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Recently, many organizations realize that knowledge is a strategic tool for maintaining
organizational performance. With the realization that knowledge is a core resource,
organizations are now attempting to manage knowledge in a more systematic and more
effective way. The theory of organizational knowledge creation suggests the sharing of
tacit knowledge is a critical component of successful knowledge management efforts.
Accordingly, to survive in this emerging economy of knowledge, organizations must
recognize the need to introduce processes and technologies that aim to facilitate the
sharing of information and knowledge then capture it for use by the organizations.

; it is difficult to establish a common understanding of what KM is. Besides, the

knowledge is everywhere and it has not been captured, collaborated and managed
systematically especially in the higher learning institutions. Similarly, resource in higher
learning institutions may not be sustained for long period too. As a result, these
resources need to be transformed into knowledge, since it is hard to be replicated. From
the research done, the higher learning institutions are no longer just providing
knowledge to the students, but also have to manage and collaborate the existing
knowledge for future reference. Therefore, the current higher learning institutions in
overseas have adapted to their changing role in a knowledge-based society (Kostas
Metaxiotis, John Psarras, 2003) and recognize the value of their intellectual capital to
their continuing role in society. (Rowley, 2000). In the current higher learning institutions,
research is the key for knowledge creation and knowledge dissemination.

Innovation is the use of new knowledge to offer a new product or service that customers
want. It is invention plus commercialization. According to Porter, 1990) innovation is
a new way of doing things that is commercialized. The new knowledge (Afuah, 1998)
can be technological or market related. Technological knowledge refers to components,
processes, and linkages that contribute to an output. Market knowledge refers to the
expertise of the specific market dynamics such as distribution channels and customer
expectations. Amidon (2002) defines the fundamentals of knowledge as data,
information, then knowledge. She notes, “data is a base representation of fact,
information is data with context, and knowledge is information with meaning… fully
actionable.” It is not by coincidence that “knowledge” is used so heavily in the
descriptions of innovation. Davenport and Prusak (1998) defined knowledge as a fluid
mix of framed experience, values, contextual information, and expert insight that
provides a framework for evaluating and incorporating new experiences and information.
Knowledge management includes two aspects, ‘managing’ the knowledge that already
exists in the organization, as well as enhancing the ability to create ‘new knowledge’.
When the management of knowledge is introduced it is the past events that are harnessed
to promote and facilitate the innovation process. Knowledge management deals with the
creation, acquisition, integration, distribution, and application of knowledge to improve
the operation effectiveness and competitive advantage of an organization. Knowledge
management is providing the right information to the right people at the right time. Most
companies that have knowledge management programs emphasize knowledge sharing
and integration which is what is referred to as first generation knowledge management.
Companies are now just beginning to put more effort in the knowledge management
programs in the area of knowledge creation and learning which is referred to as second
generation knowledge management (McElory, 2003). In order to stimulate the invention
part of innovation the organization needs to have innovation mechanisms that support
knowledge creation, sharing, and integration. Thus, innovation is one of the objectives of
an effective knowledge management program.

“. Knowledge is defined by Davenport and Prusak (1998) as “a fluid mix of framed

experience, values, contextual information, and expert insight that provides a framework
for evaluating and incorporating new experiences and information”. Brooking (1999)
defines knowledge as information in context with understanding to applying that
knowledge. Also, she defines the term data as facts and information as organized data in
context. Based on given two definitions, we know that there is some form of interplay
between data, information and knowledge. Also, these definitions highlight there are two
general types of knowledge; tacit and explicit knowledge which many KM writers and
KM experts agree with it (Dixon 2000; Inkpen 1996; Polayni 1996; Nonaka & Takeuchi
1995; Von Krogh et al, 2000).

Tacit knowledge is linked to personal perspectives, intuition, emotions, beliefs, know-

how, experiences and values. It is intangible and not easy to articulate, making it difficult
to share with others. In contrast, explicit knowledge has a tangible dimension that can be
more easily captured, codified and communicated. Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) further
elaborate that these two versions of knowledge can interact when the “knowledge
conversion” occurs (see Figure 1) as below.

TO Tacit Explicit
Tacit Socialization Externalization

Explicit Internalization Combination

Figure 1 Nonaka’s SECI Model (Nonaka & Takeuchi 1995)

They believe that the knowledge creation process as a spiral and the interaction of tacit
and explicit knowledge produces four modes of knowledge conversion; socialization
(from tacit to tacit), externalization (from tacit to explicit), combination (from explicit to
explicit) and internalization (from explicit to tacit) or it can be called as SECI model.
Based on these four modes of knowledge conversion, if we take a look at one way, we
can say that KM is any mechanism that can support systematically all these modes of
knowledge conversion whether to identifying, managing or sharing two types of these
organizational knowledge (i.e. tacit and explicit). Another way, we can use this Nonaka’s
model to describing a certain KM solution (i.e. LL system) as shown in Figure 2.
TO Tacit Explicit
Tacit Socialization Externalization
(Collect) (Verify & Store)
Explicit Internalization Combination
(Reuse) (Disseminate)

Figure 2 LL Processes Described In SECI Model (Mohammad Nazir Ahmad Sharif

2 types of knowledge

Explicit knowledge:-

 Embodies in a code or a language

 Can be verbalized, communicated, processed,
transmitted and stored relativelt easily

Tacit knowledge:-

 Rooted in action, procedures commitment,

values and emotions.
 Acquired by sharing experiences, by observation and imitaiton

Stores and updates information gathered

from various sources or methods

Collective Central
Employee Knowledge
Information Repository
Provides necessary tools and Secured
technology for storing purposes

Process of Knowledge
KM Elements Innovation Mechanisms
Motivational carrots / Incentives

Introduce change – setting, groups, viewpoints

Cultural evaluation – organizational and group

Treat everything as temporary – teams, organizations,

procedures, product lines

Reject underlying values and beliefs (personal and


Encourage experimentation and ignore experts

Environmental factors – working conditions, economic means,

transfer mechanisms, mentors

Hire smart and different

Incite discomfort and dissatisfaction

Acquisition Encourage education and learning – often alternative

Internal & external sources – user communities

Opportunism – look outside the box

Idea storage medium – enable storage of non-used or used

Integration Strategic Direction

Integration of functional knowledge with process knowledge

Challenge existing practices

Use different perspectives – idea sharing

Distribution Connecting those that know with those that need to know

Transfer mechanisms

Encourage idea sharing

Keep ideas alive – not just an archive, make tangible if


Spread information about who knows what – subject matter

Application Freedom to experiment – prototype, model, pilot, test good

Organizational acceptance of short term financial loss

Relation between Knowledge Management and Innovation

Knowledge Management
Knowledge Management (KM) comprises a range of strategies and
practices used in an organization to identify, create, represent,
distribute, and enable adoption of insights and experiences.
Knowledge Management is the explicit and systematic management of vital
knowledge - and its associated processes of creation, organization,
diffusion, use and exploitation - in pursuit of business objectives.

There are many definitions of knowledge management. We have developed this one
since it identifies some critical aspects of any successful knowledge management

• Explicit - Surfacing assumptions; codifying that which is known

• Systematic - Leaving things to serendipity will not achieve the benefits
• Vital Knowledge - You need to focus; you don't have unlimited resources
• Processes - Knowledge management is a set of activities with its own tools
and techniques

Knowledge Management efforts typically focus on organizational objectives such

as :-
 Improved performance
 Competitive advantage
 Innovation
 The sharing of lessons learned
 Integration and continuous improvement of the organization.

KM efforts overlap with organizational learning, and may be distinguished from that by a
greater focus on the management of knowledge as a strategic asset and a focus on
encouraging the sharing of knowledge. KM efforts can help individuals and groups to
share valuable organizational insights, to reduce redundant work, to avoid reinventing the
wheel per se, to reduce training time for new employees, to retain intellectual capital as
employees turnover in an organization, and to adapt to changing environments and

Nowadays, many companies especially the multinational companies are trying to

retain the existing knowledge by managing and controlling it, as knowledge is
one of the companies’ assets. Companies that focus on knowledge enforce the
commercialization of knowledge and innovate or creative knowledge workers, in
which this can be proven by the consulting firms such as KPMG and
Pricewaterhouse Coopers are examples of KM practitioners, which manage and
collaborate their firms’

Implication of Knowledge Management (KM) in Higher Learning Institution

Proposed KM Framework for Higher Learning Institution

The framework shown below is an overview illustration of the proposed framework for

KM in Higher Learning Institution. It is a variation of several established KM framework

that has been proven successfully in the industry.

This framework structure serves as the foundation and provides the fundamental of KM

to be deployed in an environment specific to the Higher Learning Institution. It has partly

adopted from frameworks that were developed by Gregoris, Dimitris, Ronald and

Andreas (2001) and KM framework that was created by Hanzic (2001).

attitude, KM
willingness, Strategy &
Social behaviours Knowledge Distribution & Segregation Approach
Environment Planning

Knowledge KM Cases, Assets,

Acquiring Knowledge Transformation Content
Globalization Process
Knowledge Knowledge
Assets Assets

Tools & Data

Knowledge (K)
Environment Process, K. Objects,
K. Systems


Knowledge Portal for

Higher Learning Institutions
Compiled Knowledge consists of:
KM template
Knowledge quality assurance and
knowledge measurement
Sub-system of E-learning tools

Figure 1.0 Overview of Proposed KM Framework

Initially, the external environments (on the left section of the framework structure) that

consist of social environment, globalization environment and technological environment

are required to provide the needed input for Knowledge Distribution and Segregation.
For instance, the academia’s attitude, willingness, and behaviors are the types of input

from the Social Environment that is needed for the KM elements of academia’s Culture,

Trust, and Attitude in the Knowledge Distribution and Segregation section. The

management may enforce the KM strategy with rules and regulations to be applied in

Higher Learning Institutions, in order to motivate or encourage the academia to share

and contribute in the Higher Learning Institution. Next, the tacit and explicit knowledge

that are derived from Knowledge Assets are distributed among the academia through

the KM process with the help of the latest technology, such as Internet and Intranet.

Other that this, there is the input of Knowledge Acquiring Process and Tools and

Technologies from the Globalization Environment and Technological Environment

respectively. The Knowledge Acquiring Process describes the various ways to capture

knowledge from the environment, while the Tools and Technologies is the list of

knowledge capturing tools available in the market. Both of this input shall be used for the

KM element of Communication in second inner stage i.e. Knowledge Distribution and


Next, “Strategic Planning” (on the right section of the frame structure) is a method that

encompasses the vision, scope and objective of the KM initiative. It is determined based

on the end results of the knowledge distribution and segregation. Subsequently, the

generated results that consist of KM cases, knowledge content and knowledge assets

are used as input to “Develop Knowledge Organization” method for the development of

KM system structure.

Next, the required knowledge is captured into meaningful information via the following

1. The knowledge that are in the form of documents, reports, design, blueprints, models,

patterns, new rules, mathematics equations plan or formulate books, database and text are

known as explicit knowledge. This knowledge can be package, codified and transferred

easily. Besides, it can be also be communicated, shared and expressed easily with formal


2. Academia’s experience, skills, “know-how”, beliefs, values, perceptions and judgment or

opinion are categorized as tacit knowledge. This knowledge is considered personal to each

particular individual. Therefore, it is more difficult to transferred or shared, expressed and

communicated to the other party involved. As a result, the academia may face difficulties in

formalizing this type of knowledge into formal documents. Their ideas and experiences

may be captured in audio and graphic format for later used.

After that, all these knowledge are compiled to be used in decision making and problem


Subsequently, knowledge process, knowledge objects and knowledge systems that are

generated through the “Develop Knowledge Organization” method will be used as the

input for the proposed KM system known as “Knowledge Portal for Higher Learning

Institutions”. The knowledge that are stored in this Knowledge Portal will then be

distributed and shared globally within the academia in Higher Learning Institutions

through publishing its compiled knowledge to the Globalization Environment.


Alavi, Maryam; Leidner, Dorothy E. (1999). "Knowledge management systems: issues,

challenges, and benefits". Communications of the AIS 1 (2).
Alavi, Maryam; Leidner, Dorothy E. (2001). "Review: Knowledge Management and
Knowledge Management Systems: Conceptual Foundations and Research Issues". MIS
Quarterly 25 (1): 107–136.

T. M. Koulopoulos and C. Frappaolo, SmartThings to Know about Knowledge

Management (Dover,
NH: Capstone US, 1999); M. Polanyi, The Tacit Dimension (London: Routledge & K.
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About the author

The author Miss priti kadian is assisstant proffessor in a leading management college;ch
s.r. mba college in rohtak (haryana).she has experience in consulting , ,She focuses on
product, methodology, architecture,
and solutions development in enterprise Information and knowledge portals. She
also performs knowledge and knowledge management audits, training, and
facilitative systems planning, requirements capture, analysis, and design.