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Jars provide a means of supplying powerful upward or downward blows to the stuck

A jar is a mandrel which slides within a sleeve. The free end of the mandrel is shaped in
the form of a hammer to provide a striking action against the face of the anvil.

Depending on the type of tripping mechanism, there are two basic types of jar: mechanical and
hydraulic.Mechanical jars have a preset load that causes the jar to trip; hammer striking the
anvil. They are thus sensitive to load being used and not to time.Mechanical jars are pre-set at

Hydraulic jars use a hydraulic fluid to control the firing of the jar until the driller can apply the
appropriate load to the string to give a high impact. This controlled action (delay) is provided by
hydraulic fluid which is forced through a small port or series of jets. Hydraulic jar firing delay is
dependent upon the combination of load and time. Hence hydraulic jars are adjustable according to
downhole overpull.

Oil jars: provide means for applying upward blows to release a stuck pipe.

Accelerators: store energy above the drillcollars in order to increase the impact efficiency of oil jar.

Bumper jars: provide free travel to assist in engaging the fish and to allow downward blows to be
transmitted to the fish.and for releasing overshots downhole and at surface.

In general, an increase in jar stroke length increases the jarring effect. With these obvious
advantages, a long stroke hydraulic jar is preferable to a mechanical jar.

Two phenomena have to be considered when jarring. These are the impact force and the impulse of
the jarring action. The impact force must be high enough to break the binding force causing the
pipe to stick. The impact force must also act long enough to move the pipe this is what is termed
the impulse. Both forces are influenced by the number of drill collars located above the jar.

The smaller the quantity of drill collars, the higher the impact force. Conversely the larger the
number of drill collars the greater the impulse force. A compromise has to be reached where both
impact and impulse are working together to free the pipe.

The jars should be run in tension wherever possible. This is mandatory for mechanical jars.

For hydraulic manufacturers state that they can be run in compression however this is not advisable
as inadvertent cocking of the jar is possible with applied WOB.

For vertical wells the amount of drill collars to be run below the jar should be the sufficient to allow
the required bit weight and place the neutral point at least 30 feet away from the jar.

The drill collars run above the jar should be the same as those run below. The jarring efficiency is
significantly reduced if HWDP is run immediately on top of the jar. If differential sticking is
considered a possibility, use reduced OD drill collars above the jar prior to the HWDP. i.e. if 8 collars
are run beneath the jar, 6collars may be run above the jar prior to the HWDP. The use of DCs
above increases the impulse of the jar compared to the use of HWDP.

The amount of drill collars to be run above the jar will depend upon several factors depending on
the type of jar run.

For mechanical jars the weight of DC and HWDP above the jar should be sufficient to allow
cocking of the jar. Mechanical jars are pre-set at surface, the required weight to cock the jar should
be less than or equal to the buoyed weight of drill collars and HWDP above the jar.
For double acting hydraulic jars, the buoyed weight above the jar should be equal to or exceed
the maximum anticipated down jar force. (The force of downward blows can be adjusted by
increasing the down weight prior to activation of the jar). As a general rule 3 to 4 drill collars should
be run above the jar. This will ensure that sufficient weight is available to cock the jar and allow
sufficient down weight to be used for effective down-jarring.

For highly deviated and horizontal wells it is recommended that the jars are not placed in the
horizontal or maximum inclination section. This can be achieved by running a longer than normal
string of HWDP to ensure the jars are placed in the tangent section where possible. The frictional
drag in horizontal sections severely reduced both impact and impulse of the jar. n addition the jars
become difficult to cock and trip. Placement of the jars in the horizontal section is therefore
considered to have minimal benefit.