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Types Of Water Closet

SIPHON-VORTEX
Water enters through diagonal punching around the rim of the bowl, creating a vortex that draws the
water down into the rear trap with a swirling action that scours the walls of the bowl. Water strikes
two parallel ridges and folds over forming a jet, producing siphonic action. Large water surface
provides a very efficient and clean process, and the flushing is extremely quiet. This model is mostly
of one-piece construction with a low profile. Expensive.
SIPHON-JET
Water enters through rim punchings and jets placed in an up-leg of the rear trap, filling the trapway
and creating an instant siphon action without rise of water level. The result is quick water
withdrawal. Large water surface provides an efficient and clean operation. With quiet flushing and
moderate cost, this is the most popular residential model.

REVERSE-TRAP
Water enters through rim punchings and through a jet that fills the rear trapway completely, creating
a siphon action and resulting in quick withdrawal of water from the bowl. A water jet is located at the
inlet of the trapway. Most of the bowl surface is covered with water. This model is efficient but
moderately noisy. Its cost is reasonably low.
WASH-DOWN
Water enters through an open rim, as though a bucket of water were dumped into the bowl, filling the
front trapway and creating siphon action. This model provides quick removal of water with minimum
water rise. Small water surface makes the model more vulnerable to soiling and clogging. This is the
least efficient and most noisy type but lowest in cost.
PRESSURE/TANKLESS
Strong flushing action is created by a jet of water directed into the rim and jet. The force of the jet
draws the bowl contents into the rear trap. It doesn't use siphonic action but relies on the driving
force of jet action. At flush valve 25 psi is needed with 1.5-in. inlet spud. Large water surface and
large trapway size make this model efficient and suitable for commercial use. Flushing is very noisy.
Expensive.
PRESSURE/TANK
A steel tank is located inside the china tank. Uses pressure from the water supply system. A 1.5 in.
water supply line provides 25 psi pressure, compressing trapped air in the tank. When flushed the
compressed air forces the water out. The bowl is designed to accept the torrent of water. The crest of
the surging water empties the bowl through the enlarged trap. Large water surface makes this model
efficient. Design features make it suitable for residential use. Flushing is very noisy. Low water
usage (1.5 gpf) helps conserve water. Expensive.
A plumbing system consists of all of the elements that provide water or convey water or wastewater
within the building as well as those elements that vent the wastewater system. Often gas and storm
water drain pipes are also installed and are considered part of the plumbing system.

Network of pipes that transport hot and cold potable water under pressure

Fixture A device that uses water (sink, toilet, dishwasher, etc.)

Water Heater Large insulated tanks that heat cold water to be distributed in the hot water
supply lines

Trunk Lines Hot or cold water pipes that serve many fixtures

Branch Lines Hot or cold water pipes that serve only one or two fixtures


Water Main Supply pipe installed and maintained by a public entity and on public property

Water Service Pipe from the water main to the building supply pipes

Meter Measures the amount of water transported through water service

Valve A fitting used to control water flow (located next to the meter)

Drain-Waste-Vent System
Network of pipes that transport wastewater and sewer gases from the building

Drain Pipe A pipe that carries wastewater in a building

Vent Pipe A vertical pipe that provides circulation of air to and from the drainage system

Trap A fitting (usually U-shaped) that provides a seal to prevent the flow of sewer gases

Stack A vertical pipe (waste or vent) that extends through at least one story

Cleanout An access opening to allow cleanout of the pipe

Sewage Any liquid waste containing animal or vegetable matter, including liquids containing
chemicals

Sanitary Sewer A sewer pipe that carries only sewage

Storm Sewer A sewer pipe that carries storm water or other drainage (but not sewage)

Building Sewer or Sewer Lateral Part of the drainage system from the building to the public,
private, or individual sewer disposal system

Sewer Main A sewer pipe installed and maintained by a public entity and on public property
Plumbing Codes

Protect health and safety of community

Reduce potential for widespread disease

Provide rules and regulations for installing drinking water or sewer facilities

Identify required methods for installing plumbing systems

Provide permits and inspections

The International Residential Code includes requirements for residential plumbing systems.

International Plumbing Code is a model code that has been widely adopted throughout the
United States for non-residential facilities

Supply pipe size dependent upon

Amount of water

Water pressure

Pipe length

Number of stories

Flow pressure necessary at farthest point in system

Drainage and vent pipe size dependent upon

Plumbing Fixture Units

Type of fixture

Estimated amount of waste


Pipe Varieties and Metric
Conversions