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EDUCATIONAL PIONEERS

Comenius 1592-1679 (Czeck)


Role of Teacher To be a permissive facilitator
of learning to based instruction on childs
stages of development.

Significance Helped develop a more


humanistic view of the child; devised an
educational method.

Influence on Todays School schools


organized according to childrens stages of
development.
Comenius 1592-1679 (Czeck)
Purpose of Education - To relate instructions to
children natural growth and devt; to contribute
to peace and human understanding.

Curriculum Vernacular language, reading


writing, mathematics, religion, history, Latin,
universal knowledge.

Method of Instruction Based on readiness


and stages of human growth, gradual
cumulative, orderly, used of concrete objects.
Locke 1632-1704 (English)
Purpose of Education to develop ideas in the
mind based on perception; to educate
individuals capable of self-government.

Curriculum Reading, writing, arithmetic,


foreign language, mathematics, history, civil
government, physical education.

Method of Instruction Sensation; story,


gradual, cumulative, learning
Locke 1632-1704 (English)
Role of Teacher To encourage sense
experience; to based instruction on empirical
method.

Significance Developed a theory of


knowledge based on sensation.

Influence on Todays School Schooling that


emphasizes sensory observation.
Rousseau 1732-1773 (Swiss French)
Purpose of Education To create a learning
environment that allows the child to innate,
natural goodness to flourish.

Curriculum Nature; the environment

Method of Instructions Sensation; experience


with nature
Rousseau 1732-1773 (Swiss French)
Role of Teacher to assist nature; nor to
improve social conventions on the child.

Significance led a romantic revoke against


the doctrine of the child depravity; a
forerunner of child-centered progressivism.

Influence on Todays School Permissive


schooling based on child freedom.
Pestalozzi 1748-1827 (Swiss)
Purpose of Education To develop the human
beings moral, mental, and physical powers
harmoniously use of sense of perceptions in
forming clear ideas.

Curriculum Object lessons; form, number,


sounds

Method of Instructions Sensation; object


lessons; simple to complex; near to far;
concrete to abstract.
Pestalozzi 1748-1827 (Swiss)
Role of Teacher To act as a loving facilitator
of learning by creating a homelike school
environment, skilled in using the special
method.

Significance Devised on educational method


that changed elementary education.

Influence on Todays School Schooling based


on emotional security and object learning.
Herbart 1776-1841 (German)
Purpose of Education To contribute to the
human beings moral development through
knowledge and ethics.

Curriculum Curriculum correlation, interests,


morals; logics, mathematics, literature,
history, music, art.

Method of Instructions Preparation,


presentation, association, systematization,
application.
Herbart 1776-1841 (German)
Role of Teacher To stimulate the learners
intellectual and moral development by formal
stages of instruction.

Significance Devise a formed method of


instruction based on the planned and
sequenced lesson.

Influence on Todays School Schooling that


stresses literary and historical materials
designed to enlarge the learners interest.
Froebel 1782-1852 (German)
Purpose of Education To bring out and to
develop the talent spiritual essence of the child
in prepared environment.

Curriculum Songs, stories, games, gifts,


occupation

Method of Instructions Self-activity; play


Froebel 1782-1852 (German)
Role of Teacher To facilitate childrens growth

Significance Created the kindergarten a


special early childhood learning environment.

Influence on Todays School Preschools


designed to liberate the child creativity.
Spencer 1820-1903 (English)
Purpose of Education To enable human
beings to live effectively, economically,
scientifically

Curriculum Practical, utilitarian and scientific


objects.

Method of Instructions Sensation and the


scientific method; activities.
Spencer 1820-1903 (English)
Role of Teacher To organize instruction in
terms of basic life activities.

Significance A leading curriculum theorist


who stressed scientific life activities.

Influence on Todays School Schooling that


stresses scientific knowledge and competitive
values.
Dewey 1859-1952 (American)
Purpose of Education to contribute to the
individuals personal, social and intellectual
growth.

Curriculum Making and doing; history and


geography science; problems

Method of Instructions Problems solving


according to the scientific method
Dewey 1859-1952 (American)
Role of Teacher To create a learning
environment based on the shared experience
of the community of learners.

Significance Developed the pragmatic


experimentalist philosophy of education.

Influence on Todays School Schooling that


emphasizes problem solving and activities in a
context of community.
Montessori (1870-1952)
Purpose of Education To assist childrens
sensory, muscular, and intellectual
development in a prepared environment.

Curriculum Motor and sensory skills; pre-


planned materials

Method of Instructions Spontaneous


learning; activities; practical, sensory and
formal skills exercises.
Montessori (1870-1952)
Role of Teacher To act as a facilitator or
director of learning by using didactic materials
in a prepared environment.

Significance Developed a widely used method


and philosophy of early childhood education.

Influence on Todays School Early childhood


schooling that is intellectually and
developmentally stimulating.
Counts 1889-1974 (American)
Purpose of Education To create a new society
that encompasses science, technology and
democracy.

Curriculum Social issues, history, science,


technology, and the social science.

Method of Instructions Problem solving


according to social methodologies.
Counts 1889-1974 (American)
Role of Teacher To become an educational
statesperson who serves as a leader in
reconstructing society.

Significance Originated the social


reconstructionist view of the school.

Influence on Todays School Schools


designed to stimulate social planning and
reconstruction.
Piaget 1896-1974 (Swiss)
Purpose of Education To organize education
in terms of childrens patterns of growth and
development.

Curriculum Concrete and formal operations

Method of Instructions Individualized


programs; exploration and experimentation
with concrete materials.
Piaget 1896-1974 (Swiss)
Role of Teacher To organize instruction to
stages of cognitive development.

Significance Formulated a theory of cognitive


development.

Influence on Todays School Schooling


organized around cognitive developmental
stages.
Hutchins 1899-1977 (American)
Purpose of Education To educate human
beings to search for truth, which is found in the
wisdom of human race.

Curriculum Liberal arts and sciences; great


books

Method of Instructions Identifying, analyzing


and reflecting on intellectual concerns.
Hutchins 1899-1977 (American)
Role of Teacher To ask leading and
challenging questions that stimulate students
to pursue truth.

Significance A leading spokesman for the


perennialist perspective in education.

Influence on Todays School Schooling that


emphasizes the liberal, arts curriculum.