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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter of the study presents a review of related literatures which are relevant

to the study. These provide the study a foundation and enough information about self-

esteem and bullying.

Self-esteem is used to describe a person's overall sense of self-worth or personal

value. It is often seen as a personality trait, which means that it tends to be stable and

enduring. It can involve a variety of beliefs about the self, such as the appraisal of ones

own appearance, beliefs, emotions and behaviors (http://psychology.about.com).

Components of Self-Esteem

According to one definition (Braden, 1969), there are three key components

of self-esteem:

1. Self-esteem is an essential human need that is vital for survival and normal,

healthy development.

2. Self-esteem arises automatically from within based upon a person's beliefs

and consciousness.

3. Self-esteem occurs in conjunction with a person's thoughts, behaviors,

feelings and actions.


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Self-Esteem Theories

The need for self-esteem plays an important role in psychologist Abraham

Maslow's hierarchy of needs, depicting self-esteem as one of the basic human

motivations. Maslow suggested that people need both esteem from other people as well

as inner self-respect. Both of these needs must be fulfilled in order for an individual to

grow as a person and achieve self-actualization.

It is important to note that self-esteem is a concept distinct from self-efficacy,

which involves the belief in future actions, performance or abilities.

Victims of bullying live with the consequences for decades, study says (Kaplan, 2014).

Victims of bullies suffer the psychological consequences all the way until middle

age, with higher levels of depression, anxiety and suicide, new research shows. The

immediate ill effects of bullying have been well documented, with experts increasingly

seeing it as a form of child abuse. Influential studies from Finland have made the case

that people who were bullied as kids continued to suffer as young adults - girls who were

bullied grew up to attempt and commit suicide more frequently by the age of 25, for

instance, and boys were more likely to develop anxiety disorders.

Father fights back against bullying after son's suicide (Hamilton, 2013)

An Illinois dad got the call on Thursday that no parent ever wants to receive. Brad

Lewis' ex-wife was on the phone: Their 15-year-old son had shot himself in the chest. In

the note Jordan Lewis left behind, he laid blame on bullying. Although stricken with

grief, Lewis, 47, found resolve. He took to Facebook that night and posted a series of
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videos explaining his son's death and the events leading up to it: the alleged bullying, the

concern of his son's best friend, the wellness visit by police the night before the suicide,

and the 911 call his son made shortly before pulling the trigger.

Teens taunted by bullies are more likely to consider, attempt suicide (Kaplan, 2014)

Victims of bullying were more than twice as likely as other kids to contemplate

suicide and about 2.5 times as likely to try to kill themselves, according to a new study

that quantifies the emotional effects of being teased, harassed, beaten up or otherwise

harmed by one's peers. Children and teens who were taunted by cyberbullies were

especially vulnerable -- they were about three times as likely than other kids to have

suicidal thoughts, the study found. The findings, published online Monday by the journal

JAMA Pediatrics, puts the lie to the old adage about sticks and stones.

Younger children falling victim to online bullying (Banks, 2013)

It seems to happen often enough that we're no longer shocked to hear it: A

teenager commits suicide after being bullied online by peers. But the recent death in

Florida of 12-year-old Rebecca Ann Sedwick and arrest of two of her former middle

school classmates makes it clear that victims are getting younger and bullies more brazen

online. Two girls, 12 and 14, have been charged with felony aggravated stalking based on

evidence of a year of online taunts and threats. Sheriff's deputies confiscated the

cellphones and laptops of more than a dozen girls accused of bullying Rebecca and found

messages such as "You should die. " This may be the first time children have been

accused of a crime in connection with suicide.


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An End to Bullying (2001)

Re "District Adopts Anti-Bullying Policy," March 15: If this is to succeed, the

faculty will have to give up their godlike aloofness, get down in the trenches with the

kids and see for themselves what is going on. The kids will resent this, but so what? If a

victim reports a bully, the only way to protect him from retaliation is to provide an

around-the-clock bodyguard or send him out of town; otherwise, his tormentor will get to

him sooner or later. The adults should get involved in everything the students do, not just

in the classroom

Bullying is a deceptively complex phenomenon, thus making it difficult to

understand bullying problems and to determine how to respond (Mishna, 2012). The

dynamics of bullying extend beyond the children who bully or who are bullied. Rather,

individual features, family and peer interactions, and cultural. It is also a form of

aggression. Bullying constitutes aggression and damages the child or youths sense of

self or their peer relationships (Craig et al,. 2007). Bullying also is an imbalance of

power, succinctly summarized by Craig and colleagues (2007):

This power can derive a social advantage such as a dominant social role (e.g.

teacher compared to a student), higher social status in a peer group (e.g. popular versus

rejected student), strength in numbers (e.g. group of children bullying a solitary child) or

through systemic power (e.g. racial or cultural groups, sexual minorities, economic

disadvantage, disability). Power can also be achieved by knowing anothers vulnerability

(e.g. obesity, stuttering, learning problem, sexual orientation, family background) and

using that knowledge to cause distress.


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Bullying can seriously affect the academic, social, emotional, and psychological

functioning and the physical health of children and youth who are victimized and who

bully (Olweus, 1984; Rigby, 2000; Schwartz, Gorman, Nakamoto, & McKay, 2006).

Bullying behavior, broadly described as intimidating or harrassing another person

through physical or verbal assaults and insults, can begin at any age, but it seems to be a

particular problem among children and adolescents.Although bullying is usually a one-

on-one behavior, it also has a broader social impact. Victim may feel humiliated, and thus

alienated from everyone in their peer group, while bullies may feel that they have

established a position of superiority in the same group. Bullying behavior can continue

into adulthood, although by that time it may be regarded as criminal behavior and

result in legal action (e.g. charges of "assault and battery")

(http://connection.ebscohost.com/).

The social stratification caused by bullying is often a precursor of adult

behavior. Children who are bullies may continue to intimidate, or to try to intimidate,

their peers when they are adults. Other adults learn to cope with such behavior, either by

standing up to it and challenging the bully or by ignoring the behavior and avoiding

the bully. Adult society often tends to place bullies and victims in different social groups.

The development of techniques for dealing with bullies is part of the larger task

of schools to create a safe environment for all children and to teach acceptable social

behavior.

Other Terms for Bullying:


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Asperger Syndrome: A neurological disorder associated with autism that is

characterized by normal intelligence and language development, but marked by

deficiencies in social and communication skills. Such individuals can easily become

victims of bullying.

Assault: In criminal law, assault may refer to a verbal threat of violence, whereas

battery refers to the actual violence. Most jurisdictions in the United States define assault

as an attempt to cause, or actually causing, bodily injury. Some states expand this

definition to include an attempt to menace someone by putting a person in fear of

imminent injury. Assault is also defined as unwanted physical contact or unwanted sexual

advances.

In general, bullying is behavior by one person that intimidates

another. Often, bullying involves a real or implied threat of physical aggression and is

directed by a physically larger or older person toward someone smaller or younger. Other

definitions of bullying include both physical actions (hitting, pushing, punching), as well

as verbal actions (threatening, taunting, teasing), or even excluding the target from group

activities.

School Bullying is a type of bullying that occurs in an educational setting.

Bullying can be physical, sexual, verbal or emotional in nature.

School bullying may be more specifically defined as unwelcome behaviour among

school-aged children that involves a real or perceived power imbalance. In order to be

considered bullying, the behaviour must be aggressive, and must include:


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A difference in power. Children who bully use their physical strength or popularity to

control or harm others.

Repetitionhappening more than once or have the potential to happen more than

once.

The long-term effects of school bullying are numerous, and can include sensitivity,

anxiety, and depression. Recent statistics suggest that the majority of students will

experience bullying at some point in their academic careers. In the early 21st century,

increasing attention has been given to the importance of teachers and parents

understanding and recognizing the signs of bullying (among both bullies and victims),

and being equipped with strategies and tools to address school bullying

(en.wikipedia.org).