Sag-tension Calculations

A Tutorial Developed for the IEEE TP&C Line Design Subcommittee
Based on a CIGRE WG B2.12 Technical Brochure under Development Dale Douglass June, 2005

June 6/13/05

IEEE TP&C Tutorial

CIGRE & IEEE Websites
• CIGRE WG B2.12 – Electrical Effects in Lines http://www.geocities.com/wg_12/index.htm
– Technical Brochure 244 – Conductors for Uprating of Existing Lines – Probabilistic Ratings & Joints

• IEEE Towers Poles & Conductors http://www.geocities.com/ieee_tpc/index.htm
– IEEE Standard 738 – 1993 – Panel Sessions Jan 28 (Las Vegas) June 4 (SF)

June 6/13/05

IEEE TP&C Tutorial

Sag-tension Envelope
Span Length Initial Installed Sag @15C

Final Unloaded Sag @15C Sag @ Max Ice/Wind Load

Sag @ Max Electrical Load, Tmax

Minimum Electrical Clearance GROUND LEVEL

June 6/13/05

IEEE TP&C Tutorial

SAG10 Calculation Table June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial From Alcoa-Fujikura SAG10 program .

AW eq2 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Tcdr (IEEE) Tcdr (meas) Tcdr (H) . Why? IPC measurements.AW eq1 Tcdr_measured is much higher than predicted with alumoweld model (Hbased) or weather based model for these 3 points.xls ? deg C measurement number June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .A Bit of Perspective 10C-15C Uncertainty 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 Tcdr (H) . 1997 data_during_tempmeas.

Some Questions • Why can we do calculations for a single span and use for an entire line section? • How are initial and final conditions defined? • Why not run the maximum tension to 60% as the NESC Code allows? • Why do I see negative tensions (compression) in aluminum at high temperature? June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

The Catenary Curve • • • • • HyperbolicFunctions & Parabolas Sag vs weight & tension Length between supports What is Slack? What if the span isn’t level? June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

The Catenary – Level Span H y ( x) = w ⎡ w ⋅ x2 ⎛ w⋅ x ⎞ ⎤ ⋅ ⎢cosh⎜ ⎟ − 1⎥ ≅ 2⋅ H ⎝ H ⎠ ⎦ ⎣ H D= w ⎧ w⋅ S ⎞ ⎫ w⋅ S2 ⎛ ⋅ ⎨cosh⎜ ⎟ − 1⎬ ≅ ⎝ 2⋅ H ⎠ ⎭ 8⋅ H ⎩ 2 2 ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ Sw ⎞ S w ⎟ sinh ⎜ ⎟ ≅ S ⎜ 1+ ⎜ 2H ⎠ 24 H 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ⎛ 2H L = ⎜ ⎝ w June 6/13/05 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

094 ⎣ ⎝ ⎠⎦ 2 * 6300 ⎛ 1.963 m) 1.Catenary Sample Calcs for Drake ACSR .272 ft (182.094 lbs/ft Bare Weight .831 ft (2.094 ⋅ 600 ⎞⎤ D= ⎢cosh⎜ 2 ⋅ 6300 ⎟⎥ = 7.600 ft span 6300 ⎡ ⎛ 1.31.094 ⎝ 2 * 6300 ⎠ June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .500 lbs Rated Breaking Strength .387 m) 1.1.094 * 600 ⎞ L= sinh⎜ ⎟ = 600.

Catenary Calculations What Happens when the weight of the conductor changes June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

Ice & Wind Loading • • • Radial ice (Quebec) Wind Pressure (Florida) Wind & Ice Combined (Illinois) June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

What about changes in loading? June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

05 0.40 0.0 0.NESC Loading District Heavy Radial thickness of ice (in) (mm) Horizontal wind pressure (lb/ft2) (Pa) Temperature (oF) (oC) NESC safety factors to be added to the resultant (lb/ft) (N/m) June 6/13/05 Medium Light Extreme wind loading 0.0 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .50 0 0 9 430 +30 -1 0.5 4 190 +15 -10 0.20 2.50 12.30 4.25 6.70 0 0 See Fig 2-4 +60 +15 0.5 4 190 0 -20 0.

6570 2. lb/ft 0.545 wbare.272 wbare + wice wbare 4.8 2. lb/ft 0. in 0.398 0.3 1.559 0.858 1.6 June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .845 1.Iced Conductor Weight wice = 1.044 wice.1452 0.244t ( D c + t ) ACSR Conductor #1/0 AWG -6/1 “Raven” 477 kcmil-26/7 “Hawk” 1590 kcmil-54/19 “Falcon" Dc.

6 unless the length of the conductor changes.094 + 1.108+1.0) = 3.244*1.60 lb/ft • Tension increases by a factor of 3.094 lb/ft • Iced weight is: – 1. June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .0*(1.What happens when the conductor weight changes? • Bare weight of Drake ACSR is 1.

SAG10 Calculation Table June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial From Alcoa-Fujikura SAG10 program .

%RBS) Designing with less sag June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .Conductor tension limits • • • Avoiding tension failure (Safety factor) Limiting vibration (H/w.

4 53.meters 14.6 31.9 9.4 43.0 7.6 10.8 Final Sag at 100C .%RTS 22.5 Tension at max ice and wind load .4 8.meters 14.0 9.0 Initial Sag at 100C .8 61.Tension Limits and Sag Tension at 15C unloaded initial .4 June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .6 11.6 44.7 38.kN 31.%RTS 10 15 20 25 Tension at max ice and wind load .

over the life of the line) June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .Conductor Elongation • • Elastic elongation (springs) Settlement & Short-term creep (before sagging) • Thermal elongation • Long term creep (After sagging.

Conductor Elongation Manufactured Length Settlement &1-hr creep Strain Thermal Strain Elastic Strain Long-time Creep Strain June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

Thermal Elongation International Annealed Copper Standard Conductivity.2 12. Steel Core Wire 8.4 Commercial Hard-Drawn Copper Wire 97.00 9.00 9. % IACS @ 20oC Coefficient of Linear Expansion 10-6 per oF 100.4 June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .8 Galv.4 Standard 1350-H19 Aluminum Wire 61.0 6.

000 30% RBS Final Modulus 5.200 0.150 0.Courtesy of Southwire Corp.000 30.350 0.300 0.400 0.000 300 40.000 100 10.450 % % Strain Strain June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .000 0 0.050 0.000 0.000 Stress [MPa] 20.000 Initial Modulus 70% RBS 50% RBS 15. Stress-Strain Test 45.000 One Hour Modulus 35.100 0.250 0.000 200 25.

25 0.Stress-strain & creep elongation curves for 37 strand A1 conductor 140000 120000 Initial "1-hour" Aluminum 70% RBS 100000 Linear Modulus Stress.kPa 80000 50% RBS 60000 30% RBS 40000 6 mo creep 10 yr creep 12 mo creep Final Alum after load to 122 MPa 20000 0 -0.45 June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .05 0.1 0.4 0.15 0.05 0 0.3 0.35 0.2 Percent Elongation 0.

Conductor Elongation • • Elastic elongation (reversible) Settlement & Short-term creep (permanent) • Thermal elongation (reversible) • Long term creep (permanent after years or high loads) June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

10 0.45 0.05 0.25 0.50 % Increase in Length June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .30 0.15 0.35 0.40 0.20 0.100 80 % of Tensile Strength Plastic Elong at High Tension 60 Creep for 1 year 40 Initial Settlement 20 0 0.

SAG10 Calculation Table June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial From Alcoa-Fujikura SAG10 program .

What is a ruling span? June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

Winsul The basis of the ruling span concept.Pivot Attachment Point Tilt Angle T Tension equalization at suspension points. Hspan1 Wspan1 Insulator Length. Li Hspan2 Wspan2 June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

.The “Ruling Span” + S3 + ....+ S3 S 2 n RS = S1 + S 2 + .+ S n 3 3 3 600 + 900 + 600 RS = = 745 ft 600 + 900 + 600 3 1 • • Based on Tension equalization Used for Stringing sags • Sag = (w/8H)*S2 June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial ...

Sag-tension Calculations Deliverables • Maximum sag so that clearance to ground and other conductors can be maintained. June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial . • Minimum sag to control structure uplift problems. • Maximum tension so that structures can be designed to withstand it. • H/w during “coldest month” to limit aeolian vibration.

Summary of Some Key Points • Tension equalization between suspension spans allows use of the ruling span • Initial and final conditions occur at sagging and after high loads and multiple years • For large conductors. max tension is typically below 60% in order to limit wind vibration & uplift • Negative tensions (compression) in aluminum occur at high temperature for ACSR because of the 2:1 diff in thermal elongation between alum & steel June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

3. pp 614-621. No. DC 20006. O.. IEEE Working Group.. “A Method of Stress-Strain Testing of Aluminum Conductor and ACSR” and “A Test Method for Determining the Long Time Tensile Creep of Aluminum Conductors in Overhead Lines”. “Limitations of the Ruling Span Method for Overhead Line Conductors at High Operating Temperatures”. E.. January. Feb. JR and Larson RE. O. Characteristics of A1/S1A (ACSR) Conductors as High Temperatures and Stresses. “Graphic Method for Sag Tension Calculations for A1/S1A (ACSR) and Other Conductors. USA. AIEE Paper 59-900. Pittsburg. 1999. 380-386. FL.. February 1981. No. IEEE WPM 1998. Vol. March 1970 Rawlins. 1998 Thayer. Feb. 1998. pp. IEEE WPM 1998. Barrett. C. March 1983. 2. Dutta S. A New Computer Model of A1/S1A (ACSR) Conductors. P. “Some Effects of Mill Practice on the Stress-Strain Behaviour of ACSR”. PAS-100. 3. 1927 Winkelman. IEEE Trans. Washington. Report of IEEE WG on Thermal Aspects of Conductors. “Stress-Strain-Creep Curves for Aluminum Overhead Electrical Conductors. no.. Harvey. The aluminum Association. Tampa.B.2. 1924 Aluminum Association. Vol.84. June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial . Use of Elevated Temperature Creep Data in Sag-Tension Calculations. “Computing tensions in transmission lines”. JS. Aluminum Company of America. Varney T. June 1959. JS.F.” Published 7/15/74. PAS-102.. and Nigol..General Sag-Ten References • • • • • • • • • • • • Aluminum Association Aluminum Electrical Conductor Handbook Publication No. July 12. 3. IEEE Trans. Tampa. pp 485-493 Electrical Technical Committee of the Aluminum Association.. Vol. Vol.. FL. ECH-56" Southwire Company "Overhead Conductor Manual“ Barrett. PAS-89.”. “Sag-Tension Computations and Field Measurements of Bonneville Power Administration.. No.S. and Nigol. IEEE Trans. Electrical World.

The End A Sag-tension Tutorial Prepared for the IEEE TP&C Subcommittee by Dale Douglass June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .