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Control Systems*

Yu Jianyong Yu Shimin Wang Haiqing

Institute of Intelligent Information System National Laboratoty of Industrial Control

Zhejiang University of Technology technology

Hangzhou, 310032, China Zhejiang University

yuiyona(iil26.com vsm@ziut,edu.cn Hangzhou, 3 10027, China

hawanaliiiiioc.ziu,edU.cn

Abstract: The insertion of the communication nehvork in analyze an NCS from the discrete-time point of view. For

thefeedback coiitrol loop makes the analysis and design of discrete-time models, most researchers assume that

a nehvorked control system more complex, and induces the network is synchronized and the sampling rates of

some issues that degrade the control system's performance sensors, controllers, and actuators are the same. Some work

orid even couse system instubility. This poper focuses on adopted continuous-time models of NCSs, such as

moin ospecfs around perfoimance analJ.sis of NCSs: [2,4,5,6]. Current research shows that analyzing methods

nehvork-induced delays, somplirig period, jitter, data used for an NCS include stochastic Lyapunov function,

pocket dropout, nehvork scheduling and stability. These augmented state space, jump linear systems, and limited

issues must be considered in the design of an NCS. communication.

Therefore. this work summurizes many reseorch results, Without loss of generality, a closed-loop block

ond remarks some related handling opprooches and diagram of an NCS is shown in Fig1 . Where, the controller

techniques. The main purpose of the survey is to present node and the actuator node are event-driven while the

new research state of NCSs and point out some fields of sensor node is clock-driven.

fLfure researches.

'1

network scheduling, stability . I ..~.

.. . ... "" - .,. . . ... ... I I

\___..

:. . .

1. Introduction

Feedback control systems wherein the control loops

are closed through a real-time network are called networked

control systems (NCSs) [1,2,3]. NCSs can deal with all the

continuous, discrete and hybrid control asynchronous

processes, and support various topologies, including bus, I I

star and tree, which are more flat and stable than the Figure 1: The closed-loop block diagram of an NCS

structure used in hierarchical control system. As an

alternative to traditional point-to-point communication, the The remainder of this paper is organized as follows:

common-bus network architecture of NCSs offer more Sections 2-7 analyze six fundamental issues that influence

efficient reconfiguration, better resource utilization, and performance of an NCS respectively: network-induced

also reduce installation and maintenance cost. However, the delays, sampling period, jitter, data packet dropout,

change introduces different forms of time delays network scheduling and stahility. Many research results are

uncertainty between sensors, actuators, and controllers. It is given and related handling approaches are also remarked.

well known in control systems that time delays can degrade The conclusion and future work are presented in Section 8.

a system's performance and even cause system instahility.

Because of the variability of network-induced time

delays, NCSs may be time-varying systems, making

analysis and design more challenging. It is natural to

~~ ~~~

* This work was supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of P. R China (No.20206028).

* 0-7803-85667/04/$20.00 0 2004 IEEE.

5068

2. Network-Induced Delays beyond a critical point, sampling frequency begins to

In an NCS, various delays with variable length occur adversely affect NCSs performance, because of network

due to sharing a common network medium, which are loading when the number of messages are close to the

called network-induced delays [7]. network saturation limit, message delivery time delays

Tow classes of time delays are included in an NCS: ( I ) increase and in some cases become unbounded [U].

Optimizing the performance of an NCS can be achieved by

the delay from a sensor to a corresponding controller, T,, ; balancing the increasing network sampling frequency with

(2) the delay from a controller to a corresponding actuator, the resulting network performance degradation.

T, . Network-induced delays may vary widely according While a shorter sampling period is preferable in most

control systems, for some purposes it can be lengthened up

to the transmission time of messages and the overhead ,time. to a certain bound within which stability of the system is

The transmission time through the media is largely guaranteed in spite of the performance degradation. This

dependent on the network protocols, especially data link certain bound is called a maximum allowable delay hound

layer protocols of networks and message length, whereas (MADB) [7,13,14]. A basic sampling period consists of

the overhead time is largely dependent on the network sampling delay, transmission time of periodic data,

scheduling method. transmission time of sporadic data, and transmission time of

In order to analyze control systems with network messages. The largest sampling period in an NCS depends

delays in a loop, [SO91 used three models of the network on the largest MADB. [I51 presented a sampling period

delays: ( I ) Constant delay; (2) Random delays which are determination algorithm.

independent between T, and T, ;(3) Random delay, with In an NCS, a sampling period should be long enough

probability distributions govemed by an underlying to guarantee real-time transmission of sporadic data and

Markov chain. Model (1) is the simplest model for all periodic data, and minimum network utilization for a

transfers in the communication network and may be a good periodic data. However, the sampling period should be

model even if the network has varying delays. One way to short in order to be within the MADB to guarantee the

achieve constant delays is by introduction of timed buffers stability of the given system. Sometimes the sampling

after each transfer. By making these buffers longer than the period may exceed the MADB because of network-induced

worst case delay time the transfer time can be seen as being delays. Therefore, it is important to decrease the sampling

constant. This method to make the communication delays period by minimizing network-induced delays.

constant was proposed in [IO]. A drawback with this Due to the interaction of the network and control

method is that the delay time often is longer than neces:rary, requirements, the selection of the best sampling period is a

which can lead to decreased performance as shown in compromise. Smaller sampling periods guarantee a better

[8,9,11]. Network delays are usually random because of control quality, but result in high frequency communication

several sources, for instance, waiting for the network to and may degrade the network quality. The degradation of

become idle; a retransmission of urgent data is needed network quality could further worsen the control quality

when transmission errors occur; nodes waiting far a due to longer time delays when the network traffic is nearly

random time to avoid a collision at the next try when some saturated [12,16]. In general when the number of messages

networks collisions occur, and so on. As the activities in the on the network increases, system nodes experience longer

system usually are not synchronized with each other,, the delays for sending and receiving information [17]. The

above listed delays will be random. Model (2) assume!; the selection of the hest sampling period is presented in

transfer delay is independent of the previous delay and. has [7,12,16,18].

different probability distributions for Ts, and Tco.To

model network queues and varying network loads, Model 4. Jitter

(3) needs to have a memory. One way to model dependance Jitter is defined by IEEE as time-related, abrupt,

between samples is by letting the distribution of the spurious (false) variations in the duration of any specified

network delays be govemed by the state of an underlying related interval, and arises due to clock drift, branching in

Markov chain. The transitions between different network the code, scheduling, communication, and use of certain

load states in the communication network are modeled with computer hardware structure, e.g. cache memory. From the

a Markov chain. The model is closely related to the models view of control, jitter is categorized as: control period jitter,

used in jump systems, but its each state postulates different delay jitter and sampling jitter. From the view of

probability distributions for T, and Tu. scheduling, jitter is categorized as: input jitter, output jitter,

queuing jitter and deadline jitter. [I91 considered six

different jitters, and reduced to three cases: sampling jitter,

3. Sampling Period sampling-actuation delays, and both combined. All kinds of

jitter should be as small as possible to improve control

The performance of an NCS is highly dependent on

performance.

the network sampling time. Increased network sampling

It is noted that vacant sampling and sample rejection

time can improve the performance of the system. Howe:ver,

are harmful to all computer systems, not only control

5069

systems. Jitter degrades performance and causes instability Network packet drops occasionally happen in NCSs

even if for the case when vacant sampling or sample when there are node failures or message collisions.

rejection does not occur. The jitter distorts a signal in a Although most network protocols are equipped with

control system. The degradation depends very much on the transmission-retry mechanisms, they can only retransmit for

dynamics of the process and on the type of jitter. The only a limited time. After this time has expired, the packets are

way to get rid of delay jitter is to use a buffer, trading delay dropped. Furthermore, for real-time feedback control data

for jitter. Stability in case of jitter has been treated by [20] such as sensor measurements and calculated control signals,

and others. A stochastic model for the jitter is usually it may be advantageous to discard the old, no-transmitted

assigned for the analysis and design of controllers, e.g. a message and transmit a new packet if it becomes available.

rectangular distribution around a mean value, or a Markov In this way, the controller always receives fresh data for

chain. control calculation. Normally, feedback-controlled plants

The jitter compensation approach in a real-time system can tolerate a certain amount of data loss, but it is valuable

needs to be investigated with respect to its implementation to determine whether the system is stable when only

cost (computational overhead and memory requirements) transmitting the packets at a certain rate and to compute

and the availability of the necessary information to acceptable lower bounds on the packet transmission rate.

recalculate the controller parameters when it is needed In [1,15], an NCS with dropouts is modeled as

(information availability). With respect to the asynchronous switched system. The approach replaces the

implementation cost, at each control task instance true-switched system with an "averaged system" and then

execution, the controller parameters must be updated provides some sufficient stability conditions on the system.

according to the actual jitters. Two strategies may be Because only average dropout rates are considered, the

applied runtime or ofline calculations. If the controller achieved results may be very conservative. Another

parameter adjustment is performed by online extra important contribution is found in (31. In this work, the

calculations according to actual jitters, the introduced dropouts are modeled by a Markov chain with two states

computational overhead will depend on the control design and are treated as vacant sampling. This work proposes two

method and controller design strategy that is being used. If approaches for handling data dropouts: using past control

the computational overhead is not negligible, the controller signals or estimating the lost data and computing new

parameter adjustment can be performed online by accessing control signals. The stability of an optimal LQ controller

oMine pre-calculated lookup tables. These tables will under the two approaches is analyzed. This work,

contain the necessary parameters to allow the control unfortunately, does not provide a rigorous analysis of the

computation to compensate for sampling jitter and the dropout model and only demonstrates the results through

sampling-actuation delays that may appear at runtime. examples. [25] extends the method proposed in [26] to

Some recent research has focused on the jitter problem dropout processes governed by Markov chains, and

itself using specific scheduling-based solutions [21, 22,231. assumes that the feedback measurements are randomly

However, even after modifying the scheduling algorithm, in dropped with a distribution selected from an underlying

these approaches, jitter is not completely eliminated. [19] Markov chain. The main result of [25] is an equation that

proposed to accept the jitter that the scheduling algorithm is expresses the power in the networked control system's

bound to introduce and to compensate for it at runtime in output signal as a function of the Markov chain's

the controller design so as to minimize the system probability transition matrix.

degradation that would otherwise occur. Network saturation occurs when the network traffic

In [24], control delay jitter is investigated by increases beyond a point when not all messages can be

simulation of a servo. A static delay-compensating delivered to their destinations in time. Messages may

controller is designed to compensate for random delays, experience long delays due to queuing in buffers, or may be

which are close to the expected mean value. [3] also treats lost due to collisions. Network saturation can be retarded

control period jitter, timeout and vacant sampling. [19] by better utilizing network bandwidth. For a given

proposed a new approach for real-time scheduling of sampling frequency, implementing estimation methods in

control systems by compensating for sampling jitter and an NCS would reduce network traffic increasing the

sampling-actuation delays through the adjustment of effective bandwidth of the system. By defining dead bands

controller parameters. on broadcasting nodes [27], the amount of traffic can be

reduced

5. Data Packet Dropout

The network can be viewed as a web of unreliable data 6. Network Scheduling

transmission paths. Some packets not only suffer from In feedback control systems, it is necessary to find the

transmission delay but also may be lost during transmission maximum allowable delay bound (MADB) for stability of

for the worse case. Thus, how such packet dropouts affect NCSs [7,13], and then to find an appropriate network

the performance of an NCS is an issue that must be scheduling method that limits the network-induced delay to

considered. less than the MADB. A network scheduling method is

required to reduce a basic sampling time within the MADB,

5070

while guaranteeing real-time transmission of sporadic and exponential distribution. The stochastic Lyapunov function

periodic data, and to minimize network utilization for non- method holds much promise for determining almost-sure

real time message. The network in an NCS should h;andle stability and control system performance. The approach in

network scheduling algorithms differing in some [3 I ] provided guarantees by employing transmission

characteristics from processor scheduling algorithms, such deadlines. For the fust time, [31] proposed a novel

as the rate monotone scheduling algorithms and. the protocol, try-once-discard (TOD) protocol, which employs

deadline monotone scheduling algorithms. These processor- dynamic scheduling, allocating network resource based on

scheduling algorithms have limitations when applied to the need. In TOD, the node with the greatest weighted error

NCSs, because a retransmission of periodic data with old from the last reported value will win the competition for the

values suspended by other urgent data transmissions is network resource. Such a method is vulnerable to noise.

meaningless. While the purpose of conventional scheduling The augmented state space method and jump linear

methods focused on whether all types of data can be control system method are two significant methods

transmitted within a given bandwidth or sampling period, proposed in the literatme for analyzing and designing an

the presented methods focus on that of the conventional NCS. The former one reduced the problem to a finite

methods using MADB as well as setting of transmission dimensional discrete-time control by augmenting the

order of data. By setting the transmission order of data, the system model to include past values of plant input and

smaller sampling period can he obtained than one from the output (is,, delayed variables) as additional states [5,33]. A

conventional algorithm. necessary and sufficient condition for system stability was

A scheduling algorithm that can allocate the established only for the special case of periodic delays. This

bandwidth of a network and determine sensor data technique is very useful for developing control laws to

sampling periods was presented by [28]. In [ZS], the control improve the performance of an NCS [34,35,36] except that

system had only single input and single output (SISO), only it fails to give a general stability condition for random

periodic data were considered, and the MADB was not delay. In [37], distributed linear feedback control systems

obtained analytically. A network scheduling method with random communication delays were modeled as a

considering three'types of data based on a multi-input and jump linear control systems, in which random variation of

multi-output (MIMO) system was proposed by [29]. system delays corresponds to randomly varying structure of

However, the estimation of MADB using the Ricatti the state-space representation. Necessary and sufficient

equation is too conservative, which means the estimated conditions were found for zero-state mean-square

MADB is too small, but the network scheduling method exponential stability of the considered class of systems.

discussed in [29] is somewhat heuristic. In [1,2,30,31,32], This method requires that the transition probability matrix

calculation methods of MADB for stability analysis of an is known a priori. Furthermore, both methods were limited

NCS were also presented. to the one packet transmission problem.

However, these results about calculation of MADIB are An NCS with data packet dropout can he modeled as

conservative to be of practical use and still need to be an asynchronous dynamical system (ADS) with rate

improved. Further research is needed with regard to an constraints on events. The stability of this type of system is

estimation of a less conservative MADB for stability of the studied in [15,38]. In [1,15], stability of an NCS was also

NCSs and systematic scheduling methods for three types of characterized using a hybrid system stability analysis

data are demanded for NCSs. [7] proposed a new method to technique and modeled an NCS with packet dropout and

obtain the MADB guaranteeing stability in terms of linear multiple-packet transmission (which may occur due to the

matrix inequalities (LMI) based on [13,14]. This method limitation of the control network) as an asynchronous

gave a much less conservative delay bound than the dynamical system. Stability regions and stability of an NCS

existing methods. It allocates the bandwidth of a network to have been proposed using a hybrid system technique in [I].

a node, determines the sensor data sampling periods of each The influence of sampling period to the stability of an NCS

loop using the obtained MADB, guarantees real-time has been presented in [Z].

transmission of sporadic data and periodic data within the

sampling periods, and minimizes the network utilization for

message. The proposed approach differs from the popular 8. Conclusions and Future Work

queuing analysis because there is no queue for time-critical The improvement of NCSs performance can he

periodic data. divided into two areas. First, to further guarantee the

determinism of transmission time and reduce the end-to-cod

time delays, device-processing times should be minimized

7. Stability of NCSs and network protocols can be improved. Second, advanced

The stability is a basic problem in the design of an optimal or robust controller design can overcome the

NCS. uncertainty in an NCS and achieve the best control

The occurrence of trammission events on the nekvork performance.

is unknown and often modeled as a random process, e.g., As the nodes distributed independently, the multi-rate

Poisson process, and the resulting interval between each sampling is natural for NCSs, hut it always brings about

access to the network are independent and have an some problems: e.g., the constraint of network bandwidth

5071

requests better signal quality; redundant signals cause [8] Nilson, J., Bermhardsson, B. and Wittermark,

delay, vacant sampling. It is common to adopt the event- Schtochastic Analysis of control of real time systems with

triggered sampling to deal with the constraint of network random time delays, Aufomafica, 34, (I), pp.57-64. B.

bandwidth and the negative impact of redundant signals on 1998.

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While using Markov chains to model an NCS, in fact, Ph.D dissertation, Dept. of Automatic control, Lund

the states of Markov chains are usually unknown. The key Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden.

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[13) D.S.Kln, Y.S.Lee, W.H.Kwon, H.S.Park, Maximum

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analysis of NCSs with packet dropout [15,32,40], more hiferiiafional Journal of Control Engineering Practice,

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dropping in NCSs will be interesting topics. [I41 D.S.Kim, Y.S.Lee and W.H.Kwon Scheduling

(3). The Ethernet technology allows field device like Analysis of Networked Control system, IFAC Corferertce

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5073

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