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Water Treatment Mathematical Formulas

6 th Edition

Fleming Training Center

Murfreesboro, TN

Updated April 16, 2009

Water Treatment Math Formulas – Fleming Training Center

Index

 Area 3 Carbonate and Noncarbonate Hardness 14 Chemical Feeders 11, 12 Chlorination 12, 13 Coagulation/Flocculation 8 Conversion Factors 1 Corrosion Control 17 Density 12 Detention Time 12 Dosage 5 Filtration 10 Flow 3 Flow Conversion Chart 4 Fluoridation 16 Jar Testing 9 Lime Dosage 9 Metric Conversions 2 Mixing Energy 9 Pounds 5 Pounds/gal to mg/mL Conversions 2 Power 6 Preliminary Treatment 8 Pumps 6, 7 Sedimentation 10 Softening 15 Solution Preparation 7 Specific Gravity 12 Substitution of Bleach for HTH, etc 13 Temperature 1 Volume 3 Well Formulas 5

Water Treatment Math Formulas

Conversion Factors

 Length 1 yard (yd) 3 feet (ft) 1 mile (mi) 5,280 feet (ft) Area 1 acre (ac) 43,560 square feet (ft 2 ) 1 square foot (ft 2 ) 144 square inches (in 2 ) Volume

1 ft 3

1 gallon

1 gallon

7.48 gallons (gal) 231 cubic inches (in 3 ) 3.785 Liters (L)

 1 liter 1,000 milliliters (mL) 1 acre/foot (ac-ft) 43,560 cubic feet (ft 3 )

Weight and Mass

1 acre-foot (ac-ft)

325,828.8 gallons (gal)

1 gallon of water

1 cubic foot of water (ft 3 )

1 pound (lb)

1 kilogram (kg)

1 gram

1%

1 mg/L

1 grain per gallon

8.34 pounds (lbs) 62.4 lbs 453.6 grams (g)

1,000 grams (g) 1,000 milligrams (mg) 10,000 milligrams per liter (mg/L) 0.0584 grains per gallon

17.118 mg/L

1 pound per square inch (psi)

0.433 pounds per square in (psi)

Temperature Conversions C

0.556 (F-32)

Power

 F 1.8(C) + 32 1 Horsepower 746 watts 1 Horsepower 0.746 kilowatts

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Converting lbs/gal to mg/mL

Metric Conversions

Water Treatment Math Formulas

Rectangle:

Circle:

Rectangle, ft 3 :

Cylinder, ft 3 :

Segment of Cylinder, ft 3 :

 Wedge: Volume, gallons =

Area,

ft

Area, ft

2

Area

(Length, ft)(Width, ft)

2 (0.785)(Diameter, ft) 2

Volume,

Volume,

Volume,

ft

ft

ft

3

3

3

Volume

(Length, ft)(Width, ft)(Depth, ft)

(0.785)(Diameter, ft)

2 (Depth or Length, ft)

Diameter, ft
2
1.333 (Height)
 0.608
Height, ft

  (Length, ft)

Volume,

ft

3

(Length, ft)(Width, ft)(Depth, ft)

2

Volume, gal

(Volume, ft

3

)(7.48ga / ft

3

)

Q AV

OR

Flow

Q (Area) (Velocity)

Q

(Channel),

ft

3 / (Width, ft)(Depth, ft)(Velocity, ft/sec)

sec

Q

(Pipeline),

ft

3

/ (0.785)(Diameter, ft)

sec

Velocity, ft/sec

Flow,

ft

3

/ sec

(0.785)(Diameter )

2

2 (Velocity, ft/sec)

Velocity, ft/sec

Distance, ft

Time, sec

Average Daily Flow, MGD

Sum of All Daily Flows, MGD

Number of Daily Flows

Annual Average Daily Flow, MGD

Sum of All Monthly Average Daily Flows, MGD

Number of Monthly Average Daily Flows

Daily Flow, gal/day/capita

Water Used, gal/day

Total Number of People Served

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Flow Conversions

 cfs = cubic feet per second gps = gallons per second cfm = cubic feet per minute gpm = gallons per minute cfd = cubic feet per day gpd = gallons per day

To use this diagram: First, find the box that coincides with the beginning units (i.e. gpm). Then, find the box that coincides with the desired ending units (i.e. cfs). The numbers between the starting point and ending point are the conversion factors. When moving from a smaller box to a larger box, multiply by the factor between them. When moving from a larger box to a smaller box, divide by the factor between them.

Water Treatment Math Formulas

Dosage, mg/L

Dosage, mg/L

Dosage, mg/L

Dosage

Chemical Feed Rate, lb/day

(Flow, MGD) (8.34 lbs/gal)

(Chemical Feed Rate, lbs/day) (Chemical Purity, %, expressed as a decimal)

(Flow, MGD) (8.34 lbs/gal)

(Feed Rate, grams/min) (1,000 mg/gram)

(Flow, gal/min) (3.785 L/gal)

Pounds

Chemical Fed, lbs (Dose, mg/L) (Volume, MG) (8.34 lbs/gal)

Chemical Fed, lbs

(Dose, mg/L) (Volume, MG) (8.34 lbs/gal)

Chemical Purity, %, expressed as a decimal

Feed Rate, lbs/day (Dose, mg/L) (Flow, MGD) (8.34 lbs/gal)

Feed Rate, lbs/day

Feed Rate, lbs/day

Well Yield, gal/min

(Dose, mg/L) (Flow, MGD) (8.34 lbs/gal)

Chemical Purity, %, expressed as a decimal

(Concentra tion, mg/mL)(Vol ume Pumped, mL) (1,440 min/day)

(Time Pumped, min) (1,000 mg/g) (453.6 g/lb)

Well Formulas

Volume, gal

Time, min

Drawdown, ft Pumping Water Level, ft - Static Water Level, ft

Specific Capacity, gal/min/ft

Well Yield, gal/min

Drawdown, ft

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Power

Power, watts (Volts) (Amps)

Amps, single - phase

(746 watts/HP) (Horsepower)

(Volts) (Efficiency, %, as decimal) (Power Factor)

Amps, three - phase

(746 watts/HP) (Horsepower)

(1.732)(Volts) (Efficiency, %, as decimal) (Power Factor)

Horsepower

(Volts )(Amps)

(746 watts/HP)

Kilowatts, single - phase

(Volts) (Amps) (Power Factor)

1,000 watts/kilowatt

Kilowatts, three - phase

(Volts) (Amps) (Power Factor) (1.732)

1,000 watts/kilowatt

Power Factor

Watts

(Volts)(Amps)

Pumps

Pumping Rate, gal/min

Pumping Rate, gal/min

Pumping Rate, gal/min

Volume, gal

Time, min

(Length, ft)(Width, ft)(Depth, ft)(7.48 gal/

ft

3

)

Time, min

(0.785)(Diameter, ft)

2 (Depth, ft)(7.48 gal/

ft

3

)

Time, min

Time to Fill, min

Tank Volume, gal

Flow Rate, gal/min

Water HP

Brake HP

3960

(3960) (Pump Efficiency, %, expressed as a decimal)

Water Treatment Math Formulas

Motor HP

(3960) (Pump Eff., %, expressed as decimal) (Motor Eff., %,expressed as decimal)

Brake HP

Motor HP

(Water Horsepower)

Pump Efficiency, %, expressed as a decimal

(Brake Horsepower)

Motor Efficiency, %, expressed as a decimal

Brake Horsepower

Motor Horsepower Water Horsepower

Motor Efficiency, %

Pump Efficiency, %

Efficiency, %

Overall Efficiency, %

X 100%

X 100%

Brake Horsepower Horsepower Output

X 100%

Horsepower Supplied Water Horsepower

Motor Horsepower

X 100%

Wire - to - Water Efficiency, % (Pump Eff., %, as decimal) (Motor Eff., %, as decimal) (100%)

Friction Loss, ft (0.1) (Static Head, ft) **use this formula in absence of other data

Cost, \$/hr (Motor Horsepower) (0.746 kW/HP)(Cost, \$/kW - hr)

Solution Preparation

Percent Strength, % (by weight)

Weight of Chemical, lbs

(Weight of Water, lbs

Weight of Chemical, lbs)

Concentration, %

Concentration, lbs/gal

Density, lbs/gal

X 100%

(Concentration ) (Volume )

1

1

(Concentration ) (Volume )

2

2

(Normality ) (Volume )

1

1

(Normality ) (Volume )

2

2

Chemical, lbs

(Water Volume, gal X 8.34 lbs/gal) (Desired Concentration, %)

(100% - Desired Concentration, %)

Water Volume, gal

(Chemical, lbs) (100% - Desired Concentration, %)

(Desired Concentration, %) (8.34 lbs/gal)

X 100%

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Preliminary Treatment

Total Alkalinity<50 mg/L as CaCO 3 : Copper Sulfate, lbs (0.9 lbs/acre - ft)(Volume, acre - ft)

Total Alkalinity>50 mg/L as CaCO 3 : Copper Sulfate, lbs (Surface Area, acre)(5.4 lbs/acre)

Copper Sulfate, lbs (as Copper)

(Dosage, mg/L) (Volume, MG) (8.34 lbs/gal)

(Copper, %, expressed as a decimal)

Citric Acid, lbs

(Copper Sulfate, lbs)

2

Area, acres

(Length, ft)(Width, ft)

43,560

ft

2

/ acre

Volume, acre - ft (Area, acres) (Depth, ft)

Pond Volume, acre - ft

(Length, ft)(Width, ft)(Depth, ft)

43,560

ft

2

/ acre

Pond Volume, gal

Pond Volume, gal

2

(Volume, acre - ft)(43,560ft / acre)(7.48gal /

ft

3

)

(Area, acres)(Depth, ft)(43560

ft

2

/ acre)(7.48 gal/

ft

3

)

Coagulation/Flocculation

Design Criteria

Detention Time, sec

Detention Time, min

Lime Dosage

(Volume, gal) (1,440 min/day) (60 sec/min)

Flow, gal/day

(Volume, gal) (1,440 min/day)

Flow, gal/day

Lime Dosage, mg/L (Alum Dosage, mg/L) (0.37)

Lime Feed Rate, grams/min

(Lime Dosage, mg/L) (Flow, MGD) (3.785 L/gal)

(1,440 min/day) (1,000 mg/gram)

Lime Dosage, lbs/day

(Alum Feed Rate, lbs/day) (0.37)

Commercial Purity, % , expressed as a decimal

Water Treatment Math Formulas

Mixing Energy

Mechanical Mixers

Hydraulic Jump

Variable Speed

Jar Test RPM

Correction

G

(550) (P)
(
 )(V)

G

(62.4) (H)
(
 )(T)

G

2

(G )

1

N 1

 

2

N

3/2

T

1

(G

2

) (T )

2

G

1

Where: P = (hp)(0.90)

= density of water, (lbs)(sec)/ft 2

V = volume of flash mix, ft 3

Where: H = head loss or drop, ft

= density of water, (lb)(sec)/ft 2

T = time, sec

Where: G 2 = velocity gradient at N 2 rpm, sec -1

G 1 = max velocity gradient unit can achieve, sec -1

N 1 = maximum rpm

N 2 = new rpm

Where: T 1 = Time to equate velocity gradient correction, sec

G 2 = calculated velocity gradient, sec -1

T 2 =detention time for unit process, sec

G 1 = maximum G for jar test machine, sec -1

Settling Velocity, cm/min

 (SOR, gpd/ ft 2 )(3785 cm 3 / gal) (1440 min/day)(929 cm 2 / ft 2 )

Jar Testing

Liquid Solution, gram

Liquid Solution, grams required

Concentration, % , expressed as a decimal

Concentration, mg/mL

(Concentration, lb/gal)(453,600 mg/lb)

3,785 mL/gal

Dose, L

(Dose, mg/L)(Jar Test Beaker Volume, L)

(Specific Gravity)(Concentration, %, expressed as a decimal)

Dosage, mg/L

Chemical Feed Rate, lb/day

(Flow, MGD) (8.34 lbs/gal)

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Sedimentation

Detention Time, hr

(Volume, gal) (24 hr/day)

Flow, gal/day

2 Flow, gal/day

2

Surface Area, ft Flow, gal/day

Weir Length, ft

Surface Overflow Rate (SOR), gal/day/ft

Weir Overflow Rate (WOR), gal/day/lineal ft

Length of CIrcular Weir, ft (3.14) (Weir Diameter, ft)

Length of Rectangular Weir, ft (2)(Weir Length, ft) (2)(Weir Width, ft)

Hook Gauge

Volume, gal

Filtration

(Filter Bay Length, ft)(Filter Bay Width, ft)(Water Drop, ft)(7.48 gal/

Average Time, sec

Average Time, min

Test

1

, sec

Test

2

, sec

Test

n

, sec

Number of Tests (n)

Average Time, sec

60 sec/min

Sand Area,

ft

2

(Sand Bed Length, ft)(Sand Bed Width, ft)

Filtration Rate, gal/min

Volume, gal

Average Time, min

Filtration Rate, gal/min/

ft

2

Filtration Rate, gal/min

Sand Area,

ft

2

Filter Production Rate

Filter Production Rate, gal/min

(Filtration Rate, gal/min/

ft

2

)(Filter Area,

ft

2

)

ft

3

)

Filter Production Rate, gal/day (Filtration Production Rate, gal/min) (1,440 min/day)

Filter Backwash Rate

Backwash Water Volume, gal

(Backwash Rate, gal/min/

Backwash Water, %

Backwash Water, gal

Water Filtered, gal

X 100%

ft

2

)(Backwash Time, min)(Filter Area,

ft

2

)

Water Treatment Math Formulas

Dry Feeders

Feeder Calibration

Average Sample Mass, grams

Sample , grams

1

Sample

2

,

grams

Sample , grams

n

n (number of samples)

Average Feed Rate, grams/min

Total Sample Mass, grams

Sample Collection Time, min

Average Feed Rate, lbs/day

(Average Feed Rate, grams/min) (1,440 min/day)

453.6 grams/lb

Feeder Setting, grams/min

(Dose, mg/L) (Flow, gal/day) (3.785 Liters/gal)

(1,440 min/day) (1,000 mg/gram)

Liquid Feeders

Feeder Calibration

Average Sample Volume, mL

Sample , mL

1

Sample

2

,

mL

Sample

n

,

mL

n (number of samples)

Average Feed Rate, mL/min

Total Sample Volume, mL

Sample Collection Time, min

Feed Rate, gal/day

(Average Feed Rate, mL/min) (1,440 min/day)

3,785 mL/gal

Feeder Setting, mL/min

(Dose, mg/L) (Flow, gal/day) (3.785 Liters/gal)

(Concentration, mg/mL) (1,440 min/day)

Feeder Setting, gal/day

Feeder Setting, gal/day

(Dose, mg/L) (Flow, MGD) (8.34 lbs/gal)

Concentration, lbs/gal

(Dose, mg/L) (Flow, MGD)

(Concentration, %, expressed as a decimal) (Specific Gravity)

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Liquid Chemical Characteristics

Density, lbs/gal (Specific Gravity)(8.34 lbs/gal)

Specific Gravity

Density of Solution, lbs/gal

8.34 lbs/gal

Concentration,lbs/gal (Density, lbs/gal)(Concentration, %, expressed as a decimal)

Concentration, mg/mL

(Concentration, lbs/gal)(453,600 mg/lb)

3,785 mL/gal

Concentration, %

Concentration, lbs/gal

Density, lbs/gal

X 100%

Detention Time, sec

Detention Time, min

Detention Time

(Volume, gal) (24 hrs/day) ( 60 min/hr) (60 sec/min)

Flow, gal/day

(Volume, gal) (24 hrs/day) (60 min/hr)

Flow, gal/day

Detention Time, hr

(Volume, gal) (24 hr/day)

Flow, gal/day

Detention Time, days

Volume, gal

Flow, gal/day

Chlorination

Chlorine Demand, mg/L Chlorine Dose, mg/L - Chlorine Residual, mg/L

Total Chlorine Residual, mg/L

Combined Residual, mg/L Free Residual, mg/L

Free Chlorine Residual, mg/L

Total Residual, mg/L - Combined Residual, mg/L

Combined Chlorine Residual, mg/L

Total Residual, mg/L - Free Residual, mg/L

Chlorine Feed Rate, lbs/day

(Dosage, mg/L) (Flow, MGD) (8.34 lbs/gal)

Chemical Purity, %, expressed as a decimal

Dosage, mg/L

(Chlorine Feed Rate, lbs/day)(Chemical Purity, %, expressed as a decimal)

(Flow, MGD)(8.34 lbs/gal)

Water Treatment Math Formulas

General Bleach Formulas

(Bleach Fed, gal/day) (Available Chlorine, %, expressed as a decimal)

Flow, MGD

(Chlorine Dose, mg/L) (Flow, MGD)

Available Chlorine, %, expressed as a decimal

Chlorine Dose, mg/L

Hypochlorite Feed Rate, gal/day

Bleach Dilutions

Bleach Volume, gal

Desired Available Chlorine Concentration   

 

%, expressed as s decimal

Desired

Volume, gal

Bleach Available Chlorine, %, expressed as a decimal

Available Chlorine, %

(Bleach, gal) (Available Chlorine, %, expressed as a decimal)

Desired Volume, gal

X 100%

HTH

HTH, lbs

(solution mix)

(Desired Available Chlorine, %, expressed as decimal) (Desired Volume, gal) (8.34 lb/gal)

HTH Available Chlorine, % expressed as a decimal

Chlorine Dosage, mg/L

(HTH Feed Rate, lb/day)

HTH Available Chlorine, %

expressed as a decimal

(Flow, MGD)(8.34 lbs/gal)

Available Chlorine, %

(HTH, lb) (Available Chlorine, %, expressed as decimal)

(Hypochlorite Solution, gal) (8.34 lb/gal)

X 100%

Substitution of HTH or Chlorine for Bleach, etc

Chlorine, lb (Available Chlorine, %, expressed as decimal) (Bleach Volume, gal) (8.34 lbs/gal)

Chlorine, lb (HTH, lb) (Available Chlorine, %, expressed as decimal)

HTH, lb

Chlorine, lb

Available Chlorine, %, expressed as decimal

HTH, lb

(Available Chlorine, %, expressed as decimal) (Bleach, gal) (8.34 lb/gal)

HTH, Available Chlorine, %, expressed as a decimal

Bleach, gal

Chlorine, lb

(Bleach Available Chlorine, %, expressed as decimal) (8.34 lb/gal)

Bleach, gal

(HTH Available Chlorine, %, expressed as decimal) (HTH, lb)

(Bleach Available Chlorine, %, expressed as decimal) (8.34 lb/gal)

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Hardness, Carbonate and Noncarbonate

 Laboratory Results TH = Total Hardness TA = Total Alkalinity Noncarbonate Hardness (Lime & Soda Ash used) Carbonate Hardness (Lime only used) Lime Dosage Formula To be Used (1) TH less than TA 0 TH I (2) TH = TA 0 TH I (3) TH greater than TA TH – TA TA II

( ) means “concentration of”

I Lime Dosage, mg/L

II

Lime Dosage, mg/L

(C0

(Total Hardness)

2

)

(C0

 

2

)

(HCO )

3

(Mg)

(Mg)

(Excess)

(Excess)

Soda Ash Dosage, mg/L

(Total Hardness) - (HCO )

3

(Excess)

Total Hardness (Calcium Hardness) (Magnesium Hardness)

Chemical Required, lbs/day

(Dose, mg/L) (Flow, MGD) (8.34 lbs/gal)

(% Commercial Purity, expressed as a decimal)

Water Treatment Math Formulas

Softening

Alkalinity Constituents Alkalinity, mg/L as CaCO 3

 Titration Results Bicarbonate Carbonate Hydroxide P = 0 T 0 0 P is less than ½ T T – (2)(P) (2)(P) 0 P = ½ T 0 (2)(P) 0 P is greater than ½ T 0 (2)(T) – (2)(P) (2)(P) – T P = T 0 0 T

Where

P = phenolphthalein alkalinity, mg/L as CaCO 3 T = total alkalinity, mg/L as CaCO 3

Alkalinity

Phenolphthalein Alkalinity, mg/L as

CaCO 3

(A)(N)(50,000)

Sample Volume, mL

Total Alkalinity, mg/L as CaCO 3

(B) (N) (50,000)

Sample Volume, mL

 Where: A = mL of titrant used to reach pH 8.3 B = total mL of titrant used N = acid normality

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Fluoridation

 Purity Available Fluoride Ion (AFI) Chemical Formula Percent Decimal Percent Decimal Sodium Fluoride NaF 98% 0.980 45.2% 0.452 Sodium Fluorosilicate Na 2 SiF 6 98.5% 0.985 60.7% 0.607 Fluorosilicic Acid H 2 SiF 6 23% 0.230 79.2% 0.792

Feed Rate, lbs/day

Feed Rate, lbs/min

(Dose, mg/L) (Flow, MGD) (8.34 lbs/gal)

(AFI, expressed as decimal) (Purity, expressed as a decimal)

(Dose, mg/L) (Flow, gal/min) (8.34 lbs/gal)

(1,000,000) (AFI, expressed as decimal) (Purity, expressed as a decimal)

Feed Rate, grams/min

(Feed Rate, lbs/day) (453.6 grams/lb)

(1440 min/day)

Saturator Feed Rate, gal/min

(Dose, mg/L) (Flow, gal/min)

(18,000 mg/L)

Calculated Dosage, mg/L

(Fluoride, lbs) (AFI, expressed as decimal) (Purity, expressed as decimal)

(Flow, MGD) (8.34 lbs/gal)

Calculated Dosage, mg/L (Saturator)

(Solution Fed, gal/day) (18,000 mg/L)

(Flow, gal/dayl)

Water Treatment Math Formulas

Corrosion Control

Langelier Index (LI) pH - pH

s

pH of Saturation (pH )

S

A

B - log Calcium Hardness - log Total Alkalinity

Aggressive Index (AI) pH log Calcium Hardness log Total Alkalinity

 Values of “A” for various Temperatures, C Values of log of Ca or Alkalinity as CaCO 3 in mg/L Temperature, C A mg/L log 10 0 2.34 10 1.00 5 2.27 20 1.30 10 2.2 30 1.48 15 2.12 40 1.60 20 2.05 50 1.70 25 1.98 60 1.78 30 1.91 70 1.84 40 1.76 80 1.90 50 1.62 90 1.95 60 1.47 100 2.00 200 2.30 Values for “B” for various levels of 300 2.48 TDS, mg/L B 400 2.60 0 9.63 500 2.70 50 9.72 600 2.78 100 9.75 700 2.84 200 9.8 800 2.90 400 9.86 900 2.95 800 9.94 1,000 3.00 1,600 10.04
 Corrosivity Characteristics as Addressed by Indices Corrosive Characteristics Langelier Index (LI) Aggressive Index (AI) Highly Aggressive < - 2.0 < 10.0 Moderately Aggressive - 2.0 to < 0.0 10.0 to < 12.0 Non-aggressive > 0.0 > 12.0