Sie sind auf Seite 1von 9

1212

10.5604/23920092.1134790

10.5604/01.3001.0009.5105

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

International Journal of Pedagogy Innovation and New Technologies

journal homepage: http://www.ijpint.com ISSN: 2392-0092, Vol. 3, No. 2, 2016

http://www.ijpint.com ISSN: 2392-0092, Vol. 3, No. 2, 2016 Relationship between gender and employment contexts of Bicol

Relationship between gender and employment contexts of Bicol University graduates

Eddie S. See, Mary Ann M. See

CONTACT: Eddie S. See, Ed. D., Bicol University, Daraga, Albay, Philippines, E-mail: ess4560@yahoo.com

Keywords:

Abstract:

relationship, gender, employment contexts, bicol university graduates

Background: The Bicol University identifies if gender equity is an issue among its graduates. Purpose and Research Objectives: The study sought to identify if there is a relation- ship between the Bicol University graduates’ gender and their scholastic circumstances and

employment/ employment-relevant setting. Sample and Research Design: The study used the 622 questionnaires retrieved in the original research and employed secondary analysis as its research strategy. Results: This study found out that gender among the graduates of Bicol University seems to have a bearing on the course they took in college, their present employment and their present occupation. On the other hand, sex appears not to have an influence on the honors they received in college, the reason for taking the college course, their present professional skills, their place of work, the relation of the college course to their first job, the length of time in finding job and the job level. Scholastic performance in college seems not be influenced by sex. The latter also does not have any bearing on the reasons why these graduates took the courses they had in college. Recommendation: Managers in colleges and universities, and the industries may find in these findings some basis for making decisions vis-a-vis male and female Bicol University graduates.

1. Relationship between gender and employment contexts of Bicol University graduates

This study is attached to two theories – one is Cotter’s (2004) “There are vast differences in women’s and men’s access to and opportunities to exert power over economic structures in society” and, two, “Gender discrimi- nation across the board exists in terms of education, hiring and compensation, promotion, mobility and inad- equate sharing of family responsibilities” (Cotter, 2004, p. 306). An ancient folkloric account of how women are discriminated against in terms of schooling and profes- sion is given below:

The ancients didn’t have obstetricians, and as a result, women because of modesty perished. For the Athe- nians forbade slaves and women to learn the art of medicine. A certain girl, Hagnodice, a virgin, desired to learn medicine, and since she desired it, she cut her hair, and in male attire came to a certain Herophilus for training. When she had learned the art, and heard that a woman was in labor, she came to her. And when the woman refused to trust herself to her, thinking that she was a man, she removed her garments to show that she was a woman, and in this way, she treated women. When the doctors saw that there were not admitted to women, they began to accuse Hagnodice, saying that “he” was a seducer and corruptor of women, and that the women were pretending to be ill. The Areopagites, in session, started to condemn Hagnodice, but Hagnodice removed her garments for them and showed that she was a woman. Then the doctors began to accuse her more

DOI: 10.5604/01.3001.0009.5105

Vol. 3, No. 2, 2016, pp. 93-101

she was a woman. Then the doctors began to accuse her more DOI: 10.5604/01.3001.0009.5105 Vol. 3,

94 Eddie S. See, Mary Ann M. See Relationship between gender and employment contextsof Bicol University graduates

vigorously, and as a result the leading women came to the Court and said: “You are not husbands, but enemies because you condemn her who has discovered safety for us.” Then the Athenians amended the law, so that free born women could learn the art of Medicine. (MacDonald, 1983)

This research endeavors both to add up to the existing theories on the association/non-association of gender to education and employment, and to be able to identify any symptom of the existence of gender-con- nected segregation in the college/university and in the workplace either for further verification or for possible proposition of an intervention.

2. Research question and design

Generally, this study sought to identify if there is a relationship between the Bicol University graduates’ gender and their scholastic circumstances and employment/ employment-relevant setting. Specifically, it sought to find out the strength and significance of relationship between the graduates’ gender and their:

1. Scholastic circumstances:

− Course graduated.

− Honors received.

− Reasons for taking the course.

2. Employment/employment-relevant setting:

− Professional skills possessed.

− Professional examinations passed.

− Trainings/advanced studies attended.

− Present employment status.

− Present occupation.

− Place of work.

− Reasons for staying on the job.

− Relation of first job to course.

− Length of time of finding job.

− Job level.

This study made use of secondary and content analyses as the research strategies. Its primary source of data is the output of the researcher’s CHED-BU Graduate Tracer Study completed in June 27, 2008. Second- ary analysis involves the use of existing data, collected for the purpose of a prior study, in order to pursue a research interest which is distinct from that of the original work; this may be a new question or an alternative perspective of the original question (Hinds, Vogel & Clark-Steffen, 1997). The research problems of said study, which were in accordance to those set/suggested by the Commission on Higher Education are completely dissimilar to this one. The data were re-taken using a secondary analysis guide and re-analyzed according to the problems of this research. One of the authors of this paper was party

to the primary data analysis.

3. Participants

As in the original paper (See, 2008), this study presupposed the same proportionate stratified probability ran- dom sampling design with the population involving the entirety of the college alumni of Bicol University who graduated during school year 2000-2001 to school year 2003-2004. The size was 12, 960. The derivative of the sampling formula for estimating population proportion population known was used, namely. The following formula was used for the sample size determination. NPQ

formula was used for the sample size determination. NPQ n = where ( N − 1)

n

=

where

(

N

1)

e

2

z

2

+ PQ

P – proportion between two variables of nominal measure in decimal form.

DOI: 10.5604/01.3001.0009.5105

Vol. 3, No. 2, 2016, pp. 93-101

Eddie S. See, Mary Ann M. See Relationship between gender and employment contextsof Bicol University graduates

at

Q = 1 – P

e

z

– margin of error as ratio in decimal form

– standard score based on an assumed confidence level (1-a)

P = 0.5 Q = 1 – P = 0.5

95

z = 2 (at confidence level of 0.9544), and N so large that it makes 1 negligible, this formula simplifies to

N

n =

2

1 + Ne and at N, population size = 12, 960, Margin of error = 0.05, n = 500 The previous article (See, 2008) originally targeted a size of 500 to be proportionately distributed to the different programs, with a margin of error of five percent, 622 questionnaires were eventually received, repre- senting a margin of error of 0.03912. The retrieved questionnaires also resulted to a disproportionate sample distribution among the strata.

4. Researcher

The primary author of this endeavor was the principal investigator of the original descriptive study. He applied his knowledge in correlational/ associative inferential statistics and went higher and deeper in the analysis of the available data.

5. Data collection

This pursuit saved much as far as data collection is concerned since the data collected in a prior study are already available.

6. Data analysis

The analysis drew on the associative statistical tool namely the chi-square based measure of association con- tingency coefficient, to gauge the strength of relationship between gender and employment contexts. Chi- square test was applied to determine if the relationship was significant.

7. Results and discussion

Scholastic circumstances

Course taken. Data show a significant relationship between the gender of the Bicol University graduates, and the course they took in college (c=0.36). The trend displays that more males graduated from engineering, agri- culture, peace and industrial technology courses while more females took the rest of the courses (Table 1.1). The figures provide evidence that the traditionally male dominated courses engineering, agriculture and peace studies (perceived to be akin to criminology) are up to now, still male led. What is surprising here is that aside from the mentioned courses, almost all of the rest of the courses- arts, natural science, communications, social work, education, management, entrepreneurship, accountancy, food technology, nursing and computer science, are populated by the females. The findings matches Bradley & Charles’s study (2009) averring that although female enrollment in higher education increased dramatically throughout the world, women remain significantly underrepresented in engineering programs.

DOI: 10.5604/01.3001.0009.5105

Vol. 3, No. 2, 2016, pp. 93-101

significantly underrepresented in engineering programs. DOI: 10.5604/01.3001.0009.5105 Vol. 3, No. 2, 2016, pp. 93-101

96 Eddie S. See, Mary Ann M. See Relationship between gender and employment contextsof Bicol University graduates

Table 1.1. Frequency distribution by course by gender

Table 1.1. Frequency distribution by course by gender Course Male Female AB Economics 4 16 AB

Course

Male

Female

AB Economics

4

16

AB English

0

15

AB Political Science

6

9

AB Journalism

2

4

AB Sociology

5

7

AB Speech and Theater Arts

1

6

BS Biology

1

4

BS Chemistry

1

5

BS Social Work

2

9

BS Applied Biology

1

2

AB Peace and Security Studies

5

3

AB Audio Visual Communications

6

15

Bachelor of Elementary Education

15

87

Bachelor of Secondary Education

19

68

BS of Agricultural Education

1

7

BS in Industrial Education

24

8

BS in Physical Education

3

3

BS in Practical Arts Education

3

10

BS in Agricultural Engineering

5

1

BS in Architecture

5

3

BS in Chemical Engineering

2

0

BS in Electrical Engineering

8

1

BS in Industrial Technology

7

0

BS in Mechanical Engineering

10

0

BS in Garments Technology

0

1

BS in Geothermal Engineering

2

1

BS Automotive Technology

0

0

BS Nursing

5

11

BS in Agribusiness

10

7

BSBA in Management

11

25

BSBA in Entrepreneurship

5

11

BS Accountancy

2

8

B in Agricultural Technology

3

5

BS in Agriculture

4

4

BS in Agroforestry

4

1

BS Fisheries

5

5

BS Food Technology

0

4

BS Computer Science

5

12

BS Civil Engineering

7

4

BS C0106

1

1

DOI: 10.5604/01.3001.0009.5105

Vol. 3, No. 2, 2016, pp. 93-101

Eddie S. See, Mary Ann M. See Relationship between gender and employment contextsof Bicol University graduates

97

This is an indication that most areas in the work place will be occupied by women workers/employees. The statistics conform to Parson’s (1955) earlier models of total role segregation in education and the “double burden model”. They do not agree to Parson’s total disintegration role in co-education. The study of Reyes (2007) sug- gests that in the case of education, women tend to be better off in terms of higher cohort survival rate. This result presents sufficient evidence that hints at a need to pursue further studies that associate sex with course. Honors received. Table 1.2 illustrates no discernible archetype between gender of and honors received by the graduates. Moreover, the computed contingency coefficient (c=0.19) was tested to be statistically insig- nificant. The facts indicate no difference in academic performance between the male and female graduates of Bicol University. This result contradicts the report of the US Department of Statistics (Cronin, 2006) that men get lower grades and are less likely to obtain bachelor’s degrees than women. Cronin (2006) further asserted that with sex discrimination fading and their job opportunities widening, women are coming on much stronger, often leapfrogging the men to the academic finish. While the result may suggest there is no sufficient evidence that hints at a need to pursue further studies correlating sex with honors, its disagreement with prior outcomes evokes further studies that could affirm either of the different findings. Said investiga- tions must not, however, overlook the other factors that surround graduates in this study and graduates of other studies such as the kind of prevalent culture they are in.

Table 1.2. Frequency distribution by honors received by gender

Honors received

Male

Female

Magna Cum Laude

1

1

Cum Laude

8

35

Academic distinction

1

1

Other awards

6

10

Dean’s list award

0

1

Reason for taking the course. The frequency of graduates who responded to this matter is insufficient for a clear trend to be discerned (Table 1.3). A reinvestigation of this issue may be needed for to come up with any conclusion.

Table 1.3. Frequency distribution by reason for taking the course by gender

Reason for taking the course

Male

Female

Influence of parents or relatives

2

1

Peer influence

0

2

Inspired by a role model

1

1

Strong passion for the profession

3

1

Prospect for immediate employment

1

4

Status or prestige of the profession

2

1

Availability of course offering in chosen institution

1

2

Prospect of career advancement

1

1

Affordability for the family

2

2

Prospect of attractive compensation

1

0

Other reasons

0

1

DOI: 10.5604/01.3001.0009.5105

Vol. 3, No. 2, 2016, pp. 93-101

compensation 1 0 Other reasons 0 1 DOI: 10.5604/01.3001.0009.5105 Vol. 3, No. 2, 2016, pp. 93-101

98 Eddie S. See, Mary Ann M. See Relationship between gender and employment contextsof Bicol University graduates

Employment/employment-relevant setting

Professional skill. A coefficient of 0.09 shows a very low trendy movement between gender and professional skills in the sample respondents (Table 2.1). Also, the test submits no statistically significant relationship between the variables. The predominant answer, other skills actually refer to the discipline-based compe- tences such as accounting skills for BS accountancy graduates, teaching skills for BEEd and BSEd alumni, and the like.

Table 2.1. Frequency distribution by professional skill by gender

Professional skill

Male

Female

Communication skill

0

4

Human relations skill

0

1

Information Technology Skill

20

40

Problem-solving skill

2

0

Other skills

64

83

Professional license. Table 2.2 shows the frequency distribution of the graduates by professional license by gender. The trend is similar in both sexes. We can therefore surmise that gender has nothing to do with the professional license of the BU graduate.

Table 2.2. Frequency distribution by professional license by gender

Professional license

Male

Female

Accountancy

2

8

Agri Eng

2

6

Agriculture

0

2

Architecture

1

1

Chem Eng

0

2

Chemistry

1

3

Civil Eng

0

1

Criminology

1

2

Library Science

2

0

Trainings, advanced studies attended. Data show no significant relationship exists between sex and train- ings attended by the graduates. Among the samples, there is a very low contingency coefficient of 0.16. This finding points out no separation in the kind of preparation or enhancement for job between the sexes. None- theless, it can also be seen that more females attended post baccalaureate or professional certificate programs or training that is more than one year than males.

Table 2.3. Frequency distribution by training/advance studies attended by gender

distribution by training/advance studies attended by gender Trainings/advanced studies Male Female Advance

Trainings/advanced studies

Male

Female

Advance studies or graduate program

18

45

Post baccalaureate or professional certificate program or training that is more than one year

5

17

Short term intensive professional development seminar or training

14

16

Short term professional related training

13

19

Other training

17

41

DOI: 10.5604/01.3001.0009.5105

Vol. 3, No. 2, 2016, pp. 93-101

99

Employment. Gender and present employment has a low correlation coefficient of 0.21. But this associa- tion is significant enough to exist among the population of graduates. The data (Table 2.4) also display that the lowest male-female ratio is in the regular/permanent jobs and the unemployed.

Eddie S. See, Mary Ann M. See Relationship between gender and employment contextsof Bicol University graduates

Table 2.4. Frequency distribution by present employment by gender

Present employment

Male

Female

Regular or permanent

61

177

Temporary

12

19

Casual

10

15

Contractual

74

83

Self-employed

9

18

Unemployed

3

10

Present occupation. Gender and present occupation among the population of graduates appear to be sig- nificantly associated at c=0.22. The study of Reyes (2007) showed that women tend not to fare as well in the labor market; men tend to have higher positions and earn more than women in the same position; moreover; female OFWs are often employed as domestic workers or entertainers. The lowest male-female proportion could be noticed in the professional occupation and the sectors where males are slightly greater in number are in the government/special interest executive positions and in plant assembling machine operations.

Table 2.5. Frequency distribution by present occupation by gender

Present occupation

Male

Female

Officials of government and special – interest organizations, corporate executives, managers, managing proprietors, and supervisors

17

15

Professionals

57

185

Technicians and associate professionals

7

8

Clerks

14

29

Service workers and shop and market sales workers

17

20

Trades and related workers

0

1

Plant and machine operators and assemblers

7

3

Special occupation

17

23

Place of work. Data (Table 2.6) show zero relationship between gender and place of work of BU graduates. This gives evidence that there is no basis to presume that one gender prefers to work abroad than the other.

Table 2.6. Distribution by place of work by gender

Reason for taking the course

Male

Female

Local

163

316

Abroad

2

4

Reason for staying on the job. Table 2.7 shows the frequency distribution of the graduates by reason for staying on the job by gender. The trend is similar to both the male and female graduates. It can also be seen that the most number of graduates stay on the job because of salaries and benefits.

DOI: 10.5604/01.3001.0009.5105

Vol. 3, No. 2, 2016, pp. 93-101

graduates stay on the job because of salaries and benefits. DOI: 10.5604/01.3001.0009.5105 Vol. 3, No. 2,

100 Eddie S. See, Mary Ann M. See Relationship between gender and employment contextsof Bicol University graduates

Table 2.7. Frequency distribution by reason for staying on the job by gender

Reason for staying on the job

Male

Female

Salaries and benefits

3

11

Career challenge

2

4

Related to special skills

0

3

Related to course or study

3

5

Proximity to residence

0

3

Peer influence

0

1

Family influence

1

3

Other reasons

1

2

Relation of first job to course. Male and female graduates do not differ in their view on whether the course they took in college was related to their first job or not. Similarly, the contingency coefficient of 0.03 is statisti- cally insignificant.

Table 2.8. Frequency distribution by relation of first job to course by gender

Relation of first job to course

Male

Female

Related

86

150

Not related

34

69

Length of time of finding job. It can be noted in Table 2.9 that most of the graduates, both male and female took from less than a month to 1 to 6 moths finding a job. Likewise, there is no significant difference in the time of finding job between the male and female graduates of BU (c=0.05).

Table 2.9. Frequency distribution by length of time of finding job by gender

 

Length of time finding job

Male

Female

Less than a month

60

117

1

to 6 months

62

132

7

to 11 months

15

26

1

year to less than two years

13

36

2

years to less than 3 years

5

8

3

years to less than 4 years

2

4

 

Others

4

5

Table 2.10. Frequency distribution by job level by gender

5 Table 2.10. Frequency distribution by job level by gender Job level Male Female Rank/clerical (1

Job level

Male

Female

Rank/clerical (1 st job)

40

62

Professional, technical, supervisory (1 st job)

49

75

Managerial or executive (1 st job)

3

1

Self-employed (1 st job)

3

5

Rank/clerical (current job)

4

7

Professional, technical, supervisory (current)

8

15

Managerial or executive (current job)

0

1

Self-employed (current job)

2

2

DOI: 10.5604/01.3001.0009.5105

Vol. 3, No. 2, 2016, pp. 93-101

101

Job level. Table 2.10 shows that in all jobs, except for the managerial position, there are more females than males Statistical tests showing that the job levels of male and female graduates do not differ (c=0.03) confirm this.

Eddie S. See, Mary Ann M. See Relationship between gender and employment contextsof Bicol University graduates

8. Conclusions and Recommendations

Gender among the graduates of Bicol University seems to have a bearing on the course they took in college, their present employment and their present occupation. Males still crowd the engineering, technology, agri- culture and criminology-associated courses but the females dominate almost all the rest of the courses. Males take up the executive positions in government and special interest organizations and the machine operations tasks jobs while females predominate in almost all other jobs, especially the professional careers. These find- ings suggest the reasonability of pursuing further studies that could test the hypothesis that a significant asso- ciation exists between gender and the variables mentioned. On the other hand, sex appears not to have an influence on the honors they received in college, the reason for taking the college course, their present professional skills, their place of work, the relation of the college course to their first job, the length of time in finding job and the job level. Scholastic performance in college seems not be influenced by sex. The latter also does not have any bearing on the reasons why these graduates took the courses they had in college. Said findings do not suggest the conduct of studies that would test the hypothesis that a significant association exists between gender and the afore cited variables. These findings all dissent from Cotter’s theory that “there are vast differences in women’s and men’s access to an opportunities to exert power over economic structures”, therefore offering avenues and reasons to con- tinue verifying these critical theories about males and females. Also, managers in both training institutions (colleges and universities) and the industries may find in these findings some basis for making decisions vis-a-vis male and female Bicol University graduates.

Refe R ences

Charles, M., & Bradley, K. (2009). Indulging Our Gendered Selves? Sex Segregation by Field of Study in 44 Countries. American Journal of Sociology, 114(4), 924-976. doi:10.1086/595942 Cotter, A.-M. M. (2004). Gender injustice: An international comparative analysis of equality in employment. Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate. Cronin, J. (2006, July 19). Beyond ‘the Gender Divide’. BU Today |Boston University |Campus Life. Received from http://www.bu.edu/today/2006/beyond-the-gender-divide/ Heaton, J. (1998). Social Research Update 22: Secondary analysis of qualitative data. Retrived from http://sru.

Hinds, P. S., Vogel, R. J. & Clarke-Steffen, L. (1997). The possibilities and pitfalls of doing a secondary analysis of a qualitative data set. Qualitative Health Research, 7(3), 408-24. Krasny, M. (2006, July 11). The Gender Divide in Academic Achievement [Online radio discuss] Retrieved from https://ww2.kqed.org/forum/2006/07/11/the-gender-divide-in-academic-achievement/ MacDonald, D. R. (1983). The legend and the Apostle: The battle for Paul in story and canon. Philadelphia:

Westminister. Parsons, T., & Bales, R. F. (1955). Family, socialization and interaction process . Glencoe, Ill: Free Press. Reyes, C. M., & Philippine Institute for Development Studies. (2007). An initial verdict on our fight against poverty. Makati City, Philippines: Philippine Institute for Development Studies. See, E. S. (2008). CHED-BU Graduate Tracer Study. Unpublished manuscript, BUCBEM, Bicol University, Daraga, Albay, Philippines.

DOI: 10.5604/01.3001.0009.5105

Vol. 3, No. 2, 2016, pp. 93-101

BUCBEM, Bicol University, Daraga, Albay, Philippines. DOI: 10.5604/01.3001.0009.5105 Vol. 3, No. 2, 2016, pp. 93-101