the
situations, particularly if you anchor your forearm on the string. The trick of visualising yourself hammering
upper bout of the guitar's body (the bit that's been through the fretboard might help you get a feel forthis.
helpfully chamfered away on all but the very cheapest Once you've tapped a note, your next problem is
Strat-style guitars). However, you can never be too getting rid of it. Normally, yourfretting hand would have
careful. If you move around a lot when you play live, for the next note pre-fretted and ready to go so that you
instance, tapping the right fret or even the right string could reveal the new note by pulling off with your
can be a very fiddly operation - in effect, it can feellike tapping finger. As with regular pull-offs, however, it's
you're trying to hit a moving target. A lick might work not enough simply to remove your finger: as your digit
every time in your bedroom and yet still let you down departs from the string, it needs to tweak it a little to
when gig night comes. get it vibrating. Your tapping finger can achieve this in
You'll obviously want to minimise the chances of this one of two ways: it can either close up as it would in
happening to you, so I would advise you to try resting a regular pull-off, flicking upwards, or it can stay fairly
your right-hand thumb on the edge of the fretboard (low- straight and flick towards the floor with what feels like
E-string side) for a bit of extra support. You'll find that a sideways motion. I personally tend to prefer the latter
this increases your chances of hitting the right string approach, but you can get great results either way.
even when you're not looking at the fretboard. Whichever method you choose, bear in mind that your
I admit that this makes you compromise the way in tapping finger needs to move away from the plane of
which you hold your pick - you might well find it hard the strings every time it leaves the fretboard in order
to rest yourthumb on the top of the neck while it's stuck to avoid hitting extra notes. Work on eliminating
to the tip of your index fingerl I personally find it easiest handling noise and use whichever pull-off motion allows
to hide the pick in the crook of my index finger at you to do this most comfortably,
moments like these - with a little practice, you can Right then, let's look at some exercises! Example
develop a nice and easy flicking motion where your 4.1 is a descending E minor triad pattern that requires
fingertip brushes the inside of your thumb, taking the both of your hands to execute pull-offs, while Example
pick along for the ride and ending up curled around it. 4.2 reverses the order of the fretting hand notes to
Having said that, everyone does these things slightly produce a sound reminiscent of the tapping section at
differently, so experiment for a while and see what the end of Eddie Van Halen's incendiary 'Eruption' solo.
solutions feel best for you. I would urge you to stick with these two exercises and
Hopefully, you've spotted the parallels between work on getting yourtwo hands co-ordinated so that all
tapping and regular legato playing. As with a regular of the notes are even. When you can do this at moderate
hammered note, the volume of a tapped note is speeds, it's safe to move on to the later exercises.

Example 4.1
T T T T
E ^0 f:".- ^ {E" "Q" ~ {E" "Q" 6
Aa
'V 2 '
'el t
""
3--------j ""
"__-3----, "" ""
3 . " ""'
3 . .

E ^1l. . t7 " . , r>,


B .Q") 8 5 Q"j 8 5 (1"J 8 5 @ 8 5
G
D 0

A
E

`i`i`iiv
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58 ViVV
Tapping

Example 4.2
T T T T
D E~\ ^_". f' . P"~\ t 'a
P
^a
.J q L . " " 0 " ' m " 0 0

I'
J\ I
k
'
A "
I "
C) . ---3 t I 3' " I 3 ' m------ 3"""""""

E . r>:;,, ,U, r>),,, ,,


B .5 8 (I") J 8 @ 5 8 Q"j 5 8 @ .
G
D
A . .
E

Example 4.3 is a combination of the previous two of your fretting hand might try to pull off at the same
exercises, and this time the triad ascends and time as your tapping hand. If you can discourage this
descends. The hardest part here is probablythe second kind of behaviour now, life will be a lot easier later on,
note of the pattern - the ring/little finger (your choice) trust me.

Example 4.3
t t t t
fL"a a fL"a a 'pl"o a '|E"d a
^a "I 0 " ' " 0 " ' " W " ' " m "
,i!,' : .
0

el

e"m ^1,
E
B .@ 8 5 8 @ 8 5 8 8 5 8 {I) 8 5 8 .
G
D . 0

A
E

Example 4.4 adds a flourish that you might associate note to create a pattern with a sextuplet rhythm. The
with the playing styles of Randy Rhoads or Nuno tapped note really pops out when this exercise is
Bettencourt. In effect, you're doubling up the tapped played at high speeds.

Example 4.4

T T T T T T T T
{Emo {E6d6 ID P"> F"> ^ Id 'ft"> fL6b6 ID E> pm p6 i P
^a
i!, it " . " "" "0"' "' "W"' "' _W_r" " 0

0
4 0

. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
e" " 6 - "" " "- 6- -_. '"""__-- 6 -A L
6

E _ r> r"> m> r> r> ~> r> m ,, 1 _ mm


B
.(9E8('g 8 ' 8 @-8@ 8 ' 8 @-8@ 8 5 8 (12)-8(12)858
G
D
A
E
.
`i`i`iiv
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ViVV
59
Creative Guitar: Advanced Techniques

I suggest that you try out these ideas with as many same E minor triad could be transformed into a G major
different triad inversions as you can think of. It's inversion by moving your index finger down two frets
relatively easy to come up with classical-sounding and so on. Experiment!
progressions by making minor adjustments to the basic Now let's fill in the gaps to create some more
fingering. For instance, if you take the E minor triad scalar-sounding ideas. lve picked E Aeolian here (for
from the last few examples and move your tapping those about to rock!), so Examples 4.5-4.7 correspond
finger up one fret, a C major inversion appears. The to Examples 4.1-4.3 with an Aeolian note added:

Example 4.5

T T T T
fL"0 ^ |E" p {E"d . f!:"o .
n' Ka .: . " '" ' " ' _ " 0 " 0 ,
i 1 k P .

j " ' ' ' '


E
B
.@"fj"7"5 @"8"7"5 @"8"7"5 @"8"7 "5 .
G
D 0

A
E

Example 4.6
T T T T
je| ,.0 jE\ , "O F"\ 1"_~ ,0 '!E~ i - ,0
tj #
7 H _: . ' 0 '" " ' 0 _ 0 " 0 y "
rm . "I .
4

I I I .
Q.t

mm , , , ,,,,, _ , _ r~~% c * -
E m

B .(I") 5 7 8 @ 5 7 8 (I") 5 7 8 (12) 5 7 8 .


G
D 0

A
E

Example 4.7
T T T T
na E>" ~ " y f!:j6 ") 'E>" ~ ") E>" ~ "P
Ill id' , ' i g' g' ' g' 0

ej ' -6 , ' 6 I ' 6 I ' 6 _J

E
B
.@"BI ,1-7578@-87518+87578@-8757
~ m m
8 .
G
D 0 .

A
E

Example 4.8, meanwhile, is a nice httle variation:


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60
Tapping

Example 4.8

t t T T
rl a F^ _"0 'p:"d _ jE"~\ _ ^ 4e" , _
V

7, H -t . " " " ' " Ip "W ' b Ip " ' ^


-'I ' I I I I P

0
.' \.
I I I I I
e

E
B .@"ii":i"b @'"i;";"'ii @ u,,,
5 7 8 (v') 8 my ,
7 5 .
G
D 0
P
A
E

Now it's time bring in some other ideas popular among the timing of the slides, so don't get too carried away
the tapping fraternity. Example 4.9 introduces the idea with increasing speed until you can honestly say that all
of sliding the tapped note between two pitches. Here, of yourtapped notes are equal in length. This kind of lick
you'llfind thatyou really need to keepyourtapping finger always reminds me of George Lynch's playing, while an
pushing into the fretboard or you'll lose notes. (You did entertaining variation is to tap a note and slide it rapidly
remember to keep your thumb anchored at the top of upthe neck to no particularpitch -you geta sort of zipping
the neck, didn't you?) The othertricky part is in perfecting sound reminiscent of EddieVan Halen or Richie Sambora.

Example 4.9

ghSs g/iss g/iss ghSs


T ghSs T g/iss T 9//SS T g/iss
ha
,rrE>m la 1E"mE6a6 ~^ re!>mb6 i, , rE>6^ ~ |^ K"

i.Y, ' " " ' ' """ ' ' """' ' '" : ' I I" rI 0 r
.
0

.-
el 4 ' I' I I 6I 6
6 6

E m m
B @'@@1_'' '8''8'88'8
G
D 0
.
A
E

Example 4.10 is part Eddie Van Halen and part Angus hand now has to perform hammer-ons. This activity
Young! As with the last few examples, I've added an might feel unfamiliar at first, but hang in there.
extra note to the basic E minor triad, but this time it's (|ncidenta||y, this lick outlines a chord progression from
an open string. As a result, the index finger of your left E minor to B minor.)

Example 4.10
T T T T T T T T
n Ik F\ r" P F\ r y F\ . r- , F\ r-, F"\ -. _ 7"\ - "\ -- "\ --
it'." -i : ,0' ' ' ,0 ,, P I'
' ,' " ' 't "' ' J7"' ' -P"" ' -"' .
d

" " m= X= 4= ~ X'= ""= m= m= '

E A r> r> m e> cm cm cm e> m cm cm m ,r> cm m rm, m _ m mm


B . 0 5 13 @~5-8f5-8@~5-847~47<12F4-7412~4 7
G
D
A . .
E

`i`i`iiv
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61
ViVV
Creative Guitar : Advanced Techniques

Even if you dont like the sound of the tapping then keep the bend held while you pull off with your
covered so far, I'm sure that you can find a use for tapping hand and release it only when you've distinctly
this next idea. Example 4.11 takes things at a more heard the pitch of that pre-bent note atthe start of bar
relaxed pace and requires you to tap a single note 2. Be extra careful not to tap any neighbouring strings
onto a bent string. The result sounds like an here, as bending the B string up a tone brings it
impossible blues lick. Players like Billy Gibbons have perilously close to the G string. If youre having a lot
been known to dabble in this technique, and there's of trouble with this one, try to develop a bending
even an example of it on Larry Carlton's immortal technique where the very tip of your bending finger
solo for 'Kid Charlemagne', from the Steely Dan pushes the G string out of the way and a slightly lower
album The Royal Scam. part of the same fingertip deals with the fretting of
The tab here basically directs you to bend the first the B string. This can help you to maintain some
note up a tone, hold it there and tap the same string separation between the strings, which results in
at the 1 5th fret so that it sounds like a 17th-fret note, greater accuracy.

Example 4.11

, , ,f, ':r7" "|E"po

"cl
AA K d A

BU LD
E , , ~ , ~
B to (la (gj (17) (id 10 8
G 9
D
A
E

If you trill that tapped/bent note, alternating between 12th, tap at the 15th and then bend. The key to
hammering and pulling off as fast as you can, you'll making this work is to bend with yourfretting hand:
get an effect that might remind you of blues your tapping finger keeps pushing the string down
harmonica playing. onto the fret, but it has to be relaxed enough to follow
Example 4.12 is slightly different. This time, you the path of the strings movement rather than
have to pick the tenth-fret note, hammer onto the resisting it.

Example 4.12

Aa
,il', ' 4 '
1"
~

P
i
Le'

C)

E , j ", r>
B 10 i? (is) (17)
G
D
A
E

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62 ViVV
Tapping

If you can execute the last two exercises cleanly, adjust the fingerings slightly to keep your choice of
you have enough techniques at your disposal to notes strictly pentatonic (le the B-string note at fret
come up with all sorts of licks, so try to find as many 19 would have to be moved a fret higher), but I think
variations on this idea as you can. that the licks work perfectly well as written - and
The following two examples illustrate what they're easier this way, too! Ideas like this are useful
happens when your left hand plays standard minor because they're based around a fretting-hand position
pentatonic shapes and your right hand punctuates that we all know and love, so they'll slot right into
things with some Aeolian tapped notes. You could your lick vocabulary with the minimum of effort.

Example 4.13
BUG
I

T T T T
T T
^ a pm\ ~0 T P'> la T 7^, iD -_ > ~^ __ _
tV 4 :' " " "" " ' ' " "" - ' ' " I' "\ '
l, E I i P I , pP h " ? "i" b :
ej
i
6 -- " 6 ' 6 ," 6 ,

E
B 0
@Api' @>;,7,, @A'i' ,,T,, "iFi' @",,7,', @"'1' @=5-m
G
D . 0
A
E

Example 4.14
Baa " )

T T T
6 T k +
T T
1)# 4 I 6' I I I' , ," >, ,,. , ,|1 "" F>' i. "E-
t!' 4 'at ~ :i uj '<:d _U '""' " I___6

E t " , @;=55&
B m" " (g121j
G " "' (!9)1214
D """' U9) 1214
A (a"= k u9j 1214
E

Example 4.1 5 explores a pedal-point idea. In any given tone. Every beat's worth of notes is played one position
beat here, your fretting hand descends three notes of lower than the notes from the previous beat, so you'll
A Aeolian while yourtapping hand provides the pedal have to concentrate for the one over the page:

`i`i`iiv
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63
ViVV
Creative Guitar: Advanced Techniques

Example 4.15
8m
XII X VIII VII
t t t t t t t t t t t t
^ u p6d fS">_ fS> p6. p^ P^\ a6 a6 a^ -6 _
~
(k ' 4 " " ' " ' " I I I T
"' "' '"I "" '" "' " I"' }0
b 4" 6 , ' 6 I' 6 I I 'I T" ' 6 I I ,

E @G5+74VasrG4dgFG2mgFGw@FG2m@rG^@r"8AFG^aH"8~gK"7
B 0

G
D 0

A
E

(8'") " T

V VII VIII X T
^ a T T T_ T T T T T T T T 6
" 4 06, m "', ^ "\
V " '\ - ' a6
- '\ -06 ' a6 P\ 1P'"> P ^
p V p 0 Ip " W ' I ' P ' Y .
!' 1|-| !' M I I II ''' .

-6- ' 6 , 6- , ' 6


E e5+"7+8m14n7m14n8m14F10m15n8m15r1~15F1H17F1w17F12m17F14
pm,

B
G .
D
A .
E

Example 4.16 is probably the most visually and you'll observe that it performs a two-fret slide
entertaining so far. The idea is to use your tapping once per beat. (Bear in mind that your finger never
hand to hold down a note behindthe fretting hand. actually leaves the string.) Muting the unwanted
In effect, you're using a right-hand fingerto shift the strings is a tricky one here, but you can't deny that
pitch of what would otherwise be an open string, it looks cool!

Example 4.16
8Uu

^a t|d|F^\t|o|F>t rorF^\T ^o|1e> t i^F\t rorjE t iotiE>T ir"{e


' ii 4 . 0 " ' w"'p"' b' " ' 'a' " ' 'a' " ' "' " ' b' " '
hi
el 4'I I I 6 I I I ', I i" i i 6i ', i i i i6 'I I i" i i 6I i ' '
I

^ r~~

E
B 0
W'-'+"-'m'w"-'+"-'w8m'~'w8T"-'+"-'+"-'"
G
D 0
.
P

A
E

Example 4.17 is a more complex run reminiscent of of the month with many readers, but Reb Beach, the
the scalar tapping licks often used by Steve Val. band's guitarist, also has some very tasty licks along
(Incidentally, I know that Winger might not be flavour these lines, so check him out.) You might wantto pick
`i`i`iiv
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64 ViVV
Tapping

the first note of this one, but the subsequent notes - this idea was first seen back in the Legato' chapter,
can all be played legato. Note the way in which your but you can have a lot more fun with it now that you've
little finger hammers the first note on each new string got both hands on the fretboard.

Example 4.17
8Ua m
T
t
' 9
q li 4 " T^l"p"q"0 t 6 t " Fo"T ," m
) + j

'i,' 4||1||||| |',,|||r1"" i' t9 = "y ~ " r r


"'
' 9 '' 9 ,
^ 15-1717-15-14
14 m h " " 1"1}" "t ^}^-"1 h h
E
B |7-15-13-15-17@17-15-13 '"'m r> '"""n '" " '
G lG 14-12-14-16 17 16-14-1" J"L
D IG 12-14
A
E

If you want to generate some biggertapping licks, you you've memorised all of the correct notes on any given
should work on sliding between different positions, and string, you can wander up and down the neck for as
Example 4.18 will give you the general idea. Once long as you like without losing momentum.

Example 4.18
8ua I

^ jj :"p^
7 b^ ~ g/iss m , Tm
P b^ ^_ ghss _ t Tbm ^ _ ghbs Tm ghSs T
(,' a i ' ' " -m " ' '77 ' "-ri~' ,",0 '
Q) ' 7 7 )' 7
|1|||| I
m
I

7
m ^ ^ ^

E
Q9) 17-15-14\12-14-15{17]15-14-1^1r1b14115}14-1b1+8-1r11F18*7*1~
B
G
D
A
E

But I digress. Example 4.17 went back to the hammering- experiment with your left-hand index fingertip to keep
on-from-nowhere idea, and Example 4.19 uses the same the open B string quiet. Try to bring it up just high enough
idea to facilitate a lick on a G major triad. You'll need to to touch the B string as it frets the top E.

Example 4.19
8ua

T T T T
^ JJ ^6
w 7 a~ a D"Ka om
"'P . E pm , r 6 m " 'I p ,
h , , P I ,I I' , I' ' "i 0

Ci I I I ~m~" I I I I P I I I,
---- -6 ' i 6 ' I 6 ' i -6 '
FI H ,r>, H m r>, H H H IL~ ,r>"
E
B .8 7_1o-\L5r1o 7 8 7_10-\@r1o 7 8 7_1o-@-io_7 8 710-\15j-1o 7 0

G
D .
P

A
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65
Creative Guitar: Advanced Techniques

The next two workouts showyou howyou might extend would recommend using the fingertip-muting idea from
the range of that last idea. Example 4.20 achieves this Example 4.19 in conjunction with some right-hand palm
by adding a slide with the tapping hand and Example muting over the fretboard. (Easy does it, though - if you
4.21 does so by bringing the G string into the equation. lean on the strings too hard, hordes of unrequested
The latter solution requires extra-careful muting, and I notes will ring out, spoiling the whole effect.)

Example 4.20
8bu

T g/iss ghss ghSs g/iss

^ a 0"{E"a 1"{E~m
i
ii # L . !"p " ' " '?" L '"p " " 'p"l
8( b 4 " P P I t p P p :
ej I I ' I I I I

E . : :"Io @^r+g==7 : :=o\@m@m@==7


B
G
D
A
0
.
E

Example 4.21
Bull

T
, T

CZ a. ,. P

el
' 0 fo
' 7 _ p p p 0 0
0
q6
0 "
I '0
0
.

'
el 4 v I I '

E
B
' ' :60 (g=i=7 ' ' :""Io @""j)7
G . 7 8 8 7 8 " 8 .
D 0 0

A
E

I thought I should round off this chapter by combining of three, with yourtapping hand marking the first of each
a few earlier ideas into one lick. Example 4.22 starts out group of three. Timing is all important here - one slip-up
as a sweep arpeggio, but on the second beat your right and your hands will collide. These ideas are used to great
hand moves into tapping mode. The basic melodic effect by players like Greg Howe, who would describe
pattern involves descending a G majorarpeggio in groups Example 4.22 as a 'reciprocal' tapping lick.

Example 4.22
8Ua 7

r. :>,> 0->
T
T , (
T 6T ,

,Zj ,,,, 10 .PFEFff'P.f^.


1|| ,, ,.1 :> I ~
- b-h
, i '
0
0

Q) ~ I I I _ I I " <-0
6 6 m' 6 , T5
1 M ' m M ^ H H H H
E 7-1H15H10-7-@-' ^"'
B n
G . 7 (J " 8,1'/8 77 ,^, ~ 0

D
ID ' g' " 5
0
A IQ @10 ,,,
E
ryj `i`i`iiv
v**  `

/iiVi]\
66 ViVV
Tapping

This one will take a little work, but it's worth it - apart As you might expect, the key to success with all
from the last note, which I only put in because I found this tapping business is to go through the motions
it funny. But how else could you end this lick? What slowly and carefully at first. Once you've got the basic
happens if you try to play it backwards? As always, try movements down, the speed and volume of your
to find your own variations on these ideas. tapped licks will progress rapidly.

`i`i`iiv
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67
/iiVi]\
ViVV
This approach to guitar playing has been given all sorts listening: anything by the duo Brett Garsed And TJ
of silly names over the years, 'bidextral slurring' and Helmerich - advanced yet melodic rock fusion.)
'the octadigital technique' being two of my personal
favourites, but don't let that deter you from trying it " Jennifer Batten. Formerly Michael Jackson's guitarist
out. Whatever these names might suggest to you, of choice, Jennifer went on to play in Jeff Beck's
there's no rocket science involved, and you can learn backing band, where her use of a guitar synth and
the basic principles surprisingly quickly. Eight-finger her two-handed techniques enabled her to duplicate
tapping can add a whole new dimension to your legato all of the sequenced parts from the records,
playing, so it's well worth investigating. eliminating the need for a separate keyboard player.
Naturally, you don't necessarily need to use all eight (Recommended listening: 'Who Else;" by Jeff Beck
fingers. A lot of the string-crossing tapped licks you or Jennifer's solo album, Above, Be/owAnd Beyond.)
hear in Steve Val's playing use two right-hand fingets
- for instance, he might use his middle finger to tap " Stanley Jordan, a veritable one-man band who plays
the B string atthe 22nd fret but switch to his ring finger melodies with his right hand while adding bass lines,
when tapping the high E string at the same fret. counter-melodies and chordal embellishments with
Similarly, if you were playing a Paul Gilbert-style string- his left - in short, he plays the guitar as if it were a
skipping arpeggio and you wanted to extend its range piano, and his solo playing sounds uncannily like two
by tapping some high notes atthe end, you might use people jamming. (Check out his albums Standards
your middle and little fingers to tap two notes on the and Magic Touch if you find this hard to believe. It'll
same string for a more 'bubbly' effect. Right at the seem even harder to believe once youve seen the
other end of the style spectrum, you should check out guy live. I remember seeing Stanley play a few years
how the late, great Michael Hedges used tapping on back, and he took the visual aspect of his tapping
a steel-strung acoustic to create complex rhythmic technique to its logical extreme by playing two
textures in more of a 'new age' kind of context. guitars at the same time, one with each hand.)
Taking this idea to its logical conclusion, you could
ditch the pick altogether and devote all four of your right- Playing like this requires your tapping hand to function
hand fingers to tapping. This is where the realfun starts! ratherlike an upside-down version of yourfretting hand
Some notable exponents of this technique include... -your right-hand fingertips should, as a default setting,
be lined up so that they can easily fret adjacent notes
" TJ Helmerich, a player who specialises in scalar on the same string. Bear in mind that your right-hand
tapping, often tapping four notes per string for an thumb won't be able to wrap itself around the back of
ultra-smooth, ultra-fast legato effect. (Recommended the neck as easily as the other one can, so try anchoring

`i`i`iiv
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68 /iiVi]\
ViVV
Eight-Finger Tapping

it on the top edge of the fretboard (the Iow-E end) - several inches above the neck, propped up by your
you'll still be able to channel some of your hand's natural thumb. If you read Creative Guitar 1 (and if not yet, why
gripping motion into the way you hammer notes, and not?), you'll remember the idea of muting unwanted
you'll have enough stability to perform the technique notes by tying a sock or some expensive equivalent
accurately and consistently. As a bonus, your palm won't around the strings at the nut end, which is an effective
obscure your view of the neck quite so much and you'll way of cleaning things up, although it's no good if you
be able to see what you're doing. just want to throw in the occasional eight-finger lick and
At first, you mightfind it hard to hit the strings square you're unwilling to sacrifice luxuries like open-position
on every time. The best advice I can give you on that chords or natural harmonics. This is a tricky one - one
topic is to start with yourfingertip positioning and work option is just to go for it and tap the notes with as much
back from there. Yourfingers might be unequal in length, conviction as possible, hoping forthe best, while another
but if you slowly curl them inwards, you should find a idea might be to use your left-hand index finger as a
point at which all four fingertips can rest on the same kind of temporary sock, resting it lightly on all six strings
string simultaneously. Rememberthis position and use and pushing down onto the frets only when absolutely
it as your default. This way, no finger ever has to stray necessary. (This is potentially the cleanest-sounding
far from the string, which increases your accuracy. method of them all, but it does limit the mobility of your
As was the case with the other hand, you should other fingers a little and it's hard to avoid making the
strive to adopt a hand positioning where your wrist is wound strings squeak whenever you move your left
as straight as possible, and it's helpful to think of an hand to a new area of the neck. Try it and decide whether
analogy cited by Jennifer Batten here - imagine you're it has a place in your playing style.)
shaking hands with the neck and you should end up Here's a general observation: it's a lot harder to
with a comfortable tapping position that's kind to your improvise with eight-finger tapping, particularly over
tendons and doesn't tire you out too quickly. tricky chord changes, because you're concentrating on
(If you were tapping chords ratherthan single-note two areas of the neck at once and have to visualise a
runs, you'd want your fingertips to be lined up with different shape for each hand. This involves twice as
different strings rather than different frets, so your wrist much work as 'normal' playing, so players who specialise
might have to adopt a slightly different angle for each in the technique tend to have a wide repertoire of already-
chord shape. If you're a newcomer to the field of eight- worked-out licks thatthey use as a basis fortheir soloing.
finger tapping, however, your wisest course of action What follows is a series of exercises illustrating the
would be to get used to the basic hand position first.) above technique. Example 5.1 shows an Am7-Am9
As usual, string-damping is a problem. The arpeggio idea. You should be able to hang onto your
undersides of your left-hand fingers can still take care pick while playing this one, using fingers 2, 3 and 4 to
of the higher strings, but you can no longer mute the tap the top notes. Notice how much more 'bubbly' this
low ones with your palm - remember, it's hovering sounds in comparison to your standard legato technique.

Example 5.1
8p'g _ " t

T T T T T T T T T T t t
^ ) p ) d P d q jE 0 0 E q

':k" 'GA i I ,: ,' gL"i ",:; CL" I " L" G::" : :"M"
E . ID 8 1212_8 to 8_'2@@@12_8 ,, 8"'2@@@1'-8 ,0 8_'212-8
B
G .
D 0

A
E
`i`i`iiv
v**  `

/iiVi]\
69
ViVV
Creative Guitar @: Advanced Techniques

Example 5.2 outlines an A major idea, starting with Jeff Watson, of Night Ranger fame, and your best
a sus4 chord in beats 1 and 2 and resolving it in the bet is to tap those high fourth intervals with fingers
latter half of the bar. This exercise reminds me of 1 and 4.

Example 5.2
8Uu g

T T T T
^ a It ' p T T + T T D T T + T
' :. m . '' ' } ' p
' L ' 0 0 ' ' '' , ' " "~
b " i i i i i i i i i ' mri i I i ~1 ii
6 ' I 6 ' I 6 ' I 6

E
B 0
' '@@@-' ' ''0 ' '@9 5 g@@@-g
G
D 0 0

A
E

Example 5.3 takes the previous fourths idea to Jan Hammer keyboard licks, and I can't think of any
extremes. The note choice here is reminiscent of certain other way of playing it.

Example 5.3
8Uu m
T T T
T T T T T T ^ ,
" P I I I I "Q T p q p p j>
Tt ,U 0 W i
dk p }
' ' I im
0 I I I I d I II ' I I
BU
E
B
A^)4n '~"-@ma7)
G
^^ |2-17@@ 1015 ,17,
D jmLm f2 17\1m2m
A I>CA 12-1771m2~
E 1(]1Ku17w9.m
'" ' " y.y \"3

OK, maybe the stretching was a little tricky in that last concentrate to get this right, but once it becomes
one. Example 5.4 takes the same basic idea but works instinctive, you'll have all sorts of fun with the idea. Why
it around the notes of an A minor-seventh arpeggio. Note not try itwith othertypes of arpeggio? (Hint:the A majbi"
how your hands take turns to shift position. You have to seventh arpeggio would be an easy place to start..)

Example 5.4
Btu _ " I
T
T T T T D T T T T
T T T D k
,,?4||'|'|":
k A
,;'.'"" p
''
M I'
' " " ';-P
- "T
) :d " I I I I I I
BU
E
B
A74j ' "-@@mQn
_rxr> 1013 17 "0
G JM1 7 1~ 9 |2714^17,
D
A n n gMa 7 I ,1=,15,
E `i`i`iiv
" " vm Y' "V
v**  `

/iiVi]\
ViVV
70
Eight-Finger Tapping

This next exercise demonstrates a handy trick for scale(GABCDEF4),soAminor,8minorandE


those moments when you're playing in A minor and minor pentatonic scales will all contain exclusively
you need an eight-fingered lick in a hurry. Basically, notes from the A Dorian mode. By the same token,
it's business as usual for your left hand while your if you're playing in an A Aeolian context, the A minor
right hand apes its every movement, seven frets chord is the chord of vi from a C major scale, so A
further up. minor, D minor and E minor pentatonic scales will
This trick works because you can construct a all work. Since the E minor pentatonic scale works
minor pentatonic scale starting from the second, over both of the common A minor modes, it seems
third and sixth degrees of a major scale. Trust me! to be the safest bet for rock applications, so that's
If you're playing in an A Dorian context, the chord what your tapping hand will be playing in Example
of A minor is effectively the chord of ii from a G major 5.5 below:

Example 5.5
8Uu " I

T T T T T T m T

fl -" I ' 'i i i " '' i


E I I ' ', ,"p
L a
0 0 p I'
ii '+ :d D ( '
BU
E 5 8 @{BA;7)
B
G
57@@' '_@ "@@
D
A , n gAg-i 5 ' @
E
" " \W 'CV

Now here's a corresponding C major pentatonic idea. your fretting hand five frets up instead of seven. If
It sounds a little odder than the last example, but at you're wondering how to finger the tapped notes in
high speeds it creates an interesting texture rather this orthe previous example, just copy what your other
than sounding wrong. The idea this time is to mirror hand's doing.

Example 5.6
8Uu' " "7
TT T T
T T T T
^ D P T T T T
"I " I I I ,I II I iI A 1 -
p A' jl I" -
P D
" b,- '0
)
A
0 4
"
A
d'

e " d ' ' ma--c' '""' ',|1"' '


BU
E 8 |0-@4amA2)
B
G
jm^ 7~ 8 f13m15,
D ^ A=ur> 7ID ,1>,15V
A r>jlm 7_1U71,g\15j
E n an qm q .
O IV YOTYW

The next exercise uses the same notes as Example to achieve a more interesting, wide-interval sound. Try
5.5, but this time each hand groups the notes in fifths the same idea with your tapping hand up an octave:
`i`i`iiv
v**  `

/iiVi]\
71
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Creative Guitar: Advanced Techniques

Example 5.7
T T T 8Uu
T
T T T a P:

' P P F p -
T TP -
T T gnss
j: ! a p d } A' } P tj
q 0
el " ' a ' ' , pI I I I I I , I I ,1

E @-,-@ , @"'-4'9 5 'S '"@ ' @,-8+,0


B
G
D
A
GA . -7-@ 5 '9_' '") 5
E U9 U

Example 5.8 shows you another idea using fifths, but which will allow you to let all of the notes ring into
this time your hands don't alternate quite so rapidly! each other, creating an effect something akin to a piano
You'll find that this one works well with a clean sound, with the sustain pedal held down.

Example 5.8
T g/iss
T
- T
U
T T
T ^ T . ' e IE
,q .., , m :;I ', ,1;F ,,:1"F?F'p
:J' " q ' "' I r I "I I I I I I

E
B
,5 'ga@, 9@@'=Ng ,9+"mgj7"
G
D
A
E c Kqn}
Uw

OK, it's homework time. Example 5.9 shows you five looking forthe parts you find particularly easy and coming
eight-fingered shapes for A minor pentatonic. lthink you up with licks of your own based on the ideas covered
can learn a lot from going through each of these shapes, so far. It doesn't sound like blues any more, does it?

Example 5.9

"!"o&dZ'):!")'!))):
:Q: -0- - '[J" pi i ii 3| It ii
'O" 'O' ' 'El' Nr S E :i I t It
-O- - O" " [J- -EE- " ' 'L ' -

-O O - Cl, - n Cl
n LJ3 I' ,. .
[ [-I O 0 : jCj' lci!
Iii ); I' jl
i[! - - o- -o - =[1' kt-L :1
m I 1 'I
ii t , i, ,,
I "
- :, -{ i;i |"j#
i^j-1 !' ! P

`i`i`iiv
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72 ViVV
Eight-Finger Tapping

- ( G) O- - ,CJn W. - . - - - - .
: :. ( D- :: Q: E] 't[j" :j I: 'C I' It j' '; I)

' ' O " 'C" mWj ' "Cl'j "


. ,
li li It It cl It i)
: 7( 3: rCm Elr d Kji It it |i j: i: i! |1 ii
: : ( ;J: :0: 7 flj! ||[jjl It It |1 if 41 It it li
-( g)" " O '" - -DL e ma u u : - I.
-

" " "IuLO_ " O- ' " " " IJf " " " "' _
O' ';G]- '; 7; C]" '; i' ' " n
0 ?k[j:: I: Q: :: :: ;1 i: Sc i

O' :' [Jj; It W:q 'C " :' '; -' )

in :Q;

"O-
';[J'1

-W
I: [Jit

--
"'

Cl- "
: j'

"- '" "


:' " 'i

[ 'a ' "#" '2 ' i

OK, that's probably enough pentatonic stuff for the


, j) ) 'i""]8" ')"i
O" " 0" " _ [I"

A nmnorlick, mplying Am9. As with Example 5.8, this


" Cl "

moment! This next workout is a C maj7 arpeggio one can be used either as a single-note rock lick or
pattern (you'll see what's going on if you look at the as a cascading, clean-tone kind of affair where the
music as well as the tab) and I've stuck that final note notes ring into each other as much as possible. Try it
on at the end to suggest that this also makes a great both ways.

Example 5.10
T
T T
m 'T "r "r T T a/iss

(!1:|'|':,'[:,I'0'0':0'j::i.
E @ @ "' 13^ Cl '3
B
G
D '!" "@'"'~' ,0=~42
A
E

Example 5.11 is a comical-sounding fingering for the with this one will be in getting all of your tapped notes
chromatic scale, starting from A. The main problem in time and even in length, so slowly does it.

`i`i`iiv
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/iiVi]\
73
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Creative Guitar: Advanced Techniques

Example 5.11
T T T T T TI
^ I
6 ' t "6 , , _J T T T, b ,t t at
? --, , 1_ I I I ' '" 7 | -!+- i' ' "L- '"'
':j"qbu4 U.l (' | -j m__j, ! '"'-6' ' '
E
B
G
D
A
E
.A
J V 4
pG\G\G ' " ' @- " ' ' @_@ ' ~"@"@"
\. W Cj VW

Bug 1

, T T T , , UT T, jjT 9/'%
(tk ) 7 .I '' , "0 r- * "" e F'

el I I i i I , I 6
I 6
11113 /"'
E
B 11115)
G
D
A
E

Continuing on this comical theme, the next exercise The fact that your two hands are going in different
alternates between two chromatic scales, one directions might distress you at first, but hang in there!
ascending and the other descending. (In classical This lick has a very Buckethead vibe about it, and
circles, this idea is known as playing in contrary motion.) it might also remind you of a certain Nokia ringtone...

Example 5.12
Btu I

T T T T T T T T T
I I T T -r 7-

Z,J' h h k , '. I I ,' ' ., ,. I

-
u
.a

w Ii f
'ij " bo K7 - " '" q'

E
B
@"@"@"@ @Um@=ig , @1z,@Ai=~A^
G
D 7 8 9 10
A
E

But enough of these Space Invaders noises. Examples and the fingering used here facilitates that ringing sustain
5.13 and 5.14 are based on the trustyA minorpentatonic, sound and consequently works well with a clean tone:

`i`i`iiv
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/iiVi]\
74 ViVV
Eight-Finger Tapping

Example 5.13

T T
. p , I T

&e'
W 0 0 j 4

E 5
B 8
G
D ' @ ' ' @ G, ' '
A
E V cl

Example 5.14

T T
A P 0 T T T T
.

4
" m p 0 D W a -i W 0'" 0'
. . 0 . .,

si' F
Ci
. h
n
,.

E 5
B
G
D
' @@ ' ' (i9@"i' ' @ ,, A 7
A
E V CJ

Example 5.15 shows a similar approach applied to the high speeds, but I think that they work just as well at
whole A Aeolian mode. You might have heard players moderate tempi, so take it easy at first and concentrate
like Scotty Mishoe using these ideas at preposterously on sustaining the notes as much as you can:

Example 5.15

T
T T T T
^ + ^
,b', d ' " ' ' I
\ . m
L__
W 0
7

C)
t

' " " e 3 a

E
B
G
@ ' G 3 5 ' 5 ' 5 ,> 2
D
A
n K
E Vjj

Example 5.16 is a strange one - your tapping hand up and down in increments of a tone. This lick has a
hammers on notes from nowhere at the 17th fret while strangely detached sound, and the legato aspect of it is
yourfretting hand moves a major-seventh arpeggio shape less obvious than it was in many of the earlier examples.

`i`i`iiv
v**  `

/iiVi]\
ViVV75
Creative Guitar: Advanced Techniques

Example 5.16
8Uu ?

n . t t} .J ." t t a , p t t . T T , p
(a' P" d ' "" ' I , Ip d~ "' " ' 0

el " I I I I I I I I I m- I I
6 ' ' 6 ' , 6 ' I 6 '

E
B
G
'@ '"""@ " " @ " "4nj "' " @ '"""@ " " @ """_@ """T
D 0 0

A
E

Example 5.17 offers you a completely different punctuates things with chordal stabs.
application for tapping that might remind you of Joe I would encourage you to get creative with this
Satriani or indeed Primuss Les Claypool. This pattern idea, as tapped grooves can sound surprisingly full in
is a rhythmic groove - your left hand hammers an unaccompanied context, and they sound great on
ascending fifth intervals while your tapping hand acoustic guitars, tOo!

Example 5.17
T Alice
t t t t y" t

Zg t:; " i t 0 : i -. i , ii3


el 5
V
v w r : ' d
d
.
E
B
G
0 ca G5) ('a 65j Ci3A .
D
A
E . C
, :!1: 7
, ;::; n
,, I (ld) , 7-4!:| , 9 ::EM::R
Example 5.18 at the top of the next page explores an 2 ...tap the B-string note.
idea sometimes described as a chordal capo, in which
your left hand holds down the Am9 shape shown in the 3 Now pull off with your index finger, wait for a
chord box while your right hand adds twiddles'. As you moment and...
can see from the tab, the idea is to make each note last
as long as possible so that all of the left-hand notes are 4 ...finally pull off with your little finger.
sounded by pulling off with the appropriate tapping
finger. The basic pattern in beat 1 goes like this: This pattern basically applies to each beat in turn -
only the names of the strings will change. It's a tricky
1 Tap the top E string with your right-hand index one to get right, but it has a very unusual sound, so
finger and hold it there while you... it's worth the effort.

`i`i`iiv
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/iiVi]\
76 ViVV
Eight-Finger Tapping

Example 5.18
T T T -r
' T
f|_fn.i;. ,P. ~
T T

W 0
' I
'r ' !'t
C
t4
el
i I l.j I i I' '' ' ' " "aj:

E
B
G
@6L!'@a' ,@'":, ^ ,>_ C, _ i
D
A
E
"'"' '!"i_2"'"@,.' .? '%9.' ?-@A' . !
\191 u ( ij

&>
W/

O
"" O 0=
F
Wp

OK, homework time again. Examples 5.19 and 5.20 by the same hand - for instance, in the first major-
show you some eight-fingered arpeggio shapes for seventh shape, the left hand has all of the roots and
the basic G major and G minortriads while Example thirds while the right hand tackles the fifths and
5.21 shows you corresponding G major-seventh sevenths. Thus you'll see from Example 5.22 how
arpeggio shapes. easy it is to transform the major-seventh shapes into
You'll note that, in each shape, every occurrence corresponding shapes for the other main types of
of any given note in the chord will always be played seventh chord. Have a go at working out all of them.

Example 5.19: G major arpeggios - eight-finger shapes

;; ~ r-C L-I

1~

0 G-
C) ~
["T

G) O - W

O
' O
G)
~
t")
~
~

O - D- - - -Cl- --

0
O [I

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77
Creative Guitar : Advanced Techniques

Example 5.20: G minor arpeggios - eight-finger shapes

^
f-W ^.
-1J , LI

=0
W -LI
' m' ' 'O
~

^. ,^

L' U- '" m-

-O
-Ci m
C) -C.

|(J ' U -1-J

, 0' ,

, , t
' O ' Cl
'CJ 0- m

Example 5.21: gmaj7 arpeggios - eight-finger shapes

mr" "J ^'


P

' ll-j ; l-j


O l-j
0 LI
-C n' -m

dr7b ,^

-u 'd l-j-m-

i O '
, ,0 ' ,
C) rj I ' T-E m
~

I (J I ' c>m_" L-I


t

' , ' O m
i O ' W
4 iQ rpm -m
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78 ViVV
Eight-Finger Tapping

- m:j=== L-l -'

[I
0==0 -O
2 A u 2 2 "

- |o,'m| -m El

Example 5.22a: G7 arpeggio

aP
! '" ' " jU' I I"" T if-jG -"
!O!J"- - '"'i ,J
.' ' Ljkj r-i- =
"
~

Example 5.22b: Gm7 arpeggio

.-% i

- -1J=~ T "I-J) I "l-j

OC ,
G El I
-~r
M "%
m ' -m ! -r-i

Example 5.22C: Gm7b5 arpeggio

m m j
V -(J 0-^. r^ I
: P

O ! 'D
O } og, I,

m
W -C.
g m
" 6 if" i ' Er-i b

Example 5.23 over the page shows one example of are symmetrical - you can move them around the neck
how you might construct a lick using the seventh in three-fret jumps and still be playing the same chord.
arpeggio shapes illustrated above. The first bar uses the Does this give you any ideas about how to generate
notes of an Am7 arpeggio, the third bar outlines a Dm9 incredibly long yet easy-to-remember diminished licks?)
arpeggio (without moving that far) and the second and Then, for some final food for thought, Example 5.24
fourth bars are constructed using the notes of Adim7. applies the eight-fingertreatmentto a standard G major
{A diminished-seventh chord, incidentally, is like a minor- scale. The shapes you'll see here are basically the three-
seventh flat-fifth chord but with the seventh degree note-per-string shapes you encountered earlier but with
flattened again, hence the odd-looking formula: 1, b3, all of the A-, D- and top-E-string notes moved down a
b5, 67. This is the classic suspense' chord, and every string and five frets up. If you want your legato scale
note in it is a tone and a half away from the one before licks to sound faster and smoother, these shapes might
it and after it. Forthis reason, diminished-seventh shapes well be the answer, so experiment!
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79
Creative Guitar : Advanced Techniques

Example 5.23
T T T T T
T T T E ^ ~
- A T T
T T 6
^ V

' P 0 F F f- F F P ':
I I I I p '
.in , T : I I I I I IF I ,
;J " q e " I I I I ' D :d
( 6 ' ' -6 i

E
B
5 8 @@ 8 5
, '@@ @@ ' ,
0

G
D 0

A
E /G\ K n gajg\ GcL-GA r G
\W " a YW V J! \L7"V g U ;J

T
6
T T ,tL! , Eb:bi:E , ! T ', , ',': , :
,A '
I a, I' V r I r" V
"i I I
1"" :d e " , J I I
m I I I " ' 0 0 a a
6 ' ' 6- J

E
B
5 (J @@- 8 5
G
D 7 '@ @' ,
A
G\ K n (I 4L-(i .I) (I AJG a n r.
E U?j"V VJ O V
vLy " " \Ly 'eg

T T
T T T t

"
T
-6 T T D # E E E e + T T ,T6T , ,
^
f I I I I I I
' ' " |0
G!. :. : ' :' : :' , I I I I I I I .,,
, 6 ' ' 6 I

E
B
5 8 @-@4a 8 5
G
D 7 '(igGa @@' ,
A
E An) r: Cl (i n\-4i A} (a oL-/'t A n k
VW y V YU "y YW Y!9"V Ul O J

T
,-- -- 6
T T
,,T _ J:bt ; . _ T , T
6
T

Cl I I I I , l,,hr 1" t- i- T r r P q ;,
ig , 'II "'
;J" q e "" ,_ 6 ' " -6- ,_ _,_ ""q

E 5 8 (i3Hii8 5
G
D
, '(a @' , .
0

A
gj) S A (I 1)(1 4) GA"LL.4"\ n F
E
N-7 " " N-y '<7 \L"J"U '/ O ;J

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80 ViVV
Eight-Finger Tapping

Example 5.24: G major scale - eight-finger patterns

or -O I m 43CJ

' , O=PC' -Q ^

' L~LxjL==n ml m

4Fl|]4o'" " "" """


FT-I- Irmkck =o-n m uj
"-LIL L IA =1-7' =1-1 m

" |'|"|io"|o!n!!l),")i' " ''


'A "li li i" !" -
.
r"" T" "" ! I
"" "" I-
LL
-no|}o|oi}Ai):)j'),^)|--))))),_),)))
TT
'I [,

=C- O
i : I I
'! o <j =0, aj=m d3
' I CI- =0 =0 =[1

""'" jL I " " "" " "


i i -L-L :Jk =0 =>m =CF =CJ
" -_L_l JEll
.L :J <J=0f

i - FF T -C =0 =CP =CE
:J =O=O d3 A>=n
_ i-j-l- I o~ <j mjm3 m
`i`i`iiv
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81
ViVV
After all that tapping, maybe it's time to look at another finger) in the following examples, so as long as you
way in which yourright hand can help you in yourquest know those two symbols, you'll be fine.
for new sounds and ideas. In notational terms, I should It is of course feasible to ditch your pick altogether
explain that the following symbols are traditionally when experimenting with these ideas - just ask Jeff
used to denote the digits of the right hand: Beck or Mark Knopfler - but I think its more practical
for rock players in general to start out with a hand
p = thumb position that combines the ease of normal picking with
i = index finger the tonal and string-crossing advantages of using
m = middle finger fingers, so thats the way we'll be approaching the
a = ring finger following examples.
c = little finger The idea of using your pick and fingers together is
particularly popular with country players, whom often
You'll mainly be using m (middle finger) and a (ring play ideas like those in Examples 6.1 and 6.2:

Example 6.1

0 0 0 O O .
tn 'i '
.
a P
0 0
'el " 20 4 o i 4 o 4 o 4 o t o

m m a M a m m m a m m a " m a
E
B 3 3 3 3 3 .
G ' 3\ 0 0 0 0 0
D .3 5 5 5 5 5
A .
E

Example 6.2

j4
el 4 " ?;
"i o 4
" o 4
" o
0 4
0
" o0 4
0
" o0 '

M a m 1 a m m a m m a m M a m
E
B 3 3 3 3 3
G ', . 0 0 0 0 0 '
D .3 5 5 5 5 5
A .
E `i`i`iiv
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82 ViVV
Pick And Fingers

Licks like these are descended from the rolls of banjo and versatile techniques, so persevere with them.
playing. Aim to keep your picking hand in its normal Example 6.3 brings the little finger into the equation
position and experiment with slight adjustments in your and moves between G major and F major arpeggio
wrist angle, if necessary, so that your fingers can shapes in various inversions, making for a neat little G
comfortably reach the strings. Most people find Example Mixolydian lick. (You might want to try sweep-picking
6.2 harderthan 6.1, butthey both show very important the same lick. Note how different the results sound.)

Example 6.3
Btu 0

2,:||"
'S "
'-I r'= e-
II 0 0
"
0 :i
"' mm
I 4
' ' , ' ' I' 0 I t
'ii 4 U 0 " " :do 0 ' "v0 e P m.u " d "

M m a CM M m a CM M m a C M Mma CM M m a CM
E 3 7 5 8 7 10 8 f3 IQ 15
B 3 6 (J ID 12
G 4 5 7 tO jn
D 5 7 9 10 L"
A
E

Example 6.4 illustrates a nice trick used by many country the flat third is there mainly to preserve the pattern of
players - it's an unusual fingering for an ascending G three-string groupings for as long as possible, but not
Mixolydian scale, with an extra flat third thrown in for to worry - it sounds good, anyhow!) The longer you can
a slightly bluesier effect. (Well, to be completely honest, sustain each note, the better things will sound:

Example 6.4
ghSs
^ 4 C9
,!/, " ' ' J r4_,O
t) C d o:a 4 D OQ J .. 0 m' : :.

a
M m M m a M m a M m a M m a M m
E 0 2~ "3
B 0 3 G 2 "3
G 0 3 5
D 0 3 7
A 0 3 7
E m
J
W

Example 6.5 shows how a pick-and-fingers approach scratchiness of sweep picking. There are no thirds in
can facilitate wide-intervallicks without producing the this lick, so it'll be equally at home in G major or minor:

Example 6.5 g/iss


0
I __ 3" V VII D

,0, ,.., ":"' '


r
4

P
P ""' Q F =

'Ci' al 0 V 3 " 3" "

m a M m a M m a 1 m a
E 10- "IS
B 8 8
G 7 7 7
D 5 5 5
A 5 5
E m

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Creative Guitar : Advanced Techniques

This next exercise has a touch of Jerry Donahue about memorable ones: they spell out a melodic-sounding
it. When you're learning to play it, you should bear in ascending-sixths pattern. Tonally, your priority should
mind that the first two notes of each beat are merely be to make those top-E-string notes really pop out,
there as a way of leading up chromatically to the third hitting them confidently and then cutting them to
note. The last two notes of each beat are the produce a staccato effect:

Example 6.6

^ "I' , P I
e a ,E ,b..kpE b,k.,b,bE E
I"' ' "I K I "l^l_I ' 'I I '
ij, " EF I |3 ,.J LJ3 M L 3--j _ |3M _ 3--n
m

" m " V Mm M V M m 1 V M m M P 1 m M V' m m M


E 7 8 IQ 1" 13 14 15
B
G 5 6 7 7' 0 g B 9 10 10-11-12 12-13-14 13-14-15 16
D
A
E

Example 6.7 is virtually unpickable at high speeds, so 'double octave' shape, which you can then move around
it's a great advert for the pick-and-fingers combination! the neck to follow whatever basic notes you feel like
I borrowed the idea from Danny Gatton, and the idea playing. If you find this melodically limiting, bear in mind
is to lock fingers 1, 2 and 4 of your fretting hand in a that the same shapes will work one string lower, too.

Example 6.7 ghSs

^ e 0
E
' ^ F ,, TE
m, " , '
%
6
, ,
'
,W ,
I
" ', 6
6
", '" 'I ' I

1 m a M m a 1 m a M m a
E 10 I," 13 14. "15
B
G 7 9 IQ II
D
A 5 7 8 9
E

Example 6.8 might sound like just another country lick, that your picking motion is as subtle and controlled as
but it has funky applications, too. Your pick is handling possible; this exercise affects your whole wrist, so if
all the single-note stuff and your right-hand fingers add you're too frenetic, your fingers will have a hard time
some rhythmic double-stop punctuation. Make sure finding the right strings for the double stops.

Example 6.8

pIe"' ' ' 0 ' '-> '


a a a a m a
m m , m M , m m , m m
E 3
B .3 5 3 S 3
G 5 3 5 3 4 .
D 5 5 5 5 5 5 S 5 - - 5 5 .
A .
E

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84 ViVV
Pick And Fingers

Example 6.9 is a bizarre hybrid of Steve Val and Carl combination of this new picking technique with some
Verheyen, with the now-obligatory country element left-hand position shifting can create some really
thrown in for good measure. This shows you how the interesting results:

Example 6.9

"E 3, bZ L3 "|e g/iss , g/iss


3 _ L, _ Mice
g/iss g/iss
Mice
f p f- vp p" ^q 4T p y""" ynoo
? 'S . p" . I D "> p '7 . 41 ' C
p

qj * 300 I 0
I I

a
m M m M m m m m m m m
E IS 14 13
B 1210
G IG IS 14"<12 7" <5 3- "4
D 10" -g 23
A 7" <R
E

Example 6.10 roundsthings off with a lookat how players conjunction with legato to play the kinds of lines normally
like Brett Garsed use the pick-and-fingers approach in associated with sweep pickers like Frank Gambale:

Example 6.10 ghss

j{l 4 I I I I
ghSs
"-m
g/iss
I - |O " 0
, riE
|o " '
I I 'F
' 'j C.
.( ' F p M ( M I
~
el J m :U 4| " )
c
m m a 1 M m a m m ma
E 710+15
B ,m> 8
G ,,,m, 5 9 7 5 7
D 3 7 5 3 7 8- "9
A 1"\ 5 7 "8
E n
qj t4

I think you'll agree that this method of playing sounds variation is greater this way. If you want the lick to sound
smoother than sweep picking. That's not to say that human', pick it in this way, whereas if you want all of
either method is superior, but the suggested picking the notes to sound more consistent and mechanical,
directions shown here certainly give your playing a less you should sweep it. There's surely a time and a place
abrasive timbre. I would also point out that the tonal for each.

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Even a humble 21-fret neck provides you with a range Eschete have actually been using seven-stringed
of four full octaves (if you can manage to bend up a instruments for decades, exploiting the increased
tone and a half!), and really this should be more than range of any given scale position to enrich their
enough for most purposes. Nonetheless, it's worth chord-melody arrangements. These players are more
taking a quick look at how you might extend the likely to tune that low string all the way down to A,
guitar's range beyond these conventional limits. which has a certain logic about it if you use a lot of
In terms of getting notes lower than the open chord shapes with root notes on the A string and
bottom E string, all you need to do is detune. If you you want to thicken them up without having to think
plan to do a lot of this, you should probably consider too hard.
upping your string gauges, as a loose, flappy string The main problem with the IOw-B idea is that low
produces a relatively weak tone and the pitching is strings ideally require a greater scale length in order
less defined. On the other hand, detuning by a to achieve optimum tone, which in simple terms is
semitone or so wont make a huge difference to the why basses are longer than guitars. This problem is
way in which your guitar feels and responds, yet it addressed on baritone guitars by sticking a longer
will undeniably give you a different sound - many neck on a conventional guitar body, and you might
Jimi Hendrix, Stevie Ray Vaughan and Van Halen riffs also have seen the radial-fretting idea used by luthiers
don't sound quite right when you play them at like Ralph Novak in which the frets fan out so that
concert pitch but suddenly gain authenticity when the scale length starts short, for the top strings, and
you tune to Eb. gets progressively longer as you move towards the
If you're really fascinated by low notes, perhaps bottom strings.
you should consider investing in a seven-string guitar. One playerwho has really made the most of this
These instruments sport an extra low B string, and concept would be Charlie Hunter, who played guitar
they're popular amongst the nu-metal fraternity (many for The Disposable Heroes Of Hiphoprisy and has
of whom, it must be said, only really use the lowest since released a number of solo albums. Charlie
few strings and would probably be just as happy with plays a radially fretted, eight-stringed monster of an
a regular detuned guitar). Players like Steve Val and instrument that uses the low three strings of a bass
John Petrucci have used seven-stringed instruments and the top five strings of a guitar, enabling him to
to great effect in a soloing context, and you'll find play bass lines and chordal melodies simultaneously
that navigating your way around a seven-string isn't and producing a good solid tone throughout the
that hard, just as long as you remember that the whole range of the neck. (It gets scarier - the
lowest string isn't E any more! fingerboard is arranged so that the bass strings are
jazz players like George Van Eps and Ron effectively fretless, and he's had the thing wired in
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86 ViVV
Extending The Fretboard

stereo so that these low strings can be sent to a that it never actually makes contact with the fret.
bass amp while the higher strings are run through When you get this technique right, you'll feel the string
a Leslie rotating-speaker effect and into a separate tickling yourfingertip as it's plucked, and the resulting
amp for that Hammond-organ-type vibe!) Charlie has note has a pure, chiming quality about it.
mastered the art of playing two completely different That spot above the 12th fret is called a node, and
things at once, and it's well worth watching him play you can find a node at any point that marks an exact
live, if you get the chance, if only to watch how his fraction of the string's length. However, the bigger
facial expressions mirror the guitar parts while the and more complicated the fraction, the less reliable
rest of his body moves in sync with the bass lines. the resulting note. For this reason, higher harmonics
This gives you an interesting insight into how he are harder to play consistently and some of them
must approach the multitasking requirements of his sound out of tune. Thus, the most widely used nodes
playing style. are as follows:
Of course, I'm not suggesting that buying a guitar
like this will solve anyone's problems; I mentioned Fret 12, the halfway point between the nut and the
it because I think it's a good example of how a player saddle, giving a note one octave higher than the
might first imagine an ideal sound in his head and pitch of the open string.
then experiment with equipment until he finds a rig
that enables him to realise that imaginary sound. " Frets 7 and 19, which divide the string into equal
As far as high notes go, I'm afraid that most thirds and sound an octave and a fifth higher than
attempts to create a seven-string guitar with a high the open string.
A instead of a low B have been unsuccessful; physics
seems to dictate that any string tuned significantly Frets 5 and 24, which split the string into equal
higherthan the standard top E will be prone to break. quarters, producing a harmonic that sounds two
(Anyone with a 12-string will know what I mean - that whole octaves higher than the open string.
high G string snaps at the slightest provocation,
doesn't it?) Artificial Harmonics
Guitars with extra frets offer some potential - the Natural harmonics are very useful in keys like G or E
Hamer Californian comes with 27 frets as standard, minor, but if you want to find some harmonics for
and I've seen Washburn instruments sporting as notes like C you'll need to master the art of producing
many as 36! Once again, though, there's a tonal artificial harmonics.
problem, as the highest notes tend to sound plinky In this technique, you fret the appropriate note
and lack sustain. In addition, it's hard to fret accurately with your left hand and then use your picking hand
up at the top end of such an instrument, as your not just to pluck the string but also to mark the node.
fingertips are so much wider that the gaps between {If you're stopping the string at the third fret, the most
the frets that you might feel the urge to stick them obvious node to go for would be the 15th fret, 12 frets
in a pencil sharpener! up.) Fingerstyle players often achieve this by pointing
There is hope, however, as harmonics offer all at the node with the right-hand index finger while
sorts of potential for high notes. Let's take a look at plucking with the thumb, but if you're too fond of your
some of the different ways in which you can go about pick to adopt this approach you could hold it between
creating these pure, bell-like tones. your thumb and middle finger, using your index
fingertip to touch the node as before. You can get a
Natural Harmonics remarkably clean-sounding harmonic this way, but
These are the harmonics that you get if you pluck a the technique might feel a little awkward, and if this
string while holding a fretting hand fingertip just above is the case you could try a variation where you pluck
the 12th fret, touching the string very gently to ensure the string with your picking hand's little finger and
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87
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Creative Guitar: Advanced Techniques

point at the node with, say, your middle finger. This Whammy Stunts
way, you get to hang onto your beloved pick! When you start manipulating harmonics with a
whammy bar, you can have all sorts of fun, making
Pinched Harmonics siren noises and suchlike. Heavy-metal guitarists in the
These are artificial harmonics that are produced by '80S were very fond of these effects, but if you want
simply holding the pick between your thumb and to hear how it can be done musically, Jeff Beck is well
forefinger (as usual) and using the fleshy part at the side worth investigating.
of yourthumb to graze the string (atthe node, of course) If you have an extreme trem, such as a Floyd Rose,
as you pick it. If you've got enough gain and treble on you'll find that you can start with the bar depressed
your amp, you'll be able to find all sorts of squealing, and then use a left-hand fingertip to dab the G string
ultra-high-pitched harmonics with this technique. at, say, the third fret as you bring the bar up to pitch.
It's possible to play a lick in the middle of the neck The key to making this work lies in how forceful your
and add a pinched harmonic an octave higher to every dabbing motion is and how slack the string is at the
note by picking around the area where the fretboard precise moment of dabbing. If you get it right, you'll
ends. After a bit of experimentation, you'll get a knack hear a high-pitched, swooping effect without the
for guessing where, for instance, the 27th fret would clunking sound you'd get if you tried to pick the note
be (handy for playing the 'Purple Haze' solo without - very Dimebag Darrell!
an octave pedal!). However, this technique is always In general, whenever you're trying to coax
a little unpredictable, and it's probably best to use it harmonics out of your guitar, your best bet is to select
in that spirit. Many rock/metal players add completely your bridge pick-up and turn the tone control up to 10.
random pinched harmonics to a note and don't worry You'll also find that relatively new strings produce the
too much about the precise pitch - sometimes you best results. (Admittedly, some players prefer the
just need to make a note squeal! (Some players sound of old strings - Eddie Van Halen springs to mind
achieve the same effect by picking the string normally and the great Motown bassist James Jamerson
and using their right-hand little fingerto touch the node. famously used the same set of strings for ten years.)
I personally prefer the thumb method, because there That said, it's possible to breathe a new lease of life
are more visible reference points - pole pieces and into an old set of strings by boiling them for a few
the like - but there's nothing wrong with either minutes (just make sure they're dry before you put
approach; its purely a matter of choosing which feels them back on!). This renews some of the zinginess
more comfortable.) associated with new strings, but I have to say that the
effect is short-lived - it can't remedy bad intonation,
Tapped Harmonics and of course the strings are likely to break at the
Heres another variation on the general theme of slightest provocation. To be honest, this technique is
using the same part of your hand both to find the more popular with bass players, for whom buying a
node and to get the string vibrating. This time, try new set of strings is a far costlier affair.
holding down a chord shape and using the middle The following licks illustrate a few possible uses
finger on your left hand to tap out the nodes 1 2 frets for harmonics.
higher up. If you tap right above the fret with a
forceful motion and then immediately remove your Exercises
fingertip, the results should sound something like Example 7.1 arranges some natural harmonics in such
the start of Spanish Fly', Eddie Van Halen's acoustic an order that they outline an E minor pentatonic scale,
showpiece on Van Ha/en II. with a couple of ninths added for a bit of extra colour.
Remember that your tapping movement should You'll probably want to move your pick closer to the
have a little bounce in it or your fingertip will deaden bridge when you're playing the last four notes, a tactic
the harmonic and you won't get the right ringing tone. that helps to bring out the higher-order harmonics:
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88 ViVV
Extending The Fretboard

Example 7.1
8" '15"
IP

i'j, ,. . . ' ' :' ?' ' ' "


I
Nh
E 12 5 17
B L" 7 5 3.2 17
G 12 7 5 17
D 12 7
A P 7
E 7

Example 7.2 shows a Vai-esque trick - consult tracks Baltimore?' for examples. This lick mixes natural
like Steves Rescue Me Or Bury Me', David Lee Roth's harmonics with normal stopped notes on the low strings,
'Damn Good' or Frank Zappa's What's New In thus setting up two completely separate registers:

Example 7.2
8Uu

h a# i g"" ' ii'"


K '"" ^!
"
h:
' :O'
l^a
S'";'
'
C) oQ :U jo 0~, :U k4 '

? Nh Nh Nh Nh
E
B
G
D
A 0 ,, m
iii m, ,
{j ,
h 1!
V 2'2
E uo4a

Bm7 G/F Emadd9

Example 7.3 employs a simple chord shape to find that this trick works surprisingly consistently when
demonstrate how you can use harmonic nodes either you apply it to other chords.
an octave or an octave and a fifth above your stopped Note that in this and subsequent examples, I've
notes, thus squeezing a little extra value out of each notated artificial harmonics by writing the fretted notes
chord shape. Fifths are fairly docile intervals, so you'll normally and indicating the nodes in brackets.

Example 7.3

h a li
,C,e'|||' i fF
+
W
E
'p W'
F $
, IP , $
,:, E
:ip, E
n.
el I

E 0 (12) 0 (7)
B 0 (12) 0 (7)
G 2-(14) 2 (g)
D 4 (16) 4 (II)
A
E
F2m11

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89
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Creative Guitar: Advanced Techniques

Example 7.4 illustrates the technique of harp node on the low E string, with your thumb poised to
harmonics, so called for the obvious reason that they pick the same string. Keeping this assembly intact,
sound a bit like something a harp might produce. you should now position your right-hand middle finger
As you'll see from the tab, only half of the notes so that it can comfortably pluck the D string. Your
in this pattern are actually harmonics. If you let the hand should remain in this position throughout the
notes ring into each other and play at a moderate lick, moving down to the next set of strings as and
speed, however, you'll create the illusion that they're when required.
all harmonics. To start this lick, barre all of the strings You might have spotted this technique at work in
at the fifth fret and add your little finger to the top E the quiet section of The Police's 'Message In A Bottle',
string at the seventh fret. Now line up your right- but you'll hear more extensive use of the idea in the
hand index finger so that it's pointing at the 17th-fret playing of Chet Atkins, Lenny Breau and Tuck Andress.

Example 7.4

a tO je " a 0 0 W
Kl O + 0 0 0 4(.
'. P' ' P'
e' d, (Dl ( D) t a)

E 7 7
B 5 5
G 5 5 (17) 5
D 5 5 (17) 5 (17)
A 5 (17) 5 (17)
E r. (q 7\
U \U(V
eh (17)
Am9

Example 7.5 comprises a few other chord shapes that so well because some of the notes double up or seem
work well with the harp-harmonic idea. Try to find some to occur in the wrong order. The fewerfrets spanned by
of your own. You'll find stretchy chord shapes don't work a chord shape, the more likely it will sound good.

Example 7.5

& &

if 'B'
t
"S
W?
"S mi
&1
-'" E -
E
h> G
r' e .
w' _ e . " - &
~

e E '
e 6j
E
&) E
e F
W W

Example 7.6 is a variant where some less obvious method requires a little more trial and error, but it's an
nodes are used instead of those at the 12th fret. This interesting alternative to the normal method:
`i`i`iiv
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90 /iiVi]\
ViVV
Extending The Fretboard

Example 7.6
8ua 0

:SZ

Hr : " " 2 , P E .::,


C) 'd) (0) ('") P
(T)

E IQ 10-(29
B 8 8 (27)
G 7 7 (26) 7 (2G)
D
A 7 Pc)
E n (DA)
v u:m

Example 7.7 adds some pull-offs to the idea shown in trying to balance the volume between harmonics
earlier in Example 7.4, and the result is a fully-fledged and normal notes, so make sure you pay close
D major/B minor scale, replete with harp effect. The attention to this aspect of things - getting it right can
biggest problem with playing the last few licks lies improve the sound tremendously.

Example 7.7

44 f!! ?"|e Ip p " ) Ip Ie"?


P

C. , L m:
A 0
, " P , " " W 0

ej "' I I " ' (Dj (a) jo;

E 9 7 ,, ,, 7 9
B 8 7 7 8 0

G " 7 (19) , 7 7
D 0
7 (19, 7 (19) .
A 7 (19) 7 (19)
t (qn\
E Q I BUY

Example 7.8 touches on the idea of slap harmonics. slapping motion. This can work very well, but you
Players like Tuck Andress are fond of this rather hit- need to work on a brisk slapping motion - hit the
or-miss technique where the side of a right-hand strings confidently around the part of the neck where
finger (the index finger is highly recommended) is the 'average' node would be and then remove your
used in an attempt to strike the right nodes for all hand immediately in order to let the resulting notes
of the notes of a given chord shape in a single ring out clearly.

Example 7.8
8ua "7

?,' , i m :?=E ?
" g m -=- 2
~ j u
j ~

E
B
G
D
!
5
m'
7~ J 7
Z
A " "< 5 7 ,7, !
E n
V
(nj , , n
IW

Emil `i`i`iiv
v**  `

/iiVi]\
91
ViVV
Creative Guitar: Advanced Techniques

The following lick takes a parallel-fourths shape and shape with your thumb, middle and ring fingers. The
moves it down through a B minor pentatonic scale. For addition of the harmonics effectively turns the lowest
each shape, the idea is to point your index finger at a note of each chord into the highest, which has an
node on the lowest string as you pluck the whole chord interesting effect on the sound of each voicing.

Example 7.9

ha S T +

S"' ' :' ':' ! F (:': ,:, ,a


E 10 7
B fO 7 IQ 7
G 9 (21) 7 (19) 9 7 9 7
D 9 (21) 7 (19) 9 7 9 7
A 9 (21) 7 (19) 9 7
In [M} 7 (4 n\
E lV 1~ I I IUJ

Bm7

This next workout calls for as much gain and treble as hammer and pull off the notes indicated in the tab. If
possible! The idea is to run the side of your right-hand you're applying the correct amount of pressure with your
palm gently along the strings, moving between the bridge palm, your reward will be a long string of random-
and the front pick-up while using your fretting hand to sounding harmonics suitable for any heavy-metal ending.

Example 7.10

^u&
,,,)',0jl' t j| I |i ||||||1 |1|||||| I I lj| ,
e " MiUmLU _LLLUAy dg.gyj ~llllz<u _4alu
(random palm harmonics)
E
B
G
D ~ 1 1 m + m ~ m m e> m r7 m f7 ~ ~ ^ m ^ m ^
A 4 2 0 2 4 44^4*4+424H
E

Example 7.11 a more calculated version of the same in the tab. The fingering will remind you of the going-
idea. To execute this one correctly, hold your right- up-in-fourths scale patterns shown earlier, but the
hand index finger over the strings just above the 12th pitches that actually come out of your amp will sound
fret while your left hand hammers the notes indicated much more interesting.

`i`i`iiv
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/iiVi]\
92 ViVV
Extending The Fretboard

Example 7.11
harmonic p tches
("j t

F
yr, === 0 ~ g' ' CD + + +' P h' j0 IP ' P j0
' j0
'
' F
' 0
it
' F' 4'"
,Lt L.-' ' , ' ,' " I t
-, I
," , , -1
." . , , , I
h I ~ I
_
I, |1,| n '
"

fretted notes
q C '' . m
||'|1| |1'" |"r"m rm =n.
i' L . ~
i_ 0 q_ \ g ) ~
;j " al j jy 'e q m zu ~9 4 d ~9~' gAj ) ()
(hammer all notes)
hold right index finger over 12th-fret node
E
B mm
. .
G " " "." "J" 3 " 3 5
D m\/"^"" 3 m 3 5 357357 s7 .
A ' " J"L 3 I" 4"5 3 5 7 357 5 7 7
E n
O
r
qj
WC
L a
T
I
m

That was so much fun, I think we should do it again! your ring finger hovers above the D string at the
This time, you have to hold your right-hand index 14th. The outcome - unexpectedly - is an E major
finger over the low E string at the 12th fret while arpeggio idea:

Example 7.12
Bug
harmonic pitches
^ u tl . ,,
j/,ii l'f| 4 : ' 0 " ". " i E
' " ft
' E' E
' F' E" " ' P

' 4 I I ' I I
Q)
I I

?, q 9q :':" ''"' I I I I I I I I I O

'el " '_ a _ 4Ug^o_ 4_ ue_ a _a_y^gg_ 4 _ J _ "


RH holds nodeat12 (low E)
E
B .
0

G
D
A " , ~m t m~ J Li L, m~ , .J "
E Ch
V t:
U 7V fi
qj n
U CL
7U G
J d
U K
J 7U SI
4 lb
4 ft
Y 7 t:;
Y

Example 7.13 is a tip of the hat to Bumblefoot. For 12th-fret note is hammered by your left hand's index
this one, you should bring your fretting hand over the finger, and the 20th-fret note should be tapped in the
top of the neck so that you can use your little finger normal manner. Isn't it odd that the notes at frets 7
to rest lightly on the node at the seventh fret. The and 20 are only a semitone apart in pitch?

`i`i`iiv
v**  `

/iiVi]\
ViVV
93
Creative Guitar: Advanced Techniques

Example 7.13
Bug i

^a
_Z_ u , 0
;";> WI ';";> f ';";>
' W ' I :";>
W ' ' IW ;";>
' ' IW;";>
' ' IW;";>
' ' 1
W ';";> I,
' W 0

.V " I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ' I I I
Ci
6 I ' 6 - -J """_ 6- - - - ' _ '- 6- ---- -_.

" ^ " ^ " ^ " ^ " ^ " ^


+71*7H7'2A2Y71H17H7>12R2H7P12R17H7F121212
E
B
G . .
D
A . .
E

Example 7.14 reminds me of the impossibly long adding artificial harmonics 12 frets higherto keep the
harmonic-minor scale from the end of 'Eugene's Trick pitches ascending.
Bag', Steve Vais neo-classical party piece from the You could also try pinched harmonics or normal
film Crossroads (think Ralph Macchio rather than artificial ones here. Which technique best complements
Britney Spears). When you find yourself running out your particularset-up and playing style? Which sounds
of frets, simply run up the last seven notes again, better to you?

Example 7.14

- . + F F F F.E,,rE(t)
Ip .I . '
447 - " ' " " " I I ' " -,- ', , i
E 12 13 15 |2(24)-13{25P15127P17{29)
B r 13 15 f2-(24)-13{25P15{27)
G 14 14(26)
D
A
E

Here's a funny thing: if you add an artificial harmonic slide around to vary the pitch of said harmonic. Very
to a note played with a slide, you can then move the Jeff Beck!

Example 7.15
Bug i

g//ss g//ss g/iss g/iss

n F W)
(b +^ "f"^
p; "F^
.a "F^
'b' "E
i

With slide

E 5 (17)_ " 7'_ " 0 " ID " 12


B
G
D
A
E
`i`i`iiv
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94 ViVV
Extending The Fretboard

That last example might have reminded you of holding the slide over the top of the neck like a lap-
passages such as Duane Allman's slide solo at the steel player.
end of Layla', where he fearlessly takes the slide Example 7.16 requires you to hold the slide in your
right up past the end of the neck and over the pick- picking hand and use itto 'bow' the strings in a subtle
ups in the quest for ever higher notes. On most rubbing motion, creating a haunting, theremin-like
guitars, you'll find it hard to control the pitching of effect suitable for those One Flew Over The Cuckoo's
these ultra-high notes because the guitar's body is in Nest moments. I liked the sound so much I squeezed
the way, so you might want to experiment with it in at the start of the Asia track 'The Longest Night'.

Example 7.16
jjjma 1

g/iss g/iss g/iss ghSs


~ i ~ j "0
A Ip" "P" F

jz' Rub with slide


E 29_ "Jl "3,',_ " 3 k|. _ "3G
B
G
D
A
E

Some players use other objects in place of a slide when but this time the idea is to 'tap' imaginary notes. It's
tackling these high notes - Bumblefoot, for instance, hard to pull off after such notes, but if you've got enough
wears a thimble on the little finger of his picking hand gain on your amp, you'll get away with it.
and Matthias Eklundh uses a hosepipe clip. You can Note-wise, this is an A minor arpeggio. On a 24-fret
even use the edge of the pick, particularly if you've guitar with twin humbuckers, you might well find that
scraped it along the wound strings to give it a grittier pushing the top string against a front-pick-up pole piece
feel. For the next example, I continued to use a slide, produces the same high A note.

Example 7.17
15 mg
T T T T
n ._ P'\ m P^ _ 1P"> P^

Kz :, ;' " ' " 'b , a' " ' " 'b , a' " " 'b , a' " " 'b ,
'el i I I I I -m I I I I I I I -m- I I I I
I 6 " , 6 ' 6 ' I -6 "
Tap with slide or thimble
E 2^4m^o =4-%T20 2^4F2^0 2=4-@R^o
B .22 22 22 22
G .
D 0 .
A
E

Example 7.18 takes the idea shown in Example 7.17 to reference points, but with a little practice you'll get used
its logical conclusion. It's hard to play this A Aeolian mode to the spacing of the 'imaginary frets' beyond the top of
with accurate pitching because you have absolutely no the neck, and it certainly has an interesting effect:
`i`i`iiv
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95
Creative Guitar : Advanced Techniques

Example 7.18
jyna

^
)in I W E 0 -.P
jv " ' F : F "i" E ""i"i"""'
e.

E
B
@G9@- @_ -t@@ (m) @ G) -@@ 3,
G
D
A
-'i
E

Ouch!

`i`i`iiv
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96 ViVV
Here's some more food for thought: you can stretch than the traditional two- or three-note-per-string shapes
the fingering of a scale to incorporate many more notes allow you. For instance, check out Example 8.1 below:

8Uu " 7
Example 8.1 T T

^ . pFe!F.ppFF
17a I I I I I ll'| ' ' 'I'
jq4ut4q4"' ii' b

E IS |7-1m""
B 12 15-17
G 9 1214
D 7 9 I?.
A 5 7' IQ
E g
qj w
L g
U m
J rb
V
J k
V 7B

Yes, it's an E minor pentatonic lick that covers the whole higher, as shown in Example 8.2. Allan Holdsworth
neck! Your hand never really gets settled during this practises his scales using this kind of four-note-per-
exercise, as your index finger has to start each string string approach, but he applies a 1-2-3-4 fingering to
at a higher fret than the one immediately before it, but each string's worth of notes and dispenses with the
if you memorise the finger spacings, you can play this tapping idea altogether. It's great training for mind and
lick at considerable speeds, and it's quite a head-turner. fingers alike - there's never enough time to get settled
If you wanted to try playing seven-note scales in the in any one scale position - but it's probably easier to
same way, you could hammer three notes in the normal startby tapping the last notes on each string until you've
way, tap the fourth and start the next string one position memorised the general shape of the fingering:

Example 8.2 Bug _


T T
T T T
H
^ g
'i P' ." I =, I I I"' . d P T . d ip je a
ii ' k . ~ |0 H' e m I" " ' " p
..

" ija'ue' ' i i i i " r i i i


E
rj 14-15-17@15
B
^ 12-13-15>17,
G
D
, . ,g,S 7 g(jQ' ' '' """""'
A
E O q7 C \, 07
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97
ViVV
Creative Guitar: Advanced Techniques

Example 8.3 allows you to achieve a similar range of adding lots of position shifts. This workout works well
notes, but this time you do so by keeping your hand in whetheryou choose to pick every note oropt fora more
the more familiarthree-note-per-string configuration and legato approach and is typical of players like Paul Gilbert:

Example 8.3
g//ss
g/iss t7/i.qc
^
t) , _ I Ignss
, I m I I I "'X p p je F p p:"
'I 'I '
ii ' l
I I I" I I I
t " uo "' ' "-: ' '" "'
E
B l0-12-13-12-1W
G 7 9 117^+M1-12
D S 7 g 75~710
A 3 5 7 5 3."5 7 g
E 1 g t
qj U C

8m 7

T T T
^ a )
g/iss , .p ft p F P{ep n
if It" ni '' i
(C) I I I I I I I I I I I I I, _
_

E
B I 12 |31J, 12 141514114151711+17 15
G
D
A
E

The next exercise goes back to the Holdsworth idea double up- le the last note on each string is the same
of using a 1-2-3-4 fingering on each string but loses as the first note on the next - but that needn't be a
those position shifts. This way, some of the notes bad thing. Here, it gives a kind of ultra-legato effect:

Example 8.4

6 6 I C 6
?2m'| I |"1 , I I I , I I I I I I
(f ( ,v p i p
':J' " .L ( ' ( .. ( ' '"
6 '

E
B
G
D 9 1012141210
A 9 10 12141211012
E n on 4 3 4A44^ O 4^ 4n
qj ^J VG VW 0& UV a nj 04;

) 'P )
k'b P P Fpf p'|E p F u 0
Aa
(ii'
!1
' '
|-q-|||| I |||||'
' ' I I I I I I I I I
6 '' 6 I' 6 'I 6 '

E ID 12-14 15
B iq i2m3-15-13m2mom2-13
G 9 II |2-14-12-11~11-1"
D 9 10 12
A
E
`i`i`iiv
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98 /iiVi]\
ViVV
Extended Scales

And here's how the same idea applies to pentatonic different from anything you could get from a normal
fingerings. Note how the resulting legato sound is very two-note-per-string fingering:

Example 8.5

o"p"je p"P~1p"Q|1ptf
^a ~0 ~om Id
ZjQ S _ , ' ' " '" ' ' " i," "P " ' ' ' ' ' " ' '
';J '"l _W ! 1"| , I, T||,| I I, : I , ,
6 '
E
1 V M M V 1
B i,,m, J ,J b) m \/ m \1 k

G |"L/"k }"1 tjj"lj ", ml 121416141614121416


D I? 1417_14_17_14_12_1417 ),,,
A ,n^, I? 1417
E IK IT
Id; lqj vq

8Ua

6 ' g/iss

,?.' t -"~"'" "P" ,-.--P "} d


r Ff
,,,,, ,
i"P'^O>, fQ"jP"A
w

el 0j " I I I 6| I , m 6" I I, 6
1 V 1 1 V M
E " I"
12
r7 ~ ~ t ~ I~ t
15-17m5-17-15-11-15-17 J"L)^L 12 is 17-15-17-15-12-1+1719
B
G }mjtmc 12-14-16
D 12 14-17
A
E

Of course, you don't need to play these ideas legato. three notes on any given string so that the fingering
Example 8.6 shows another way of breaking out of co-operates with the requirements of sweep picking.
your normal pentatonic habits, this time by sweeping You really have to work on note separation and even
everything. In general, the idea is to play either one or timing to get the best results from this one:

Example 8.6

-6 '
A ""
I. 1 PJ'e '

Ar ' ' ' ; , I I


.,,
C) q V ' ' , 6
" V 1 M M V 1 M M V
E 5 8
B 8 8 (IQ)
G 5 7 9
D 7
A 5 7 10
E r.
U n
qj

You'll see how Example 8.7 takes the same basic strings, with the desirable result that the lick lasts
approach and applies it to every possible group of longer and sounds less like a normal scale:
`i`i`iiv
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/iiVi]\
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99
Creative Guitar: Advanced Techniques

Example 8.7

e
6 '
~ L-

S , Ti" I '" ~ , P P [Jo


( f - (v v a 0 0m i'
'ej " a e ' ' ~ I I |,L |"|6 I I,
6
" , mm m v 1 Vlll VM vmm m , m ,m m m P
E 5 8 lml
B 58 8 8 (IQ)
G 57 7 5 7 9
D 57 7 5 7 IQ
A 7 5 7 ID
E t: n 4n
;J O JV

The next lick takes a fingering pattern that should be the latter half of the bar. (If you try this with yourlittle
famihar to anyone who's ever played a diatonic scale finger at the 18th fret, incidentally, you'll get an off-
in descending fourths. All lve done is stretched the the-wall blues lick suitable for use in the key of G
shape a little, with the effect that the up-and-down minor. This is very reminiscent of Extreme's 'Get The
contour of the lick is less predictable, particularly in Funk Out'.)

Example 8.8
8ua

A a P" )6 )m _ pm ,m ,6 6 ,6
t|,|| li' +
. . ' k I pm ' d' ' ' P 0

I I I I I I I ' I P'
;j 4'I I I I I I I I" I I I
' 6 I ' -6 , ' 6 I ' 6

E 171519 15 12 .". I? " .. "t '19 151" 15 12 ^"t I? ,~, m


B 0 17 1715 171512 19 19 IS 19 151~
G
D 0

A
E

Meanwhile, Example 8.9 ties in nicely with that bluesy to a standard minor pentatonic. This means that you're
theme. This time, youre playing an A minor blues scale, playing a six-note scale with a three-note-per-string
which is produced by adding a dirty-sounding flath fifth fingering, and the pattern recurs on each pair of strings:

Example 8.9
Bug
6 '
n ' I d I ~m I ) 'P
f,Z i I I I I i 0 , " ""0 ' T' " di "W "P '" L
"ej j_g_O J ml" I I I6' I I,I I 6 i I
I

E )" " k II 121517


B ." (. " b 10 1'315
G " .. " . (J 9 12
D '"\)"\ 7 10 12
A '"'?"' G 7 ID
E K
u
n
qj
In
^J

Hopefully, this has given you lots of ideas. If you want to Example 8.10 shows many pentatonic shapes that
explore things further, check out the following diagrams. are suitable for the sweeping approach covered in
`i`i`iiv
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/iiVi]\
100 ViVV
Extended Scales

Examples 8.6 and 8.7. (I think you tend to think in terms the manner of Example 8.4, and Example 8.12 shows
of diagonal shapes when learning these fingerings, so some mammoth major-scale fingerings that extend all
I've highlighted places where three consecutive notes overthe neck, just like the one in Example 8.2.
fall on adjacent strings to show you exactly where all of Experiment with these workouts and find the ones
the sweeps are.) Meanwhile, Example 8.11 shows you that work best for you. They make you play differently,
seven four-note-per-string positions for a major scale, in dont they?

Example 8.10

^ ^
& ^ ,^

-O - O ST t
Y
1%":
"& " g:" "
Cl- "=~=n

^
U

^
Y '~'

-~m '-S
"=tiU=\~1 ~ ~
"~=2z
_"rO~ 3"
m
f '
I
)

~>~S:- -"
O~E"O~"O" = om:n'
8:-Lo"o:
C, m"' "

" cnj m:' "


" cKm~-o- -
" O- - - M-e -
,)J7!l
~mj_ i lOt
o~m~8' , L

iN^ra '7iAUI )
`i`i`iiv
v**  `

/iiVi]\
101
ViVV
Creative Guitar: Advanced Techniques

Example 8.11

ioiF|I}|8{oF8| |)2F-|i}!-2ioi8|o|8i
' : 0 e - O- - Qm ' j) Q4 : O- 0
) O- ' O' " O- - O- - )) Q: - Q: : O- e
e- - O- - O- O- " " - O- " O- O" " O- " -

O O- O C) I O O - O e
) 'e - O' - O O- ' O O O O
IO - O- 0 e)- - I' -O O 6) O-
':O ' O' O- = 0 m ' i: - O- Q: - O- ' 0 -
I') O-
O- O- Q:" 0J
O" " 0
O" :" -" "j O"- O- e
" C)" -" O
O" -" O"
O" ""

- O O 6) O li O e O O
= O' O' " O' ' O' i' - O O- - O' O
' 0=
0== Cr
O'
0
D:
-: 0=
0= =
:
I: Cr
6'j O-
O-
- O-
- 0= O-
O- 0J
- -
e' 0 0 0 - ;) D: : q: q: - O-
- O' - O" - C)- e" - - ') O- - O- e" " C)" " "

U - 6'- O- - O- O

':)j:'"il-|i|7)
Example 8.12

, i [ i [ i r?jeo{ :: gi j-o] __, "


- -O- -O d

= T -- O- -- O - O - [ I " 8

' O' O' : O - 0 ' """J" I


- 0- - O- - O - O- - - "I

="
'

"
:

-O
-

O
O
-O-
0
O

p)')o,') )7") i!
" O' -O 0- -- O
- O- - O- O- - O- - -

`i`i`iiv
v**  `

/iiVi]\
102 ViVV
Extended Scales

[ I I [ I ! I [ I i Oj ]O[ Oj" jO
! I { } I ,1 lollol?l li"l I
I I [ Oj I 0[ I Oj [ Oj [ L ] i [
OIO[[:[ [7[ [] [ ! I [ ] I I

o!|,!!|)jo)'){) |)') I'! !


5

i i i ! I I ' I !o!?l !8| Fi '


,!|jlij?li!|8i|i|||
6

I [ I I I I I I I I Oj I Oj ! Oj 0
I I L I i I I i 0 I i 0[ I 0| Oj I

o|!?)?||f|!|!|!d!!|!!|
7

I))l.)!%)!?):|oiSl
q c-j.i W"" "
:j
" 'I ' I
|jj
IJ
'2oj?i la! i?! |1 :A"""""""""
I I" " """"""

`i`i`iiv
v**  `

/iiVi]\
103
ViVV
: LA ' 0

Just because we're guitarists doesn't mean we have Basic slap technique is all about hitting the low
to take our inspiration from other guitarists. You can strings with the side of your right-hand thumb in a
learn from anything that sounds remotely like music, kind of bouncing motion while your fingers intervene
regardless of the instrument on which it's played. I from time to time by pulling notes on the higher
put it to you that Yngwie Malmsteen's vibrato and Eric strings to produce that popping effect. You'll probably
Johnson's tone are the results of listening to violin find that the slapped notes sound best if you attack
players, while fusion giants like Frank Gambale and the strings near the point at which the neck joins
Allan Holdsworth tend to take their cues from horn the body.
players. (In fact, Scott Henderson is notable in that Although I would recommend playing the
field for being one of the few players who rea//ysounds following exercises gently at first, for the sake of
like a guitarist!) Danny Gatton and Robben Ford have accuracy, the best-sounding results ultimately come
used plenty of Hammond-organ licks in their playing, from getting a little more physical - the harder you
eccentrics like Buckethead have successfully attack the strings, the funkier the results will sound.
translated slap-bass techniques onto guitar, and of Example 9.1 illustrates a typical two-bar pattern.
course if you had a penny for every time you've heard You're basically sliding an octave shape up and down
someone say, Man, he really makes the guitar sing,' between the fifth and seventh positions, and a lot of
you'd be able to afford Dave Gilmour's Strat collection. the notes are muted. This actually sounds more
In this chapter, I thought I should introduce some authentic than letting every note ring out clearly,
ideas inspired by other instruments to get you into because the whole point of slapping is to get a
the spirit of things. Let's start with a look at some rhythmic, percussive vibe rather than come up with
slap-guitar ideas. clever melodies:

Example 9.1
Slap gtr
mice g/iss a/ks

k, q,,it , . 0 K w ,U w .
P
d '
0 }, )q ), )\ 0 )4
e " 0 ' U

E
B
G . 9 X 9 X g '
D
A ' 5? "7 X X 5 "7 X X 5 "7' X
E
`i`i`iiv
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104 /iiVi]\
ViVV
Emulating Other Instruments

Example 9.2 is similarto the example on the previous bouncing motion in time at moderate speeds before
page, butthis time yourthumb has to slap two dead you start to foo around with any amb|t|ous
notes in a row, so you'll need to work on getting that metronome settings:

Example 9.2

^ li t 4, ""'.
tL . ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,,
V
,, ,,
0
,,
P .
7" \
Ci 0
.

E
B
G 9 7 9 7 9 "
D
A ' 5> "7 X X X X X X X X X .
E

Example 9.3 features a new idea: slapping with both Left-hand slapping works best if you use two orthree
hands. This technique can increase your speed fingers together, keeping them relatively straight to avoid
enormously, and whenever you see a pair of Xs in the any unintentional natural harmonics. The alternation
tab, you should play the first with yourfretting hand and between your two hands is well worth working on, as
the second with your right-hand thumb, as normal. it's a key feature in many classic slap licks.

Example 9.3

2 d-! 0 W 0 .

? : ' :i : F :1 :i Y FV X -y-
0

R L R L R L R L R L R
E 0 0 0 0 0
B 0 0

G
D 0 0

A
E rb
V ^y V ^ v
^ v
^ v
^ v
^ v
^ v
^ v
^ v
^

Example 9.4 throws in a couple of new ideas. The last notes on from nowhere after the open D and G strings
beat uses a right-left-right alternation to create a triplet to produce a brighter sound than you'd get with
and add rhythmic interest, and you're also hammering conventional hammer-ons. Slowly does it at first. ..

Example 9.4

a a li I 3 I

'E""i':u::i:i' " g44""g4j' I

H L R L H L R L H R L R
E
B 0 P

G 0
D .0 G 0 0

A 7 7
E n YYY n
V
V
^
VV
^ ^
VYV
^ ^ ^

`i`i`iiv
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/iiVi]\
105
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Creative Guitar: Advanced Techniques

OK, I think by now you've got the idea about this approach. This one requires a loose wrist action, as
whole right-hand/left-hand-alternation business. Next, it alternates between slapped and popped notes in a
Example 9.5 goes back to a purely right-hand triplet rhythm:

Example 9.5
1 3 I I 3-m

2, $,t , . "'" ' " ) r"" rj =" JTTIJ =" " "
I 0

" 4 " 0 :.
) "" " U 4 S d3M g :d _4 'a r
' 3 '

E 0 X 4 X 5 X 7 X
B 0 9

G ,,

D ' 5 7 X X lml
0

A
rb a v V ,0 , Cr vv fz , Ct vv
E V W ^ ^ Wp U ^ ^ UP I ^ ^

Of course, not all bass players slap for a living, and to finger, as this means that I can store my pick in the
reflect this lve thrown in this next example to show crook of my index finger, where it's easily accessible.
how you might emulate the 'finger funk' sound If you don't get on with this approach, you might try
associated with players like Jaco Pastorius, Tower Of using your thumb and index finger. Either way, the
Power's Francis Rocco Prestia and indeed the idea is to bring each digit back onto the string
underrated Norman Watt-Roy from The Blockheads fractionally before it has to pick the next note, which
(Ian Dury's band). I normally play this kind of thing by creates little gaps between the notes. You might find
alternating between my right-hand thumb and middle it helpful to imagine that your strings are sticky:

Example 9.6
jaco

tj a. tl g/iss g/iss

i:""
e ' " "'g'
0

" " " ;" "' d G d b'uj " "


0

p p m p m p m m p m p p m
E
B 0 0

G
D 0 0

A 4 4 5 5 G G '"7 5 5
E n n
V q
qj n
V n .
U~ j '7 I

Having said that the above example is inspired by cheesy '80S programmed synth bass lines, particularly
fingerstyle bass players, I should add that the same if you mute the strings near the bridge with your right-
approach also works if you're trying to play funky hand palm.
clavinet-style parts along the lines of Stevie Wonders lncidentally, I've suggested using your second and
timeless Superstition riff. Similarly, the technique third fingers to do all the hammering purely so you can
shown in Example 9.7 was inspired by Chapman Stick rest your index finger behind them to dampen any
players like Tony Levin, who often hammers the same unwanted notes. It's hard to get a clear tone from
note repeatedly with alternating fingers in this manner, every note, but it's an interesting effect when you get
but you'll also spot its potential for emulating those it right. In theory, it leaves your right hand free to tap
`i`i`iiv
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106 ViVV
Emulating Other Instruments

something completely different over the top, so you grooves incorporating these bassline ideas and some
might like to try coming up with some two-handed tapped chords.

Example 9.7
Chapman stick

n a li VII V
," K| " - 0
i'l l
I I I I I I .
;j 4: 1 , , 2 I
it 4 4 4 q a ail a :
2 1 2 I 2 I 2
: : :
7

All hammered
E
B 0
.
G
D
A "7 7 7 7 5 5 5 5
0

E 7V 7a 7W 7U J
n
u
Fa
4J
FI
u

Now let's have a look at how you might go about tremolo picking (le by repeatedly picking the same
drawing inspiration from some other instruments. If note as fast as possible, in a Just one Cornetto'
you wanted to come up with some mandolin-like ideas, kind of way).
you would want to consider the following:
Example 9.8 below reflects all of these factors. If you
" Mandolins are tuned in fifths, not fourths, so they wanted full authenticity, I guess you'd want to try using
lend themselves more easily to widely spaced a 12-string guitar. Between this book and its companion
chord voicings. volume, however, I think lve already suggested buying
a metronome, a cheap acoustic, a fretless guitar, a
They're higher in pitch than guitars. seven-string, a multitrack recorder and a phrase sampler,
amongst other things, so I should probably calm things
" Their ability to sustain is relatively limited, so the down on the spending front before I get you interested
easiest way of keeping a note going is by using in E-BOws, active circuitry and stereo amp set-ups!

Example 9.8
Mandolin
Bug 7

na 4j'M'b
;i" R. ,, p
' h"r
' t Ne IT"
cjr '4i '"'"" '' 'I
'" %
ol

E
B
G
D
A
E
m""' " """1:1^"1:!"' j:f'"
Example 9.9 is a more guitaristic' form of tremolo the great things about it is the way in which it lets
picking in which you brush the strings lightly with you play sustained chords at low volume levels with
one of your right-hand fingertips (you choose). Stevie none of the brashness associated with normal
Ray Vaughan was fond of this technique, and one of tremolo picking:
`i`i`iiv
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107
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Creative Guitar: Advanced Techniques

Example 9.9
Stevie Ray Vaughan
^ Cb
O
e7- : D4' ,0 0

u 0

'" q C)
C)

Tremolo pick with fingertip


E 3 3
B
G . 54 3
3 .
D
A . 3 2 .
E
G13 C9

Here's a Satriani-like variation on the above idea. with this one is to rub your pick against the strings
(Have a listen to 'The Snake' from the Not Of This as near the bridge as possible to achieve a budget-
Earth album if you require further proof.) The trick Mellotron effect:

Example 9.10
Mellotron
^ L
KI

[';; : : ': : :! : d'


Rub pick near bridge
'.
E
B
G
D 10 12 14 15 14 12 10 9 10
A 12 14 IS 17 IS 14 12 11 12
E

This next one is based on an idea often associated milliseconds. If your delay unit won't tell you the
with U2's The Edge. The basic idea is to set up a number of milliseconds it's set to, you can play
delay pedal (uh-oh - more spending!) so that it straight eighth notes and simplyfine-tune the Delay
produces a single repeat, a dotted eighth note after Time knob until it sounds right. (I know for a fact that
the original note. Therefore, if you play an eighth- Albert Lee uses this method, on the grounds that a
note figure, the results come out as a constant string live band won't play a song at exactly the same
of 16th notes - le what you're playing suddenly tempo from one night to the next.) Most modern
sounds twice as clever! To hearthis idea applied to delays tend to offer you a 'tap tempo' facility, by
double stops, you should check out Albert Lee's which you simply tap your foot on a switch in time
Country Boy', and to hear it at preposterous speeds with the music and the pedal will do all of the maths
you need look no further than the 'Flight Of The for you.
Wounded Bumble Bee' intro to Extreme's 'He-Man In Example 9.11, I've illustrated how this delay
Woman Hater'. trick can create a cello-like sound if you use the
There's a simple formula for figuring out the Volume knob or pedal to swell into each note. Van
correct delay time, bythe way: divide 45,000 by the Halen's Cathedral' is perhaps the most famous track
tempo of the music, and there's your answer in ever to exploit this effect:
`i`i`iiv
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108 ViVV
Emulating Other Instruments

Example 9.11
Pitches as heard

^ IP (IP) P :()JP) (PI


"t . ' I ' ' \ ' h i' j ' ' '
". ,r \ ) ' ) ' e' ' ' ' e' , i' ) '

tj' "jD,A=,fl ' GGLJ GGLJ ' ' ' i


"
0

Pitches as played " 0 P

\!4"1'"::" i:::::::' m = ~~ < m < = ~~

E
B .
0

G . -. 13 14 .
0
a ~
D ,c jq .
6 P

A ' "2 15 '5 2 q: '5 - .


%

Next, Example 9.12 takes a quick look at the potential Rage Against The Machine's Tom Morello uses this
of rubbing your hands along the windings of the low idea to great effect.
strings. (You can do this with your pick, too, but I find On the CD example, ltried to use the same idea to
that this can sometimes sound a little too harsh.) If create a Latin-sounding percussive effect, something
you keep your fingers fairly straight, the results not along the lines of a guiro. The faster your hand moves,
only sound like a DJ scratching some vinyl but the the higher pitched the resulting squeak will be, so bear
wrist motion also feels very similar to that activity. this in mind as you try to bring out the accented notes:

Example 9.12
Percussion
=
m-
^
4
C:? " " " " "k " " " " "'
P

(string squeaks) etc


E
B P
0

G
D
A
E " + %- -> - -> <- -> iE- "

Moving on, you'll remember that I mentioned how you this technique, and you might like to experiment with
can use tapping to create the trills normally associated using your pick to tap the pre-bent note at the 20th fret
with blues harmonica playing. Example 9.13 illustrates rather than use a conventional tapping finger.

Example 9.13
Harmonica
8ul7 7

T tr n, T tr

^u
Z: it 4 ,:nbKFE"'",2"
RF" I I
tI I ",+TEmi""'"2" I 6I "Lpg.j
' :" I "
ij 4
partial T (trill at 20) partial T (trill at 20)
PBU LO 8U(hold) / PBU LO 8U(hold) / LO BSS
. .r . J
E (|7K19H18H19)(22)(19) (|7H19K18H19)(2~19) '19)1715
B
G
D
A `i`i`iiv
E v**  `
E7 /iiVi]\
ViVV
109
Creative Guitar: Advanced Techniques

This next exercise attempts to emulate the kind of combining slides and bends. The results might not
overblown, theatrical phrasing used by singers like sound particularly like a convincing soul singer, but
Mariah Carey. Trained vocalists can glide effortlessly they illustrate an interesting way of approaching
between notes in a way that might remind you of phrasing that I don't think would have been
string-bending but somehow seems to cover a wider discovered if the 'vocalist' idea hadn't been used as
range, so I've tried to emulate that effect here by a starting point.

Example 9.14
Soul vox

IV g"mg-.-_m--.?:
IX XIII
.-:;";"="E"m"p":';6:L*t
,XVl
,r::?",m ~
^i uli tl" ,- m + + . m" b " " b Jqj " '" "i
'y' 1'=L"l.||,,,",| iir ii 'i',, ,,
BD LB BD LB BD LB BD LB BD LB
E
+ ~ + + ^ ~ + + ~
B
G G '7F6-4mm744i11a114Aj~1am4mA6m'i1;9)18m'6m8m4M15F14-1Li4\1i1i2p11m
D
A
E
E7

Example 9.15 shows you just how a smooth legato it and the chromatic note immediately below it in
technique can help you to emulate saxophone licks. order to produce a complex yet melodic effect. If
In terms of notes, this technique is reminiscent of you pick more of the notes, you'll hear this example
John Coltrane's playing. The idea is to decorate each mutating into something sounding like a Django
note of a G majorarpeggio with the scale note above Reinhardt lick:

Example 9.15
Sax
I 3m
A u a . 3 I 3 I I 3

"" " '"K i j


\jj) aqua
I ' , I ( " " "0
L JW X4j ,
E
B
G
D
,,m> m> mm m,,. 7
, ,, c"m, ,,
7 7
G 7 6 S ,
G
A
m . TWT
E '+ ;J '+ Q '+ I U__ I D C

^ W it,,
' f,6
" ' I"~' _ X"b" "," " ) r"pjp"p ' It '
I,!! 4||"'H " '" mmk " f L

(jj' mm um 3 _3 I I - 3I - I I I
,
" 3"

E m m mm 12
B ". " '""". ." .. "\ " " |2-14-121112
G /^lj^t}"C/ ~\ 9 II 9 8 JJ 13-14-131213
D 9 II 9 8 JJ
A
E

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110 ViVV
Emulating Other Instruments

The next two exercises over the page are inspired up with variations where the grace notes lead up to
by Hammond players such as Jimmy Smith. Example the higher notes instead.) You'll definitely benefit
9.16 uses a series of double stops, with a grace note from using a pick-and-fingers approach for ideas such
leading up to the lower note of each. (Try to come as these...

Example 9.16
Organ

g/iss gins
A 1 It. fjm. :hs 2# i-j
L t 'upap ' ' '~ a : jl IP |11 ,, a;' Ip _ , ij
0 IK
Q) " V

E 3(3) 3 "3) 3 3 G b'


B G" " C)
G G2 "7 6"<5 3 5 3 4 4
D 5 'k '
A
E

G7

Example 9.17 alternates between double stops and be sure to observe the right-hand fingering
a G pedal tone. For the smoothest sounding results, suggested here:

Example 9.17

Ill
V 2 ,>, I
h m
:' '
I
?m 2: ' ':#$2 ., aB
R , 9;41: . S
0 .
ej I 1 3

E mm ,r~
B
G . 3(3)
3 4 5
5 C) (G)
C) 7 5
5 .
D
A , 5 5 ' S 5 .
E
G

I'll wrap things up with what Eric Johnson describes as Oriental vibe to a lick (Marty Friedman is noted for his
the 'koto effect', referring of course to the Japanese use of ideas like this), and if you pick as close to the fret
instrument of that name. By pre-bending each note and as possible, you'll get an unnaturally thin-sounding tone
releasing it as soon as it's been picked, you can add an that doesn't really sound like a guitar any more.

Example 9.18
Koto
wide vib wide vib

A- k -b m-t . (Alp C
r-}'
" \ %1 '
~ k
GS 4 "" "~lp :~ 0 ' ' '~ _ ;" '_3
-i ,
Pick near frets
PBD LB PBD LB PBU LO PBU LO PBD LB PBD LB
,U, ,,
E
B tm ,m, " " (8) (10)8 (1OH12J1O /"4 l"^k ,mm,,e~i,
G (7)-(9) 7' (g' 'IQ) 9 '@ 'IQ) 9 (7)-(9)7
D
A `i`i`iiv
E v**  `
G /iiVi]\
111
ViVV
Creative Guitar : Advanced Techniques

OK, now you're on your ownl Hopefully, all of the apply this kind of thinking is to use another instrument
above exercises have encouraged you to listen to a merely as a starting point. Youill never make your
wider range of instruments in your pursuit of guitar- guitar sound exactly like any other instrument - it is,
playing inspiration. There's a wealth of music out after all, a guitar - but your attempts to emulate
there just waiting to be plundered, so explore it all something unusual will encourage you to think more
fearlessly and try to make some new discoveries for laterally about your instrument, thus generating lots
yourself. Remember that the most fruitful way to of fresh ideas.

`i`i`iiv
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112 ViVV
In this chapter, ld like to give you some ideas on how generally prettier if you stick them at the top of your
to explore some new chord voicings. The way in which chord voicing rather than lower down in 'muddy'
guitar chords are voiced is largely governed by the fact territory. You'll note that most of the above chord
that the instrument is tuned in fourths, thus getting shapes reflect this, and it's a rewarding exercise to
three or four adjacent scale notes into a chord shape experiment with moving each shape around the neck,
(le using intervals of a second) is pretty much listening outforany chords that sound particularly good.
impossible by conventional means, whereas keyboard (To hearwhat you can do with combinations of movable
players find these kinds of voicings much easier to chord shapes and open strings, check outjeff Buckley's
play. This doesn't seem fair to me. Why should they Grace album, in particular the track 'So Real.)
have all the fun? When youre trying to come up with chords in this
One way of getting more clusters of adjacent scale way, you might find it helpful to start with a cluster of
notes into your chord voicings is by trying all of the notes and experiment with playing different bass notes
shapes you already know on a high-strung guitar. This underneath. A scale cluster sounds a little more vague
is whatyou getwhen you fityour guitarwith the higher than a stack of thirds, so it's more likely to work in a
of each pair of strings from a 12-string set - le you're variety of harmonic contexts. If, for instance, you start
replacing the lowest four strings with thinner ones tuned with the open B and top E strings, along with the sixth-
an octave higher and leaving the other two alone. This fret Ct on the G string and the seventh-fret A on the
is a fascinating area for experimentation - the G and D D string, you'll find that every note of the A major scale
strings become higherin pitch than the top E and B, so sounds good in the bass.
your favourite chord shapes suddenly take on a new, When you've spent a little time scouring the
sparkling quality. Of course, this is a great tool for fretboard for ideas in this vein, you'll have amassed
multitrack recording. (Incidentally, you might have heard quite a dictionary of unusual chord shapes, but you still
the same idea described as Nashville tuning'.) might not be satisfied - after all, each chord will work
Another way of increasing your chord-voicing in only one key because of its dependence on open
potential would be to leave your tuning alone and strings. The next step would be to try some two-handed
instead try to incorporate more open strings into your chords. Once you bring your right hand onto the neck,
voicings. Rather than offeryou any specific tips on how you can finger pretty much any chord voicing you like,
to do this, I'd rather you took a good long look at the and you dont need any open strings to help you!
sample chord shapes shown in Example 10.1 overthe The only problem with two-handed chords is that
page and drew your own conclusions. you no longer have a picking hand at your disposal, so
As you've seen by now, notes that are separated it's hard to getthese shapes sounding good. In certain
by small intervals sound clearer, more distinct and cases, you'll be able to strum the chord with your right
`i`i`iiv
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113
Creative Guitar: Advanced Techniques

Example 10.1: Open-string chords

Cmaj9 Am9
O u
O- - G)
N~l
' O
i' O I O
Y
X

Bm11 A9
O O
:J
C)
rj
0
^4j
Fi
jm
:J

Ab74549 Em13(9)
O ^
V

O 3 ''
_m
~ mb
O
-C m
~

~
Bm11(9) Emaj9/8
O
1~
' 'C
D -O
O ^
GJ

(+

Emaj9 A13/Am13 (no 3rd)


X '
9
O O
O m
dm 1'~0 '
dm

O '
0

Bm add9 A13
X X ,

C O
Ci O)
O
X
, C) O ,
B

Emil Am9
m O)
7IO C))

O O)
q~ C
+
0 CJc

E13(9) Emaj13
0
r7
O
" O
D,
D'
C. e C"
-Cl i

`i`i`iiv
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/iiVi]\
ViVV
New Chordal Ideas

hand's little finger while its fellow digits are engaged component notes and bring them up to the dynamic
in fretting duties, but in general you'll want to hammer level of normal playing.
all of the notes simultaneously to produce a piano-like Check out the sample shapes in Example 10.2 and
block-chord effect. Using compression might help if see what you think. Be sure to read the diagrams
you plan to do a lot of work on this aspect of chordal carefully, though, to ensure that the gap between your
playing, as it can help to even out the volume of the hands is the right amount of frets wide:

Example 10.2: Two-handed chords

m9 11
^ r>
'Z
,F

=0 ' .
C' { ,1\ L,
1\
' ' -^
4r

- A t
~
13sus4 m13
=N-) ,^,

pm I ! A,
Ii 1/\, ' -O
- mj ,
_-
: ' A : - -I' t

13/m13 (no 3rd) mai7


m

l"iM1I ]-I"-' i'tt LFla


- k -
j|||'2r+ j,j icrj^
" y

13 maj9
r>
d2i
=Sii ii 'i [[ "

'g '"I L
(

" .a
)-))))1'],,- ll-l
" ' Ah

maj9 m9

c2"[ [ I j- L [ I I I [ [ I I
l1d| i {
jll I'I " ' a t
A
4 4

,,
,:ju_)g,)!'))7l
mil ml 1
O
I i I ! j I I
)"jo)j})
i):
: ' C" " ' '" "
j , '" Fil'][l
1]!]]' '" )0 a
-ii --
I
3

^= `i`i`iiv
v**  `

/iiVi]\
115
ViVV
Creative Guitar : Advanced Techniques

This approach isnt for everyone, I admit, but It certainly examo es \".'e'e', taxe a cjLl ck look atthe fo dv'.' rig open
opens up a lot of new possib|||t|es. Moving away from vo/ccc/ shapes. Example 10 3 ciemonstrates the genera
the idea of close-voiced chords (for such the above iaea as 1[)[) eel to the nversions of a C major triad

Example 10.3

& ,.. j7 (J% S, J q


dj
. . .

C
7 ir"' "
j<
tj
,. j;
d"""

Z t:" <> e CJ

E
B 5 8 13 17
G 0 5 9 12
D 2 5 5 10 10 14 14 17
A 3 3 7 7 10 10 15 15
E

As you can see, here lve taken the middle note out when you drench them in signal processing!
of each triad and moved it up an octave, so the Example 10.4 demonstrates some shapes for
resulting open-voiced shapes are built from fifths and open-voiced triads, with the root notes blocked in, as
sixths. These have a more open sound to them than always, while Example 10.5 demonstrates some
conventional chord voicings, and they sound great corresponding minor shapes:

Example 10.4
K

^
O" '
e :
-O
0 0== I

': )|)j
)(

X ai
W ir

- O - F A 6) i X O} i jej
O O
O}
i pt I

Example 10.5
X K

-O D
X e Ik-
--- O
e -D - -
M
" "- Or f I
X=

6> X

X
P

6'- ? X -0_ je|


-=0 X

X
O
O O P

`i`i`iiv
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/iiVi]\
116 ViVV
New Chordal Ideas

If you like the sound of these, you could take the idea as single notes and writing some licks based around
further by... the results. Think of Eric Johnson's 'Cliffs Of Dover'
if you need inspiration!
" adapting the shapes to all of the remaining string
groups; Here's one final chordal concept for you to explore, a
method of generating unfamiliar new chord shapes
" adding various high notes to create more complex from the ones you already know. I've already shown
open-voiced chords: you how to move a voicing up a scale {remember
harmonising the major scale in seventh chords?), but
whacking on some distortion, playing the shapes now the idea is to move the chord up through itself.

Example 10.6

O'
:?1

In general, it's worth exploring as many different it'll certainly take you to some uncharted parts of
inversions as possible, as every inversion has its the fretboard.
own distinctive balance between the component For a simple example, take the standard Cmaj7-
notes. If the first example of a major-seventh chord shape chord voicing shown in Example 10.6. You'll
you ever heard was an open A shape with the G2 see that the notes are arranged in a 1-5-7-3
added on the bottom E string, you'd conclude that formation, starting from the lowest note, so the plan
the major seventh was a pretty nasty piece of work, would be to put them in a logical order (1-3-5-7)
whereas the diagonal shape spanning frets 4-7 on and then move the notes up through this cycle
the top four strings actually sounds sweet to the instead of through the whole scale. Thus 1-5-7-3
point of cheesiness. The following method won't becomes 3-7-1-5, then 5-1-3-7, 7-3-5-1 and finally
give you every conceivable inversion of a chord, but 1-5-7-3 again, as shown in Example 10.7:

Example 10.7
0
0
^ Cb
:CL
4Y
4"
H
. .

q
AIk n a K' q
\ij : a C) a

E
B 5 8 I," 13 17
G 4 S 9 I? IG
D 5 9 IQ 14 17
A 3 7 10 14 IS
E
Cmaj7

Some of these permutations sound better than others, that might seem when you listen to the bizarre sound
but you can be sure that they all contain the same of the 7-3-5-1 inversion!
notes - they're all Cma j7 voicings, unbelievable though If you took the same starting point and moved the
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117
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Creative Guitar: Advanced Techniques

B-string note down to the third fret, you'd have a Cmaj9 1-2-5-7. Nowyou can move the chord shape up through
chord with no third in it. This is a 1-5-7-9 voicing, so this simplified formula, generating arrangements of
your best bet would be to keep everything within one 2-7-1-5, 5-1-2-7, 7-2-5-1 and finally 1-5-7-2 again.
octave, thus viewing the voicing as 1-5-7-2, and Example 10.8 demonstrates how this translates onto
rearranging this last group of note names in order - le the fretboard:

Example 10.8

^ Cb
A 0
TY #
4 eOf " 'Pd g i"
'ej 0 u

E
B 3 8 12 13 15
G 4 5 7' I?, lG
D 5 9 10 r 17
A 3 5 to 14 IS
E
Cmaj9

All of these voicings have the first, fifth, seventh and order, and it's up to you to decide which ones sound best.
ninth you started with, but each puts them in a different Here's another group. This time, you can do the maths:

Example 10.9
O
W
^
r u-r " ftn u
it '
il ;' k '
cy
CJ
(J
n J
';,J <5' Ty

E
B 5 G 8 I," 17
G 4 9 ID I," 16
D 3 5 9 14 15
A
E n
4j
W Qm qUJ
m QC
0& VU

G13

Here's a final variation on the idea. This starts with a chord into 5-2-b3-b7, which obviously can be rearranged
1-5-9-b3-b7 voicing of an Am9 chord, butinstead of the to form 2-b3-5-b7, and that's the cycle through which
notes all moving up, the low A stays where it is and the the high part of the chord shape moves. (How else might
other four notes ascend. More specifically, the ninth is you describe what's going on here? Hint: do the moving
lowered by an octave, turning the 5-9-b3-b7 part of the shapes remind you of any other chord type?)

Example 10.10
0
0
L O jCC
A C TT ST 4
m
u
lj 4
y gy O cy
0 0 0 0

E 3 7 8 12 15
B 1 5 8 L" 13
G 4 5 9 12 1G
D 2 S 9 10 14
A 0 0 0 0 0
E
Am9

`i`i`iiv
Your homework now, of course, is to try out this method on every chord shape you know. EnjoY
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118 ViVV
We've spent a lot of time in this book looking at which take it too seriously, but there's certainly some truth
scales best complement various chord progressions, in the fact that wrong notes sound best when played
so now I'd like to focus on how you can break all of with conviction.
those rules and get away with it. Just as a high concentration of chord tones will
If you read Creative Guitar 1, think back for a make you sound melodic, similarly a cluster of less
moment to the section on improvising with scales. obvious notes will normally come across sounding
There, I told you that some scale notes were more jazz or, at the very least, weird, so bear in mind that
equal than others - le root notes and other chord there's a time and a place for all of the following. If
tones sound particularly good at prominent points, you're trying out these ideas in a solo and you think
such as at the end of each phrase, while the it's all getting a bit too odd for your liking, your best
remaining notes are best used as 'in-between' bet is to find your way back to some chord tones,
material for joining up the chord tones or adding making the transition as smooth and as musical as
embellishments to them. possible. This has the effect of somehow justifying
I also pointed out that the tension you get from the stranger notes you've just played. Using clever
over-emphasising the less appropriate notes can notes all the time will get to sound as boring as
sometimes be a valid musical effect, too, particularly playing only chord tones - there's a balance to be
if the chords aren't changing too quickly. If you struck here!
persistently land on random-sounding notes, your If you're looking for some good examples of
audience will have no choice but to conclude that wrong notes in action, you should investigate fusion
you neither know nor care about the identity of the players like John Scofield and Scott Henderson, both
chord over which you're playing, while if you land of whom will give you an interesting perspective on
on them occasionally your audience will be intrigued how these ideas might sound in a rock context. Both
and you'll keep their undivided attention forthat little players use a biting, overdriven sound.
bit longer. I'm going to start by returning to an idea covered
You can treat the 'wrong notes in the same way briefly in the 'Eight-Finger Tapping' chapter. You'll
- they work just fine if you use them to lead up to remember that the major scale contains enough
more 'correct' notes, and occasionally you might notes to generate three different minor pentatonic
even choose to emphasise one, just for the shock scales, starting from the second, the third and the
factor. There's an amusing jazz tenet along the lines sixth. This means that, for any given mode, you have
of 'Whenever you happen to play a bad note, play it three technically correct places at which to play your
twice, then people will think it was intentional'. This favourite blues licks, as illustrated by the following
is obviously a very irresponsible bit of advice if you chart:

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119
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Creative Guitar @: Advanced Techniques

Ionian Major pentatonic starting on the help you to tackle awkward chord changes. If, for
root, up a fourth or a fifth instance, a song featured these chord changes...

Dorian Minor pentatonic starting on the Am - m - Gm - Cm


root, up a second or a fifth
.. .you could assign a Dorian mode to each chord, which
Phrygian Minor pentatonic starting on the would give you access to the following pentatonic shapes:
root, down a second or up a fourth
In A Dorian: A minor, B minor and E minor pentatonics
Lydian Major pentatonic starting on the
root, up a second or a fifth In Eb Dorian: Eb minor, F minorand Bb minor pentatonics

Mixolydian Major pentatonic starting on the In F2 Dorian: F minor, Gt minorand l3 minor pentatonics
root, down a second or up a fourth
In C Dorian: C minor, D minor and G minor pentatonics
Aeolian Minor pentatonic starting on the
root, up a fourth or a fifth This means that you could tackle the whole progression
by starting with an E minor blues box and moving it up
Locrian Minor pentatonic starting down a a fret with every chord change - much easier! (Can you
second, up a minorthird or a fourth spot any short-cuts starting from the other pentatonics?)
All of that was interesting, but there weren't any
Using the less obvious pentatonics in a modal jam will wrong notes as such. Now let's throw in some fully-
help you to come up with licks that enhance the more fledged chromatic notes. These are the notes that don't
colourful qualities of the mode without sacrificing the belong to the scale you're supposed to be using, and
distinctive intervalic qualities of the pentatonic scales we they should be used with caution, at least until youve
all like to use. You'll often find it hard to resolve phrases become accustomed to the way that they sound, so
based on these scales (some of them don't even contain I've suggested a few licks here to give you some starting
the root note) because the 'good' notes aren't in the parts points. All of these are designed to work in A minor, so
of the scale shape where you'd normally find themf For I'm sure youll find a home for at least some of them.
this reason, it's essential that you listen to each note as OK, time for some more fingerwork. Example 11.1
you play it ratherthan just relying on pre-rehearsed licks. is a Richie Kotzen-esque idea that starts with an A minor
As a reference point, a lot of Eric Johnson's fast-picked pentatonic shape and chromatic notes are then added
runs move between various pentatonics over a single a semitone above the top note on each string. Note
chord, spending maybe a beat or two on each scale, and how the chromatic notes don't sound particularly
the effect sounds interesting at any speed. offensive: the lick visits them in passing but quickly
An unexpected by-product of this idea is that it can reverts to normal scale tones:

Example 11.1

A nnp"p ll , - k rr r-P )6 i A~

n!___' |_,1"' ','! I , I" ; "i : ":' :": ,'": ;


6 I

E 8 g B 5 5 ,,, , ,,
B 9 a 9 8 5 5 "."'"
G 8 7 a i' 5 )"L
D 7 5 7
A
E `i`i`iiv
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120 ViVV
The 'Wrong' Notes

Example 11.2 has a touch of the Shawn Lane about shape, sliding your index finger down a fret for each
it, and it's a variation on Example 11.1 where you're but keeping the rest of your hand rooted firmly in
basically adding chromatic notes behind the scale pentatonic soil:

Example 11.2
g/iss g/iss
D"> Mice
.
P P Q pF^0ho^p 0", ,L" , , , '"" I I I I I
,|1! m I I I' I ~ "
' b 4 I
r L

"e, ii i i mj [ ii '"M ,iuu~ 0 e,.g

E 8 5 5" k4 .m .
El 8 8 5 8 S 5"r4 "L /"1
G 7 7 7 5 7 S 5"k4 I"'
D 7 7 7 5 m rm
A C) 7 C) 5 "
E n
ej
K
U

Example 11.3 is more of a Steve Morse-type run. This because, when you hear a few chromatic notes in a row,
workout is a little more ambitious with the chromatic your ear singles out the highest and lowest notes as the
notes, using them to fill in the gaps in the pentatonic most important ones. If these sound OK, the in-between
box ratherthan adding them one at a time. This lick works notes will automatically make sonic sense.

Example 11.3

a ) 'b ) I,
^ I:
,t .I pbp
I I ..
I , d'
I I I
G; I'
"
I
>LJUL~A' "
) )
d' ,
(:J I

m . M . M V M V etc
E 8 5 7 C) 5 5
B 8 5 G 7 8 8 7 G 5 5
G 8 7 G 5 CI 7 8 5
D 7
A
E

Example 11.4 is a stranger lick altogether. It uses an slides so smoothly into that A note in the second bar
A minor pentatonic scale for the first ten notes, then that the listener can only assume you played the
shifts up a fret to Bb minor pentatonic and stays there preceding odd-sounding notes for a reason! This
until the start of the second bar. Over an A minor chord, approach is known as sidestepping, and it's a useful
the Bb minor shape contains exclusively wrong notes, fusion idea for a rock player to steal because it works
and it would sound like a mistake but for one thing: it best over static chords rather than hectic jazz changes.

Example 11.4

bp _I I g//ss
^ = P . D
' u P -" I
/ G I " P |0 M " P 0 Ah g0 0 P i
' k A

ej

E 8 5
B 8 5 8 5 9 G
G 7 5 7 5 8 G
D (J G "7
A
E
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Creative Guitar: Advanced Techniques

Example 11 .5 illustrates a similar idea, but this one has occur at very strong points in the bar, so they sound
you wandering down a fret in beat 2, back to normal incredibly deliberate. Whenever you try a lick like this,
in beat 3, down a fret in beat 4 and finally back to a you should be able to visualise some chord tones on
nice, reassuring bluesy note in the second bar. I think the neck. These might save you if you go so far outside
it's the symmetry of this lick that makes it work - the the correct tonality that you forget where you are. (I'm
shifts between the right' and wrong' scale positions not joking, by the way - this really can happen!)

Example 11.5
ghSs g/iss
+ ^ ahSs 6 R
k 4F"1"piL ! b '" , I i ii i" I ig""
'e " ' -6 I' i 6 r-r- ,, - ".& 3 ,, -' - , om

E 5
8 5 j^r 3""1 BSS
B 8 8 5' <4 4 7 4 J"\
G G G'k5 ? ? ,c~m, }rm
D 5 5 ,'," xI I 4 I
A 4 4" ~3>1
E

While I'm on the subject of symmetry, here's an scale are in here, but the lick sounds like it was meant
outrageously chromatic line in Example 11.6. It starts to be played in the key of A minor. This is purely because
and ends on A, but everything in between is utter it starts and ends with A, so your ear assumes that
gibberish, constructed with diminished-seventh that's the root note. You'll hear ideas like this in Dimebag
arpeggios on each string. All12 notes of the chromatic Darrell's playing, not to mention Shawn Lane's:

Example 11.6
T T
^
"A
T m
W
T I l. lb,.
I'W
L. ' i i , 'i' t .
Cm-;' p -i ,, qI
el e j0 ' 1| i' I' i i

E
B
G a II 14 -
D
A ' " "' @ , ,., 14 @
E 47:\ si II ft ciin
\UI " '' '" KW

Yuk! incentive could you ask for?) To hear this level of atonality
Now heres some food for thought: certain 20th- in a (very) heavy-metal context, you might like to check
century classical composers were intrigued by the out the Cacophony album Speed Metal Symphony.
concept that you could write a melody that used each The C major scale contains the notes C, D, E, F,
note of the chromatic scale once and once only. These G, A and B. The remaining five notes of the chromatic
melodies are sometimes called 12-tone rows, and they scale spell out Eb, gb, Ab, Bb and ob - in other words,
sound pretty horrible to the average listener, so why an Eb minor pentatonic scale. This means that you
not come up with a few of your own? (What greater can play consistently wrong notes over a C Ionian

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122 /iiVi]\
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The 'Wrong' Notes

backing by playing blues licks a minor third up. Try uses a C ma jor pentatonic over an E Lydian backing.
using this observation to find a 'wrong' pentatonic lts not the most wrong pentatonic he could have
for every mode. If you have Steve Vais Passion And used, but it's pretty close, so it'll give you some idea
Warfare album, check out the track 'The Riddle' and, of how the above principle might sound in a rock
in particular, the lick that starts at 1:39ish. This lick guitar context.

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123
We've already taken a fairly extensive look at how you instead of six perfect fourths and an augmented one,
can pull apart the modes of the major scale to find as you would get from a standard major scale, the
chord progressions, arpeggios, pentatonics and so on. melodic minor boasts four perfect, two augmented
In this chapter, I'd like to offer some new scales for and one diminished fourth, which sounds the same as
your perusal, Any scale can be treated in the same a major third. Fourth-based patterns sound a lot more
basic way. In each case, the path to understanding is angular in this sca|e|
through exploring the scale's intervalic and harmonic If you scour the scale for further goodies, you'll
possibilities and by trying it out over an appropriate see that it contains one minor pentatonic scale (starting
chordal backing so that your ear learns as much as from the second degree), in contrast with the three
possible about the sound of its component notes. that you can find in a major scale.
In short, simply altering one note of the major scale
Melodic Minor has all sorts of repercussions. Many rock players take
Let's start with the melodic minorscale, which can be a while to get used to the sound of this scale, which
expressed as the following formula: is perhaps best described as a classical-sounding, ultra-
bright variation on the Dorian mode. Stick with it,
1 2 b3 4 5 6 7 though - youll start to like this scale a lot more once
you've heard it enough times. You can hear some good
In other words, it's just a major scale with the third examples of it being used in a popular-music context
flattened. What's the big deal? Well, let's start by in works of Sting (tracks like 'It's Probably Me' and
harmonising it in seventh chords. In the key of A minor, 'Sister Moon' use it to great effect), and of course it's
you get the following: also the scale used in that old favourite Greensleeves'.
You can get a basic feel for A melodic minor by
Am/maj7 Bm7 Cmaj7#5 d7 e7 F2m7b5 GtmbS jamming first over an Am chord, then over an Am/maj7
and finally over an Am/maj7-09 progression. Example
For a start, this innocuous-looking scale has generated 12.1 at the top of the next page shows you some
two new types of seventh chord: the James Bond-like three-note-per-sting fingerings. You might want to try
minor/ma jor seventh (I , b3, 5, 7) and the ma jor seventh the old jazz trick of starting with the first, flat third and
with sharpened fifth (I, 3, 25, 7). l1ltrustyou to think of fifth and then bringing in the seventh, ninth, 11th and
some fingerings forthese chords by taking normal major- 13th one by one so that you learn the notes in their
seventh shapes and doctoring the appropriate notes. order of importance. I think that the most interesting
In addition, you should try playing the scale in various note is probably the seventh, but you should draw
intervals. The fourths are particularly interesting - your own conclusions. `i`i`iiv
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124
Approaching New Scales

Example 12.1
^
\~T '
- '- O'
O- O-' q: 6k
- O- :- - O- - O- 0--
, : q:
:
O-
- 6-
g):
: 0 6)'
"
'- OLOl "

rr
0
' O'
"ci

^

Ik

^

:

>iUii =0--
-Oj -
'

'j)3):)'i"[
_mr " gj_ \.j_
6)_
W ===0==_0_ _
D D
, -- O 0=----=-0
OO
D e -
-O
O" ^
O ==^-- U

- O-
-O
: O-
- O- 0h
: O'
-
- ,)0 " g -8| -
' O" g 8 3 ' : O 8 '-0 "1 -
- e'=
O-
= O- Of
- O" " O"
e
"
?
" '8o'2 '=

&"
' O- O-
I Wl " - "

- (J
O- -0=
-:-O ) -O-
" "

7 -O
-D -0= ~ P
-D ==0 :-O )
& y --O i Y

So where might you use this scale? Incidentally, you can make a handy little mode from
this scale by treating the fourth as the root. This works
" It has an interesting tonality when you play it over nicely over dominant chords. Example 12.2 over the
a straight minor chord. You could try mixing it with page shows some fingerings for these new pentatonics.
a standard Dorian mode for some subtle jazz If you pull all of the modes out of the melodic minor,
effects. you get the following:

" So far, it's the only scale we've met that works Melodic minor (m/maj7): 1 2 b3 4 5 6 7

over a minor-/ma jor-seventh chord. Dorian b2 {m7): 1 b2 b3 4 5 6 b7


Lydian $5 (maj7k5): 1 2 3 44 $5 6 7

" If you remove the second and the seventh, you're Lydian b7 (7): 1 2 3 44 5 6 b7

left with a pentatonic scale that differs from the Mixolydian b6 (7): 1 2 3 4 5 b6 b7

normal minor by having a natural sixth in place of Locrian 2 (m7b5): 1 2 b3 4 b5 b6 b7

the flat seventh. Translating your normal blues licks Super-Locrian (m7b5): 1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7

into this new scale will make them sound a lot


more Robben Ford, and you can still bend the flat You can figure out some appropriate chordal vamps
third slightly sharp if the fancy takes you. for each of these modes by looking at the seventh
`i`i`iiv
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125
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Creative Guitar: Advanced Techniques

Example 12.2
Minor Pentatonic 16) Dominant Pentatonic

);
(I)))
j"l i i
L- '
jj):j):|'
-
-
i' '

? ]) l'j', :ij
;|"lo'S'i II
)1|):)) ] ioio! t=o{ i !

^ ^ ^ ^

" D"-O m.j - ~


- - O - O
==0 F =<J E
-O O -O O
E -O 6 -O
=")-
'~' rj '~'
==^~ t")
~

^ ^
^
e
Wo u_
0= -O - O :- - -O
E -O E O
-O O -O O I
D -O -D O V
=Cj
~ &
~
CJc
~
h"
W

chords lurking in each. You'll particularly like the Lydian 1b2b3b4b5b6b7


flat seventh (or Lydian dominant') here, which adds 1 b9$9 3b525b7
a sophisticated sound when you use it over a dominant
chord. If you play it over a 9211 chord, you'll spot the Looking at this interpretation, you can spot this scale's
tonality of the theme tune to The Simpsons, which huge potential for being played over any altered
can only be a good thing! dominant chord. If you wanted to sound bluesy over
The Super-Locrian is probably the most interesting an E729 chord, you'd still go for good old Uncle
of these modes. Although you might think it works Pentatonic, but if you wanted a scale that matched
best over m7b5 chords, the jazz contingency tend to the tonality of the chord a little more precisely, you
rename the notes as follows: could play a melodic-minor scale starting a semitone
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126 ViVV
Approaching New Scales

above the root, and thus also a minor pentatonic scale This is the first time weve encountered a
a minor third above the root. This last idea would diminished-seventh chord in a harmonised scale. This
maintain the texture and bluesiness of your pentatonic is a symmetrical chord, where the 1, b3, b5 and lb7 are
licks but would give them a new, jazzy kind of sound. separated by uniform intervals of a tone and a half. An
If you overdo it, of course, the results can sound interesting side-effect of this symmetry is that, when
atrocious, creating the impression that you don't know you play a diminished-seventh chord shape, any one
what key you should be playing in, but in small doses of the notes could be used as the root. You can slide
it can work really well - check out Scott Henderson's diminished-seventh shapes up and down the neck in
playing on the Tribal Tech albums to hear this and three-f ret increments, without altering the basic sound
similar ideas being used to their full potential. of the chord. But more on that later.
You should definitely spend some time getting to As with the melodic-minor modes, some of these
know the sound of the melodic-minor modes as they harmonic-minor ones are more palatable than others.
might just give your improvisation a much-needed kick- The last mode is so abstract-sounding that no one
start. (On the other hand, its best not to try them over even bothered to come up with a name for it! (As
Shakin All Over' - sometimes you simply can't argue you can see, I invented one, just to make the chart
with classic scale choices!) look complete.) On the other hand, the Phrygian
dominant is very useful - it complements 7b9 chords
Harmonic Minor remarkably well, and players like Yngwie Malmsteen
Most of what I said about the melodic minor is equally use it a lot. Try playing the notes of an A harmonic
true of the harmonic minor. This is another scale that minor scale over an Am - E7b9 progression, and you'll
has been widely used in classical music. Like the get the idea.
melodic minor, it has a natural seventh, which gives Similarly, Frank Zappa fans could have some fun
the chord of V a pleasing-sounding dominant character. with the brighter-than-bright Lydian 2 mode -it's an
Unlike the melodic minor, this scale features a odd one, I freely admit, but theres something
gap of a tone and a half between the sixth and paradoxically stable about the way it sounds, so it
seventh degrees, flanked by semitone intervals on lends itself well to one- and two-chord vamps like
either side. This gives the scale a strange quality the ones you'll hear on Frank's Shut UpAnd Play Yer
which reminds many listeners of the music of other Guitaralbums.
cultures: Arabic, Spanish, Hungarian, Gypsy, snake- This scale is worth exploring regardless of your
charming - you decide. chosen playing style, but I think metal players in
As you would expect, some intriguing modes are particular can use these modes to great effect.
available within this scale: Harmonically, a lot of metal uses the idea of dissonance
{the popularity of the b5 suggests itself as the most
Harmonic Minor (m/maj7): 1 2 b3 4 5 b6 7 obvious example) so this rather jagged-sounding scale,
Locrian k6 (m7b5): 1 b2 b3 4 b5 6 b7 with its unexpected tone-and-a-half interval, sounds
Ionian 05 (maj705): 1 2 3 4 25 6 7 right at home in ultra-heavy contexts!
Dorian W (m7): 1 2 b3 24 5 6 b7
Phrygian dominant (dom7):1 b2 3 4 5 b6 b7 Symmetrical Scales
Lydian 22 (maj7): 1 $2 3 24 56 7 As you'll recall from the previous chapter, the
Super-Locrian %7 (dim7): 1 b2 b3 b4 bs b6 b7 diminished-seventh chord is symmetrical, consisting
of a series of tone-and-a-half intervals. Having met
(You might like to know that the Phrygian dominant is the chord in an harmonic-minor context, you might
also described as the Phrygian major or 'Spanish think that the Super-Locrian B7 is the ideal scale
Phrygian', while the Dorian 44 is sometimes known as choice for such occasions, but I think that there's
the 'Romanian scale.) something more pleasing about the notion of using
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127
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Creative Guitar : Advanced Techniques

a symmetrical scale to play over a symmetrical chord. You can spot this scale's potential for use over 7$5
With this in mind, you should consider the diminished chords and the like. It's fun to play because you
whole-half scale: can move all of your shapes around in two-fret
increments without having to worry about
1 2b3 4b525 6 7 refingering anything. (If you experiment with this
scale using a clean tone and lots of reverb, the
The gaps between these notes follow a repeating tone- results may well remind you of piano music by the
semitone-tone-semitone pattern, hence the name. likes of Debussy, Ravel and Satie.)
Just as you can move your diminished-seventh chord
shapes up and down in three-fret increments, similarly 2 If you add the notes of another augmented triad a
you can treat any melodic idea derived from this scale tone and a half higher, you get the augmented
in the same way. Not only is it an ideal scale to use scale, which follows a tone-and-a-half-semitone-
overa dim7 tonality, it's also a fine source of 'outside'- tone-and-a-half-semitone distribution of intervals
sounding ideas over more conventional chords. and looks like this:
There's only one other mode to be found within
the whole-half diminished scale; it follows a repeating 1 b3 3 5$5 7
semitone-tone-semitone-tone pattern, so it's called
the diminished half-whole scale: This one isn't quite as symmetrical as the whole-tone
scale, but it's not without its charms. Shawn Lane
1 b2b3 3$4 5 6b7 seems to like it, so it can't be all bad! If nothing else,
you now know what to do the next time you come
You can see that this scale contains the raw ingredients across an augmented or diminished chord.
for both minor and dominant-seventh chords. As with
the Super-Locrian, the fun stuff seems to come out Exotic Scales
when you treat the natura/third as the chord tone, and In this section, I've kept the analysis to a minimum,
any altered chord without a sharpened fifth is so you'll have do most of the thinking! Many of these
complemented by the half-whole scale. (13b9 chords scales are Westernised versions of the originals - not
are particularly flattered by these notes.) all musical cultures divide the octave into 12 equal
(Having said that, you don't need to wait for a G1%9 semitones - but you'll get the general idea.
chord to crop up before trying these notes out: players Some of the following can be interpreted as more
like Robben Ford will happily use half-whole ideas over familiar scales with certain notes added or removed -
'normal' chords like C7, just to liven things up a little.) - the 'Indian pentatonic', for instance, is clearly a
We should also spare a moment to consider the Mixolydian mode with the second and sixth taken out
other basic symmetrical chord: the augmented triad. - and some are just plain weird {Prometheus
This tense-sounding chord features the notes 1, 3 and Neapolitan, anyone7). I urge you to mess about with
25, which are separated by uniform intervals of two them, invent a few fingerings for each and figure out
tones, so there are two ways to fill in the gaps and what kind of chords they would complement. If you're
create an appropriate symmetrical scale: ever at a loose end, try taking something like the
Enigmatic scale and finding every possible chord within
1 You could add the notes of another augmented it. This could form the basis for a new composition -
triad a tone higher, creating the aptly named whole- just ask Joe Satriani, who did just that on his Not Of
tone scale, which comprises six full tones and gives This Earth album, and was helpful enough to call the
the following scale degrees: finished tune The Enigmatic'. (Can you imagine how
many blues classics would be entitled 'The Pentatonic'
1 2 3lt4$5b7 if everyone took this approach to naming their tracks?)
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Approaching New Scales

As always, the root notes are all-important in your Heptatonic Scales


quest to learn the distinctive sounds of these scales, Double harmonic {Byzantine scale):
and you might want to set up a drone note or chordal 1b2 34 5b6 7
backing as you experiment with each. Much of this Oriental (fifth mode of double harmonic):
stuff is relatively uncharted in traditional rock music, 1 b2 34b5 6b7
so you're pretty much guaranteed to find something Rahawi(Arabian):1 b2 3 4 b5 b6 b7
fresh in here - as long as you've got some idea what Zangula (Arabian):1 2 b3 4 bs 6 b7
sort of sound you're looking for in the first place. Hungarian minor (fourth mode of double harmonic):
Right then, here come lots and lots of scales... 1 2b3w 5b67
Hungarianmajor:l $2 3 m 5 6 b7
Pentatonic Scales Enigmatic:l b2 3 W 05 $6 7
lndian:l 3 4 5 b7 Leadingwholetone:l 2 3 W $5 $6 7
Kumoi:l 2 b3 5 6 Neapolitan:l b2 b3 4 5 6 7
Hirajoshi:l 2 b3 5 b6 Neapolitan minor: 1 b2 b3 4 5 b6 7
lwato (fifth mode of Hirajoshi): 1 b2 4 b5 b7 Lydianminor:1 2 3 $4 5 b6 b7
Pelog:1 b2 b3 5 b6 MajorLocrian(Arabian):1 2 3 4 bs b6 b7
Scriabin:l b2 3 5 6 Marva{raga):1 b2 3 24 5 6 7
Egyptian (third mode of minor pentatonic): 1 2 4 5 b7 Todi(raga):1 b2 b3 #4 5 b6 7
Banshiki-cho (fourth mode of minor pentatonic): Persian (fifth mode of Todi):1 b2 3 4 b5 b6 7
1b34b6b7
Ritusen (fifth mode of minor pentatonic): 1 2 4 5 6 Octatonic Scales
Rwanda Pygme: 1 2 K3 5 b7 Bebopscale:l 2 3 4 5 6 b7 7
Major/minor pentatonic combination:
Hexatonic Scales 1 2b3 3 4 5 6b7
Bluesscale:1 b3 4 b5 5 b7 Phrygian dominant with flat third:
'Country' hexatonic: 1 2 b3 3 5 6 1 b2 b3 3 4 5b6b7
Prometheus: 1 2 3 #4 6 b7 Eight-tone Spanish scale:
Prometheus Neapolitan: 1 b2 3 #4 6 b7 1 b2 b3 3 4b5b6b7
Piongo:l 2 4 5 6 b7 lsfahan(Arabic):1 2 b3 4 5 6 b7 7

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I deliberately left the previous chapter open-ended; I For the first cycle of the chords, I simply went up
think the methods and approaches covered earlier in and down the scales in groups of four. For the second,
the book should be enough to guide you as you explore I tried to liven things up a bit with the 'koto technique'
those exotic scales, or indeed any aspect of playing (as explained in the 'Emulating Other Instruments'
that interests you. chapter) and a more relaxed approach to the phrasing.

On The CD Demo 2
At the end of the CD, you'll find some backing tracks This one illustrates some more extended material along
and demo solos to give you some ideas about how to the lines of Examples 9.16 and 9.17 from the chapter
apply a few of the ideas covered in this book in a real on 'Emulating Other Instruments'. It's a dominant blues
musical situation. in G, and there are two tracks of guitar, each emulating
As with the exotic scales, I don't propose to go some aspect of Hammond organ playing a la Jimmy
into great detail about these tracks; I'd much rather Smith. One track illustrates chordal comping (that's
leave things open so that you can draw your own Jazz parlance for rhythm playing) and the otherfeatures
conclusions and make your own decisions. However, a solo. I haven't transcribed the licks, because I think
a quick breakdown of the theme of each wouldn't hurt, the mindset behind this kind of playing is more
so here goes. important than the notes themselves; note how the
phrasing has an 'organistic' vibe about it. The Leslie
Demo 1 rotating-speaker effect, if you're interested, was
This track uses some of the pentatonic scales courtesy of my Hughes and Kettner Rotosphere.
encountered earlier to create a somewhat 'Japanese' (NB: Backing track 2a features only the comping
vibe. The chord progression cycles around Emaj13, part and backing track 2b has no guitar at all.)
Em13, Gmaj7#11 and Bil, spending fourbars on each.
Scale-wise, I opted for the following: Demo 3
A sizeable chunk of this book looks at how to emulate
Emaj13: E major pentatonic IE F2 G# B q) other instruments, so I thought I should wrap things
Em13:E Kumoi(E F2G Ba) up with a look at the rather Zen goal of emulating
Gmaj7#11: E Kumoi, third mode (g B a E F4) another guitar. As you'll be able to tell as soon as you
Bil: B Indian pentatonic (B D$ E F$ A) listen to it, this demo solo illustrates slide-type licks.
The interesting part is that they're all executed with
(I have no idea what to call the third mode of the kumoi, the whammy bar rather than with a bottleneck.
but it's a fine pentatonic for those Lydian moments!) Many players view the whammy bar as a toy and
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On The CD

reach for it only when they're out of ideas. However, right-hand fingertips you can involve in the process,
it can also be used in a very controlled way to slide the easier it will be to keep those unwanted notes in
between notes in phrases. A fingerstyle approach check. Oh, and the backing track - as you'll no doubt
makes it a lot easier to play ideas like these cleanly - gather - is a simple dominant blues in E.
there's a lot of string-damping to be done, so the more Happy jamming!

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131
In conclusion, Id just like to end things by: Guitar playing is a lifelong pursuit, and there's
always something new that you could be learning.
1 congratulating you for making it to the end of what This is why your favourite players sound the way
has been quite a long and detailed book, and they do - they're constantly striving to expand and
improve their art. This nugget of philosophy is
2 reminding you that your journey isn't over yet. simultaneously the simplest and the most profound
of all the ideas looked at in these pages, and it should
On the contrary, from this point onwards I would stand you in good stead as you continue to stretch
encourage you to keep looking for new ideas and the boundaries of what you can accomplish with
fresh inspiration - it's just that you're on your own your instrument.
from now on! Bon voyage!

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