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References

1. Guo, L., Kubat, N.J. & Isenberg, R.A. 2011, "Pulsed radio frequency energy (PRFE) use in human medical
applications", Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 21-45.
2. Guo, L., Kubat, N.J., Nelson, T.R. & Isenberg, R.A. 2012, "Meta-analysis of clinical efficacy of pulsed radio
frequency energy treatment", Annals of Surgery, vol. 255, no. 3, pp. 457.
3. A.Kiril Sc.D Pandelisev Pulse radio frequency energy and pulsed led therapy for pain management,
inflammation, tissue repair and wound healing
4. Stall, R.S. 2013, "Noninvasive Pulsed Radio Frequency Energy in the Treatment of Occipital Neuralgia with
Chronic, Debilitating Headache: A Report of Four Cases: 1", Pain Medicine, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 628.
5. Larsen, J.A. & Overstreet, J. 2008, "Pulsed radio frequency energy in the treatment of complex diabetic foot
wounds: two cases", Journal of wound, ostomy, and continence nursing : official publication of The Wound, Ostomy
and Continence Nurses Society / WOCN, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 523-527.
6. Stall, R.S. 2013, "Noninvasive Pulsed Radio Frequency Energy in the Treatment of Occipital Neuralgia with
Chronic, Debilitating Headache: A Report of Four Cases", Pain Medicine, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 628-638.
7. Cortes, J., Kubat, N. & Japour, C. 2013, "Pulsed radio frequency energy therapy use for pain relief following
surgery for tendinopathy-associated chronic pain: two case reports", Military medicine, vol. 178, no. 1, pp. e125-
e129.
8. Michel, R. 2012, "Use of pulsed radio frequency energy in the effective treatment of recalcitrant plantar fasciitis:
Six case histories", The Foot, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 48-52.
9. Frykberg, R.G., Driver, V.R., Lavery, L.A., Armstrong, D.G. & Isenberg, R.A. 2011, "The use of pulsed radio
frequency energy therapy in treating lower extremity wounds: results of a retrospective study of a wound
registry", Ostomy/wound management, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 22.
10. Michel, R. 2010, "Use of pulsed radio frequency energy in the treatment of recalcitrant plantar fasciitis", The
Journal of Pain, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. S43.

Scientific background (part 1):

Electromagnetic field based technologies play a fundamental role for therapeutic


uses in the various types of medical applications. Over the years, short-wave diathermy became
a commonly used terminology in describing medical applications of either continuous or pulsed
shortwave energy. Unlike continuous RF energy delivery, pulse RF therapy is well-tolerated due
the non-invasive nature involved (enables dissipation of heat waves between pulses preventing
any substantial tissue temperature). The RF technology was an innovation to address the negative
effects of continuous shortwave energy while conserving the other therapeutic benefits of the
technology. The peripheral nervous system is known to be highly sensitive to temperature, a rise
as low as 0.1*C could cause significant biological impact such as vasodilatation, increasing
delivery of leukocytes, decrease in muscle tone and spasm and even increased nerve conduction .
For these reasons, the pulsating effect of the wave delivery helps to eliminate the adverse heating
effects of tissue damage. [1] [2] [3]

Pulsed radio frequency energy (PRFE) essentially a medical application of radio-


frequency energy (RF) between 13 and 27.12 MHz carrier frequency. It was designed for local
application and to target tissues. Studies have shown that there is strong statistical evidence that
PRFE therapy is effective for treatment of post-operative (PO) and non-postoperative induced
pain (NPO) and edema besides being useful in wound healing (WH) applications. Clinical trials
also show effectiveness of PRFE in treating traumatic injuries and degenerative disorders
associated with pain and edema. For instance, PFRE therapy reported to promote healing of
chronic wounds in lower limb extremity in patients with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus.
Subsequently, it is a promising ground with statically evidence in reducing non-traumatic lower
limb amputation. Many studies have shown significant improvement in pain, edema and wound
healing. Over the recent years ,area of focus have shifted into examining the contributions of
different parameters such as induced electric field in situ, target tissue impedance factors that
could optimize the efficiency of the medical therapy. [1] [2]