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Main Reasons for the spread of Buddhism

(1) Buddhas teaching and simplicity of the religion:

The religion was very simple and no stress was laid on rituals or sacrifices.
The followers were told to follow a bundle of duties to attain the ultimate
goal of life i.e., Nirvana.
Prof Keith attributed the success to the personality of the founder. He says
that the founder of Buddhism must rank as one of the most commanding
personalities ever produced by the eastern world.
the commanding personality of the Buddha, his self-sacrifice, the strength
of his character, his spiritual attainments, his super-sensual vision and the
occasional manifestations of miraculous power served in a great degree to
convince people of his spiritual greatness and made them attached
importance of his words.

(2) Pali language:

That time Pali was common language among the people. Buddha chose this
language to preach; as a result people understood his teaching easily. Many
scholars and writers also claim that Buddha talked in Prakrit. Buddhism was
accepted both by common folk and upper castes especially the main patrons
were merchant community who donated vast amounts of money for stupas
and Buddhist shramanas.

(3) Caste system:

During the time of the Buddha many people were in the suffering because of
caste based discriminations. Khastriyas, vaishyas and shudras were not
getting facilities like Brahmin. Shudras were most disappointed among all.
Buddhism provided an alternate system of religion with no caste
discriminations and it mentioned that higher and low quality comes from
karma not from ones birth. At that time many Hindus began to question the
authority of the Brahmins whether the offerings to the gods, recitation of
mantras, chanting hymns, really achieved the objects for which they were
performed or they were wasting time and money.
(4) Sangha:
The most eminent reason for the rapid spread of Buddhism within a few
centuries after its tradition is due to the fact that conversion of non
Buddhists to Buddhism was regarded as a part of the duty of the monks at
the highest stage of their spiritual development. The attainment of Nirvana
may be the goal of a monk, but to attain it and at the same time giving others
the opportunity of realizing its importance was given more importance.
The Buddhist Sangha and monasteries helped the people by spreading
education among them, these made the people to attract towards Buddhism.
The character and personalities of Buddhas immediate disciples such as
Sariputra, Moggalana, Mahakassapa, Mahakaccayana, and Anand were also
a powerful factor in the propagation of Buddhism.

(5) Royal support:

During the Buddhas time king Bimbisara of Magadha and King Prasenjit of
Kosala were the most powerful kings in India. Both were closely related to
Buddha. The kshatriyas were also opposed to the dominance of Brahmins in
Hinduism so they supported to spread Buddhism around the world.

(6) Buddhas missionary activities:

Buddha travelled from one place to another spreading his message orally
among the common people. He stayed for a little while at any place and
moved on. His mission of awakening the people went on for 45 years and
before his death Buddhism has become a religion followed by people in
different countries.