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- Proceedings-Vol 11 No 04-Jan-Feb-Mar-1977 (George Van Tassel)
- Quanta to Quarks
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- Physics of the XXth Century
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1, 2, 3 = straightforward, intermediate, experiment, 4.00-MeV alpha particles (4He

challenging nuclei containing 2 protons and 2 neutrons)

scatter off gold nuclei (containing 79

Section 42.1 Atomic Spectra of Gases protons and 118 neutrons). Assume that a

particular alpha particle makes a direct

1. (a) What value of ni is associated head-on collision with the gold nucleus and

with the 94.96-nm spectral line in the scatters backward at 180. Determine (a) the

Lyman series of hydrogen? (b) What If? distance of closest approach of the alpha

Could this wavelength be associated with particle to the gold nucleus, and (b) the

the Paschen or Balmer series? maximum force exerted on the alpha

particle. Assume that the gold nucleus

2. (a) Compute the shortest wavelength remains fixed throughout the entire

in each of these hydrogen spectral series: process.

Lyman, Balmer, Paschen, and Brackett. (b)

Compute the energy (in electron volts) of Section 42.3 Bohrs Model of the

the highest-energy photon produced in Hydrogen Atom

each series.

5. For a hydrogen atom in its ground

Section 42.2 Early Models of the Atom state, use the Bohr model to compute (a) the

orbital speed of the electron, (b) the kinetic

3. According to classical physics, a energy of the electron, and (c) the electric

charge e moving with an acceleration a potential energy of the atom.

radiates at a rate

6. Four possible transitions for a

dE 1 e a 2 2 hydrogen atom are as follows:

dt 6 0 c 3

(i) ni = 2; nf = 5 (ii) ni = 5; nf = 3

(a) Show that an electron in a classical (iii) ni = 7; nf = 4 (iv) ni = 4; nf = 7

hydrogen atom (see Fig. 42.6) spirals into

the nucleus at a rate (a) In which transition is light of the

shortest wavelength emitted? (b) In which

transition does the atom gain the most

dr e4

2 2 energy? (c) In which transition(s) does the

dt 12 2 0 r 2 me c 3

atom lose energy?

7. A hydrogen atom is in its first

electron will reach r = 0, starting from r0 =

excited state (n = 2). Using the Bohr theory

2.00 1010 m.

of the atom, calculate (a) the radius of the state. What is the wavelength of the

orbit, (b) the linear momentum of the incident beam?

electron, (c) the angular momentum of the

electron, (d) the kinetic energy of the 13. (a) Construct an energy-level

electron, (e) the potential energy of the diagram for the He+ ion, for which Z = 2. (b)

system, and (f) the total energy of the What is the ionization energy for He+?

system.

14. In a hot star, because of the high

8. How much energy is required to temperature, an atom can absorb sufficient

ionize hydrogen (a) when it is in the energy to remove several electrons from the

ground state? (b) when it is in the state for atom. Consider such a multiply ionized

which n = 3? atom with a single remaining electron. The

ion produces a series of spectral lines as

9. A photon is emitted as a hydrogen described by the Bohr model. The series

atom undergoes a transition from the n = 6 corresponds to electronic transitions that

state to the n = 2 state. Calculate (a) the terminate in the same final state. The

energy, (b) the wavelength, and (c) the longest and shortest wavelengths of the

frequency of the emitted photon. series are 63.3 nm and 22.8 nm,

respectively. (a) What is the ion? (b) Find

10. Show that the speed of the electron the wavelengths of the next three spectral

in the nth Bohr orbit in hydrogen is given lines nearest to the line of longest

by wavelength.

vn

n of the Moon due to its orbital motion about

the Earth. In your calculation, use 3.84 108

11. Two hydrogen atoms collide head-on m as the average EarthMoon distance and

and end up with zero kinetic energy. Each 2.36 106 s as the period of the Moon in its

atom then emits light with a wavelength of orbit. (b) Assume the Moons angular

121.6 nm (n = 2 to n = 1 transition). At what momentum is described by Bohrs

speed were the atoms moving before the assumption mvr = n. Determine the

collision? corresponding quantum number. (c) By

what fraction would the EarthMoon

12. A monochromatic beam of light is distance have to be increased to raise the

absorbed by a collection of ground-state quantum number by 1?

hydrogen atoms in such a way that six

different wavelengths are observed when Section 42.4 The Quantum Model of the

the hydrogen relaxes back to the ground Hydrogen Atom

16. A general expression for the energy r and the resulting total energy. Compare

levels of one-electron atoms and ions is your answer with the predictions of the

Bohr theory.

k e 2 q1 2 q 2 2

En

2 2 n 2 Section 42.5 The Wave Functions for

Hydrogen

where ke is the Coulomb constant, q1 and q2

are the charges of the electron and the 18. Plot the wave function 1s(r) (see Eq.

nucleus, and is the reduced mass, given 42.22) and the radial probability density

by = m1m2/(m1 + m2). The wavelength for function P1s(r) (see Eq. 42.25) for hydrogen.

the n = 3 to n = 2 transition of the hydrogen Let r range from 0 to 1.5a0, where a0 is the

atom is 656.3 nm (visible red light). What Bohr radius.

If? What are the wavelengths for this same

transition in (a) positronium, which consists 19. The ground-state wave function for

of an electron and a positron, and (b) singly the electron in a hydrogen atom is

ionized helium? (Note: A positron is a

positively charged electron.) 1

r e r / a0

3

a0

17. An electron of momentum p is at a

distance r from a stationary proton. The where r is the radial coordinate of the

electron has kinetic energy K = p2/2me . The electron and a0 is the Bohr radius. (a) Show

atom has potential energy U = kee2/r, and that the wave function as given is

total energy E = K + U. If the electron is normalized. (b) Find the probability of

bound to the proton to form a hydrogen locating the electron between r1 = a0/2 and r2

atom, its average position is at the proton, = 3a0/2.

but the uncertainty in its position is

approximately equal to the radius r of its 20. The wave function for an electron in

orbit. The electrons average vector the 2p state of hydrogen is

momentum is zero, but its average squared

momentum is approximately equal to the 1 r r / 2 a0

2p e

squared uncertainty in its momentum, as 3 2a 0

3/ 2

a0

given by the uncertainty principle. Treating

the atom as a one-dimensional system, (a) What is the most likely distance from the

estimate the uncertainty in the electrons nucleus to find an electron in the 2p state?

momentum in terms of r. (b) Estimate the

electrons kinetic, potential, and total

21. For a spherically symmetric state of a

energies in terms of r. (c) The actual value

hydrogen atom, the Schrdinger equation

of r is the one that minimizes the total energy,

in spherical coordinates is

resulting in a stable atom. Find that value of

2 d 2 2 d kee2 26. A hydrogen atom is in its fifth

E

2m dr 2 r dr r excited state, with principal quantum

number 6. The atom emits a photon with a

Show that the 1s wave function for an wavelength of 1 090 nm. Determine the

electron in hydrogen, maximum possible orbital angular

momentum of the electron after emission.

1

r e r / a0 27. How many sets of quantum numbers

3

a0

are possible for an electron for which (a) n =

1, (b) n = 2, (c) n = 3, (d) n = 4, and (e) n = 5?

satisfies the Schrdinger equation. Check your results to show that they agree

with the general rule that the number of

22. In an experiment, electrons are fired sets of quantum numbers for a shell is equal

at a sample of neutral hydrogen atoms and to 2n2.

observations are made of how the incident

particles scatter. A large set of trials can be 28. Find all possible values of L, Lz, and

thought of as containing 1 000 observations for an electron in a 3d state of hydrogen.

of the electron in the ground state of a

hydrogen atom being momentarily at a 29. (a) Find the mass density of a proton,

distance a0/2 from the nucleus. How many modeling it as a solid sphere of radius 1.00

times is the atomic electron observed at a 1015 m. (b) What If? Consider a classical

distance 2a0 from the nucleus in this set of model of an electron as a solid sphere with

trials? the same density as the proton. Find its

radius. (c) Imagine that this electron

Section 42.6 Physical Interpretation of the possesses spin angular momentum I = /2

Quantum Numbers because of classical rotation about the z

axis. Determine the speed of a point on the

23. List the possible sets of quantum equator of the electron and (d) compare this

numbers for electrons in (a) the 3d subshell speed to the speed of light.

and (b) the 3p subshell.

30. An electron is in the N shell.

24. Calculate the angular momentum for Determine the maximum value the z

an electron in (a) the 4d state and (b) the 6f component of its angular momentum could

state. have.

25. If an electron has orbital angular 31. The -meson has a charge of e, a

momentum equal to 4.714 1034 J s, what spin quantum number of 1, and a mass

is the orbital quantum number for the state 1 507 times that of the electron. What If?

of the electron? Imagine that the electrons in atoms were

replaced by -mesons. List the possible sets 37. (a) Scanning through Table 42.4 in

of quantum numbers for -mesons in the 3d order of increasing atomic number, note

subshell. that the electrons fill the subshells in such a

way that those subshells with the lowest

Section 42.7 The Exclusion Principle and values of n + are filled first. If two

the Periodic Table subshells have the same value of n + , the

one with the lower value of n is filled first.

32. (a) Write out the electronic Using these two rules, write the order in

configuration for the ground state of which the subshells are filled through n +

oxygen (Z = 8). (b) Write out a set of = 7. (b) Predict the chemical valence for the

possible values for the quantum numbers n, elements that have atomic numbers 15, 47,

, m , and ms for each electron in oxygen. and 86, and compare your predictions with

the actual valences (which may be found in

33. As we go down the periodic table, a chemistry text).

which subshell is filled first, the 3d or the 4s

subshell? Which electronic configuration 38. For a neutral atom of element 110,

has a lower energy: [Ar]3d44s2 or [Ar]3d54s1? what would be the probable ground-state

Which has the greater number of unpaired electronic configuration?

spins? Identify this element and discuss

Hunds rule in this case. (Note: The notation 39. Review problem. For an electron

[Ar] represents the filled configuration for with magnetic moment S in a magnetic

argon.) field B, Section 29.3 showed the following.

The electron can be in a higher energy state

34. Devise a table similar to that shown with the z component of its magnetic

in Figure 42.19 for atoms containing 11 moment opposite to the field, or in a lower

through 19 electrons. Use Hunds rule and energy state with the z component of its

educated guesswork. magnetic moment in the direction of the

field. The difference in energy between the

35. A certain element has its outermost two states is 2BB. Under high resolution,

electron in a 3p state. It has valence +3, since many spectral lines are observed to be

it has 3 more electrons than a certain noble doublets. The most famous of these are the

gas. What element is it? two yellow lines in the spectrum of sodium

(the D lines), with wavelengths of 588.995

36. Two electrons in the same atom both nm and 589.592 nm. Their existence was

have n = 3 and = 1. (a) List the quantum explained in 1925 by Goudsmit and

numbers for the possible states of the atom. Uhlenbeck, who postulated that an electron

(b) What If? How many states would be has intrinsic spin angular momentum.

possible if the exclusion principle were When the sodium atom is excited with its

inoperative? outermost electron in a 3p state, the orbital

motion of the outermost electron creates a 44. The K series of the discrete x-ray

magnetic field. The atoms energy is spectrum of tungsten contains wavelengths

somewhat different depending on whether of 0.018 5 nm, 0.020 9 nm, and 0.021 5 nm.

the electron is itself spin-up or spin-down The K-shell ionization energy is 69.5 keV.

in this field. Then the photon energy the Determine the ionization energies of the L,

atom radiates as it falls back into its ground M, and N shells. Draw a diagram of the

state depends on the energy of the excited transitions.

state. Calculate the magnitude of the

internal magnetic field mediating this so- 45. The wavelength of characteristic x-

called spin-orbit coupling. rays in the K line is 0.152 nm. Determine

the material in the target.

Section 42.8 More on Atomic Spectra:

Visible and X-Ray Section 42.9 Spontaneous and Stimulated

Transitions

40. (a) Determine the possible values of Section 42.10 Lasers

the quantum numbers and m for the He+

ion in the state corresponding to n = 3. (b) 46. Figure P42.46 shows portions of the

What is the energy of this state? energy-level diagrams of the helium and

neon atoms. An electrical discharge excites

41. If you wish to produce 10.0-nm x- the He atom from its ground state to its

rays in the laboratory, what is the excited state of 20.61 eV. The excited He

minimum voltage you must use in atom collides with a Ne atom in its ground

accelerating the electrons? state and excites this atom to the state at

20.66 eV. Lasing action takes place for

42. In x-ray production, electrons are electron transitions from E3* to E2 in the Ne

accelerated through a high voltage V and atoms. From the data in the figure, show

then decelerated by striking a target. Show that the wavelength of the red HeNe laser

that the shortest wavelength of an x-ray light is approximately 633 nm.

that can be produced is

1240 nm V

min

V

Example 42.9 to calculate the wavelength of

the x-ray emitted from a molybdenum

target (Z = 42) when an electron moves

from the L shell (n = 2) to the K shell (n = 1). Figure P42.46

47. The carbon dioxide laser is one of the in thermal equilibrium at 27.0C. Find the

most powerful developed. The energy equilibrium ratio of the populations of the

difference between the two laser levels is states E3* and E2 shown in Figure 42.28.

0.117 eV. Determine the frequency and Lasers operate by a clever artificial

wavelength of the radiation emitted by this production of a population inversion

laser. In what portion of the between the upper and lower atomic

electromagnetic spectrum is this radiation? energy states involved in the lasing

transition. This means that more atoms are

48. A Nd:YAG laser used in eye surgery in the upper excited state then in the lower

emits a 3.00-mJ pulse in 1.00 ns, focused to one. Consider the heliumneon laser

a spot 30.0 m in diameter on the retina. (a) transition at 632.8 nm. Assume that 2%

Find (in SI units) the power per unit area at more atoms occur in the upper state than in

the retina. (This quantity is called the the lower. (b) To demonstrate how

irradiance in the optics industry.) (b) What unnatural such a situation is, find the

energy is delivered to an area of molecular temperature for which the Boltzmann

size, taken as a circular area 0.600 nm in distribution describes a 2.00% population

diameter? inversion. (c) Why does such a situation not

occur naturally?

49. A ruby laser delivers a 10.0-ns pulse

of 1.00 MW average power. If the photons 51. Review problem. A heliumneon

have a wavelength of 694.3 nm, how many laser can produce a green laser beam

are contained in the pulse? instead of red. Refer to Figure 42.28, which

omits some energy levels between E2 and

50. The number N of atoms in a E1. After a population inversion is

particular state is called the population of established, neon atoms will make a variety

that state. This number depends on the of downward transitions in falling from the

energy of that state and the temperature. In state labeled E3* down eventually to level

thermal equilibrium the population of E1. The atoms will emit both red light with

atoms in a state of energy En is given by a a wavelength of 632.8 nm and also green

Boltzmann distribution expression light with a wavelength of 543 nm in a

competing transition. Assume the atoms are

in a cavity between mirrors designed to

reflect the green light with high efficiency

but to allow the red light to leave the cavity

where T is the absolute temperature and Ng immediately. Then stimulated emission can

is the population of the ground state, of lead to the buildup of a collimated beam of

energy Eg. For simplicity, we assume that green light between the mirrors having a

each energy level has only one quantum greater intensity than does the red light. A

state associated with it. (a) Before the power small fraction of the green light is permitted

is switched on, the neon atoms in a laser are to escape by transmission through one

mirror, to constitute the radiated laser quantum limit of the cyclotron. Landau

beam. The mirrors forming the resonant proved that its energy is quantized in

cavity can be made of layers of silicon uniform steps of eB/me. HARVARD, 1999

dioxide and titanium dioxide. (a) How Gerald Gabrielse traps a single electron in

thick a layer of silicon dioxide, between an evacuated centimeter-size metal can

layers of titanium dioxide, would minimize cooled to a temperature of 80 mK. In a

reflection of the red light? (b) What should magnetic field of magnitude 5.26 T, the

be the thickness of a similar but separate electron circulates for hours in its lowest

layer of silicon dioxide to maximize energy level, generating a measurable

reflection of the green light? signal as it moves. (a) Evaluate the size of a

quantum jump in the electrons energy. (b)

Additional Problems For comparison, evaluate kBT as a measure

of the energy available to the electron in

52. As the Earth moves around the Sun, blackbody radiation from the walls of its

its orbits are quantized. (a) Follow the steps container. (c) Microwave radiation can be

of Bohrs analysis of the hydrogen atom to introduced to excite the electron. Calculate

show that the allowed radii of the Earths the frequency and wavelength of the

orbit are given by photon that the electron absorbs as it jumps

to its second energy level. Measurement of

n 2 2 the resonant absorption frequency verifies

r

GM S M E

2

the theory and permits precise

determination of properties of the electron.

where MS is the mass of the Sun, ME is the

mass of the Earth, and n is an integer 54. Example 42.4 calculates the most

quantum number. (b) Calculate the probable value and the average value for

numerical value of n. (c) Find the distance the radial coordinate r of the electron in the

between the orbit for quantum number n ground state of a hydrogen atom. What If?

and the next orbit out from the Sun For comparison with these modal and mean

corresponding to the quantum number n + values, find the median value of r. Proceed

1. Discuss the significance of your results. as follows. (a) Derive an expression for the

probability, as a function of r, that the

53. LENINGRAD, 1930Four years electron in the ground state of hydrogen

after publication of the Schrdinger will be found outside a sphere of radius r

equation, Lev Davidovich Landau, age 23, centered on the nucleus. (b) Make a graph

solved the equation for a charged particle of the probability as a function of r/a0.

moving in a uniform magnetic field. A Choose values of r/a0 ranging from 0 to 4.00

single electron moving perpendicular to a in steps of 0.250. (c) Find the value of r for

field B can be considered as a model atom which the probability of finding the

without a nucleus, or as the irreducible electron outside a sphere of radius r is

equal to the probability of finding the

electron inside this sphere. You must solve frequency, note that the frequency of

a transcendental equation numerically, and revolution is v/2r, where r is given by Eq.

your graph is a good starting point. 42.10.)

55. The positron is the antiparticle to the 58. Astronomers observe a series of

electron. It has the same mass and a spectral lines in the light from a distant

positive electric charge of the same galaxy. On the hypothesis that the lines

magnitude as that of the electron. form the Lyman series for a (new?) one-

Positronium is a hydrogen-like atom electron atom, they start to construct the

consisting of a positron and an electron energy-level diagram shown in Figure

revolving around each other. Using the P42.58, which gives the wavelengths of the

Bohr model, find the allowed distances first four lines and the short-wavelength

between the two particles and the allowed limit of this series. Based on this

energies of the system. information, calculate (a) the energies of the

ground state and first four excited states for

56. Review problem. (a) How much this one-electron atom, and (b) the

energy is required to cause an electron in wavelengths of the first three lines and the

hydrogen to move from the n = 1 state to shortwavelength limit in the Balmer series

the n = 2 state? (b) Suppose the electron for this atom. (c) Show that the wavelengths

gains this energy through collisions among of the first four lines and the short

hydrogen atoms at a high temperature. At wavelength limit of the Lyman series for

what temperature would the average the hydrogen atom are all 60.0% of the

atomic kinetic energy 3kBT/2, where kB is the wavelengths for the Lyman series in the

Boltzmann constant, be great enough to one-electron atom described in part (b). (d)

excite the electron? Based on this observation, explain why this

atom could be hydrogen.

57. An example of the correspondence

principle. Use Bohrs model of the hydrogen

atom to show that when the electron moves

from the state n to the state n 1, the

frequency of the emitted light is

2 2 me k e 2 e 4 2n 1

f 3 2

n 1 2

h n

as 1/n3 and reduces to the classical

frequency one expects the atom to emit.

(Suggestion: To calculate the classical

of the pulse as it travels through space and

(b) the number of photons in it. (c) The

beam has a circular cross section of

diameter 0.600 cm. Find the number of

photons per cubic millimeter.

wavelength . For a pulse of duration t

having energy E, find (a) the physical

length of the pulse as it travels through

space and (b) the number of photons in it.

(c) The beam has a circular cross section

having diameter d. Find the number of

photons per unit volume.

Figure P42.58

63. Assume that three identical

59. Suppose a hydrogen atom is in the uncharged particles of mass m and spin 1/2

2s state, with its wave function given by are contained in a one-dimensional box of

Equation 42.26. Taking r = a0, calculate length L. What is the ground-state energy of

values for (a) 2s(a0), (b) 2 s a 0

2

, and (c) this system?

P2s(a0).

64. The force on a magnetic moment z

in a nonuniform magnetic field Bz is given

60. The states of matter are solid, liquid,

by Fz = z(dBz/dz). If a beam of silver atoms

gas, and plasma. Plasma can be described

travels a horizontal distance of 1.00 m

as a gas of charged particles, or a gas of

through such a field and each atom has a

ionized atoms. Most of the matter in the

speed of 100 m/s, how strong must be the

Solar System is plasma (throughout the

field gradient dBz/dz in order to deflect the

interior of the Sun). In fact, most of the

beam 1.00 mm?

matter in the Universe is plasma; so is a

candle flame. Use the information in Figure

65. (a) Show that the most probable

42.20 to make an order-of-magnitude

radial position for an electron in the 2s state

estimate for the temperature to which a

of hydrogen is r = 5.236a0. (b) Show that the

typical chemical element must be raised to

wave function given by Equation 42.26 is

turn into plasma by ionizing most of the

normalized.

atoms in a sample. Explain your reasoning.

61. A pulsed ruby laser emits light at

atom is 4.10 eV. In the spectrum of this

694.3 nm. For a 14.0-ps pulse containing

same atom, we observe emission lines with

3.00 J of energy, find (a) the physical length

wavelengths 310 nm, 400 nm, and 1 377.8 associated uncertainty in energy of the

nm. Use this information to construct the excited energy level.

energy-level diagram with the fewest levels.

Assume that the higher levels are closer 69. For hydrogen in the 1s state, what is

together. the probability of finding the electron

farther than 2.50a0 from the nucleus?

67. An electron in chromium moves

from the n = 2 state to the n = 1 state 70. All atoms have the same size, to an

without emitting a photon. Instead, the order of magnitude. (a) To show this,

excess energy is transferred to an outer estimate the diameters for aluminum (with

electron (one in the n = 4 state), which is molar mass 27.0 g/mol and density 2.70

then ejected by the atom. (This is called an g/cm3) and uranium (molar mass 238 g/mol

Auger [pronounced ohjay] process, and and density 18.9 g/cm3). (b) What do the

the ejected electron is referred to as an results imply about the wave functions for

Auger electron.) Use the Bohr theory to find inner-shell electrons as we progress to

the kinetic energy of the Auger electron. higher and higher atomic mass atoms?

(Suggestion: The molar volume is

68. In interstellar space, atomic approximately D3NA, where D is the atomic

hydrogen produces the sharp spectral line diameter and NA is Avogadros number.)

called the 21-cm radiation, which

astronomers find most helpful in detecting 71. In the technique known as electron

clouds of hydrogen between stars. This spin resonance (ESR), a sample containing

radiation is useful because it is the only unpaired electrons is placed in a magnetic

signal cold hydrogen emits and because field. Consider the simplest situation, in

interstellar dust that obscures visible light which only one electron is present and

is transparent to these radio waves. The therefore only two energy states are

radiation is not generated by an electron possible, corresponding to ms = . In ESR,

transition between energy states the absorption of a photon causes the

characterized by different values of n. electrons spin magnetic moment to flip

Instead, in the ground state (n = 1), the from the lower energy state to the higher

electron and proton spins may be parallel energy state. According to Section 29.3, the

or antiparallel, with a resultant slight change in energy is 2BB. (The lower energy

difference in these energy states. (a) Which state corresponds to the case where the z

condition has the higher energy? (b) More component of the magnetic moment spin is

precisely, the line has wavelength 21.11 cm. aligned with the magnetic field, and the

What is the energy difference between the higher energy state is the case where the z

states? (c) The average lifetime in the component of spin is aligned opposite to the

excited state is about 107 yr. Calculate the field.) What is the photon frequency

required to excite an ESR transition in a the ground state immediately absorbs a

0.350-T magnetic field? photon. Total system momentum is

conserved in the absorption process. After a

72. Show that the wave function for an lifetime on the order of 108 s, the excited

electron in the 2s state in hydrogen atom radiates by spontaneous emission. It

has an equal probability of emitting a

1 1

3/ 2

r photon in any direction. Thus, the average

2s r 2 e r / 2 a0 recoil of the atom is zero over many

4 2 a 0 a0

absorption and emission cycles. (a)

Estimate the average deceleration of the

satisfies the spherically symmetric

atomic beam. (b) What is the order of

Schrdinger equation given in Problem 21.

magnitude of the distance over which the

atoms in the beam will be brought to a halt?

73. Review problem. Steven Chu,

Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, and William

74. Find the average (expectation) value

Phillips received the 1997 Nobel Prize in

of 1/r in the 1s state of hydrogen. It is given

physics for the development of methods to

by

cool and trap atoms with laser light. One

part of their work was with a beam of

1 / r dV P r 1 / r 4

2

atoms (mass ~1025 kg) that move at a speed 1/ r

0

all space

on the order of 1 km/s, similar to the speed

of molecules in air at room temperature. An

Is the result equal to the inverse of the

intense laser light beam tuned to a visible

average value of r?

atomic transition (assume 500 nm) is

directed straight into the atomic beam. That

is, the atomic beam and light beam are

traveling in opposite directions. An atom in

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