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DIGITAL FUNCTION GENERATOR

1 MHz
FGL - 9

OPERATING & INSTRUCTION MANUAL


1 MHz FUNCTION GENERATOR

MODEL :- FGL - 9

INDEX

CONTENTS PAGE NO

INTRODUCTION 2

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION 3

FRONT / BACK PANEL CONTROL 5-6

OPERATION 7-9

APPLICATION / PRECAUTION 10

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1. INTRODUCTION

The DIGITAL FUCTION GENERATOR MODEL FGL - 9 is capable of providing


Sine , Square, Triangle, Ramp, Pulse and TTL Square Wave outputs 0.1 Hz to 1 MHz.
The modes are selected through slide switches on the front panel.

It has a constant signal amplitude with the output signal symmetrical about zero. the
frequency is indicated on a digital indicator the front panel. It has a maximum of 20 V
peak tp peak signal amplitude with 50 / 600 Ohms load Impedance. It has an offset
control provided for signal which increase the versality of the instrument.

The function generator offers wide functional capability at a modest price.

This compact unit has ranges from 0.1Hz to 1MHz. Range & function selection adds
convenience to versatility. Added features not found in function generators of this price
range are voltage control and a seperate pulse ouptut suitable for synchronization or
driving TTL logic circuits.

The instrument is desibned using easily available components resulting in ease of ser-
viceability. Greater emphasis has been put on ruggedness & reliability with the use of
single pcb for complete circuit. The lower frequencies are of special interest to servo
manuffactureres. Offers sine, square, triangle functions upto 1 MHz. Ramp and Pulse
functions are also typically available.

FEATURES
# Excellent wave shape, signal linearity and wave form symmetry.
# Wide frequency range from 0.1 Hz - 1 MHz.
# Wide functional capabilities at a modest price.
# Commendable frequency and amplitude stability.
# Separate trigger Output (TTL) and facility of DC offset.
# Two switch selectable Output impedance 50 and 600 ohms.

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1 MHz FUNCTION GENERATOR

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS :

FREQUENCY RANGE : 0.1Hz to 1MHz in 7 decadic ranges.


selectable by Push Switch
DISPLAY : 7 Segment Digital 5 Digit display
GATE TIME : 10sec ,1sec, 0.1sec (internally setted)
FUNCTION : Sine, Square, Triangle & TTL pulse output.
Ramp and Pulse with the help of Duty cycle /
symmetry control.
OUTPUT AMPLITUDE : 20 V p/p into open circuit.
10V p-p into 50 ohms.
: Coarse (step) and fine control
ATTENUATOR : 0 to 60dB variable (2X20 dB step coarse at
tenuator and 20 dB fine control).
OUTPUT IMPEDANCE : 50 ohms & 600 ohms switch selectable.
D. C. OFFSET : variable upto + 10 V into open circuit.
DUTY CYCLE (ramp & pulse) : Continuously variable for continuous working
AMPLITUDE FLATNESS : +3 % OF 10 KHz reference across the operating
frequency band at max. amplitude and 50 Ohms
load.

WAVEFORM CHARACTERISTICS

SINE : Distortion : < 1% upto 100 KHz


: Response : + 3 dB upto 1 MHz.
SQUARE : <75 n. sec. rise and fall time at 50 ohms termi
nation.
Square wave time symmetry : + 2%
TRIANGLE : Linearity > 99% upto 100 KHz
TTL PULSE : TTL compatible, Rise time less than 90 nsec
H > 2.4 V , L < 0.4 V
RAMP / PULSE DUTY CYCLE: variable by symmetry control. (10 : 90) upto
100 KHz.
FM IN : Available via external input.
POWER : 230 V + 10%, 50 Hz
Accessories : BNC cables, Power cords, instrction manual.

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PANEL CONTROLS
CONTROL DESCRIPTION
POWER ON - OFF SWITCH : The instrument is turned on by rocker switch
available on back panel.
RANGE SELECTOR : The frequency range is selected by means of
PUSH switch to select the appropriate overlap
ping range as indicated on the front panel.
1) 0.1 Hz to 1 Hz
2) 1 Hz to 10 Hz
3) 10 Hz to 100 Hz
4) 100 Hz to 1 KHz.
5) 1 KHz to 10 KHz
6) 10 KHz to 100 KHz.
7) 100 KHz to 1 MHz.

MIN / MAX INDICATION MIN (0.1 Hz to 1Hz) and MAX


(100KHz to 1000KHz)
ranges are indicated by glow of LEDs

COARSE &FINE FREQUENCY: After selection of the range by means of the


CONTROL PUSH switch on front panel, adjustment of
the frequency can be done through this potenti
ometer control.
Hz, KHz, MHz : Units of Frequency displayed on 5 digit 7
segmant readout as per range selected (inter
nally selected automatically)
FUCTION : Sine, Square, Triangle (by 3 position slide
switch Ramp, Pulse ( by selecting triangle or
square) respectively and making Duty cycle
switch ON and varying VARIABLE pot)
DC (by DC offset switch POT and keeping
level POT minimum)
FUCTION SELECTOR : Select desired output waveform by selecting the
appropriate slide switch position on the front
panel.
OUTPUT TERMINAL : Wave forms selected by FUNCTION switches
as well as the super imposed DC OFFSET
voltages are available on this BNC TERMINAL.
PULSE O/P TERMINAL : A TTL wave is available at this terminal by the
selection. The frequency is determined by the
range selected and the setting of the FRE
QUENCY pot. This output is independent of
the AMPLITUDE and DC OFFSET controls
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LEVEL/ FINE CONTROL : Controls the amplitude of the output signal,
which appears at OUTPUT TERMINAL.

STEP ATTENUATOR : 2 X 20 dB steps COARSE control.

OUTPUT IMPEDANCE : 600/50 ohms selector (50 ohms impedance


usually used in high frequency for square wave
form viewing and amplitude flatness for better
response) For sine wave 600 ohms is used more
often.

DUTY CYCLE ON & : By varying DUTY CYCLE


SYMMETERY CONTROL : SYMMETRY POT you can Pulse and Ramp
waveform.

DC OFFSET CONTROL : Controls the DC Offset of the output. Both


negative and positive offset can be adjusted
with the help of this control.

FM / VCO IN : This is BNC Socket to provide external Modu


lating signal for Frequency Modulation / VCO
operation.

AMP : Frequency Deviation DC frequency control can


be controlled by varying this pot.

BACK PANEL CONTROL

ON / OFF : Rocker switch for on / off operation


Fuse : For protection

---5---
OPERATING INFORMATION
INSTALLATION

A. MAINS SUPPLY :
This instrument will work satisfactorily with electric mains voltage between 195V and
245 V A. C. 50 Hz. In case of fluctuation beyond these voltages, a suitable external
transformer should be provided for voltage adjustment within the specified limits.
B. EARTHING :
It is not essential to earth the instrument for proper operation. However, the earhting by
means of the earthing pin of the power supply receptacle is provided for safer operation.

OPERATION

A. CONNECTING TO MAINS :
Connect the instrument to the electric mains by means of the three pin mains plug. Switch
the instrument on by the power switch provided on the panel. The digital display of
frequency will light up on the panel. The instrument is now ready for use.
The following steps are recommended for first time operation.
1. Connect the power chord to 230 V Mains and switch on the supply on panel.
Notice indication on digital indicator on front panel.

2. Select the frequency range desired by PUSH switch.

3. Select the waveform desired by selecting the appropriate FUNCTION slide switch
on front panel for Sine, Square , Triangle, Ramp and Pulse.

By duty cycle variation Duty cycle/ Symmetry of Ramp and Pulse can be varied
after selecting Triangle and Square respectively upto 1MHz.

a) Keep Slide switch at Square or Triangle to get Pulse and Ramp


respectively.
b) Press DUTY CYCLE ON switch.
c) Vary Duty cycle VARIABLE control.

4. After selection of the range by means of PUSH switch on front panel, Coarse and
fine adjustment of the frequency can be done.

5. The amplitude of the selected output signal is adjusted by Amplitude control on


the front panel. The (sync output) is not affected by Amplitude control.

6. Two step attenuator of 20dB each are also provided. ---6---


7. The set frequency is indicated on the 5 digit digital display. The display is to be
read in conjunction with the Hz / KHz/ MHz LED indicator. For example if the
Hz LED is glowing and display shows 104 then the reading is 104 Hz. In case the
reading is 104 . 5 and the KHz indicator glows then the reading is 104. 5 KHz and
so on. The gate time (pre - setted) for internal 4 digit frequency counter are as
follows :
Ranges Gate time

(The counter will show correct frequency only


0.1Hz to 1 Hz 10 sec after 2/3 samples)
1 Hz to 10 Hz 1 sec
10 Hz to 100 Hz 1 sec
100 Hz to 1 KHz 1 sec
1 KHz to 10 KHz 0.1 sec
10 KHz to 100 KHz 0.1 sec
100 KHz to 1 MHz 0.1 sec

8. When there is a application to give DC shift (+ or -) to the output wave form then
use this control. Adjust DC Offset control to noticeshift in the base line of the
display. + 10 V DC shift is available.

Lock this control when waveform refeerence is to be kept Zero or GND.


9. When using the heigher output frequencies and the square wave and TTL outputs,
terminate the cable with the same impedance to minimise ringing. Keep the cables
as short as possible. Use of 1 : 10 probe probe usually supplied with oscillo
scopes will give correct square waveform with almost flat amplitude. This
cable also avoid capacitive loading by nulling effect, this will give correct rise /
fall times and output amplitude flatness at heigher frequencies.
For better waveform viewing Waveform O/p Impedance

Sine / Triangle 600 ohms


Square wave 50 ohms at high frequency
i.e. > 100 KHz.
Rise / fall time will improve

10. The required attenuation upto 60 dB can be achieved through attenuation switch
and fine amplitude control which gives a 20 dB variation. In otherwords, in the
extreme ccw position we can get 0 to 20 dB variation through amplitude control.
While we can have 20 dB and 40 dB step variation by two step control provided.

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11. The FM IN mode by BNC provided on the front is used to insert external AC
source as a frequency deviation source or it can sweep if AC is inserted.

BNC provided on the front, which is used to insert external signal source as a
frequency deviation source. recommended signal frequency is upto 20 KHz and
voltage level of approx. 0 to 10 V p-p

VCO Operation can also be done by inseting DC in the same BNC terminals.
External DC vary frequency of waveform.

FOR FM OPERATION

1) Modulating signal in BNC provided at front (FM in)


2) Select correct frequency of operation.
3) In case of FM ensure that deviation given is less than operative frequency.
4) Adjust Deviation by AMP POT available.
5) You can also adjust with the help of level of external source (modulating
waveform).

FOR VCO OPERATION

1) Insert DC in BNC provided at front VCO IN


2) Select correct frequency band / range of operation.
3) Adjust Frequency by AMP POT available
4) You can also adjust with the help of Voltage adjust of DC supply used.

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APPLICATION

1. Frequency Modulation :
If an alternating voltage with no DC component is applied to the FM in input, the preset
frequency will vary above and below the frequency that was preset by the range push
button swi tch and fine frequency setting. The DC component of such an input signal can
be removed by transformer or capacitive coupling. The output is thus frequency modu-
lated with ext signal.

2. TTL Output :
This is a fast rise time square wave output available at the front panel. Rise / Fall time is
less than 50 nano seconds. The output is always positive w . r . t. ground. This signal can
be used as an external sync. pulse for oscilloscopes when using the other generator
outputs. It can also be used as a variable frequency signal source for exercising logic
circuits.

1. Select desired frequency (repetitio rate).


2. Connect to TTL output.
3. The AMPLITUDE and DC OFFSET have no effect on the TTL output signal.

3. Main Applications
a) Amplifier frequency response.
b) Tone control Test.
c) Amplifier performance evaluation using square waves.
d) Amplifier overload characteristics.
e) Speaker system testing.
f) Using as a bias and signal source.
g) Digital frequency selection.
h) Communication receiver alignment.
i) FM operation.

PRECAUTIONS
1. Do not use in any of the following locations.
a) Places where the unit is exposed to direct sunlight.
b) Places where temperature and humidity are as it will affect lower frequency
ranges.
c) Places where there are mechanical vibrations.
2. Although will start operating as soon as power is supplied. However, allow over
half an hour for the set to warm up when making an accurate measurement.

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