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Q) Discuss the main features of post-industrial society ?

Q) Compare and contrast the meaning of 'industrial' and 'post-industrial' society ?

Ans :Industrial Society

In the industrial society, the coming of capitalism led to the polarization between
capitalists and workers. The industrial society in the era of classical capitalization was
marked by invention and utilization of machines and factories. The inventions powered
by steam and electricity transformed both the method and scale of manufacturing.

Post-Industrial Society

United States was losing its economic edge due to Vietnam war and economic recovery
of Europe and Japan. To combat this, the U.S government and corporations adopted
new strategies. Firstly, the manufacturers adopted an international strategy of moving
elements of production overseas to countries like China and India. This move was to
take advantage of lower production costs. There was also a rapid growth in the service
sector of the economy.

These economic shifts were termed by Daniel Bell as a shift to post-industrial society. He
sees the coming of information technology as a decisive feature of this shift. Bell points
out that, if industrial society was transformed by steam and electricity, then the post-
industrial society will be transformed by information and knowledge.

The industrial society was characterized by manufacturing and therefore making of


goods. Whereas, post-industrial society is one primarily involved in the processing of
information and controlling the directions of communication. Post industrial society saw
a change from mechanical technology to intellectual technology. This includes
programming, software and other devices which require a different kind of education.

Some of the changes predicted by Bell in the post industrial society are

Mechanical systems become electromechanical and then electronic. Eg: Typewriter

The idea of miniaturization comes into play

Digitalization

In industrial society, great industrial complexes came into existence, with traditional
means of transport and communication. Eg: Detroit. With the advancement in
communication technologies and transport system, developing industrial units can be
located in a dispersed fashion. Now you can mass produce goods in India which was
designed in a location in U.S. You just need to send the design to India.

Hierarchical decision making of the industrial factory production is now replaced by


multi-skilled teams with group of workers collaborating at every stage. In the 19th and
20th centuries, the strength of the nations were their industrial capacity. Now scientific
capacity is the determinant of potential and power.

In the post industrial society, there has been a huge rise in the number of professional
workers. The number of women in the service sector also increased significantly. The
service sector shift is evident in the economy. This is signified by the rise of real estate,
insurance and finance sector in a big way. There was a decline in traditional industries
and agricultural sector at this time. The rise of new technology information and
communication drastically changed the way work was performed.

Q) Have Religion And Science Separated In Modern Times ? Comment?

Ans. Due to the emergence of imperial political organization, a large scale growth in
commerce, technology and industrial production took place. Evidences for these events
are there in the history of ancient civilizations in India, China, Egypt, Greece and Rome.

Slowly, a differentiation between scientists and priestly classes emerged. The decline of
Greeco-Roman civilization led to the rise of Christianity. Slowly, churches emerged as a
powerful social and political institution. This was a setback to the differentiation of
scientists and priests. Hence all the knowledge and scientific advancements required the
approval of the church. This pattern continued until renaissance and religious
reformation of 15th and 16th centuries.

During the 15th and 16h centuries, scientists like Galileo and Newton offered scientific
explanations instead of cosmic theology. Religious reformations by Luther and Calvin
emphasized the role of individual over that of church for religious salvation. One by
one, the administration and cultivation of knowledge were taken over by the city
councils of citizens. This became the first, primitive form of modern universities.

Q.Critically examine the role of the institution of family?

Ans. Family is one of the most basic institutions of a society. There are two types of
families, extended family and nuclear family. The family plays an important role in
socialization. Children learns a lot of things from their families. They learn what to do
and what not to do from their immediate family members. They learn about their
culture from their families. However, family is not the only means of socialization,
children learn quite a lot from schools as well.
Family also has role in reproduction. In our society, family is considered as the only
legitimitate system for having children. Children born outside of marriage are often
heaped with ridicule and displeasure. Family also has some economic functions as well.
Families in the past were economically more independent than families today. Extended
families in the past worked more like a corporation. In the modern industrial societies
other institutions perform a larger economic function but family still operates as an
economic unit.

The sense of identity and social status is another aspect of family. The scribed status of
an individual is transferred from the family to the individual. Modern functionalists
believe in a different theory, status should be a measure of an individual not his family.
One of the most important role of a family is to provide emotional security and support
to its members. While the role of family in other functions are diminishing fast, family is
still the primary source of emotional security in the present nuclear families.

Q.What do you understand by the term digital divide? Discuss?

Ans. A term used to describe the discrepancy between people who have access to and
the resources to use new information and communication tools, such as the Internet, and
people who do not have the resources and access to the technology. The term also
describes the discrepancy between those who have the skills, knowledge and abilities to
use the technologies and those who do not. The digital divide can exist between those
living in rural areas and those living in urban areas, between the educated and
uneducated, between economic classes, and on a global scale between more and less
industrially developed nations.

The term "digital divide" has traditionally described inequalities in access to computers
and the Internet between groups of people based on one or more social or cultural
identifiers. Under this conceptualization, researchers tend to compare rates of access to
these technologies across individuals or schools based on race, sex, disability status, and
other identity dimensions. The "divide" refers to the difference in access rates among
groups of people.

The rich countries and the rich people even in poor countries can afford to make use of
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) services and would be able to
survive in the technological era but those who cannot afford would slowly lag behind in
the race towards development. Wealthy people will become wealthier and poor become
poorer as a result of digital divide. It will have huge implications on individuals,
families, societies and even nations. ICT may have created a new class of untouchables
living in information poverty at one level and a new cadre of high technology
entrepreneurs on the other.
Q. What do you understand by the term renaissance? Discuss?

Ans. The term Renaissance literally means rebirth, in a narrow sense it is used to
describe the revival or interest in the classical civilizations of Greece and Rome.
Renaissance was marked by a series of new developments in the fields of art, literature,
religion, philosophy, science and politics. The period served as a bridge between
medieval and modern West Europe.

Renaissance began with the rediscovery of Greco-Roman civilization which had been
neglected during the middle ages. It emphasized reason, a questioning attitude,
experimentation and free enquiry. This is contrasted with medieval concern with faith,
authority and tradition. It glorified the individual and approved worldly pleasures,
viewing life as worthwhile for its own sake, not chiefly as a preparation for the afterlife.
The era focused attention upon secular society rather than the medieval preoccupation
with the Church and religious affairs. In the 15th Century, Renaissance ideas began to
spread from Italy to France, the German states, Holland, and England.

Humanism illustrated the spirit of renaissance. It was not concerned with religious
matters, but with everyday human problems. Renaissance drew inspiration from
classical civilization, eagerly seeking, studying, and publicizing ancient Greek and
Roman manuscripts. It revived interests in literature and writing among the educated.

Art and architecture during renaissance was influenced by classical Greece and Rome.
Renaissance painting emphasized realism, attention to detail, and a desire for perfection.
Leonardo Da Vinci was one among the popular artists of the renaissance period. There
were many other popular writers and artists who made their names in the history
during the renaissance.

Q) Briefly discuss the scientific advances made during the renaissance ?

Ans. Renaissance marked the beginning of modern science. The first achievement was in
astronomy. The exposition by Copernicus about the rotation of earth on its axis and its
motion around the sun was the first among them. This theory was against the ancient
system of thought, which was that the earth was the centre of the universe.

The invention of telescope is called the greatest scientific advancement during


renaissance. Copernicus' theory was confirmed by Galileo's observations. Galileo was
condemned for his invention. His invention was not a popular one among the
conservative people, but still attempts to enforce the acceptance of the old concept of
universe were quietly dropped.

Significant discoveries were made in the study of human body and circulation of blood,
which helped to combat many superstitions. Based on the study of dissections of human
body, Vesalius in 1543 published his book 'De Humani Corporis Fabrica'. It was the first
book that provided a complete description of the anatomy of the human body.
Cerventus, a Spaniard published a book explaining the circulation of blood. He was
condemned to death for questioning church beliefs.

A complete account of the constant process of circulation of blood from the heart to all
parts of the body and back again was given by Harvey in 1610 in his dissertation upon
the 'Movement of the Heart'. Several other great inventions and discoveries were made
in the same period.

Q) What do you understand by 'Protestant Revolution' ? What kind of economic and


political changes accompanied it ?

Ans. Protestant Revolution

Protestant Revolution began in 1517 when Martin Luther nailed his 95 theses on the
door of the church in Wittemberg, Germany. In his theses, he attacked the sale of
indulgences. He challenged people to come forward and dispute on his thesis. During
the next 2 years, he wrote a series of pamphlets explaining his theories. But he was not
able to convince the Catholic church. In 1520, the Pope ordered him to recant within 60
days or be condemned as heretic.

Martin Luther was protected by his friend, the ruler of Saxony. Many rulers in Germany
were hostile to church at that time, so Luther remained unharmed. Next 25 years, he
occupied himself with the talk of building an independent German church. He
introduced German as the language of Church services, abolished monasticism and
insisted up on the rights of priests to marry. He abolished the special status of priests as
representatives of God on Earth, eliminated most of the sacraments except baptism and
the Eucharist and emphasized faith rather than good works including pilgrimages and
veneration of relics.

The supremacy of Catholic church was abandoned. Highest priority was given to the
doctrine of predestination and supreme authority of the scriptures. Break with the
Catholic church led to revolts. These revolts helped in eliminating opposition to Luther.
But on the other hand, it showed the limitation of Luther's movement as a movement of
radical, social and economic reform. Luther sided with the rulers and lords in
suppressing the peasant revolt.

Economic And Political Changes

With the protestant revolution, there was a rise in national consciousness among people.
People started to think that they should not be ruled by foreigners. They should have
their own independent governments. Nation-states were beginning to be formed in
accordance with this consciousness.The growth of nationalism was indirectly
proportional to the supremacy of the church.

The rulers of the state wanted total supremacy within their realms. They wanted
everything under their control, including the church. The church had immense wealth
and vast land properties. The church also imposed various kinds of taxes. A major share
of these taxes were sent to Rome. The rulers saw the vast prospects of increasing their
wealth and resources by confiscating church properties. With the money, they can
enlarge their armies and resources.

The Protestant Revolution did not advocate the establishment of a universal protestant
church under a single authority like Pope for the Catholic church. It led to the
establishment of separate national churches under the control of the state. After the
success in Germany, Protestant Revolution spread to other parts of Europe. The
doctrines of the protestants were not the same everywhere. In Switzerland, the
Protestant Revolution was led by Zwingli and Calvin. Calvin's ideas gained much more
support in different parts of Europe than those of Luther.

In England, King Henry VIII was made the head of the church of England which was
declared to be an independent national unit subject only to the authority of the king.
After the Protestant Revolution, the church authorities realized that it could not be
checked by political or military means. A series of measures were taken in the 16th
century itself to introduce various reforms. The reforms brought a split in Western
Christiandom and a lot of religious wars and conflicts came about.

Q) Highlight the Achievements In The Field Of Art And Architecture During


Renaissance ?

Ans. Greatest achievements during renaissance were in the field of painting, sculpture
and architecture. The humanism of renaissance found brilliant expression in these art
forms. Renaissance marked the rise of artists. Each artist had his own unique
individuality and style. They were also highly regarded by the society including
merchants, rulers and the church.

Art was freed from religious or ritualistic overtones. They were now appreciated for
their values and were seen as achievements of the individual artists. Renaissance's
supreme achievement was in painting. The renaissance looked upon art as an imitation
of life. They observed man and nature and included their expressions in their paintings.
Leonardo Da Vinci was one prominent artist of the time.

The sculpture also followed the path of painting. One of the significant development
was the emergence of free-standing sculpture instead of using images of saints and
depicted religious themes. Architecture emerged as an art itself and stopped being a
religious medium.

Renaissance marked the decline of Gothic Architecture which had dominated the
architecture of cathedrals and churches. They had rib-vaults, sharply pointed arches and
buttresses. The Gothic structures had lofty spires. They had stained glass windows and
carved fascades and were decorated with representaions of mythical creatures.

The new architecture style based on Roman architecture developed in Italy and later in
other parts of Europe.

Q) Division of Knowledge Into Disciplines ?

Ans. The disciplines such as natural science, social sciences and humanities are as a
result of division of knowledge that took place during the emergence of university
system in Europe. The division was based on classification of reality on certain
philosophical ground.

Each discipline had a 'subject-matter' for its study. However the scope of a discipline
could not be separated on the basis of 'subject-matter. The study of an individual
involves economics, political science, sociology etc. Different disciplines are studying the
different aspects of the same subject matter. That is where the scope of inter-disciplinary
researches lie.

Many disciplines like statistics, physics, chemistry etc emerged in response to demands
to solve specific needs of society. Chance discoveries and creativity also played a role in
differentiation of knowledge. All these classifications led to the rise of professional
groups of vested interests who posed a major threat to the integration of knowledge.

Q. Discuss The Factors That Led To The Capitalist Economic Development In Europe ?

Ans. In the feudal economy, the privileged people had wealth in the form of gold and
silver. Gold and silver were considered to be idle money as it could not be reinvested to
make more money. The growth of trade and manufacture led to the emergence of
capitalist economy in which money was used to make profit by investing in business,
trade and industry. The profit thus made were reinvested to make even more money.

The growth of trade led to the emergence of a new class called middle class, which
played an important role in the society because of the wealth they possessed. The
international trade was then dominated by merchants in Italian cities like Venice, Genoa
and Pisa. The discovery of sea route to the East and the discovery of America shifted the
trade in favor of Portugal, Spain, Holland and Britain.
There were changes in the system of manufacturing goods. The guild system declined
due to its inefficiency to supply goods in large quantities which was then replaced by a
capitalist system. Under the capitalist system, the merchant earned all the rewards and
workers were treated like slaves. The craftsmen from then onwards did not earn for
what they produced but earned very low wages.

This period saw a tremendous expansion of manufacturers. This was accompanied by a


growing differentiation in towns and the emergence of the working class.

Social Stratification:

In a society different occupations carry different levels of prestige and different


economic rewards. This system of inequality is called social stratification. It is an
important element of a society. Sociologists like Davis and Moore believe that some jobs
require more skills, responsibility and specialized training and are more difficult to learn
than others, so they are rewarded much higher salary than others to encourage them.

Functionalist schoolers believe that economic stratification exists because it meets


societies needs for productivity by motivating people. However, conflict theorists argue
that inequality exists because the wealthy make the social system work in way that it
protects their interest. Moreover, they say that it is not motivation alone that drives
people to difficult jobs which pay high, it is because the wealth is unequally distributed.
For example. it is easier for a person born in a rich family to become a doctor than a
person born in a low income family.

Q.Explain the terms Industrial and Post-industrial societies?

Ans. Industrial Society

Industrial society is a society driven by the use of technology to enable mass production,
supporting a large population with a high capacity for division of labour. Industrial
society developed in the West during the Industrial Revolution and it replaced the
agrarian societies of the pre-industrial age. Industrial societies are often considered to be
much different from traditional societies. Industrial societies are mass societies which
may be succeeded by an information society. Industrial society is characterized by the
use of external energy sources, such as fossil fuels, to increase the rate and scale of
production. Food production is shifted to large commercial farms where industrial
products like combine harvesters, fossil fuel and fertilizers are used to decrease human
labour while increasing the production at the same time. As a result of this, human
labour is no longer needed for food production and they are shifted to factories where
mechanization is utilized to further increase efficiency. As years pass, mechanizations
become refined and more efficient, often to the level of automation, as a result many
workers shift to expanding service industries.

Urbanization became a byproduct of an industrial society, so that workers can stay close
with the factories and ensure full time employment and money to feed their families.
This leads to the rise of very large cities and surrounding suburban areas with a high
rate of economic activity. These cities needed external energy sources to overcome the
diminishing returns of agricultural consolidation, due partially to the lack of nearby
arable land, associated transportation and storage costs, and are otherwise
unsustainable. This makes the availability of the required energy resources a high
priority in industrial government policies.

The triggering technology for the change from an agricultural to an industrial


organization was steam power, allowing mass production and reducing the agricultural
work. Thus many industrial cities are built around rivers and it is identified as catalyst
or trigger for the transition to post-industrial society.

Post-industrial Society

Daniel Bell an eminent sociologist says that post-industrial society moves at a very
different quantum level where energy is transformed into information and knowledge.
If a nation becomes "post-industrial" it passes through, or dodges, a phase of society
predominated by a manufacturing-based economy and moves on to a structure of
society based on the provision of information, innovation, finance, and services. In a
post-industrial society economy undergoes transition from the production of goods to
the provision of services. Knowledge becomes a valued form of capital.

Producing ideas is the main way to grow the economy. Through processes of
globalization and automation, the value and importance to the economy of blue-collar,
unionized work, including manual labor (e.g., assembly-line work) decline, and those of
professional workers (e.g. scientists, creative-industry professionals, and IT
professionals) grow in value and prevalence. Behavioral and information sciences and
technologies are developed and implemented. (e.g. behavioral economics, information
architecture, cybernetics, Game theory and Information theory.

In the post-industrial society, the nature of technology will change. The technology will
change from mechanical to intellectual. This intellectual technology is embodied in the
elements of coded programming, software and various other devices, which become the
way in which we organize our materials. This intellectual technology then requires a
very different kind of education than it was during the age of mechanical technology.
Q.Role of Gandhi During National Movement

Ans.Gandhis political engagement in India started in the 1917-1918 period when he


took up the issues of Champaran indigo farmers, the Ahmedabad textile workers and
the Kheda peasants. These struggles witnessed his specific method of agitation, known
as Satyagraha.

Gandhi initially favoured offering "non-violent moral support" to the British effort when
World War II broke out in 1939, but the Congress leaders were offended by the
unilateral inclusion of India in the war without consultation of the people's
representatives. All Congressmen resigned from office. After long deliberations, Gandhi
declared that India could not be party to a war ostensibly being fought for democratic
freedom while that freedom was denied to India itself. As the war progressed, Gandhi
intensified his demand for independence, calling for the British to Quit India in a speech
at Gowalia Tank Maidan. This was Gandhi's and the Congress Party's most definitive
revolt aimed at securing the British exit from India.

Quit India became the most forceful movement in the history of the struggle, with mass
arrests and violence on an unprecedented scale. Gandhi and his supporters made it clear
they would not support the war effort unless India were granted immediate
independence. He even clarified that this time the movement would not be stopped if
individual acts of violence were committed, saying that the "ordered anarchy" around
him was "worse than real anarchy." He called on all Congressmen and Indians to
maintain discipline via ahimsa, and Karo Ya Maro ("Do or Die") in the cause of ultimate
freedom.

Gandhi arrived in India on 9th January 1915. Gandhi's political involvement started
when he took up the issue of Champaran Indigo farmers, the Ahmedabad textile
workers and Kheda peasants. These struggles witnessed his specific method of agitation
known as Satyagraha. In Champaran, North Bihar, Indigo planters were forcing the
peasants to grow indigo which was not profitable. Gandhi was invited by the peasants
and the struggle was successful. In Kheda district of Gujarat, crops were damaged due
to rain and farmers wanted exemption from paying revenue for that year. But the British
government refused. Gandhi started satyagraha and advised farmers not to pay
revenue. The struggle was a partial success. In Ahmedabad, Gandhi led the struggle of
workers for raising their wage. They got 35% hike in wages. All these struggles helped
Gandhi to familiarize with the political situation in India.

Non-cooperation And Khilafat Movements

During the first world war Gandhi actively participated in satyagraha against Rowlatt
Act. He asked people to disobey it and court arrest. Gandhi also gave ample support to
Khilafat movement. He found it as an opportunity to unite Hindus and Muslims against
British rule. Gandhi simultaneously launched non-cooperation movement. The Indians
were asked to boycott foreign goods and jobs in government. It became a huge
movement, even the peasants and the poor became familiar with nationalism. Women
also joined the movement. But Chauri-Chaura incident was condemned by Gandhi and
he withdrew the movement.The move which shocked congress people.

Civil Disobedience Movement

A new phase of national movement was launched by Gandhi on March 12, 1930 which
was the civil disobedience movement which was started with the historic Dandi March.
He walked from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi and made salt in violation of the law.
There were massive protests against Gandhi's arrest. Shops selling foreign goods were
picketed. Due to protests, British government invited Gandhi for Round Table
Conference to talk about the issues. Gandhi participated in the conference despite the
opposition of congress leaders. Gandhi-Irwin Pact was formed, the protest was
withdrawn. However British did not agree Gandhi's demands.

Quit India Movement

Quit India movement was launched on 8th August 1942 in protest to India's
participation in World War without the consent of Indians. Gandhi extorted the people
to 'DO or Die'.

Human Security:

The phrase human security was first put forward by the 1994 United Nations
Development Programme (UNDP). Its argument that insuring "freedom from want" and
"freedom from fear" for all persons is the best path to tackle the problem of global
insecurity. Frequently referred to in a wide variety of global policy discussions and
scholarly journals, critics of the concept argue that its vagueness undermines its
effectiveness;that it has become little more than a vehicle for activists wishing to
promote certain causes; and that it does not help the research community understand
what security means or help decision makers to formulate good policies.

Human security emphasizes the need to strengthen empowerment of the citizens.


Achievement of human security requires a global political structure that is founded on
shared values of human dignity and human rights. Human security means freedom
from pervasive threats to peoples rights, their safety or even their lives. Human security
holds that a people-centered view of security is necessary for national, regional and
global stability. The concept emerged from a post-Cold War, multi-disciplinary
understanding of security involving a number of research fields, including development
studies, international relations, strategic studies, and human rights.

UNDP emphasized that human security has a geographical and even international
dimension. Democracy and good governance are very important in promoting human
security. Building an effective, democratic state that values its own people and protects
minorities is a central strategy for promoting human security. Human security focuses
on the protection of individuals, rather than defending the physical and political
integrity of states from external military threats - the traditional goal of national security.
Ideally, national security and human security should be mutually reinforcing, but in the
last 100 years far more people have died as a direct or indirect consequence of the
actions of their own governments or rebel forces in civil wars than have been killed by
invading foreign armies. Acting in the name of national security, governments can pose
profound threats to human security. The application of human security is highly
relevant within the area of humanitarian intervention, as it focuses on addressing the
deep rooted and multi-factorial problems inherent in humanitarian crises, and offers
more long term resolutions. In general, the term humanitarian intervention generally
applies to when a state uses force against another state in order to alleviate suffering in
the latter state (See, humanitarian intervention).

Under the traditional security paradigm humanitarian intervention is contentious. As


discussed above, the traditional security paradigm places emphasis on the notion of
states. Hence, the principles of state sovereignty and non-intervention that are
paramount in the traditional security paradigm make it difficult to justify the
intervention of other states in internal disputes. Through the development of clear
principles based on the human security concept, there has been a step forward in the
development of clear rules of when humanitarian intervention can occur and the
obligations of states that intervene in the internal disputes of a state.

These principles on humanitarian intervention are the product of a debate pushed by


United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan. He posed a challenge to the international
community to find a new approach to humanitarian intervention that responded to its
inherent problems.In 2001, the International Commission on Intervention and State
Sovereignty (ICISS) produced the "The Responsibility to protect", a comprehensive
report detailing how the right of humanitarian intervention could be exercised. It was
considered a triumph for the human security approach as it emphasized and gathered
much needed attention to some of its main principles.

Q.Commercialization Of Indian Agriculture Under Colonial Rule

Ans.Commercialization of Indian agriculture under colonial rule started in 1860's. In


simple words, due to commercialization, the agricultural products were oriented
towards a market. It became a marketable commodity. The reasons for
commercialization were

0 Rapid development of railways from 288 miles in 1857 to 30,576 miles in 1908
1 The opening on Suez Canal which cut short the distance between India and UK
by 3000 miles

2 Inventions like steam ships

3 Due to civil war in America, British started buying cotton from India

As a result of commercialization, export from India to England increased by 500%. But


none of these led to the development of Indian agriculture. The reasons were

4 Backward agricultural organization in India

5 Lack of resources for technological development

6 Inability of the sector to take full advantage of the opportunity

7 Absence of increase in land productivity

8 Colonialism restricted productive growth

Increasing demand for cash crops led to famine as farmers grew cash crops like cotton
instead of food crops. Differentiation of farmers as those prospered ones who grew cash
crops and others who suffered loses came into being. One big advantage of
commercialization of agriculture was that the villages got linked to the world market.

Q.Deindustrialization In Colonial Context

Ans. Nationalists argued that the British rule led to deindustrialization of India.
Formerly, India was a cotton exporter, the British rule forced India to import cotton
products which destroyed the jobs of artisans, craftsmen and whatever manufacturing
activities existed.

Amiy Bagchi observed, India was the consumer of 40% of British cotton exports for more
than 75 years up to 1913. Industrialization in England was accompanied by decline of
Indian cotton manufacturers. This led to decline of people dependent on indigenous
industries and consequent over burdening of agriculture.

The decline of Dhaka, Surat, Murshidabad and many other cities became testimony to
the deindustrialization. Dhaka which was called the Manchester of India, became a poor
and small city.

Q.Role Of Swadeshi In Indian National Movement


Ans. Swadeshi movement questioned the approach of moderates by 'petitioning and
praying' to the colonial government. It set the goal of self government for Indians. It
adopted the method of boycott of foreign goods, passive resistance, disobedience of
colonial authority and mobilization of the masses. The modest demands of the
nationalists were disregarded by the British government. Racial arrogance towards
Indians increased.

Swadeshi movement was officially declared on 7th August 1905 as a protest against the
partition of Bengal. People were advised to boycott British goods like Manchester cloth
and Liverpool salt. Strikes were observed in Calcutta. Huge meetings attended by
thousands were held. Slogans of Swadeshi and Swaraj were taken up by the young,
elderly and women. Vande Mataram became a popular song.

The British government tried to repress the movement by prohibiting meeting, political
activities, banning newspapers and leaders were deported. Due to government's actions,
revolutionary terrorism emerged. Anushilan and Jugantar were two important
revolutionary groups of the time.

Q.Legacy Of Nationalist Movement In India

Ans. In the post independence India, the nationalist movement gave us a rich legacy to
draw upon for the purposes of achieving social and economic transformation. The
nationalist movement popularized democratic ideas and institutions in India. The
nationalist movement emphasized on civil liberties. These civil liberties were not just for
Congress but also for opposing parties as well. For example, Congressmen defended
communists in different trials.

In the post independence India, this struggle for civil liberties had a major impact on the
way our constitution was being shaped up. The section on fundamental rights, freedom
of speech, movement and association in our constitution etc were the legacy of our
freedom struggle. There were discontinuities as well, such as the congress using power
to dethrone the communist government in Kerala.

The ideals of nationalist movement got a major setback with the imposition of
emergency in 1975. Major civil and political freedoms were taken away from the people.
It was due to the resilience and democratic process undergone by the people of India,
they voted a new government to power. The national movement's legacy limitations
were pointed out by radical and communist groups. They emphasized that congress did
not pursue the path of radical, social and economic transformation in the period of
nationalist struggle in the post-independence era.
Q. Social Structure

Ans.In the caste system of India, Brahmins have to rule and Shudras toil over land. With
change in time, Brahmins can become doctors or Shudra can become a scientist. This
way, the social structure can change over time. Social structure is a patterned set of
rules. These rules and frameworks to be considered as a social structure must continue
and endure over a time. Since social structure is a set of rules made by human beings,
they are liable to change in the long run.Social structures reflect some dimensions of
interaction such as power, economic resources, prestige values etc.

Q.Theories Of Social Stratification

Anz. In a society, different occupations carry different levels of prestige and different
economic rewards. This system of inequality is called social stratification. Sociologists
belonging to the functionalist school argue that certain jobs require more skills and
specialized training and are more difficult to learn than others. Such jobs are rewarded
as they are difficult, require long periods of training etc. So rewards have to be given to
encourage them.

The functionalist school to which Davis and Moore belong, argues that economic
stratification exists because it meets societies' needs for productivity by motivating
people. Some jobs are more important than others. They need greater responsibility,
greater skills, longer work hours etc. So they are rewarded better.

Conflict theorists like Tumin argue that inequality exists because the wealthy and
powerful make the social system work in such a way that it protects their interests. They
say, some of the better paying jobs are not necessarily crucial to the society. The society
needs a farmer and a garbage collector much more than a lawyer.

Wealth, which is inherited is distributed unequally than income. It is easier for a person
born in a wealthy family to train as a doctor than a person from a low income family. So
it is not motivation alone that drives people to choose seemingly difficult professions
which enjoy high pay and prestige. The stratification system of most societies endure a
pattern for a long time.

Q.Family Types And Functions

Ans.Family is one of the most basic institution of a society. Family is defined as a social
group related by ancestry, marriage or adoption who live together and form an
economic unit and cooperatively grow their young.

Types Of Family:
There are two types of family, nuclear and extended family. Extended family is made up
of two generations, grandparents, their children, grand children, uncles and aunts.
Nuclear family is based on marriage. A couple gets married, moves to another house
and raise their children. That family consists of husband, wife and their children.

Functions Of The Family:

a) Socialization

Family is the important institution where children learns the ways of their respective
culture. This is called socialization. Even though children learn a lot from school and
outside world, the family still has been recognized as the primary agent of socialization.

b) Reproductive and Sexual Functions

Family is the legitimate institution for having children. It allows the continuation of
generations by recognizing socially and legally, the offspring born to a married couple.
Children born outside of marriage are often heaped with ridicule and displeasure.
Marriage and family, together regulate sexual activity. All societies have 'Incest Taboo',
which prevents marriage between a certain kind. For eg: Dravidians can marry mother's
brothers and father's sister's children which is considered as incest in North. The
primary significance of incest taboo is to encourage alliance outside the family and to
regulate sexuality.

c) Economic Functions

Families of the past were more economically independent. The extended family works
like a corporation. Nowadays, other institutions perform the economic function but
family still operates as an economic unit. Husband and wife share their resources and
take up financial burdens together.

d) Identity and Social Status

A person acquires a sense of identity directly from the family. The status of an
individual is transferred from the family to the individual.

e) Emotional Security

This is the most important function of a family. Family provides emotional security and
support to its members. Nowadays, most of the above described functions are going
outside the institution of family, but not emotional security, especially in the nuclear
families of today's context.

Q.Marriage : Rules And Types


Ans. Marriage is closely related to the institution of family. The coming together of two
individuals in the socially approved sense is called marriage. Rules, perceptions and
rituals of marriage differ with society. Homosexual marriages are also increasing
nowadays. This questions the very existence of marriage as an institution.

Rules Governing Marriage:

a) Incest Taboo

Incest taboo prevents marriage between close family members. It is a criminal offense in
most societies. The exact definition of a 'family member' differs with society. For
example Dravidians can marry mother's brothers and father's sisters children which is
considered as incest in North.

b) Exogamy

One can marry only outside of his group. What is a group, depends on the society. You
may marry outside your group but within your racial or ethnic group. Exogamy
originated as communities and groups wanted to expand their social network through
alliance.

c) Endogamy

This is marriage within one's group. One marries within one's own caste or group.

Types of Marriage:

1. Polygamy : There will be more than one spouse. There are two types of polygamy

a) Polyandry : A women has several husbands. In Tibet, this is often seen in societies
where men travel for a long time.

b) Polygamy : Man has several wives. More number of wives mean more wealth and
prestige for a man.

2. Monogamy

This is the most common type of marriage. The relation will be between heterosexual
partners. Sexual relationship is between married partners only. This is the most common
type in the West.

Increase in the number of divorces led to 'serial monogamy'. This is marriage in series.
Each marriage is ended before the next one starts.

Q.Define Religion : Positive And Negative Aspects For Society


Ans. Sociologist Robert Bellah used the term 'Civil Religion' to refer to a set of symbols,
beliefs, values and practices about ultimate meaning of life in a particular society.
"Religion can be viewed as a system of sacred things and their interrelationship. Religion
is a social phenomenon, having to do with these aspects of human existence that are
socially defined as sacred by people. Religion is a social product, and people collectively
produce religion".

Positive Aspects of Religion:

Religion is a source of comfort and consolation in crisis. Religion helps accept the
inevitable and unchanging aspects of life, catastrophes etc. Religion provides a world
view of cosmology which helps explain reality and provides a world view that acts as a
guide in uncertain world. Religion provides guidelines on moral and ethical issues and
helps in maintenance of societies. Religion provides a sense of identity. In a society
marked by rapid changes, identification with a religious community gives answers to
many questions.

Negative Aspects of Religion:

Religion diverts the fact that society is constructed by people and therefore can be
changed by them. Religion comes in the way of change. For example, a Hindu cannot
marry a Christian. Religion provides an overarching explanation of life and reality
which is viewed as sacred and inviolable. This view does not allow for searching further
knowledge.

Q) Comment on the plight of the orphaned, delinquent and destitute children. Does
Juvenile Justice Act of 1986 give them any help ?

Q) What has Indian state done to ameliorate the plight of orphaned, delinquent and
destitute children?

Ans. Children get happiness and joy in their family. Unfortunately a lot of children are
orphans. Orphans become victims of abuse and neglect by adults. Thus they turn to
begging and petty crimes. Some of them are admitted to institutions where their conduct
is improved and they are taught some craft which would help them make a living.
Orphaned and delinquent children suffer from lack of attention, affection, recreation and
play, lack of opportunities and free expression of personal wishes. Sometimes they are
not fed properly and live in small, unhygienic rooms. Often people who deal with them
are insensitive, untrained and do not do their duties well. All these things raise anger
and frustration among children which eventually leads them to crimes. These children
need shelter, education, protection, vocational training, health care services and more
importantly, counseling delivered with affection and encouragement.
Juvenile Justice Act:

Juvenile Justice Act was passed in 1986 to provide uniform pattern of justice to juveniles
throughout the length and breadth of the country. This Act makes provision for the
protection and rehabilitation of neglected children and ensures legally that no child is
lodged in jail or detained by police. The Juvenile Justice Act categorizes children into

Those who are neglected, destitute, orphaned and in dire need of care and protection.
They are lodged into orphanage, observation homes or remand homes.

Delinquent children who await correctional measures. Neglected juvenile is a girl below
18 years and a boy below 16 years. They are lodged in reformatory institutions and
special schools.

The act was then replaced by a child friendly Juvenile Justice Act 2000. In this act,
children were categorized into juvenile offenders and neglected child. 18 years is the cut
off age for boys and girls. The act makes the setting up of Juvenile Justice boards, child
welfare committees and special juvenile police units compulsory. 24 hr free telephone
service called childline was launched. Ministry of welfare and ministry of human
resources development have launched several programmes to help children in difficult
situations. There are a large no.of governmental NGOs working for the plight of
children. Nothing will be fulfilled without the participation of the public.

Q.Do Women Constitute A Marginalised Group ? Give Reasons

Ans.In a patriarchal society widowed or divorced women are often deserted by the
family. Women are greatly marginalized by the male dominant societies like in India.
Often women are forced to continue with their husband even if she is subjected to
humiliation, abuse and violence. Her acceptance in the society largely depends on her
marital status. A woman who complains or seeks separation is treated as a deviant. A
husband on the other hand can discard his wife and marry another person.

A married woman with children, particularly sons receive more respect than an
unmarried woman or married woman without children or with only daughters. Women
have been ill-treated for dowry, delivery of girl child etc. A girl child is often treated by
societies as a liability. Women become victims of rape and other forms of sexual
harassment.

Only a very few percentage of women share their experiences and mobilize others to
fight social barriers and oppression. They have tried to reach out to women in distress.
They pressurize the government to take appropriate actions effecting literacy, vocational
training and empowerment programmes. There should be short stay homes for
temporary relief, especially for distressed women with children.
Q.Scheduled Tribes And Provisions Made For Them In Indian Constitution

Ans.Census commission in different states observed that certain groups of people didn't
fit in the general pattern of classification. They were referred to as adivasis, girijanas and
vanavasis. Tribals were characterized by egalitarian society, simple economic system
with minimum specialization of functions yet self sufficient, deep religious, cultural and
emotional affections with their habitat and relative isolation from the rest of the world.

All tribal communities are not classified as a scheduled tribes. A scheduled tribe is one
which has been given a place in the schedule for the concerned state by the president. It
has been done with the consultation of the governor of the state. A tribal community in
different parts of the country or state may not be given scheduled tribe status.
Sometimes only a particular group of a community is given the status.

The decision of the president will be based on the socio-economic condition of the
people in a group. The list of scheduled tribe needs to be revised and modified by an act
of parliament. 2001 census revealed that scheduled tribe formed 8.6% of the total
population of the country.

Approach of non-tribal people with vested interests have left them in debts. Money
lenders have taken advantage of their famine and other crisis. Some tribals want to send
their children to schools but most are not so keen. Many children find it difficult to
adjust with the medium of instruction at schools.

Lack of knowledge about their special rights make them easy targets for exploitation at
the hands of corrupt officials. Scheduled tribes have provisions for easy access to loans
on soft terms and conditions, they have reservation of 7.5% seats in educational
institutions, jobs in public sector, reservation in Lok Sabha and State Legislative
Assembly. Even then, all welfare programmes must be delivered at their doorstep for
better progress.

Q. Factors Of Social Change

Ans. There are 4 main factors of social change

9 Biological Factors

10 Geographical Factors

11 Technological Factors

12 Socio-cultural Factors
Biological Factors:

Biological factors can be further classified into two types, non-human biological factor
and human biological factor.

a) Non-human Biological Factor

Non-human biological factors include plants and animals. Human beings depend on
plants and animals for survival. Changes in ecological system affects human lives, but
modern man has been able to overcome the effects by virtue of his control over the
environment such as domestication of animals.

b) Human Biological Factor

The change in genetic characters of human beings determine the physical and mental
make up of modern man. Population is considered to be one of the most important
factors of social change. Increase in population has led to social change.

Geographical Factors:

Social changes brought by geographical factors are many. Such as the migration of Irish
population to the United States after the potato famine in Ireland. Natural disasters like
earthquakes and tsunami can cause environmental and social changes. Ecological
changes like deforestation can be disastrous to a society.

Technological Factors:

Variation in technology affects social organization in a big way. Industrial revolution


and technical revolution changed the social organization and structure. There has been
misuse of technology as well.

Socio-cultural Factors:

This is the most important casual factor of social change. Social change has been caused
by human activities in the form of discoveries, inventions, diffusion, social movements
etc. Diffusion, the process of spread of culture from group to group has been one of the
main causes of social change. Eg: Jazz. Social and revolutionary movements have also
become a factor. Eg: French revolution.

Q.Basic Features Of Indian Constitution

Ans. The basic features of Indian Constitution are:

1. A Written Constitution:

Ours is a written constitution. Majority of constitutions in the world are written,


whereas UK is an exception. Our constitution has been amended a number of times.

2. Parliamentary Democracy:

India is a parliamentary democracy based on the Westminister model of UK. The Prime
Minister is the head of the government and the council of ministers assist him. Head of
the state is the President, all administration is carried out on his name but he is only a
nominal executive. Legislature, executive and judiciary are the 3 organs of the
government that work together.

3. Independence of Judiciary:

Judicial independence is another hallmark of our constitution. Judges can perform their
duties without external pressure.

4. Cooperative Federalism:

A federal state is one in which the states have self reliance. The state government has the
power of running a state and the central government can only interfere in certain things.
Eg. United States. A unitary state is one in which everything is controlled by the central
government. Eg: UK.

India is neither a federal or unitary state. In India, certain subjects are under state
governments and others under central government. In case of a dispute, the final
decision will be taken by the central government.

5. Fundamental Rights And Duties:

This is a unique feature of our constitution. The ill treatment from British made our
constitution makers to include fundamental rights in our constitution. They wanted the
citizens of free India not to experience the same kind of treatment again. The
constitution guarantees certain rights to its citizens that are considered to be
fundamental for their well being. Those rights are enforceable by courts of law.
Fundamental rights are the bedrock of an Indian citizen's life, liberty and property.

Fundamental rights are

13 Right to freedom

14 Right against exploitation

15 Right to religion

16 Cultural and educational rights

17 Right to constitutional remedies


Right to property was a fundamental right, but it was made a legal right through 44th
constitutional amendment act. With this act, the government can acquire any person's
property by giving compensation. Fundamental rights cannot be suspended except
during an emergency, even then the Articles 20 and 21 remain in operation.

Article 20 states that 'no person shall be punished on the basis of laws that are enacted
after a crime has been committed, protection from being punished more than once for
the same offense, protection from standing trial against oneself.

Article 21 ensures protection of life and liberty. The state does not have the right to take
away the life of a person, except through the procedure established by law.

Fundamental duties became part of our constitution in 1970s. Indians considered their
rights as more important and behaved as if they had no obligation towards the country,
so fundamental duties were introduced.

Fundamental duties are

18 Protection of territorial integrity and sovereignty of India

19 Respect for the national flag and emblem

20 Promotion of clean environment

21 Failure to perform the duties will invite action by law.

6. Directive Principles Of State Policy:

Directive principles are guidelines to the government for just and effective governance.
Some of them are

22 Provision of equal pay for equal work

23 Prohibition of all intoxicants

24 Promotion of small and cottage industries

Directive principles are not legally enforceable. Over the years, the government has
enacted suitable legislation based on various directive principles. So you can say that
they are legally enforceable also. Directive principles were taken from Irish constitution.

Q.Concept And Meaning Of Democracy

Ans.1. Historical Background:

Democracy comes from Greek word 'demos' which means the people. Athens is
supposed to be the first practitioner of democracy. People participated directly in the
matters of governance. This is called direct democracy. Representative democracy is
where people elect their representatives to conduct the business of running the state. Eg:
India, UK, USA. UK is the mother of representative democracy starting from the
Westminister Parliamentary Democracy. Representative democracy is the universal
norm, it may be parliamentary or presidential.

2. Various Perspectives:

There are liberal and marxist perspectives of democracy. Liberal perspective emphasizes
on political equality, whereas marxist emphasize on socio-economic equality. They
always had opposite views about democracy. The liberal concept of adult franchise,
periodic elections, individual autonomy, rule of law and equality before law were
dismissed by marxists as 'bourgeois' phenomenon. Liberals dismissed the democracy by
marxists in countries like China and Soviet union as false democracy.

3. Defining Democracy:

Though liberals and marxists disagree on meaning of democracy, they agree upon two
things,

25 Popular and political participation in statecraft

26 Equality among citizen

27 Liberty

Though, marxists had a very different view on liberty.

4. State Institutions And Non-state Actors:

State and Non-state actors that concern themselves with the issues of popular and
political participation, equality and liberty are there. State institutions are organs of
governments, election machinery, local-self governing institutions. Non-state actors
include NGOs and peoples' movements which comprises pressure groups and lobbies.

Q.Election Commission Of India

Ans.Election commission established by the constitution ensures the citizen's popular


and political participation without fear or favour. The tasks of election commission
involves preparing or updating voters lists, preparing electoral rolls, electronic voting
machines, ballot papers etc. It is also the duty of the election commission to make sure
that the contestants do not violate the 'Model Code of Conduct'.

Election commission is basically a statutory, fully autonomous body established by the


constitution to oversee elections for the Indian parliament and state assemblies. Its
independent functioning has been ensured by a number of provisions.

Q.Essentials Of Decision Making In Administrative Organizations

Ans.Decision making serves the purpose of fulfilling organizational objectives. Decisions


are affected by socio-economic, political and cultural factors prevailing in this
environment. Work sub-division specifies the tasks at each level. Important decisions are
taken at the top hierarchy. Those decisions become guiding criteria for junior decision
makers who will take divisions of a more detailed and procedural character.

The quality control and scrutiny takes place when the decision made at lower levels are
submitted to higher authorities for approval. Socio-economic and political data
constitute the raw material for a decision, which is provided by the structured
communication system. Training is provided for officers in most organizations so that
the decision made by him is sound and effective.

Steps involved in decision making mentioned by Herbert Simon are

28 Identify the problem

29 Analyze the problem

30 Determine possible and available alternatives

31 Evaluate the impact of alternatives

32 Select the best alternative

The ultimate purpose of decision making in any organization is to ensure rational,


feasible, acceptable and practical decisions.

Q.Role Of Communication In An Organization

Ans.According to Herbert Simon, communication is a process whereby decisional


promises are transmitted from one member of an organization to another. Data and
information are transmitted to the decision maker through the communication channels.
Shannon and Waever model of communication channel involves a source, an encoder,
message channel, a decoder, a receiver and feedback.

Source is a member with ideas, information and a purpose for communication.


Communication process involves something being sent to a receiver. What receiver does
with the communicated message is the vital part of the whole system. Simon says, there
is an informal system of communication in an organization based on social relations
such as friendship. It is termed as 'grapevine' and is a valuable measure of public
opinion in an organization.

From 'grapevine' the administrator can understand the subjects of interest to


organization members and their attitude towards certain topics. Organizations use
sophisticated communication systems such as computers and internet for decision
making.

Q.Governance And Its Characteristics

Ans.Governance according to World Bank has 4 main components

33 Public sector management

34 Accountability

35 Legal framework for development

36 Transparency and information accessibility

Governance basically implies the proper formulation and implementation of policies by


government agencies, within well defined legal framework. It also emphasizes on
people getting the necessary information, fostering openness in the system and ensuring
accountability on part of politicians and administrators. Good governance requires
collective effort of public, private organisations as well as people.

Characteristics of Governance:

1. Participation

Good democracy will seek the participation of its citizens to the maximum extent in
public affairs. For eg: Panchayati Raj Institutions

2. Rule of Law

Rule of law protects the interests and rights of citizens. Governance needs a legal
framework for smooth operation.

3. Transparency

Information is not generally shared with citizens by government. People are demanding
for sharing information. Government is trying to bring transparency in the system.

4. Responsiveness
As a citizen you expect positive response from the authorities. Eg: Passport application.
People want responsiveness from elected political representatives and officials. It is a
two way interactive process between citizens and government.

5. Equity

Government has to ensure participation and equity bringing all sections of the society
within its purview.

6. Effectiveness and Efficiency

Better utilization of resources towards improved service. Eg: Railway reservation service
without trouble.

7. Accountability

It is making one responsible and accountable for actions. Governance requires


accountability on part of government, private sector, society or community based
organisations for their activities. For eg: Ministers are answerable for the deeds of their
departments.

Q.Various Stages Of Demographic Transition

Ans.There are 3 stages of demographic transition

1. First Stage : When the level of development is low in an economy, both birth rate and
death rate are high. As a result the population growth rate is not that high.

2. Second Stage : When economic development takes place, death rate declines due to
availability of health facilities and medicines but birth rate continues to remain high,
resulting in a wide gap between birth rate and death rate. Hence population increases
sharply.

3. Third Stage : With further economic development, both birth rate and death rate are
low. Consequently, population growth rate is again low in the third stage. All the
developed economies are in the third stage of demographic transition

Q.Objectives Of Indian Planning

Ans.The basic objectives were economic growth, employment, self-reliance and social
justice. According to the second five year plan there are 4 basic objectives of planning in
India

37 A sizable increase in national income so as to raise the level of living in the


country

38 Rapid industrialization with particular emphasis on the development of basic


and heavy industries

39 A large expansion of employment opportunitites

40 Reduction of inequalities of income and wealth and a more even distribution of


economic power

All these objectives are interrelated. There has been variations in the emphasis on
different objectives across plans. Earlier plans stressed more on economic growth
whereas later plans emphasised on self-reliance, generation of employment and poverty
alleviation. 7th plan emphasized on modernization of economy.

Since 1991, the focus was on stability in the economy. Objective of the planning has been
focused on bringing down the rate of inflation, interest rate, subsidies, fiscal deficit and
foreign debt and improvements in balance of payment position and foreign exchange
reserve. The economy has witnessed a transition from a planned economy to a market
economy.

Q.Rationale For Economic Reforms of 1990s In India

Ans.Licensing - permit - quota raj policy of the government lead to widespread


corruption. The bureaucracy and political bosses were the major beneficiary. There was
an increasing demand to dismantle the system of licensing and controls. Quite a large
number of public sector industries were suffering huge losses. There was high pressure
from World Trade Organization to face world competition.

The rationale for economic reforms of 1990s in India were:

41 To de-control the Indian industrial economy from unnecessary beurocratic


controls

42 To introduce liberalisation with a view to integrate the Indian economy with the
world economy

43 To remove the restrictions on foreign direct investment

44 To remove restrictions of MRTP Act

45 To shed the load of public sector enterprises which have shown a very low rate
of return and incurring losses over the years
Q.Different Types Of Literature

Ans.1. Poetry

Oldest form of literature and has a rich written and oral tradition. Epics like
Ramayana and Mahabharata are examples. Short poems capable of being sung are
called lyrics. A 'Sonnet' is a 14 line poem following a metrical scheme. Epics are very
long poems that talk about heroes. An 'ode' is an address to someone. A poem
mourning somebody is an 'elegy'.

2. Novel

Novel is an 18th century development. Novel has a story, a plot and a number of
characters. Story is the sequence of events, plot is the arrangement of story parts and
management of character.

3. Drama

Drama is a literature written to be staged and has to keep its stage-worthiness in


mind. Dialogue is an important part and other elements like descriptions are equally
important. Eg: Shakespere

4. Short Story

Example, Ernest Hemmingway

5. Literary Criticism:

Talking about poems, plays and novels in an appreciate way and evaluating them. It
works in the domain of aesthetic judgement. Whether a kind of literature is good or
bad is indicated. It is backed by evidence from within the text.

Q.Discuss The 3 Components or Constituents of Music

Ans.A composition becomes or qualifies to belong to the category of musical


composition when it rests on the following 3 constituents

46 Swara or sound

47 Taal/Laya or beat/tune

48 Raag or melody

Swara:

Swara is that sound which has some meaning and possesses a distinct identity.
Music be it western or Indian is based on swaras. There are different configurations
of swaras and the basic swara is called Shadaj. Shadaj means six and it is related to
six other swaras. The spectrum of swaras in Indian music thus composed of seven
bands is known as Saptak. In Indian music, the musician decides the pitch of shadaj
and other 6 swaras, whereas in western music it is fixed pitch or 'absolute pitch'.

Taal:

It is a process through which rhythm gets depicted in musical compositions. Taal is


measured in terms of the numerical content of pulse in each composition.

Slow pulse > Vilambit

Medium pulse > Madhyam

Fast pulse > Drut

The combination of these pulses provide a tremendous variety of Indian music.


Instruments like mridang and tabla are the main instruments used in North Indian
and South Indian music systems.

Raag:

Central manifestation of raag is delightfulness.There are 10 other features that make


a raag, their combinations give birth to the whole repertoire of raag music. The
element of sensuousness creates a sub-division of raag called ragini.

Q.Significance Of Human Rights

Ans.Social scientists have looked at human rights in terms of them being guaranteed
and their possible violation by the state. Success of human rights depends upon the
meeting of obligations by the state. The primary aim of human rights is on the
empowerment of society, to lay legitimate claims to the institution of the state for a
life with dignity, freedom and resources.

Human rights are universal, indivisible, interdependent and interrelated. Universal


declaration of Human Rights (UNDHR) defines specific rights - civil, political,
economic, social as well as cultural. It defines the rights to life, liberty, security, fair
trial by law, freedom of thought, expression and movement. Even though human
rights are considered to be universal, there is a wide disparity between the
developing and developed countries.

Population and poverty are the main causes of human right violations in 3rd world
countries. Poverty often undermines human dignity and without dignity, there is no
meaning of human right. In developed countries, which have high development of
material and economic resources, social and economic rights are not as important as
civil and political rights. Whereas economic and social rights are more important to
developing countries which are struggling under poverty, illiteracy and
malnutrition.

In India, there are several human right issues such as women subordination, slavery,
rapes etc. There are laws in our constitution to protect human rights but they are not
implemented properly.

Q.Food Security

Ans.Food security emerged as a concept in the 1970s, in the discussion of


international food problems when the world faced a global food crisis. The initial
focus was on food supply, availability and price stability of food items at national
and international level. Modification of definition of food security was done taking
into account a variety of factors. One of them was that the technical success of Green
Revolution did not automatically lead to rapid and dramatic reductions in poverty
and malnutrition. These problems were recognised as the result of lack of effective
demand by the poor.

There were many definitions of food security put forward by various organisations
over time. The latest definition was by the State of Food Insecurity 2001.

"Food security is a situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical,
social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their
dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life".

Food security is a multi-dimensional phenomenon. National and international


efforts are needed to meet and ensure food security, especially in the area of
globalisation and liberalisation. Attention has to be given for long term solutions.

Q.Human Security

Ans. The concept of human security includes the right to life, liberty and security of
a person. It also includes economic health and environmental concerns as well. The
phrase 'human security' was first put forward by UNO in 1994. Human security
emphasizes the need to strengthen empowerment of the citizens. Achievement of
human security requires a global political culture that is founded on shared values of
human dignity and human rights.

Human security means freedom from threats to people's rights, their safety or even
their lives. Human security as defined in UNDP report consisted of seven
components and dimensions, economic, food, health, environmental, personal,
community and political. UNDP report saw security as an "integrative" rather than a
"defensive concept". It emphasized that human security has an international
dimension. Eg: Terrorism, drug trafficking etc.

Democracy and good governance are very important in promoting human security.
Human security does not replace national security. Building an effective democratic
state that protects the value of its own people and minorities is a central strategy for
promoting human security. Human security recognizes the linkage between
environment and society. Eg: Environmental degradation may result in population
movement. Human security provides an enabling environment for human
development.

Q.ICT In Uplifting Marginalized Section Of Our Society

Ans.ICT initiatives are bringing global communities closer. E-governance is a very


good example of ICT reaching normal people. A lot of information can be stored in
one place and can be searched within seconds. Eg: Fingerprint Database.

1. ICT As A Knowledge Provider:

ICT has become a boon to poor nations as identical information can be accessed
within seconds. Even the best library in the world cannot have all the books. Now
information is there to be taken. Before, only the rich could get access to the latest
information, not anymore. Initially all the information on the internet was free, now
paid information is also there. Major part of such payments go to companies in the
developed world.

2. ICT As An Employment Provider:

ICT has made employees from one part of the world to work for the employers in
another part of the world. Eg: Call centres.

3. ICT As An Education Provider:

Online courses are now available. Information is put on the website and students
study them on their own and appear for the exams, sometimes online. Once the
course is finished, certificates will be sent to you by regular mail. ICT can improve
the quality of education, if the institutions from two different countries collaborate
and use ICT to provide education.

Via online courses, you will get the latest information. Making changes to printed
books will take time and a lot of resources. ICT facilitates frequent updation of
content. ICT will help institutions grow and strengthen by making things more
transparent and developing a sense of competition with outside world. Other than
becoming a degree churning institute.

Traditional campus based courses require a lot of time, whereas ICT based courses'
duration could be a few hours to few years. This provides flexibility and is a boon
for working professionals who want to pursue their studies. India government has
pursued IT Act in 2000 and efforts are being made to extend ICT to rural areas.
Internet centres are opened, ICT is applied to agriculture, health, education and so
on.

Q.Environmental Reform Initiatives In India

Ans.Definition by Rachel Carson : The history of life on earth has been a history of
interaction between living things and their surroundings.

Environment simply means the surroundings comprising the living and the non-
living and the study of interactions between these two is the science of ecology.
According to Aldoux Huxley, study of ecology is essential because, "It is only by
means of the sciences of life that the quality of life can be radically changed".

The United Nations Conference On Human Environment convened at Stockholm in


1972 laid down the basics of environmental reform to be followed by countries.

49 Man has the fundamental right to freedom, equality and adequate conditions
of life in an environment of quality that permits a life of dignity and well
being

50 Man bears a solemn responsibility to protect and improve the environment


for present and future generations

UN General Assembly of 1972 designated June 5 as the World Environment Day.


Provisions regarding protection of environment were incorporated into the 42nd
Constitutional Amendment Act passed in 1976. Article 48-A states " The state shall
endeavor to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and
wildlife of the country". This is a chapter on directive principles of state policy.

Article 51-A says " It shall be the duty of every citizen of India to protect and
improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife and to
have compassion for living creatures". It is a fundamental duty. Wildlife Protection
Act was followed by Water Forest Act. There is no lack of legislature, but there is
lack of interest in the employment of these rules. Fortunately, Indian judiciary has
stepped in at the right time most often than not.
Q.Post-Rio Progress In Meeting Environmental Challenges:

Ans.The heads of governments who attended Rio summit proclaimed that "there
shall be sustainable development and the environmental issues are best handled
with the participation of all concerned citizens at relevant levels". Rio summit has
failed to achieve its objectives largely because of unsupportive developed nations
like USA and Australia. There were huge conflicts of interests between rich
industrial countries of North and natural resources rich countries of the South.
Global warming was the most important concern. To combat this, a UN framework
convention on climate change was signed by 154 countries at Rio Summit. After
repeated negotiations, industrialised countries agreed to reduce their emissions in
the period 2008-2012 by 5.2% compared to 1990 levels. This is called Kyoto Protocol.
It was not signed by USA and Australia.

Similar was the fate of Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD). CBD recognises the
rights of countries on their genetic resources and insists fair and equitable return for
the use of these resources mostly by the pharmaceutical companies of North. It has
been rectified by 175 countries, USA is an exception. 80% of total biological resources
belong to South and the North wants unrestricted access to these resources to
support their drug industry. Forests of the South are preying ground for
multinational timber trade companies of the North. UN convention to combat
desertification was also rejected by Northern countries stating that, it was nothing
more than a local problem caused by population pressures. However,it is not the
case with environmental issues affecting the Northern Hemisphere. Be it the hole in
the ozone layer or the problem of persistent organic pollutants travelling to Artic.
The Montreal Protocol has been well implemented.