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Comenius 1592-1679 (Czeck)

Role of Teacher To be a permissive facilitator
of learning to based instruction on childs
stages of development.

Significance Helped develop a more

humanistic view of the child; devised an
educational method.

Influence on Todays School schools

organized according to childrens stages of
Comenius 1592-1679 (Czeck)
Purpose of Education - To relate instructions to
children natural growth and devt; to contribute
to peace and human understanding.

Curriculum Vernacular language, reading

writing, mathematics, religion, history, Latin,
universal knowledge.

Method of Instruction Based on readiness

and stages of human growth, gradual
cumulative, orderly, used of concrete objects.
Locke 1632-1704 (English)
Purpose of Education to develop ideas in the
mind based on perception; to educate
individuals capable of self-government.

Curriculum Reading, writing, arithmetic,

foreign language, mathematics, history, civil
government, physical education.

Method of Instruction Sensation; story,

gradual, cumulative, learning
Locke 1632-1704 (English)
Role of Teacher To encourage sense
experience; to based instruction on empirical

Significance Developed a theory of

knowledge based on sensation.

Influence on Todays School Schooling that

emphasizes sensory observation.
Rousseau 1732-1773 (Swiss French)
Purpose of Education To create a learning
environment that allows the child to innate,
natural goodness to flourish.

Curriculum Nature; the environment

Method of Instructions Sensation; experience

with nature
Rousseau 1732-1773 (Swiss French)
Role of Teacher to assist nature; nor to
improve social conventions on the child.

Significance led a romantic revoke against

the doctrine of the child depravity; a
forerunner of child-centered progressivism.

Influence on Todays School Permissive

schooling based on child freedom.
Pestalozzi 1748-1827 (Swiss)
Purpose of Education To develop the human
beings moral, mental, and physical powers
harmoniously use of sense of perceptions in
forming clear ideas.

Curriculum Object lessons; form, number,


Method of Instructions Sensation; object

lessons; simple to complex; near to far;
concrete to abstract.
Pestalozzi 1748-1827 (Swiss)
Role of Teacher To act as a loving facilitator
of learning by creating a homelike school
environment, skilled in using the special

Significance Devised on educational method

that changed elementary education.

Influence on Todays School Schooling based

on emotional security and object learning.
Herbart 1776-1841 (German)
Purpose of Education To contribute to the
human beings moral development through
knowledge and ethics.

Curriculum Curriculum correlation, interests,

morals; logics, mathematics, literature,
history, music, art.

Method of Instructions Preparation,

presentation, association, systematization,
Herbart 1776-1841 (German)
Role of Teacher To stimulate the learners
intellectual and moral development by formal
stages of instruction.

Significance Devise a formed method of

instruction based on the planned and
sequenced lesson.

Influence on Todays School Schooling that

stresses literary and historical materials
designed to enlarge the learners interest.
Froebel 1782-1852 (German)
Purpose of Education To bring out and to
develop the talent spiritual essence of the child
in prepared environment.

Curriculum Songs, stories, games, gifts,


Method of Instructions Self-activity; play

Froebel 1782-1852 (German)
Role of Teacher To facilitate childrens growth

Significance Created the kindergarten a

special early childhood learning environment.

Influence on Todays School Preschools

designed to liberate the child creativity.
Spencer 1820-1903 (English)
Purpose of Education To enable human
beings to live effectively, economically,

Curriculum Practical, utilitarian and scientific


Method of Instructions Sensation and the

scientific method; activities.
Spencer 1820-1903 (English)
Role of Teacher To organize instruction in
terms of basic life activities.

Significance A leading curriculum theorist

who stressed scientific life activities.

Influence on Todays School Schooling that

stresses scientific knowledge and competitive
Dewey 1859-1952 (American)
Purpose of Education to contribute to the
individuals personal, social and intellectual

Curriculum Making and doing; history and

geography science; problems

Method of Instructions Problems solving

according to the scientific method
Dewey 1859-1952 (American)
Role of Teacher To create a learning
environment based on the shared experience
of the community of learners.

Significance Developed the pragmatic

experimentalist philosophy of education.

Influence on Todays School Schooling that

emphasizes problem solving and activities in a
context of community.
Montessori (1870-1952)
Purpose of Education To assist childrens
sensory, muscular, and intellectual
development in a prepared environment.

Curriculum Motor and sensory skills; pre-

planned materials

Method of Instructions Spontaneous

learning; activities; practical, sensory and
formal skills exercises.
Montessori (1870-1952)
Role of Teacher To act as a facilitator or
director of learning by using didactic materials
in a prepared environment.

Significance Developed a widely used method

and philosophy of early childhood education.

Influence on Todays School Early childhood

schooling that is intellectually and
developmentally stimulating.
Counts 1889-1974 (American)
Purpose of Education To create a new society
that encompasses science, technology and

Curriculum Social issues, history, science,

technology, and the social science.

Method of Instructions Problem solving

according to social methodologies.
Counts 1889-1974 (American)
Role of Teacher To become an educational
statesperson who serves as a leader in
reconstructing society.

Significance Originated the social

reconstructionist view of the school.

Influence on Todays School Schools

designed to stimulate social planning and
Piaget 1896-1974 (Swiss)
Purpose of Education To organize education
in terms of childrens patterns of growth and

Curriculum Concrete and formal operations

Method of Instructions Individualized

programs; exploration and experimentation
with concrete materials.
Piaget 1896-1974 (Swiss)
Role of Teacher To organize instruction to
stages of cognitive development.

Significance Formulated a theory of cognitive


Influence on Todays School Schooling

organized around cognitive developmental
Hutchins 1899-1977 (American)
Purpose of Education To educate human
beings to search for truth, which is found in the
wisdom of human race.

Curriculum Liberal arts and sciences; great


Method of Instructions Identifying, analyzing

and reflecting on intellectual concerns.
Hutchins 1899-1977 (American)
Role of Teacher To ask leading and
challenging questions that stimulate students
to pursue truth.

Significance A leading spokesman for the

perennialist perspective in education.

Influence on Todays School Schooling that

emphasizes the liberal, arts curriculum.