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1. A plane wall is a composite of two materials, A and B. The wall of material A has uniform heat

generation q = 1.5106 W/m3, kA = 75 W/mK, and thickness LA = 50 mm. The wall material B

has no generation with kB = 150 W/mK and thickness LB = 20 mm. The inner surface of

material B is cooled by a water stream with T = 30C and h = 1000 W/m2K. Determine

temperatures T1 and T2.

2. The energy transferred from the anterior chamber of the eye through the cornea varies

considerably depending on whether a contact lens is worn. Treat the eye as a spherical system

and assume the system to be at steady state. The convection coefficient ho is unchanged with

and without the contact lens in place. The cornea and the lens cover one third of the spherical

surface area. Values of the parameters representing this situation are as follows:

r1 = 10.2 mm, r2 = 12.7 mm, r3 = 16.5 mm, T,i = 37C, T,o = 21C, k1 = 0.35 W/mK, k2 = 0.80

W/mK, hi = 12 W/m2K, ho = 6 W/m2K.

a) Construct the thermal circuits excluding the contact lens and including the contact lens.

Write resistance elements in terms of appropriate parameters.

b) Determine the heat loss from the anterior chamber with and without the contact lens in

place.

c) Discuss the implication of your results.

through which refrigerant passes at a temperature of -18C. Air is cooled as it flows over the

tubes, maintaining a surface convection coefficient of 100 W/m2K, and is subsequently routed

to the refrigerator compartment.

a) For the foregoing conditions and an air temperature of -3C, what is the rate at which heat

is extracted from the air per unit tube length?

b) If the refrigerators defrost unit malfunctions, frost will slowly accumulate on the outer tube

surface. Assess the effect of frost formation on the cooling capacity of a tube for frost layer

thicknesses in the range 0 4 mm. Frost may be assumed to have a thermal

conductivity of 0.4 W/mK.

c) The refrigerator is disconnected after the defrost unit malfunctions and a 2-mm-thick layer

of frost has formed. If the tubes are in ambient air for which T = 20C and a natural

convection maintains a convection coefficient of 2 W/m2K, how long will it take for the

frost to melt? The frost may be assumed to have a mass density of 700 kg/m3 and a latent

heat of fusion of 334 kJ/kg.

4. The rear window of an automobile is defogged by passing warm air over its surface. If the

warm air is at T,i = 40C and the corresponding convection coefficient is hi = 30 W/m2K, what

are the inner and outer surface temperatures of 4-mm-thick window glass if the outside ambient

air temperature is T,o = -10C and the associated convection coefficient is ho = 65 W/m2K.

5. The performance of gas turbine engines may be improved by increasing the tolerance of the

turbine blades to hot gases emerging from the combustor. One approach to achieving high

operating temperatures involves application of a thermal barrier coating (TBC) to the exterior

surface of a blade, while passing cooling air through the blade. Typically, the blade is made

from a high-temperature superalloy, such as Inconel (k 25 W/mK), while a ceramic, such as

zirconia (k 1.3 W/mK), is used as a TBC. Consider conditions for which hot gases at T,o =

1700 K and cooling air at T,i = 400 K provide outer and inner surface convection coefficients

of ho = 1000 W/m2K and hi = 500 W/m2K, respectively. If a 0.5-mm-thick zirconia TBC is

attached to a 5-mm-thick Inconel blade wall by means of a metallic bonding agent, which

provides an interfacial thermal resistance of Rt,c = 10-4 m2K/W, can the Inconel be maintained

at a temperature that is below its maximum allowable value of 1250 K? Radiation effects may

be neglected, and the turbine blade may be approximated as a plane wall. Plot the temperature

distribution with and without the TBC. Are there any limits to the thickness of the TBC?

6. An electrical current of 700 A flows through a stainless steel cable having a diameter of 5 mm

and an electrical resistance of 6 10-4 /m (i.e., per meter of cable length). The cable is in an

environment having a temperature of 30C, and the total coefficient associated with convection

and radiation between the cable and the environment is approximately 25 W/m2K.

a) If the cable is bare, what is its surface temperature?

b) If a very thin coating of electrical insulation is applied to the cable, with a contact resistance

of 0.02 m2K/W, what are the insulation and cable surface temperatures?

c) There is some concern about the ability of the insulation to withstand elevated temperatures.

What thickness of this insulation (k = 0.5 W/mK) will yield the lowest value of the

maximum insulation temperature? What is the value of the maximum temperature when this

thickness is used?

7. Consider the liquid oxygen storage system and the laboratory environmental conditions of

Problem 8 from homework 2. To reduce oxygen loss due to vaporization, an insulating layer

should be applied to the outer surface of the container. Consider using a laminated aluminum

foil/glass mat insulation, for which the thermal conductivity and surface emissivity are k =

0.00016 W/mK and = 0.20, respectively.

a) If the container is covered with a 10-mm-thick layer of insulation, what is the percentage

reduction in oxygen loss relative to the uncovered container?

b) Compute and plot the oxygen evaporation rate (kg/s) as a function of the insulation

thickness t for 0 t 50 mm.

8. A nuclear fuel element of thickness 2L is covered with a steel cladding of thickness b. Heat

generated within the nuclear fuel at a rate is removed by a fluid at T, which adjoins one

surface and is characterized by a convection coefficient h. The other surface is well insulated,

and the fuel and steel have thermal conductivities of k and ks, respectively.

a) Obtain an equation for the temperature distribution T(x) in the nuclear fuel. Express your

results in terms of , k, L, b, ks, h, and T.

b) Sketch the temperature distribution T(x) for the entire system.

9. Radioactive wastes are packed in a thin-walled spherical container. The wastes generate thermal

energy nonuniformly according to the relation [ ( ) ] where is the local rate of

energy generation per unit volume, is a constant, and ro is the radius of the container. Steady

state conditions are maintained by submerging the container in a liquid that is at T and

provides a uniform convection coefficient h. Determine the temperature distribution, T(r), in the

container. Express your result in terms of , ro, T, h, and the thermal conductivity k of the

radioactive wastes.

10. Consider one-dimensional conduction in a plane composite wall. The outer surfaces are

exposed to a fluid at 25C and a convection heat transfer coefficient of 1000 W/m2 K. The

middle wall B experiences uniform heat generation B, while there is no generation in walls A

and C. The temperatures at the interfaces are T1 = 261C and T2 = 211C.

a) Assuming negligible contact resistance at the interfaces, determine the volumetric heat

generation B and the thermal conductivity kB.

b) Plot the temperature distribution, showing its important features.

c) Consider conditions corresponding to a loss of coolant at the exposed surface of material A

(h = 0). Determine T1 and T2 and plot the temperature distribution throughout the system.

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