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Examples

Validation of Water Samples

Problem. How to validate a water sample (charge balance and other parameters)?

Problem. What is the equilibrium composition and alkalinity of a water sample with
incomplete analytical data?

Problem. What is the optimal parameter (cation or anion) for charge balance adjustment?

The Carbonate System

Problem. What are the equivalence points of the following three solutions: (i) 0.001 molar
H2CO3, (ii) 0.001 molar NaHCO3, and (iii) 0.001 molar Na2CO3?

Problem. Carbonate Species vs. pH Closed System

Problem. Carbonate Species vs. pH Open System

Problem. Calcite Carbonate System

pH Calculations

Problem. What is the pH of a given phosphate buffer before/after addition of NaOH and
HCl?

Problem. Given is a 0.001 molar NH4Cl solution. What is the pH after addition of 0.2 mmol
NH3?

Problem. What is the pH of an acid rain sample?

Problem. What is the pH of an extremely diluted acid (10-8 M HCl)?

Problem. How the pH changes when a given NaOH solution is in (long-term) contact with the
atmosphere? How much CO2 will be absorbed?

Acids and Bases

Problem. What is the pH and bisulfate concentration of 1.2 mM sulfuric acid?


Problem. Addition of 0.2 mM HCl to a given water sample.

Problem. Strong acids (HCl, HNO3, H2SO4) without and with ionic activity corrections.

Problem. Phosphoric acid as a polyprotic acid.

Problem. Phosphoric acid and Sodium Phosphates.

Problem. Calculate the pH value for all acids given here for three different concentrations (1,
10, and 100 mM).

Dilution and Mixing

Problem. 40 mL of 2.5 molar H2SO4 solution will be diluted to 2 L. What is the pH of the
diluted solution?

Problem. 100 mL of 0.01 molar HCl and 50 mL of 0.05 molar NaCl are mixed. What is the pH
of the final solution?

Titration

Problem. Titration of HCl with NaOH.

Problem. Carbonate Species vs. pH Closed System

Problem. Carbonate Species vs. pH Open System

Dosage / Addition of Chemicals

Problem. Given is a groundwater with pH 6.9. How much HNO3 and how much H2SO4 are
needed to obtain pH 3?

Problem. Given is a water sample with pH 7.9. What is the pH after addition of 0.3 mM KOH?
What is the impact of calcite precipitation?

Mineral Phases

Problem. Dissolution of Calcite in a closed and in an open CO2 system

Problem. Dissolution of Gypsum

Environmental Chemistry
Problem. Given is pH and total ammonia. What is the NH3 concentration (which is toxic to
fish)?

Problem. What is the chemical composition of pristine rainwater?

Problem. What is the pH of a given acid rain sample?