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# Sag-tension Calculations

A Tutorial Developed for the IEEE
TP&C Line Design Subcommittee
Based on a CIGRE WG B2.12 Technical
Brochure under Development
Dale Douglass June, 2005

June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial

CIGRE & IEEE Websites
• CIGRE WG B2.12 – Electrical Effects in Lines
http://www.geocities.com/wg_12/index.htm
– Technical Brochure 244 – Conductors for Uprating of
Existing Lines
– Probabilistic Ratings & Joints
• IEEE Towers Poles & Conductors
http://www.geocities.com/ieee_tpc/index.htm
– IEEE Standard 738 – 1993
– Panel Sessions Jan 28 (Las Vegas) June 4 (SF)

June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial

Sag-tension Envelope
Span Length

Initial Installed Sag @15C

Sag @ Max Electrical

Minimum Electrical
Clearance
GROUND LEVEL

June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial

SAG10 Calculation Table June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial From Alcoa-Fujikura SAG10 program .

A Bit of Perspective 10C-15C Uncertainty IPC measurements. 1997 data_during_tempmeas.AW eq2 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 measurement number June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .xls 60 55 ? 50 45 40 Tcdr_measured is deg C much higher than 35 predicted with alumoweld model (H- 30 based) or weather based model for these Tcdr (IEEE) 3 points.AW eq1 15 Tcdr (H) . Why? 25 Tcdr (meas) 20 Tcdr (H) .

Some Questions • Why can we do calculations for a single span and use for an entire line section? • How are initial and final conditions defined? • Why not run the maximum tension to 60% as the NESC Code allows? • Why do I see negative tensions (compression) in aluminum at high temperature? June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

The Catenary Curve • HyperbolicFunctions & Parabolas • Sag vs weight & tension • Length between supports • What is Slack? • What if the span isn’t level? June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

The Catenary – Level Span ⎡ ⎛ w⋅ x ⎞ ⎤ w ⋅ x2 ⎟ − 1⎥ ≅ H y ( x) = ⋅ ⎢cosh⎜ w ⎣ ⎝ H ⎠ ⎦ 2⋅ H H ⎧ ⎛ w⋅ S ⎞ ⎫ w⋅ S 2 D= ⋅ ⎨cosh⎜ ⎟ − 1⎬ ≅ w ⎩ ⎝ 2⋅ H ⎠ ⎭ 8⋅ H ⎛ 2H ⎞ ⎛ Sw ⎞ ⎛ S 2 2 w ⎞ L = ⎜ ⎟ sinh ⎜ ⎟ ≅ S ⎜⎜ 1 + ⎟⎟ ⎝ w ⎠ ⎝ 2H ⎠ ⎝ 24 H 2 ⎠ June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

094 lbs/ft Bare Weight .1.387 m) 1.094 * 600 ⎞ L= sinh⎜ ⎟ = 600.094 ⎝ 2 * 6300 ⎠ June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .094 ⎣ ⎝ 2 ⋅ 6300 ⎠⎦ 2 * 6300 ⎛ 1.600 ft span 6300 ⎡ ⎛ 1.963 m) 1.272 ft (182.831 ft (2.31.094 ⋅ 600 ⎞⎤ D= ⎢ cosh⎜ ⎟⎥ = 7. Catenary Sample Calcs for Drake ACSR .500 lbs Rated Breaking Strength .

Catenary Calculations What Happens when the weight of the conductor changes June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

Ice & Wind Loading • Radial ice (Quebec) • Wind Pressure (Florida) • Wind & Ice Combined (Illinois) June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

5 0 0 (mm) 0 Horizontal wind pressure 4 4 9 See Fig 2-4 (lb/ft2) 190 190 430 (Pa) Temperature 0 +15 +30 +60 (oF) -20 -10 -1 +15 (oC) NESC safety factors 0.50 0.20 0.05 0.70 0.50 0.5 6.30 0.0 to be added to 4. NESC Loading District Heavy Medium Light Extreme wind loading Radial thickness of ice 0.40 2.0 the resultant (lb/ft) (N/m) June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .25 0 (in) 12.

545 2.6570 0.845 2.6 “Falcon" June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .559 4.858 0.8 “Raven” 477 kcmil-26/7 0.272 1.398 0.3 “Hawk” 1590 kcmil-54/19 1. wbare.1452 0. wbare + wice Conductor in lb/ft lb/ft wbare #1/0 AWG -6/1 0. Iced Conductor Weight wice = 1.244t ( D c + t ) ACSR Dc. wice.044 1.

094 lb/ft • Iced weight is: – 1. June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .0*(1.0) = 3.6 unless the length of the conductor changes.244*1. What happens when the conductor weight changes? • Bare weight of Drake ACSR is 1.094 + 1.108+1.60 lb/ft • Tension increases by a factor of 3.

SAG10 Calculation Table June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial From Alcoa-Fujikura SAG10 program .

Conductor tension limits • Avoiding tension failure (Safety factor) • Limiting vibration (H/w. %RBS) • Designing with less sag June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

Tension Limits and Sag Tension at 15C Tension at max Tension at max Initial Sag at Final Sag at unloaded initial ice and wind ice and wind 100C .0 9.4 June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .8 8.6 14.%RTS load .meters 100C .0 20 38.4 25 43.7 44.0 7.9 11.%RTS load .6 31.meters .6 15 31.4 53.kN 10 22.4 10.5 61.8 9.6 14.

over the life of the line) June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial . Conductor Elongation • Elastic elongation (springs) • Settlement & Short-term creep (before sagging) • Thermal elongation • Long term creep (After sagging.

Conductor Elongation Long-time Settlement Elastic Creep Thermal Strain Strain &1-hr Strain Manufactured Length creep Strain June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

4 9. Annealed Copper Hard-Drawn 1350-H19 Steel Core Standard Copper Wire Aluminum Wire Wire Conductivity.4 12.0 % IACS @ 20oC Coefficient of 9.00 61.2 8.8 6. 100. Thermal Elongation International Commercial Standard Galv.4 Linear Expansion 10-6 per oF June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .00 97.

Stress-Strain Test 45.200 0.000 0. Courtesy of Southwire Corp.350 0.100 0.400 0.000 300 One Hour 40.000 Modulus 35.250 0.450 % %Strain Strain June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .300 0.000 15.150 0.000 100 30% RBS 10.000 0 0.000 30.000 50% RBS [MPa] 20.050 0.000 Initial 70% RBS 200 Modulus Stress 25.000 Final Modulus 5.

1 0.2 0.15 0.kPa 50% RBS 12 mo Final Alum after 60000 creep load to 122 MPa 6 mo creep 30% RBS 40000 10 yr creep 20000 0 -0.3 0.05 0 0.45 Percent Elongation June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .35 0.25 0. Stress-strain & creep elongation curves for 37 strand A1 conductor 140000 120000 Initial "1-hour" Aluminum 70% RBS 100000 Linear Modulus 80000 Stress.05 0.4 0.

Conductor Elongation • Elastic elongation (reversible) • Settlement & Short-term creep (permanent) • Thermal elongation (reversible) • Long term creep (permanent after years or high loads) June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

40 0.05 0. 100 80 % of Tensile Strength Plastic Elong at High Tension 60 Creep for 1 year 40 Initial Settlement 20 0 0.25 0.20 0.50 % Increase in Length June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .30 0.15 0.10 0.45 0.35 0.

SAG10 Calculation Table June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial From Alcoa-Fujikura SAG10 program .

What is a ruling span? June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

Pivot Attachment Point Tilt Angle Tension equalization T at suspension points. Hspan1 Hspan2 Wspan1 Wspan2 June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial . Li ruling span concept. Winsul The basis of the Insulator Length.

.+ S n 3 3 3 600 + 900 + 600 RS = = 745 ft 600 + 900 + 600 • Based on Tension equalization • Used for Stringing sags • Sag = (w/8H)*S2 June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .+ S n RS = S1 + S 2 + . The “Ruling Span” 3 3 3 S 1 + S 2 + ......

• Minimum sag to control structure uplift problems. Sag-tension Calculations - Deliverables • Maximum sag so that clearance to ground and other conductors can be maintained. June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial . • H/w during “coldest month” to limit aeolian vibration. • Maximum tension so that structures can be designed to withstand it.

Summary of Some Key Points • Tension equalization between suspension spans allows use of the ruling span • Initial and final conditions occur at sagging and after high loads and multiple years • For large conductors. max tension is typically below 60% in order to limit wind vibration & uplift • Negative tensions (compression) in aluminum occur at high temperature for ACSR because of the 2:1 diff in thermal elongation between alum & steel June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .

B. “Stress-Strain-Creep Curves for Aluminum Overhead Electrical Conductors. O. Vol. PAS-100. Electrical World.. March 1983. pp. 2. USA. JS.. No. JS. Report of IEEE WG on Thermal Aspects of Conductors. February 1981. PAS-102.F. • Barrett.”. 3.2. E. March 1970 • Rawlins. January. DC 20006. 1927 • Winkelman.. July 12. “Sag-Tension Computations and Field Measurements of Bonneville Power Administration. and Nigol. Vol. O. Pittsburg. PAS-89. Use of Elevated Temperature Creep Data in Sag-Tension Calculations. A New Computer Model of A1/S1A (ACSR) Conductors.. C. Vol. FL. Feb.. 1998. Aluminum Company of America.” Published 7/15/74. • Harvey. The aluminum Association. No. P. IEEE Trans. pp 614-621. Tampa. IEEE Trans. No. June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .. 1924 • Aluminum Association. “Computing tensions in transmission lines”. Feb. pp 485-493 • Electrical Technical Committee of the Aluminum Association. IEEE WPM 1998. 3.S. “Some Effects of Mill Practice on the Stress-Strain Behaviour of ACSR”. JR and Larson RE. 1999. • IEEE Working Group. ECH-56" • Southwire Company "Overhead Conductor Manual“ • Barrett.. General Sag-Ten References • Aluminum Association Aluminum Electrical Conductor Handbook Publication No. IEEE Trans. Washington. Characteristics of A1/S1A (ACSR) Conductors as High Temperatures and Stresses. FL. IEEE WPM 1998. 380-386. “A Method of Stress-Strain Testing of Aluminum Conductor and ACSR” and “A Test Method for Determining the Long Time Tensile Creep of Aluminum Conductors in Overhead Lines”. 3.. Dutta S..84. AIEE Paper 59-900. 1998 • Thayer. June 1959. and Nigol. Tampa.. Vol. “Graphic Method for Sag Tension Calculations for A1/S1A (ACSR) and Other Conductors. • Varney T. “Limitations of the Ruling Span Method for Overhead Line Conductors at High Operating Temperatures”. no.

The End A Sag-tension Tutorial Prepared for the IEEE TP&C Subcommittee by Dale Douglass June 6/13/05 IEEE TP&C Tutorial .