Sag-tension Calculations

A Tutorial Developed for the IEEE TP&C Line Design Subcommittee
Based on a CIGRE WG B2.12 Technical Brochure under Development Dale Douglass June, 2005

June 6/13/05

IEEE TP&C Tutorial

CIGRE & IEEE Websites
• CIGRE WG B2.12 – Electrical Effects in Lines http://www.geocities.com/wg_12/index.htm
– Technical Brochure 244 – Conductors for Uprating of Existing Lines – Probabilistic Ratings & Joints

• IEEE Towers Poles & Conductors http://www.geocities.com/ieee_tpc/index.htm
– IEEE Standard 738 – 1993 – Panel Sessions Jan 28 (Las Vegas) June 4 (SF)

June 6/13/05

IEEE TP&C Tutorial

Sag-tension Envelope
Span Length Initial Installed Sag @15C

Final Unloaded Sag @15C Sag @ Max Ice/Wind Load

Sag @ Max Electrical Load, Tmax

Minimum Electrical Clearance GROUND LEVEL

June 6/13/05

IEEE TP&C Tutorial

SAG10 Calculation Table June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial From Alcoa-Fujikura SAG10 program .

1997 data_during_tempmeas. Why? IPC measurements.AW eq1 Tcdr_measured is much higher than predicted with alumoweld model (Hbased) or weather based model for these 3 points.AW eq2 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Tcdr (IEEE) Tcdr (meas) Tcdr (H) .A Bit of Perspective 10C-15C Uncertainty 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 Tcdr (H) .xls ? deg C measurement number June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

Some Questions • Why can we do calculations for a single span and use for an entire line section? • How are initial and final conditions defined? • Why not run the maximum tension to 60% as the NESC Code allows? • Why do I see negative tensions (compression) in aluminum at high temperature? June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

The Catenary Curve • • • • • HyperbolicFunctions & Parabolas Sag vs weight & tension Length between supports What is Slack? What if the span isn’t level? June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

The Catenary – Level Span H y ( x) = w ⎡ w ⋅ x2 ⎛ w⋅ x ⎞ ⎤ ⋅ ⎢cosh⎜ ⎟ − 1⎥ ≅ 2⋅ H ⎝ H ⎠ ⎦ ⎣ H D= w ⎧ w⋅ S ⎞ ⎫ w⋅ S2 ⎛ ⋅ ⎨cosh⎜ ⎟ − 1⎬ ≅ ⎝ 2⋅ H ⎠ ⎭ 8⋅ H ⎩ 2 2 ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ Sw ⎞ S w ⎟ sinh ⎜ ⎟ ≅ S ⎜ 1+ ⎜ 2H ⎠ 24 H 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ⎛ 2H L = ⎜ ⎝ w June 6/13/05 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

094 ⋅ 600 ⎞⎤ D= ⎢cosh⎜ 2 ⋅ 6300 ⎟⎥ = 7.963 m) 1.Catenary Sample Calcs for Drake ACSR .094 ⎝ 2 * 6300 ⎠ June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .31.500 lbs Rated Breaking Strength .1.272 ft (182.094 * 600 ⎞ L= sinh⎜ ⎟ = 600.387 m) 1.831 ft (2.600 ft span 6300 ⎡ ⎛ 1.094 ⎣ ⎝ ⎠⎦ 2 * 6300 ⎛ 1.094 lbs/ft Bare Weight .

Catenary Calculations What Happens when the weight of the conductor changes June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

Ice & Wind Loading • • • Radial ice (Quebec) Wind Pressure (Florida) Wind & Ice Combined (Illinois) June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

What about changes in loading? June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

50 0 0 9 430 +30 -1 0.20 2.NESC Loading District Heavy Radial thickness of ice (in) (mm) Horizontal wind pressure (lb/ft2) (Pa) Temperature (oF) (oC) NESC safety factors to be added to the resultant (lb/ft) (N/m) June 6/13/05 Medium Light Extreme wind loading 0.50 12.5 4 190 0 -20 0.0 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .05 0.25 6.70 0 0 See Fig 2-4 +60 +15 0.30 4.40 0.5 4 190 +15 -10 0.0 0.

8 2.6570 2.272 wbare + wice wbare 4.545 wbare.244t ( D c + t ) ACSR Conductor #1/0 AWG -6/1 “Raven” 477 kcmil-26/7 “Hawk” 1590 kcmil-54/19 “Falcon" Dc.845 1.1452 0. in 0. lb/ft 0.6 June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .3 1. lb/ft 0.398 0.858 1.559 0.044 wice.Iced Conductor Weight wice = 1.

June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .094 + 1.6 unless the length of the conductor changes.What happens when the conductor weight changes? • Bare weight of Drake ACSR is 1.0*(1.0) = 3.244*1.108+1.094 lb/ft • Iced weight is: – 1.60 lb/ft • Tension increases by a factor of 3.

SAG10 Calculation Table June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial From Alcoa-Fujikura SAG10 program .

Conductor tension limits • • • Avoiding tension failure (Safety factor) Limiting vibration (H/w. %RBS) Designing with less sag June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

5 Tension at max ice and wind load .4 June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .7 38.0 Initial Sag at 100C .6 11.Tension Limits and Sag Tension at 15C unloaded initial .4 43.6 10.6 44.0 7.8 Final Sag at 100C .meters 14.meters 14.%RTS 10 15 20 25 Tension at max ice and wind load .kN 31.9 9.0 9.8 61.4 53.4 8.%RTS 22.6 31.

over the life of the line) June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .Conductor Elongation • • Elastic elongation (springs) Settlement & Short-term creep (before sagging) • Thermal elongation • Long term creep (After sagging.

Conductor Elongation Manufactured Length Settlement &1-hr creep Strain Thermal Strain Elastic Strain Long-time Creep Strain June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

4 Standard 1350-H19 Aluminum Wire 61.8 Galv.4 June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .4 Commercial Hard-Drawn Copper Wire 97.0 6. Steel Core Wire 8.00 9.2 12.Thermal Elongation International Annealed Copper Standard Conductivity. % IACS @ 20oC Coefficient of Linear Expansion 10-6 per oF 100.00 9.

000 Stress [MPa] 20. Stress-Strain Test 45.000 One Hour Modulus 35.450 % % Strain Strain June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .150 0.200 0.000 0 0.250 0.000 0.400 0.000 30.000 30% RBS Final Modulus 5.350 0.050 0.300 0.000 200 25.Courtesy of Southwire Corp.000 Initial Modulus 70% RBS 50% RBS 15.100 0.000 300 40.000 100 10.

35 0.2 Percent Elongation 0.45 June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .05 0 0.Stress-strain & creep elongation curves for 37 strand A1 conductor 140000 120000 Initial "1-hour" Aluminum 70% RBS 100000 Linear Modulus Stress.3 0.4 0.15 0.kPa 80000 50% RBS 60000 30% RBS 40000 6 mo creep 10 yr creep 12 mo creep Final Alum after load to 122 MPa 20000 0 -0.1 0.05 0.25 0.

Conductor Elongation • • Elastic elongation (reversible) Settlement & Short-term creep (permanent) • Thermal elongation (reversible) • Long term creep (permanent after years or high loads) June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

35 0.50 % Increase in Length June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .15 0.30 0.25 0.40 0.05 0.20 0.45 0.100 80 % of Tensile Strength Plastic Elong at High Tension 60 Creep for 1 year 40 Initial Settlement 20 0 0.10 0.

SAG10 Calculation Table June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial From Alcoa-Fujikura SAG10 program .

What is a ruling span? June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

Pivot Attachment Point Tilt Angle T Tension equalization at suspension points. Li Hspan2 Wspan2 June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial . Winsul The basis of the ruling span concept. Hspan1 Wspan1 Insulator Length.

...+ S3 S 2 n RS = S1 + S 2 + ....The “Ruling Span” + S3 + .+ S n 3 3 3 600 + 900 + 600 RS = = 745 ft 600 + 900 + 600 3 1 • • Based on Tension equalization Used for Stringing sags • Sag = (w/8H)*S2 June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .Sag-tension Calculations Deliverables • Maximum sag so that clearance to ground and other conductors can be maintained. • Maximum tension so that structures can be designed to withstand it. • Minimum sag to control structure uplift problems. • H/w during “coldest month” to limit aeolian vibration.

max tension is typically below 60% in order to limit wind vibration & uplift • Negative tensions (compression) in aluminum occur at high temperature for ACSR because of the 2:1 diff in thermal elongation between alum & steel June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .Summary of Some Key Points • Tension equalization between suspension spans allows use of the ruling span • Initial and final conditions occur at sagging and after high loads and multiple years • For large conductors.

“Limitations of the Ruling Span Method for Overhead Line Conductors at High Operating Temperatures”. March 1983.. 1998 Thayer. IEEE Trans. Vol. 1924 Aluminum Association. IEEE WPM 1998. Use of Elevated Temperature Creep Data in Sag-Tension Calculations. Tampa. JR and Larson RE. A New Computer Model of A1/S1A (ACSR) Conductors. 2. July 12. 1999.. Dutta S. No. Feb. “A Method of Stress-Strain Testing of Aluminum Conductor and ACSR” and “A Test Method for Determining the Long Time Tensile Creep of Aluminum Conductors in Overhead Lines”. March 1970 Rawlins. 1998. AIEE Paper 59-900. PAS-89. FL. IEEE Trans. and Nigol. Vol. Vol. and Nigol.. ECH-56" Southwire Company "Overhead Conductor Manual“ Barrett. pp 485-493 Electrical Technical Committee of the Aluminum Association.F. No. no.General Sag-Ten References • • • • • • • • • • • • Aluminum Association Aluminum Electrical Conductor Handbook Publication No. IEEE Trans. June 1959. Washington. Tampa. O. Characteristics of A1/S1A (ACSR) Conductors as High Temperatures and Stresses.B.. JS.. February 1981. The aluminum Association. Report of IEEE WG on Thermal Aspects of Conductors. “Some Effects of Mill Practice on the Stress-Strain Behaviour of ACSR”. JS..”. PAS-102. “Sag-Tension Computations and Field Measurements of Bonneville Power Administration. Pittsburg. Electrical World. 3.” Published 7/15/74. “Graphic Method for Sag Tension Calculations for A1/S1A (ACSR) and Other Conductors. 380-386. “Computing tensions in transmission lines”.. Harvey. No. Feb. “Stress-Strain-Creep Curves for Aluminum Overhead Electrical Conductors.. Aluminum Company of America. C. June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .2. PAS-100. January. IEEE Working Group. P. Vol. O. FL. Varney T. 3.S.. Barrett. pp. DC 20006. USA. pp 614-621. E.. IEEE WPM 1998.84. 3. 1927 Winkelman.

The End A Sag-tension Tutorial Prepared for the IEEE TP&C Subcommittee by Dale Douglass June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .