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Which one or more of the following equations accurately reflects

DNA base pairing?

2. Why must the genetic code be triplet and not doublet?

3. The gene for one of the polypeptide chains in hemoglobin

consists of 438 bases. How many amino acids are in the

4. Give two similarities between transcription and DNA replication.

5. Give two differences between translation and DNA replication.

6. Give two differences between transcription and translation.

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7. Mutations can change DNA bases causing a different amino acid
to be coded for. If a mutation changes one base, suggest:

a) Why a non-overlapping code is better than an overlapping


b) Why a degenerate code is better than a non-degenerate code.

8. Read the passage and answer the questions at the end.

Evidence that DNA is the genetic material. The work of Hershey
and Chase (1952).
A phage is a virus that is a parasite of bacteria such as E.coli.
The phage has a simple structure consisting only of DNA with a
protein coat. Part of the phage enters the bacterium and causes
the bacterium to produce new phages.
This experiment was designed to prove whether it was the
protein or the DNA from the phage that entered the bacterium.
Whichever substance entered was able to control the activities of
the bacterial cell and instruct it to produce new phages, i.e. this
substance would be the genetic material. Was it the protein or
was it the DNA? The results are shown in the below table.

Steps Experiment 1 Experiment 2

1. Prepare phages with Prepare phages with
radioactively labeled radioactively labeled
sulphur phosphorus
2. Phages infect bacteria Phages infect bacteria
3. Bacteria do not become Bacteria become
radioactive radioactive
4. Allow phages to Allow phages to complete
complete life cycle life cycle inside bacteria
inside bacteria
5. The new generation of The new generation of
phages released from phages released from
bacteria contain no bacteria do contain
radioactivity radioactivity.

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a) Which molecules in the phage were being labeled by:

i) Radioactive sulphur

ii) Radioactive phosphorus

b) Why was radioactive carbon not used to label the phage?

c) Which part of the phage enters the bacteria and what is the

d) In experiment 2, why were some of the new generations of

phages are radioactive?

9. a) Below is a diagram of a section of mRNA showing the

sequence of three of the codons.

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State the base sequence of:

i) The tRNA anticodon complementary to codon1.

ii) The DNA sequence which coded for codon3.

b) The three codons in the above figure are near the start of the
sequence coding for a protein.
Explain the consequence of a mutation which deletes the U from

c) Describe the role of the ribosome in translation.

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