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INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT

(JUNE JULY 2017)

STEAM TURBINE MANUFACTURING


at B.H.E.L., Haridwar

Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements

Of the degree of

Bachelor of Technology

In

Mechanical Engineering

By

( DIVYANK KUMAR )
(1408240060)

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Certificate

This is to certify that this project report STEAM TURBINE MANUFACTURING


submitted for the partial fulfillment for the degree of bachelor of technology of
AKTU,Lucknow in subject of the summer training report, is the bona fide research project
carried out by Divyank Kumar, student of Moradabad Institute Of Technology under my
supervision.

The matter collected by him in the preparation and development of this seminar report is a
sole work of his intensive hard work and research.

Mr. Shatrughan Sharma


( Training Officer,BHEL Haridwar )

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

An engineer with only theoretical knowledge is not a complete Engineer. Practical knowledge is
very important to develop and apply engineering skills.
It gives me a great pleasure to have an opportunity to acknowledge and to express gratitude to
those who were associated with me during my training at BHEL.
I am very grateful to Mr. SHATRUGHAN SHARMA for providing me with an opportunity to
undergo training under his able guidance. Last, but not the least, I would also like to acknowledge
the support of my college friends, who pursued their training with me. We shared some
unforgettable moments together.
I express my sincere thanks and gratitude to BHEL authorities for allowing me to undergo the
training in this prestigious organization.
I will always remain indebted to them for their constant interest and excellent guidance in my
training work, moreover for providing me with an opportunity to work and gain experience.

THANK YOU

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ABSTRACT

In the era of Mechanical Engineering, Turbine, A Prime Mover ( Which uses the Raw Energy
of a substance and converts it to Mechanical Energy) is a well known Machine most useful
in the the field of Power Generation. This Mechanical energy is used in running an Electric
Generator which is directly coupled to the shaft of turbine. From this Electric Generator, we
get electric Power which can be transmitted over long distances by means of transmission
lines and transmission towers.
In my Industrial Training in B.H.E.L., Haridwar I go through all sections in Turbine
Manufacturing. First management team told me about the history of industry, Area, Capacity,
Machines installed & Facilities in the Industry.After that they told about the Steam Turbine
its types , parts like Blades, Casing, Rotor etc. Then they told full explanation of
constructional features and procedure along with equipement used. Before telling about the
machines used in Manufacturing of Blade, they told about the safety precautions, Step by
Step arrangement of machines in the block with a well defined proper format. They also told
the material of blade for a particular desire, types of Blades, Operations performed on Blades,
their New Blade Shop less with Advance Technology like CNC Shaping Machine.
I would like to express my deep sense of Gratitude and thanks to
MR.SHATRUGHAN SHARMA in charge of training in Turbine Block in B.H.E.L.,
Haridwar. Without the wise counsel and able guidance, it would have been impossible to
complete the report in this manner. Finally, I am indebted to all who so ever have contributed
in this report and friendly stay at Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL).

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION
OVERVIEW
BHEL UNITS
BHEL HARIDWAR
STEAM TURBINE
INTRODUCTION
ADVANTAGES
DISADVANTAGES
TYPES OF STEAM TURBINE
ACCORDING TO THE ACTION OF STEAM
ACCORDING TO THE STEAM CONDITIONS AT INLET TO TURBINE
TURBINE PARTS
TURBINE BLADES
TURBINE CASING
TURBINE ROTORS
CONSTRUCTIONAL FEATURES OF A BLADE
H.P. BLADE PROFILES
CLASSIFICATION OF PROFILES
DYNAMICS IN BLADE
MANUFACTURING PROCESS
PRIMARY SHAPING PROCESSES
SECONDARY OR MACHINING PROCESSES
BALANCING PROCEDURE FOR THE ROTORS
BRIEF LAYOUT OF THE ROTORS
ASSEMBLY OF ROTORS
PREPARATION FOR BALANCING OF ROTOR
Evaluation of Unbalance
CONCLUSION

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INTRODUCTION

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) majority-owned and founded by the Government of India, is
an engineering and manufacturing company based in New Delhi, India. Established in 1964, BHEL is
India's largest power plant equipment manufacturer. The company has been earning profits continuously
since 1971-72.

It has been granted the prestigious Maharatna (big gem) status in 2013 by Govt of India for its
outstanding performance and vast scale. The elite list of Maharatna companies contains a total of 7
behemoth Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs) of India. Maharatna status affords the Boards of these
companies enhanced financial and operational autonomy.

BHEL is engaged in the design, engineering, manufacturing, construction, testing, commissioning


and servicing of a wide range of products, systems and services for the core sectors of the economy, viz.
power, transmission, industry, transportation, renewable energy, oil & gas and defence.

It has a network of 17 manufacturing units, 2 repair units, 4 regional offices, 8 service centres, 8
overseas offices, 15 regional centres, 7 joint ventures, and infrastructure allowing it to execute more than
150 projects at sites across India and abroad. The company has established the capability to deliver 20,000
MW p.a. of power equipment to address the growing demand for power generation equipment.

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OVERVIEW

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (B.H.E.L.) is the largest engineering and manufacturing
enterprise in India. BHEL caters to core sectors of the Indian Economy viz., Power
Generation's & Transmission, Industry, Transportation, Telecommunication, Renewable
Energy, Defense and many more.
BHEL is one of the only 7 Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs) of India clubbed under the
esteemed 'Maharatna' status. On 1st February 2013, the Government of india granted
Maharatna status to BHEL.
BHEL has its setup spread all over India namely New Delhi, Gurgaon, Haridwar, Rudrapur,
Jhansi, Bhopal, Hyderabad, Jagdishpur , Tiruchirapalli, Bangalore and many more.
Over 65% of power generated in India comes from BHEL-supplied equipment.Overall it has
installed power equipment for over 90,000 MW.
During the year 2012-13, the company invested about Rs. 1,252 Crore on R&D efforts, which
corresponds to nearly 2.50% of the turnover of the company, focusing on new product and
system developments and improvements in existing products for cost competitiveness, higher
reliability, efficiency, availability and quality etc.
BHEL has already attained ISO 9000 certification for quality management, and ISO 14001
certification for environment management.
It has a network of 17 manufacturing units, 2 repair units, 4 regional offices, 8 service
centres, 8 overseas offices, 15 regional centres, 7 joint ventures, and infrastructure allowing it
to execute more than 150 projects at sites across India and abroad.

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BHEL UNITS

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BHEL HARIDWAR

1. LOCATION

It is situated in the foot hills of Shivalik range in Haridwar. The main administrative building
is at a distance of about 8 km from Haridwar.

2. ADDRESS

Bharat Heavy Electrical Limited (BHEL)


Ranipur, Haridwar PIN - 249403

3. AREA

BHEL Haridwar consists of two manufacturing units, namely Heavy Electrical Equipment
Plant( HEEP) and Central Foundry Forge Plant (CFFP), having area

HEEP area:- 8.45 sq km


CFFP area:- 1.0 sq km

The Heavy Electricals Equipment Plant (HEEP) located in Haridwar, is one of the major
manufacturing plants of BHEL. The core business of HEEP includes design and manufacture
of large steam and gas turbines, turbo generators, hydro turbines and generators, large
AC/DC motors and so on.

Central Foundry Forge Plant (CFFP) is engaged in manufacture of Steel Castings:Up to 50


Tons per Piece Wt & Steel Forgings: Up to 55 Tons per Piece Wt.

4. UNITS

There are two units in BHEL Haridwar as followed:

1) Heavy Electrical Equipment Plant (HEEP)

2) Central Foundry Forge Plant (CFFP)

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STEAM TURBINE

2.1 INTRODUCTION
A turbine is a device that converts chemical energy into mechanical energy, specifically when
a rotor of multiple blades or vanes is driven by the movement of a fluid or gas. In the case of
a steam turbine, the pressure and flow of newly condensed steam rapidly turns the rotor. This
movement is possible because the water to steam conversion results in a rapidly expanding
gas.
As the turbines rotor turns, the rotating shaft can work to accomplish numerous applications,
often electricity generation.

In a steam turbine, the steams energy is extracted through the turbine and the steam leaves
the turbine at a lower energy state. High pressure and temperature fluid at the inlet of the
turbine exit as lower pressure and temperature fluid. The difference is energy converted by
the turbine to mechanical rotational energy, less any aerodynamic and mechanical
inefficiencies incurred in the process. Since the fluid is at a lower pressure at the exit of the
turbine than at the inlet, it is common to say the fluid has been expanded across the turbine.
Because of the expanding flow, higher volumetric flow occurs at the turbine exit (at least for
compressible fluids) leading to the need for larger turbine exit areas than at the inlet.

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The generic symbol for a turbine used in a flow diagram is shown in Figure below. The
symbol diverges with a larger area at the exit than at the inlet. This is how one can tell a
turbine symbol from a compressor symbol. In Figure, the graphic is colored to indicate the
general trend of temperature drop through a turbine. In a turbine with a high inlet pressure,
the turbine blades convert this pressure energy into velocity or kinetic energy, which causes
the blades to rotate.
Many green cycles use a turbine in this fashion, although the inlet conditions may not be the
same as for a conventional high pressure and temperature steam turbine. Bottoming cycles,
for instance, extract fluid energy that is at a lower pressure and temperature than a turbine in
a conventional power plant. A bottoming cycle might be used to extract energy from the
exhaust gases of a large diesel engine, but the fluid in a bottoming cycle still has sufficient
energy to be extracted across a turbine, with the energy converted into rotational energy.

Flow Diagram Of A Steam Turbine


Turbines also extract energy in fluid flow where the pressure is not high but where the fluid
has sufficient fluid kinetic energy. The classic example is a wind turbine, which converts the
winds kinetic energy to rotational energy. This type of kinetic energy conversion is common
in green energy cycles for applications ranging from larger wind turbines to smaller
hydrokinetic turbines currently being designed for and demonstrated in river and tidal
applications. Turbines can be designed to work well in a variety of fluids, including gases and
liquids, where they are used not only to drive generators, but also to drive compressors or
pumps.
One common (and somewhat misleading) use of the word turbine is gas turbine, as in a
gas turbine engine. A gas turbine engine is more than just a turbine and typically includes a

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compressor, combustor and turbine combined to be a self-contained unit used to provide shaft
or thrust power. The turbine component inside the gas turbine still provides power, but a
compressor and combustor are required to make a self-contained system that needs only the
fuel to burn in the combustor.
An additional use for turbines in industrial applications that may also be applicable in some
green energy systems is to cool a fluid. As previously mentioned, when a turbine extracts
energy from a fluid, the fluid temperature is reduced. Some industries, such as the gas
processing industry, use turbines as sources of refrigeration, dropping the temperature of the
gas going through the turbine. In other words, the primary purpose of the turbine is to reduce
the temperature of the working fluid as opposed to providing power. Generally speaking, the
higher the pressure ratio across a turbine, the greater the expansion and the greater the
temperature drop.
Even where turbines are used to cool fluids, the turbines still produce power and must be
connected to a power absorbing device that is part of an overall system.
Also note that turbines in high inlet-pressure applications are sometimes called expanders.
The terms turbine and expander can be used interchangeably for most applications, but
expander is not used when referring to kinetic energy applications, as the fluid does not go
through significant expansion.

2.2. ADVANTAGES:-
Ability to utilize high pressure and high temperature steam.
High efficiency.
High rotational speed.
High capacity/weight ratio.
Smooth, nearly vibration-free operation.
No internal lubrication.
Oil free exhausts steam.

2.3 DISADVANTAGES:-
For slow speed application reduction gears are required. The steam turbine cannot be made
reversible. The efficiency of small simple steam turbines is poor.

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TYPES OF STEAM TURBINE

ACCORDING TO THE ACTION OF STEAM :


There are complicated methods to properly harness steam power that give rise to the two
primary turbine designs: impulse and reaction turbines. These different designs engage the
steam in a different method so as to turn the rotor.

3.1 IMPULSE TURBINE


The principle of the impulse steam turbine consists of a casing containing stationary steam
nozzles and a rotor with moving or rotating buckets. The steam passes through the stationary
nozzles and is directed at high velocity against rotor buckets causing the rotor to rotate at
high speed. The following events take place in the nozzles:
1. The steam pressure decreases.
2. The enthalpy of the steam decreases.
3. The steam velocity increases.
4. The volume of the steam increases.
5. There is a conversion of heat energy to kinetic energy as the heat energy from the decrease
in steam enthalpy is converted into kinetic energy by the increased steam velocity.

3.2 THE IMPULSE PRINCIPLE


If steam at high pressure is allowed to expand through stationary nozzles, the result will be a
drop in the steam pressure and an increase in steam velocity. In fact, the steam will issue
from the nozzle in the form of a high-speed jet. If this high steam is applied to a properly
shaped turbine blade, it will change in direction due to the shape of the blade. The effect of
this change in direction of the steam flow will be to produce an impulse force, on the blade
causing it to move. If the blade is attached to the rotor of a turbine, then the rotor will
revolve. Force applied to the blade is developed by causing the steam to change direction of
flow (Newtons 2nd Law change of momentum). The change of momentum produces the
impulse force. The fact that the pressure does not drop across the moving blades is the
distinguishing feature of the impulse turbine. The pressure at the inlet to the moving blades is
the same as the pressure at the outlet from the moving blades.

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3.4 Reaction Turbines

In the reaction turbine, the rotor blades themselves are arranged to form convergent nozzles.
This type of turbine makes use of the reaction force produced as the steam accelerates
through the nozzles formed by the rotor. Steam is directed onto the rotor by the fixed vanes
of the stator. It leaves the stator as a jet that fills the entire circumference of the rotor. The
steam then changes direction and increases its speed relative to the speed of the blades. A
pressure drop occurs across both the stator and the rotor, with steam accelerating through the
stator and decelerating through the rotor, with no net change in steam velocity across the
stage but with a decrease in both pressure and temperature.

3.5 REACTION PRINCIPLE


A reaction turbine has rows of fixed blades alternating with rows of moving blades. The
steam expands first in the stationary or fixed blades where it gains some velocity as it drops
in pressure. It then enters the moving blades where its direction of flow is changed thus
producing an impulse force on the moving blades. In addition, however, the steam upon
passing through the moving blades again expands and further drops in pressure giving a
reaction force to the blades. This sequence is repeated as the steam passes through additional
rows of fixed and moving blades.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN IMPULSE AND REACTION TURBINE

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ACCORDING TO THE STEAM CONDITIONS AT INLET TO TURBINE :

High pressure turbine (H.P. Turbine) :


High pressure and temperature fluid at the inlet of the turbine exit as lower pressure
and temperature fluid.
Specification of HP Turbine(500 MW)
Main Steam Temp- 537C
Main steam pressure- 170 kg/cm2
Reheat steam temp- 537C
Length of Rotor - 4.61m
Height -2.15m
Weight -86400kg

INTERMEDIATE PRESSURE TURBINE :


Intermediate pressure turbine having more pressure then L.P turbine and lass than the
high pressure turbine(H.P) . Its blade is larger than high pressure turbine.

Specification of HP Turbine(500 MW)


Main Steam Temp- 537C
Main steam pressure- 41 kg/cm2
Reheat steam temp- 537C

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Length of Rotor - 4.425 m
Height - 4.8 m
Breadth 5 m

Low Pressure Turbine :

LP turbine is designed to be a dual flow turbine. Steam enters the centre of the turbine
from the crossover pipe and flows across the reaction blading in two opposite
directions. This configuration reduces axial thrust on the turbine and allows for a
smaller turbine installation.

Specification of LP Turbine(500 MW)

Main Steam Temp- 320C

Main steam pressure- 8 kg/cm2

Reheat steam temp- 320C

Length of Rotor - 8.71m

Height -10.7m

Weight-345000kg.

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TURBINE PARTS

4.1 TURBINE BLADES


Cylindrical reaction blades for HP, IP and LP Turbines
3-DS blades, in initial stages of HP and IP Turbine, to reduce secondary losses.
Twisted blade with integral shroud, in last stages of HP, IP and initial stages of LP
turbines, to reduce profile and Tip leakage losses
o Free standing LP moving blades Tip sections with supersonic design.
o Fir-tree root
o Flame hardening of the leading edge
o Banana type hollow guide blade

4.2 TURBINE CASING


Casings or cylinders are of the horizontal split type. This is not ideal, as the heavy flanges of
the joints are slow to follow the temperature changes of the cylinder walls. However, for
assembling and inspection purposes there is no other solution. The casing is heavy in order to
withstand the high pressures and temperatures. It is general practice to let the thickness of
walls and flanges decrease from inlet- to exhaust-end. The casing joints are made steam tight,

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without the use of gaskets, by matching the flange faces very exactly and very smoothly. The
bolt holes in the flanges are drilled for smoothly fitting bolts, but dowel pins are often added
to secure exact alignment of the flange joint. Double casings are used for very high steam
pressures. The high pressure is applied to the inner casing, which is open at the exhaust end,
letting the turbine exhaust to the outer casings.

Casing of HP Turbine :
There are two types of casing in HP steam turbine.
Inner casing which is made of mild steel .
Inner casing which covers rotor and protects leakage
Outer casing cover whole rotor and inner casing arrangement .

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Casing of IP turbine :
There are two types of casing in IP turbine.
Inner and outer casing .
Casings are made of cast iron.

Casing of LP turbine :
Two types of casing inner casing and outer casing.
Casing material is cast iron.

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4.3 TURBINE ROTORS
The design of a turbine rotor depends on the operating principle of the turbine. The impulse
turbine with pressure drop across the stationary blades must have seals between stationary
blades and the rotor. The smaller the sealing area, the smaller the leakage; therefore the
stationary blades are mounted in diaphragms with labyrinth seals around thes haft. This
construction requires a disc rotor. Basically there are two types of rotor:

DISC ROTORS

All larger disc rotors are now machined out of a solid forging of nickel steel; this should give
the strongest rotor and a fully balanced rotor. It is rather expensive, as the weight of the final
rotor is approximately 50% of the initial forging. Older or smaller disc rotors have shaft and
discs made in separate pieces with the discs shrunk on the shaft. The bore of the discs is made
0.1% smaller in diameter than the shaft. The discs are then heated until they easily are slid
along the shaft and located in the correct position on the shaft and shaft key. A small
clearance between the discs prevents thermal stress in the shaft.

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DRUM ROTORS
The first reaction turbines had solid forged drum rotors. They were strong, generally well
balanced as they were machined over the total surface. With the increasing size of turbines
the solid rotors got too heavy pieces. For good balance the drum must be machined both
outside and inside and the drum must be open at one end. The second part of the rotor is the
drum end cover with shaft.

CONSTRUCTIONAL FEATURES OF A BLADE


The blade can be divided into 3 parts:
The profile, which converts the thermal energy of steam into kinetic energy, with a
certain efficiency depending upon the profile shape.
The root, which fixes the blade to the turbine rotor, giving a proper anchor to the blade,
and transmitting the kinetic energy of the blade to the rotor.
The damping element, which reduces the vibrations which necessarily occur in the blades
due to the steam flowing through the blades. These damping elements may be integral
with blades, or they may be separate elements mounted between the blades. Each of these
elements will be separately dealt with in the following sections.

5.1 H.P. BLADE PROFILES

In order to understand the further explanation, a familiarity of the terminology used is


required. The following terminology is used in the subsequent sections.

If circles are drawn tangential to the suction side and pressure side profiles of a blade, and
their centers are joined by a curve, this curve is called the camber line. This camber line
intersects the profile at two points A and B. The line joining these points is called chord, and
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the length of this line is called the chord length. A line which is tangential to the inlet and
outlet edges is called the bitangent line. The angle which this line makes with the
circumferential direction is called the setting angle. Pitch of a blade is the circumferential
distance between any point on the profile and an identical point on the next blade.

5.2 CLASSIFICATION OF PROFILES


There are two basic types of profiles - Impulse and Reaction. In the impulse type of profiles,
the entire heat drop of the stage occurs only in the stationary blades. In the reaction type of
blades, the heat drop of the stage is distributed almost equally between the guide and moving
blades. Though the theoretical impulse blades have zero pressure drop in the moving blades,
practically, for the flow to take place across the moving blades, there must be a small
pressure drop across the moving blades also. Therefore, the impulse stages in practice have a
small degree of reaction. These stages are therefore more accurately, though less widely,
described as low-reaction stages. The presently used reaction profiles are more efficient than
the impulse profiles at part loads. This is because of the more rounded inlet edge for reaction
profiles. Due to this, even if the inlet angle of the steam is not tangential to the pressure-side
profile of the blade, the losses are low. However, the impulse profiles have one advantage.
The impulse profiles can take a large heat drop across a single stage, and the same heat drop
would require a greater number of stages if reaction profiles are used, thereby increasing the
turbine length. The Steam turbines use the impulse profiles for the control stage (1st stage),
and the reaction profiles for subsequent stages.
There are four reasons for using impulse profile for the first stage:
a) Most of the turbines are partial arc admission turbines. If the first stage is are action stage,
the lower half of the moving blades do not have any inlet steam, and would ventilate.
Therefore, most of the stage heat drop should occur in the guide blades.
b) The heat drop across the first stage should be high, so that the wheel chamber of the outer
casing is not exposed to the high inlet parameters. In case of -4turbines, the inner casing
parting plane strength becomes the limitation, and therefore requires a large heat drop across
the 1st stage.
c) Nozzle control gives better efficiency at part loads than throttle control.
d) The number of stages in the turbine should not be too high, as this will increase the length
of the turbine.

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5.3 H.P. BLADE ROOTS
The root is a part of the blade that fixes the blade to the rotor or stator. Its design depends
upon the centrifugal and steam bending forces of the blade. It should be designed such that
the material in the blade root as well as the rotor / stator claw and any fixing element are in
the safe limits to avoid failure. The roots are T-root and Fork-root. The fork root has a higher
load carrying capacity than the T-root. It was found that machining this T-root with side grip
is more of a problem. It has to be machined by broaching, and the broaching machine
available could not handle the sizes of the root. The typical roots used for the HP moving
blades for various steam turbine applications are shown in the following figure:

T-ROOT

T-ROOT WITH SIDE GRIP

FORK ROOT

5.4 L.P. BLADE PROFILES


The LP blade profiles of moving blades are twisted and tapered. These blades are used when
blade height-to-mean stage diameter ratio (h/Dm) exceeds 0.2.
5.5 LP BLADE ROOTS
The roots of LP blades are as follows:
1) 2 Blading :
a. The roots of both the LP stages in 2 type of LP Blading are T-roots.
2) 3 Blading:

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a. The last stage LP blade of HK, SK and LK blades have a fork-root. SK blades have 4-
fork roots for all sizes. HK blades have 4-fork roots up to 56 size, where modified profiles are
used. Beyond this size, HK blades have 3 fork roots. LK blades have 3-forkroots for all sizes.
The roots of the LP blades of preceding stages are of T-roots.
5.6 DYNAMICS IN BLADE
The excitation of any blade comes from different sources. They are :
Nozzle-passing excitation: As the blades pass the nozzles of the stage, they encounter flow
disturbances due to the pressure variations across the guide blade passage. They also
Encounter disturbances due to the wakes and eddies in the flow path. These are sufficient to
cause excitation in the moving blades. The excitation gets repeated at every pitch of the
blade. This is called nozzle-passing frequency excitation. The order of this frequency =no. of
guide blades x speed of the machine. Multiples of this frequency are considered for checking
for resonance.
Excitation due to non-uniformities in guide-blades around the periphery. These can
occur due to manufacturing inaccuracies, like pitch errors, setting angle variations,
inlet and outlet edge variations, etc.
For HP blades, due to the thick and cylindrical cross-sections and short blade heights, the
natural frequencies are very high. Nozzle-passing frequencies are therefore necessarily
considered, since resonance with the lower natural frequencies occurs only with these orders
of excitation.
In LP blades, since the blades are thin and long, the natural frequencies are low. The
excitation frequencies to be considered are therefore the first few multiples of speed, since
the nozzle passing frequencies only give resonance with very high modes, where the
vibration stresses are low.
The HP moving blades experience relatively low vibration amplitudes due to their thicker
sections and shorter heights. They also have integral shrouds. These shrouds of adjacent
blades but against each other forming a continuous ring. This ring serves two purposes it
acts as a steam seal, and it acts as a damper for the vibrations. When vibrations occur, the
vibration energy is dissipated as friction between shrouds of adjacent blades.
For HP guide blades of Wesel design, the shroud is not integral, but a shroud band is riveted
to a number of guide blades together. The function of this shroud band is mainly to seat the
steam. In some designs HP guide blades may have integral shrouds like moving blades. The
primary function remains steam sealing. In industrial turbines, in LP blades, the resonant
vibrations have high amplitudes due to the thin sections of the blades, and the large lengths. It
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may also not always be possible to avoid resonance at all operating conditions. This is
because of two reasons. Firstly, the LP blades are standardized for certain ranges of speeds,
and turbines may be selected to operate anywhere in the speed range. The entire design range
of operating speed of the LP blades cannot be outside he resonance range. It is, of course,
possible to design a new LP blade for each application, but this involves a lot of design
efforts and manufacturing cycle time. However, with the present-day computer packages and
manufacturing methods, it has become feasible to do so. Secondly, the driven machine may
be a variable speed machine like a compressor or a boiler-feed-pump. In this case also, it is
not possible to avoid resonance. In such cases, where it is not possible to avoid resonance, a
damping element is to be used in the LP blades to reduce the dynamic stresses, so that the
blades can operate continuously under resonance also. There may be blades which are not
adequately damped due to manufacturing inaccuracies. The need for a damping element is
therefore eliminated. In case the frequencies of the blades tend towards resonance due to
manufacturing inaccuracies, tuning is to be done on the blades to correct the frequency. This
tuning is done by grinding off material at the tip (which reduces the inertia more than the
Stiffness) to increase the frequency, and by grinding off material at the base of the profile
(which reduces the stiffness more than the inertia) to reduce the natural frequency.
The damping in any blade can be of any of the following types:
a) Material damping: This type of damping is because of the inherent damping properties of
the material which makes up the component.
b) Aerodynamic damping: This is due to the damping of the fluid which surrounds the
component in operation.
c) Friction damping: This is due to the rubbing friction between the component under
consideration with any other object.

MANUFACTURING PROCESS

6.1 INTRODUCTION
Manufacturing process is that part of the production process which is directly concerned with
the change of form or dimensions of the part being produced. It does not include the
transportation, handling or storage of parts, as they are not directly concerned with the
changes into the form or dimensions of the part produced. Manufacturing is the backbone of
any industrialized nation. Manufacturing and technical staff in industry must know the

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various manufacturing processes, materials being processed, tools and equipments for
manufacturing different components or products with optimal process plan using proper
precautions and specified safety rules to avoid accidents. Beside above, all kinds of the future
engineers must know the basic requirements of workshop activities in term of man, machine,
material, methods, money and other infrastructure facilities needed to be positioned properly
for optimal shop layouts or plant layout and other support services effectively adjusted or
located in the industry or plant within a well planned manufacturing organization. Todays
competitive manufacturing era of high industrial development and research, is being called
the age of mechanization, automation and computer integrated manufacturing. Due to new
researches in the manufacturing field, the advancement has come to this extent that every
different aspect of this technology has become a full-fledged fundamental and advanced
study in itself. This has led to introduction of optimized design and manufacturing of new
products. New developments in manufacturing areas are deciding to transfer more skill to the
machines for considerably reduction of manual labor.

6.2 CLASSIFICATION OF MANUFACTURING PROCESSES


For producing of products materials are needed. It is therefore important to know the
characteristics of the available engineering materials. Raw materials used manufacturing of
products, tools, machines and equipments in factories or industries are for providing
commercial castings, called ingots. Such ingots are then processed in rolling mills to obtain
market form of material supply in form of bloom, billets, slabs and rods. These forms of
material supply are further subjected to various manufacturing processes for getting usable
metal products of different shapes and sizes in various manufacturing shops. All these
processes used in manufacturing concern for changing the ingots into usable products may be
classified into six major groups as
Primary shaping processes
Secondary machining processes
Metal forming processes
Joining processes
Surface finishing processes and
Processes effecting change in properties

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6.2.1 PRIMARY SHAPING PROCESSES
Primary shaping processes are manufacturing of a product from an amorphous material.
Some processes produces finish products or articles into its usual form whereas others do not,
and require further working to finish component to the desired shape and size. The parts
produced through these processes may or may not require to undergo further operations.
Some of the important primary shaping processes are:
Casting
Powder metallurgy
Plastic technology
Gas cutting
Bending and
Forging
6.2.2 SECONDARY OR MACHINING PROCESSES
As large number of components require further processing after the primary processes. These
components are subjected to one or more number of machining operations in machine shops,
to obtain the desired shape and dimensional accuracy on flat and cylindrical jobs. Thus, the
jobs undergoing these operations are the roughly finished products received through primary
shaping processes. The process of removing the undesired or unwanted material from the
work-piece or job or component to produce a required shape using a cutting tool is known as
machining. This can be done by a manual process or by using a machine called machine tool
(traditional machines namely lathe, milling machine, drilling, shaper, planner, slotter).
In many cases these operations are performed on rods, bars and flat surfaces in machine
shops. These secondary processes are mainly required for achieving dimensional accuracy
and a very high degree of surface finish. The secondary processes require the use of one or
more machine tools, various single or multi-point cutting tools (cutters), jobholding devices,
marking and measuring instruments, testing devices and gauges etc. forgetting desired
dimensional control and required degree of surface finish on the work-pieces. The example of
parts produced by machining processes includes hand tools machine tools instruments,
automobile parts, nuts, bolts and gears etc. Lot of material is wasted as scrap in the secondary
or machining process. Some of the common secondary or machining processes are:
Turning
Threading
Knurling
Milling
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Drilling
Boring
Planning
Shaping
Slotting
Sawing
Broaching
Hobbing
Grinding
Gear Cutting
Thread cutting and
Unconventional machining processes namely machining with Numerical control (NC)
machines tools or Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machine tool using ECM,
LBM, AJM, USM setups.

BALANCING PROCEDURE FOR THE ROTORS

The present procedure which is being followed at BHEL is covering various turbine rotors in
the range of 200-1000MW rating and required to be at rated speed. This includes both rigid
and flexible rotors. The procedure outlines the sequence and description of the operation
which are to be performed to accomplish the process of balancing and over speeding of the
turbine rotors.

RIGID ROTORS :

A rotor is considered rigid when it can be corrected in any two (arbitrarily


selected) planes and after these corrections; its unbalanced does not
significantly exceed the balancing limits or tolerances (relative to the shaft
axis) at any speed upto maximum service speed when running under
condition approximately close to those of the final supporting system.

FLEXIBLE ROTORS :

The rotor not specifying the definition of rigid rotors is flexible rotor due to elastic
definition. According to the ISO definition balancing is the procedure by which the mass

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distribution of the rotor is checked and if necessary is adjusted in order to ensure that the
vibrations on the supporting bearings at a frequency corresponding to the operation within the
specified limits. This is done to avoid damage to bearings, housings and foundation and to
minimize the fatigue stresses on the rotor.
Balancing is carried out by consecutive compensation below and above critical speed and its
rated speed to bring down the vibration within the specified limits. According to the check
list provided by quality control department should be strictly followed for trouble free
balancing.

7.1 BRIEF LAYOUT OF THE ROTORS

The rotors are assembled on the bogie pedestals and it is then driven into the over speed and
balancing tunnel which can be evacuated to a high degree of vacuum upto 2 torr depending
upon the requirement. Vibrations are picked up through electromagnetic pickups mounted on
the pedestals and the readings are displayed on the instruments installed in the control room.
The intelligence about various parameters e.g. vibrations bearing temperature, tunnel
temperature etc. are carried out to the instruments installed in the control room through cables
passing through special vacuum penetration system located in the rear wall of the tunnel.
Access to the rotor is provided through a main door in the rear wall of the tunnel while the
rotor is in standstill condition. The rotor is driven through a drive system consisting of two
D.C. motors of 3.5MW each connected in tandem. The speed of the motor can be regulated
from 2 rpm to 500 rpm and of rotor from 10 rpm to 4450 rpm. The power to the motor is fed
through a MG set consisting of a 9MW synchronous motor and two D.C. generator of 4MW
each.

There are two lubrication systems- atmospheric oil system providing oil to MG set and
drive system and vacuum oil system providing oil to the rotor bearing housed balancing
pedestals in the tunnel and the oil is water cooled.

7.2 ASSEMBLY OF ROTORS

The distance of bogie pedestals is adjusted as per the supporting journal to journal centre line
distance of the rotor. The continuity of the bearing should be checked by the quality control
engineer before these are mounted in pedestals. The rotors are then placed in the balancing
machine pedestals with special lifting tackles and the assembly is done as per relevant

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assembly drawings. Care must be taken to ensure that the dowel pin of the top cover of both
bearings is set in right position. Quality control engineer will check the correctness of the
bearings and cover bolts, correctness of installation of RTDs and their resistances etc.
Quality control engineer will certify that the rotor has been manufactured and assembled
according to the relevant drawings and specifications and is fit for balancing and over
speeding test.

7.3 PREPARATION FOR BALANCING OF ROTOR

After securing of the pedestals and connection of the rotor with drive system the lubricating
oil pipes, jacking oil pipes and drain pipes should be connected. Lubricating oil should be
started to the pedestals bearing (to match design requirements) and flushing may be carried
out for a couple of hours. During flushing rotor may be jacked few times and rotor lifts at
both the pedestals are to be checked by means of dial gauges and the reading noted down.
The rotor can be run at about 150 rpm for a few minutes without any vacuum and is observed
visually. It should be checked that there is no abnormal sound and no leakage of oil etc. After
this the main door near the rear wall should be closed and tunnel gate should be closed and
hydraulically pressed against the wall of tunnel. The light of the tunnel and power supply to
the tunnel hoist and jib crane should be switched on. After the requisite vacuum in the
tunnel the rotor can be run upto a suitable speed below first critical speed at which vibration
does not become excessive.
After correction of unbalance for the first critical speed, it should be possible to
increase the rotor speed beyond the first critical speed without subjecting the rotor to any
excessive level of vibration at the first critical speed. Rotor should now be ready for 2 nd
balancing. The process is continued till we get a low value of vibration at 3000 rpm. Rotor
can now be brought to the specified over speed (3360 rpm or 3600 rpm) as the case may be
and retained there for two minutes or specified in the technical requirements. The accuracy of
the drive system permits the maintenance of speed within 1% of the set value. After over
speeding the rotor is stopped, thoroughly checked for any part of the rotor having becoming
loose specially the locking blades lift. These check are made by Q.C. and assembly group and
if required the rectification should be carried within the permitted limits. After achieving the
vibrations within the permitted limits couple of runs will be carried out to improve the
balance quality further if possible. After the balancing is over the position of the weights

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placed in different correction planes will be noted with reference to the clock punched on the
rotor.

7.4 Evaluation of Unbalance:

All rotors in OSBT are balanced at the rated speed and the evaluation of unbalance is by
means of vibration measurement at rated speed.

Following information are taken-


a. Vibration level at operating speed.
b. Position of correction weights with respect to the clocked punched on the rotor shaft.
c. Rpm and duration of over-speed test.

CONCLUSION

Gone through 1 month training under the guidance of capable engineers and workers of
BHEL Haridwar TURBINE MANUFACTURING headed by Senior Engineer of
department Mr. SHATRUGHAN SHARMA situated in Ranipur, Haridwar,(Uttarakhand).
The training was specified under the Turbine Manufacturing Department. Working under the
department I came to know about the basic grinding, scaling and machining processes which
was shown on heavy to medium machines. Duty lathes were planted in the same line where
the specified work was undertaken.
The training brought to my knowledge the various machining and fabrication processes went
not only in the manufacturing of blades but other parts of the turbine.

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