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WWI Aerial
By Mike Thomas & Kev Smith
or That Fokker's an Albatros !!!
To be reading this intro you must have some interest in W.W. l aerial combat. So do we, the names, the
planes, the initial chivalry, to the ultimate kill ever wondered what it must of been like? Well read on.

As a small gaming group we too bad a liking for WWl aerial combat. but we found the then available rules a
little too complex in their individual ways;- too much space required, construction of aircraft stands, do we
need to go on?

Anyway, from what was a gaming weekend catering for members of the Sealed Knot, of all things,
developed into the rules in this book.

The rules consist of two sets realy;- the first as an introductory simple quick play set primarily for the
beginner or large groups of people - they are fast and definitely deadly. These are to be found in the one
page pulI-out section.
The second (and main body of the rules) are for the more game experienced players and are more detailed in
their outcome. Certain aspects of this set can easily be incorporated into the first, the choice is yours. Shall
we go on;- or hand over your cash and take them home!

Both sets are designed mainly for fun. The vast amount of technical details between aircraft types has been
simplified, we prefer to play the game not argue, any arguments the umpire can always decree a broken spar
or engine failure-end of argument!

We have used these rules with some success at the 'Colours' show in Reading and through that success
publisbcd these. We must stress that not all these ideas stem from ourselves alone but from many people. We
feel that thanks must be given to;-
Kevin Pomroy, the author of the initial quick play set, and numerous other members of the Sealed Knot. for
a splendidly humorous gaming weekend. in November '90. All the members of Penanh and District
Wargames Club, for their help, ideas, arguments, even curses, but most of all for playing the game.

Anyway chaps. Chocks away!

Kevin Pomroy - Colonell General1 of l>ra8oons?'n
Mike Thomas } Prop Winders and
Kevin Smith} Goggle Polishers.

Any comments or suggestions please write

to us or. catch us at Colours.
Mike Thomas Kev Smith
3 Gwent 49 Mountjoy Avenue
Northcliffe Penarth
Penanh South G1amorgan
South Glamorgan CF6 ISY

At Colours in '92 this game won the prize for the

best participation game (it was also the noisiest).

C Copyright Mike Thomas, Kevin Smith and Tabletop Games November 1992.


BM102 OH2 1916 BM202 Pfalz Scout 1917

BM103 FE2B 1915 BM205 Albatross 011 1916 '
BM104 SE5A 1917 BM206 Albatross 0111 1917
BM110 Sopwith Pup 1916 BM209 FokkerOVII 1917
BM111 Sopwith Camel 1917 BM212 Siemans
BM112 Sopwith Triplane 1916 Schuckert Dill 1918
BM114 Sopworth Snipe 1918 BM213 Siemens
BM129 Bristol Scout 1914 SchuckertOIV 1918
BM130 Bristol F2B Fighter 1917 BM214 Fokker DRI Tri. 1917
BM132 BE2C 1914 BM217 Fokker EIII 1915
BM134 RE8 1916 BM219 Aviatic DI 1917
BM135 OH4 1917 BM228 Roland CII 1917
BM137 Sopwith 1 112 BM230 Hannover CUlla 1917
Strutter 1916 BM231 Halberstadt CUI 1917
BM239 RumplerCIV 1917
BM241 Gotha G IV 1916


BM151 SpaclVII 1916 BMSOO Hanriot H.0 .1 1917

BM153 Nieuport 17 1915 BM601 Ansaldo A 1 1918
BM154 NieuPQrt 11 1915 BM602 SpaclVII 1917
BM155 Nieuport 24 1916 BM603 Nieuport 17 1916
BM156 Nieuport 27 1916 BM604 Nieuport 24 1917
BM157 Morana-Saulnier 1917
BM162 Nieuport28 1917

All these models are WHITEMETAL kits and are available from:-

SKYTREX L TO. 28 Brook Sl Wymeswold, Loughborough, Lalcatanlhlre, LE12 STU, England.

Page Number
Game Scales 1
Equipment Requited for Play 1
Airuaft Stands 1
LeveIBandlnd~o~ 1
Turning Circles 1
Pilot Cards 2
Alruaft Stats 2
Moves 2
Initiative 2
C~Status 2
Game Sequence 3
Movement 3
Aerobatics 3
Climbing or Diving More Than Maximum 5
Effects of Damage 6
Strains 6
Stalls 6
Forced Landings 7
landing and Taking Off 8
Collisions 8
Target Acquisition 8
Hiding In the Sun 9
Target Eleglbllity 9
Firing Arcs 9
Shooting 9
Jams 9
Firing (Accuracy) 10
AIming at the Clew 10
Damage 10
Multi-Engined Alruaft Damage 12
Accumulation of Damage and Wounds 13
Balloon BustIng 13
Ground Strafing 14
Bombing 15
Artillery Observation 16
Photographic Reconnaissance 18
Reconnaissance and Observation Escorts 17
Formation Flying 17
Cloud Cover 17
AntJ-Airuaft Fire 17
Passing Over the Lines 18
A.c. of Aces 19

Airuaft Slats 20
Creating Your Own Airuaft Slats 22
Bibliography 23

You will find 4 of these cards included with the rules, these are included so that you can make further

Pilot.. Name Ie Rank:

Pilot Ability: Circle present Nationality:

NOV AVE VET ACE Brit/Frog/Yank/Hun

Speed ce~ Max Ma:.: Min Turn. G\UUI

kph=mm (1000' Climb Din Lett Rilht Pilot Obll

m1Il 50mm
Stunts (Ave'II, Vet's t!c Ace's only)
SPIJT.l!'~ IN\'ER't ED SPlJT ~

~ 50mm)J~=

PUot. Name t!c Rank;

PUot Ability: Circle prellent Nationality;

NOV AVE VET ACE Brit/Frog/Yank/Hun

Spe.e d ce~ Ma:.: Max Min Turna G\UUI

kph=mm (1000' Climb Dive Lett Rilht PUot Ob.

m1Il 50mm
Stunts (Ave'lI, Vet"ll t!c Ace". only)


~Omm )llLEVEL

J 1000tt ~' 50mm)]~=
Please feel free to copy these cards for your own use. We suggest gluing them onto card ana covering
them with clear plastic so that you can use some form of non-permanent marker pen.
Designed, primarily, for use with 1:144 scale ' Red Eagle' models by SKYTREX LTD. but other scales can
be used without alteration. We have found that the use of 2mm scale scenery by IRREGULAR
MINIATURES greatly enhances the visual aspect of the game, and gives targets to bomb, strafe etc.

Aeroplanes - any from the Great War period.
Rules - you got 'em, use 'em.
Dice - Quick Play - 106 plus 1O 10 per gun on the plane.
Expanded Rules - 106 plus lOlO plus 1020 per gun on the plane.
Tape/Rule - in millimetres.
Aircraft Stands, level Band indicators and turning circles (See below).

To achieve an impression of altitude we suggest a 1/16" (l.5mm)
diameter wire stand, approximately 8" (2oomm) high, set into
the centre of a 2 3/16" (55mm) long by I 3/16" (30mm) wide
lead or white metal base. The base can be textured, shell holes etc.
and painted to represent the ground below. The wire is less obvious
if painted matt black.

The base must include some distinctive mark 16mm from the
wire, ie. shell hole, rock or pin, to act as a pointer for the
Level Band indicator. o
C' l


A sheet of these are supplied with the rules, please feel free
to photocopy them as required. Aircraft


Each height or Level Band is 1000 feet. Cut out the discs
and pierce the centre, placing one on each of your Aircraft
stands. This disc is used to indicate the current height of the
aircraft, and during the game care must be taken to keep this
disc at the:! right level.

These are also supplied, cut out and stick onto card. There are 3 types, SMALL. MEDIUM and LARGE.
both left and right handed.
They are used by placing the arrow against the relevant side of the base and moving the base around the curve
the required distance.

Also supplied. To be filled in at the beginning of each pilots career, which is all the writing required for the
game. The information required on the card is all available in the rules except for your pilots name and rank.

See lists in the back of the book.
Below is a typical example from the lists with explanation:-

Plane Speed Ceiling Maxiumum Turns Notes

Name Kph lOOOft Climb Dive Left Right
Icamel 170 18 2 3 L ~
1 1 3 4 5 6 7 8

1 = Aircraft Name and/or Type.
2 = Maximum Speed in Kilometres per Hour.
3 = Maximum obtainable altitude in feet or maximum Level Band.
Divide by 1000 to obtain the Level Band. ie. 18000ft = Level Band 18.
4 = Maximum number of Level Bands the aircraft can climb in one move.
5 = Maximum number of Level Bands the aircraft can dive in one move.
6 = Minimum radius turn to the left, ie. Large Turing Circle for a Camel.
7 = Minimum radius turn to the right ie. Small Turning Circle for a Camel.
8 = Specific details of the aircraft.

The different Turning Circles are dependant on the engine type, in-line or rotary, we said they were 'simple'.

Alternate. First one side (German or Allied) complete
all movement, firing etc. then the other.

At the stan of the game, or when opposition first appears,
.the Senior Officer of each side roles 106, the highest
scorer choosing whether to let the enemy move first or

Novice, Average, Veteran or Ace (Nov, Ave, Vet or Ace).
Novice pilots become Average after 2 patrols and landing without wrecking the plane on his own side of the
lines. Observers become Average after getting home from 2 patrols, or both pilot and observer after shooting
down 1 enemy aircraft.
Average pilots become Veterans after shooting down 2 enemy aircraft.
Veteran pilots become Ace's after shooting down 3 enemy aircraft, ie. the minimum victories for an Ace is 5.

Note that Forced Landings do not count as Victories.

To determine Crew Status at the start of the game roll I D 10 for each crew member:-
Dice Score Result
I to 3 Novice
4to7 Average
8 or 9 Veteran
10 Ace

Or they start the game as Novices and try to

survive up to Ace over numerous games. ~- .

I) Anti-Aircraft Ranging
2) Target Acquisition
3) Movement
4) Shooting
r<.AF F.e. . ~l>
S) Anti-Aircraft Fire Result.

Imm = IKph. Minimum Move = SOmm. ie. our Camel can move 170mm maximum without climbs.

Aircraft can accelerate or decelerate at will, ego moving the maximum in one move and only SOmm in the
following move.

Level Each Level Band is 1000 feet.

Climbing Deduction is SOmm from the maximum forward movement for each level climbed. There is
no deduction or addition for dives.
Note: some aircraft can climb for a reduced speed reduction; See Aircraft Stats.
Turm As already explained. These are the minimum turning radii, larger turns can be used if
required. There is no movement penalty due to turns.
Gliding Maximum move at 3/4 listed speed, must descend at least I Level Band per move. No
climbing,small turns, or Aerobatics except 'Split S', 'Side Slip' or 'Spins'.
Stunts, or as it was known to the pilots of the WWI period 'Splitassing'.
Novices can only carry out the basic manoeuvres, these being 'Split S', 'Side Slip' or 'Spins'.

Forward SOmm, rotate the modeJ ISO
degrees about its base front, drop I SPLIT "s"
Level Band, move forward SOmm, or
. drop 2 Level Bands and move forward
lOOmm (if maximum speed is greater
than ISO Kph). ~ SOmm
If the maximum speed is less than ISO ............ ~------r-......
Kph then planes can drop 2 Level
Bands but must test for Overdiving.
See below. drop 1 level
SOmm or 2 levels


Forward 50mm. rotate model 180 degrees about INVERTED ' 'S"
its base front and climb 1 Level Band.

, _____ ) climb 1 level

~ .-
Rotate around
this point
Forward half a move. move sideways quarter
move (may drop 1 Level Band if required, left
however, Novices must always drop 1 Level Band),
facing original direction. Two consecutive Side Slips 1/4 move
will automaticaly result in the drop of 1 Level Band.
1/2 move

1/4 move


:~?a:m ~ lev~
Forward half a move, rotate model 180 degrees
about its base front, forward 50mm, stay at the
same level (remember each level is WOOfI.). scme
otate around
IMMELMANN this point
This takes 2 complete moves to perform:-

Move 1
Forward 50mm, rotate model 180 50mm
degrees about its base front, and
climb 1 Level Band. The plane is 1st move
now upside-down, and considered SOmm climb 1 level
a stationary target, at the top of the Loop. Rotate around
Move 2 -t-----~ this point
Forward 50mm, rotate model 180 degrees about 50mm~ ,
its base front, drop I Level Band, forward 50mm. LOOP
If in the previous move, the plane dived, in a straight line, at least 1 Level Band, then the height of the Loop
may be increased by climbing 2 Level Bands in move I and the following completing dive out (Move 2) may
be I or 2 Level Bands.
The Loop does not have to be completed, Aces and Veterans may Spin down vertically in Move 2, or ALL
may dive out after Move 1 by moving forward loomm and diving 1 Level Band. Aces and Veterans may tum
during this dive. Average and Novices must fly in a straight line.

It takes half a move to spin down I Level Band, Spins can be continued for any number of moves, but there
is a risk. The model remains stationary whilst spinning. To pull out of a Spin rotate the model about its
support wire and move forward 50mm.
Aces may Spin down 3 Level Bands before having to dice for direction of pull-out, Veterans may spin for 2
Level Bands and Average pilots I before dicing but Novices always dice for direction.
To pull out of a Spin roll 1010, if undamaged, or 1020 if the
plane or pilot have taken any damaged. Spin Recovery Indicator

Dice Score Result Original direction ',2

lor Less Crash out of control. of flight 9 , ________, 3
2to9 Pull out in direction shown on the V .\
10 or more
Spin Recovery Indicator opposite.
Continue to Spin 1 Level Band,
ie.half move, and try again.

Deduct 1 from the dice score for each consecutive attempt.

After a Spin, Novices must fly 50mm straight and level, Average pilots may dive, Veterans may turn and
dive and Aces may do anything as long as 50mm of movement is carried out.

Undamaged FOKKER DVII (Ace and Veteran pilots only).
Forward 50mm, rotate model up to 180 degrees
about its base front. The plane is now hanging
from its propellor where it can hang for a further
2 moves and will turn up to 90 degrees for each
quarter move. During this manoeuvre it can fire
Rotate around
but it is counted as a stationary target when being
this point
fired at.
undamaged FOKKER DVll
Each move roll 10 10 for risk of stalling, the plane ACES lie VETS only
will stall on a roll of 1 in the first move, 1 or 2 in
the second move or 1 to 3 in the third move.
At the end of this manoeuvre the plane must move at least 50mm befor making any turns or climbs for
Veterans, or any climbs for Aces. Both may spin down immediately without forward movement.


At times it may be necessary or advantageous to try and climb or dive more than the amounts normally
AU aircraft may attempt to climb 1 additional Level Band, roll 1010:-
Dice Score Result
1 to 3 Tried too hard Old Chap! Climb maximum number of Level Bands and Stall.
4to7 Not quite right! !Climb maximum number of Level Bands only.
8 to 10 Jolly Good Show Old Boy! Climb I additional Level Band with no extra speed

All aircraft, which are not Strained, may attempt to dive 2 additional
Level Bands if powered, or I additional Level Band if gliding.

R011 ID 10 for the risk of damage:-

Dice Score Result

I If overdriving I Level Band or:-
I to 3 If overdriving 2 Level Bands.

DJamage has occured RoU ID 10 and consult ther

Dice Score Powered Overdive Damage

1 Crash out of control 1 Crash out of control

2 Forced landing + Strained 2 Forced landing-& Strained
3 Additional D6 score divided by 2 3 Additional D6 score divided by 2
Level Bands dived + Strained Level Bands dived + Strained
4 Forced landing 4 Forced landing
5 Additional Level Band dived + 5 Stall when attempting to pull
Strained out
6 Additional Level Band dived 6 Side Slip to left and drop 1
ad(iitional Level Band.
7 Strained + Increase turning 7 Side Slip to right and drop 1
circles (ie. Small to Medium) additional Level Band
8 Strained 8 Strained, use Large turning .
circles only.
9 Strained 9 Strained
10 Strained 10 Strained

Strained Aircraft
Cannot Overdive or Overclimb again this patrol, the plane will break-up if you attempt to do so. If
Aeorbatics or Small Turns are attempted roU 10 10 for automatic Overdive Damage.
The model remains stationary, counting as a stationary target, whilst the plane drops '
in a flat spin (as opposed to an intentional spin). The plane will drop 1 Level Band .
per move. To PIuJl out successfuJIIy ro11 ID 10:-
First Attempt Second Attempt Third Attempt

Dice score for success lto7 lto5 lto3

Aces deduct 1 from the dice score.
Novices add I to the dice score.

If not successful after 3 moves the aircJaft crashes out of control.

If successful then roU 1010 and refer to the 'Spin Pull Out Chart', on a score of 1 or 10 then the spin
continues for 1 move when another attempt may be made.

Pilot must attempt to land on his own side of the lines. Movement is at normal speed, unless gliding,
damaged prop or engine, but the plane must drop at least I Level Band per move if powered or 2 if gliding.
No climbs, Inverted Split S's, Immelmann turns or Loops may be attempted. If due to engine or prop hit then
no Powered Overdives may be made.

Only roll for landing when forced down, landing away from an Aerodrome or Advanced Landing Ground.
Roll IDlO, deduct I if the pilot is Average or wounded, deduct 2 if the pilot is a Novice or is severely
At an Aerodrome or Advanced Landing Ground
Modified Dice Score Result
1 or Less Crash; Crew killed.
2 Crash; Crew wounded and sent home.
3 Crash; Crew slightly wounded but can fly again.
4 or 5 Crew OK, plane damaged requiring 2 days to repair.
6 to 10
Good landing.
Behind The Lmes - OWD or Enenues
Modified Dice Score Result
lor Less Crash; Crew killed.
2 Crasb; Crew wounded.
3 or 4 Crash; Crew slightly wounded.
5 or 6 Crew OK; Plane damaged requiring 2 days to repair.
7 to 10 Good Landing.

If behind enemy lines, with a score of 3 to 10 above, a roll of 1 on a D 10 and the crew escapes home in a
number of days equal to the ~tance in metres + 1 to the home Aerodrome or base edge of the playing area.
No Mans Land
Modified Dice Score Result
lor Less Crash; Crew killed.
2 or 3 Crash; Crew wounded.
4to6 Crash; Crew lightly wounded.
7 to 10 As good a landing as you'll get in a shell hole. Crew OK.

. To get back to own lines roll ID6:-

DIce Score Result
2 or Less Enemy shell the plane and crew killed.
3 or 4 Crew escape to own lines, but plane shelled.
5 or 6 Crew and plane saved. Crew can fly next day, plane can fly in 4 days.

Deduct from dice score if;- -1 If Average pilot.

-1 If crew member is wounded.
-2 If Novice pilot.
-2 If crew member severely wounded.

To land, the plane must get down to Level Band 1 for I full move. The actual landing takes I full move and
must be made in a straight line moving maximum distance and ending stationary on the ground. It takes I
further move for the crew to get out.

Taking off takes I move on the runway, and I move to get to Level Band I, moving the maximum distance.
Novices must fly in a straight line for the full move, Average and Veteran pilots must fly straight for half a
move and Aces may do anything immediately. Average and Veteran 'pilots can carry out Side Slips and
Immmeimann turns only.

Planes have a chance of colliding if in the same Level Band and their bases overlap during the the move.
RolIlDlO' -
Dice Score Result
lor less Collide, both planes crash.
2 to 4 Lower status pilot, or moving plane if equal, must climb at least 1 Level Band
next move (if unable to climb then collide).
5to7 Lower status pilot, or moving plane if equal, must dive at least 1 Level Band next movj
(if at Level Band 1 dive into the ground).
8 to 10 Near Miss, both planes continue on course .
If a base passes over the oPPOSltlons HeIght Indicator Disc then deduct 2 from the above dice score.

To spot enemy aircraft Test for each crew member at the beginning of your move to determine if he spots all
other aircraft on the table except for members of your own flight.
Ro1l2D6 and add the score together, now modify this score by any of the following that applies, however, a
score of)2 will always spot and a score of 2 will never spot and the following are ignored:-

+ 1 Spotter is a Veteran. -1 Spotter is a Novice.

+ 1 Target is at the same level. -1 Spotter is in a formation (not leading).
+ 1, Target fired. -1 Target directly behind and in the same Level Band.
+ 1 Target is in a group of 3 planes. -3 Spotter fired in onw or enemies previous move.
+ 1 Per additional 3 planes in same group. -3 Involved in high level photo/low level visual Reece.
+2 Spotter is an Ace. -3 Pilot on escort duty guarding recce plane or similar.
+ 2 Target is being frred at by plane -5 Spotting crew are involved in Artillery spotting or
within 300mm of the spotter or low level photo reece.
'Archied' at any distance. -5 Target is direetly behind and below.
+5 Spotter is looking for target in -5 Target is in the Sun.
specified area, ie map reference.
+5 Target is within 500mm of bait aircraft.
Now cheek each target, or group of targets, determine the horizontal distance, in metres (rounded up), and
add to this the difference in Level Bands. ie. 1.2m = 2, 1700ft - 1200ft = 5 Level Bands, TOTAL = 2 + 5
= 7.
The target is seen if the total is LESS than the modified dice score.
1) If the target is a group of planes then measure to the groups approximate centre and use average height.
2) The exact height of acquired targets will not be known until they are within 500mm (so no leaning across
the table to have a squint at the Height Indicator Discs).
3) Stand only can be used until the planes are acquired.

The position of the Sun should be first decided based on the time of day; am = Eastwards, pm = Westwards,
both slightly to the South, ie. one corner or the other.
The German home airfield is always to the East, the allies to the West.
If an attacking plane is between the target and the Sun and at least 5 Level Bands higher then it is considered
to be hiding in the glare of the Sun (unless there is cloud cover in a higher Level Band).

Targets must be in the same Level Band and within maximum range of the guns which is 200mm, sometime
during the move, thus making possible climbing and diving attacks by passing through the Target's Level
Band. Each gun, or pair of guns firing together, may only be fired once per move.
All players can fire in both their own IlI()ves and the enemies, if during the enemies move one of them
carelessly places themselves in the firing arc and range of your guns don't hesitate, shoot him!

Fixed Guns ------
A line passing longitudinaly down through the gun,
generally the centre line of the plane, must pass
through, or touch, the Targets Height Indicator Disc.
Flexible GU16
These are guns manned by observers which generally
fire through 90 degrees either side of the planes centre
line, backwards or forwards, depending on the guns
position, taking into account obstacles such as wings,
pilots heads etc, but ignoring tail planes. U'IJI'5 .,.,.~.
Some rear guns could be fired forwards, over the top
wing to take on diving attacks from the front, this depends on the planes configuration and gun mounting.

The ultimate object of all the manoeuvring and 'Splitassing' about is generally known as 'Dog-Fighting'.
The machine guns and ammunition of the day were very unreliable so before any gun is fired it must be tested
for jamming, or if already jammed, to clear it.

L Sequence ~ Test to Clear Jam I Test for Jam Firing Area of Hit Damage
~ce 010
Required per Gun
I D6
I OlD 020 D6

Clearing JIlDL'i
Jammed guns have 2 chances of being cleared (one attempt only per move),Roll 106 per jammed gun:-
First Attempt Second Attempt
Dice Score to Clear 5 or 6 4 to 6
If both attempts fail then the gun is jammed for the rest of the patrol.
Roll lOlO n
Dice Score Result

Guns which have been cleamf of a jam during the move do not have to be tested for it again during the same

Measure the range from the firers support wire to the edge of the targets Heigbt Indicator Disc.
Compare the firer and target pilot Crew Status and roll 1020 per gun firing:-

Range Ace-V-Novice Ace-V-Average Ace-V-Veteran Equal Status

in Veteran-V-Novice Veteran-V-Average
mrn's Average-V-Novice

o to 50 3 9 4 8 5 7 6
51 to 100 5 11 6 10 7 9 8
101 to 150 7 13 8 12 9 11 10
151 to 200 9 15 10 14 11 13 12

Higber Status Pilots/Observers Minimum Required Dice Score

Lower Status Pilot/Observers Minimum Required Dice Score

Add 1 to ~ dice score if attacking:- a Large target, attacking from above or from directly behind.
Add 2 to the dice score if::- Line of fire passes through the targets support wire (fixed guns only).
If firer is undetected, or if target is stationary.
Deduct 2 from the dice score if:- Target is in a spin that is oot due to stalling.
A Novice firing at an Ace at a range of 145mrn, would need a basic score of 13 on a D20. An Ace firing on a
Novice at a range of 145mrn would need a score of 7 on a D20.


If attacking from directly behind, in the same Level Band, climbing or diving, then the crew may be aimed at.
Add 12 to the minimum required dice score in the Table above, or 10 if the firer is undetected.
Do not add any of the bonus additions above, and use the Damage dice score in brackets in the Damage Table.

lbiS IS
. DOt rcqluired if amung
. . at the crew. Roll 106 per bi t ob talned -
IPosition of Hit I Fusilage or Wings I Cockpit I Fuel Tank I Engine I Propellor I
/Dice Score I lor 2 I 3 I 4 1 5 1 6 I
Roll 1010 per bit and refer to the relevant area of bit on the following tables:-
IDice Score I Result
I Observer bit (if carried), if DOt then pilot bit (see Cockpit Hit below).
2 Controls wreckfld; Crash out of control.
3 Controls damaged; Forced landing using large turns only.
4or5 Controls bit - Minor damage, Roll 1010;-
Odds= elevator hit deducting I Level Band to climbs and dives, NO Aerobatics
(except Side Slips).
Evens Airelons bit. enlarging turning circles, ie. Small to Medium, NO
Aerobatics (except Side Slips).
6 to 10 No effect
COCKPIT - Use Dice Rolls in ( ) if aiming at the Cew.
I to 3 Pilot (or observer from FUSILAGE bit). Roll 1010:-
(1 to 5) I to 3 = Light wound, continue with no effect.
4 to 6 = Wound - Pilot; minus I Level Band to climbs, NO aerobatics except Side
Slips & Spins. Observer - Novice = no firing, others go down 1 status level.
7 to 9 = Serious wound - Pilot; Forced Landing with additional effects of wound.
Observers = No firing.
10 = End of Innings Old Chap; Your dead.
4 (6) Controls Damaged; Forced Landing with increased turning circles, ie. Small to Medium
or Medium to Large
5 (7) Controls bit; Roll 1010 and see 4 or 5 in the 'Fusilage Hit section above.
6 to 10 (8 to 10) No effect.
1 Explode into flames.
2 Serious Leak - On Fire. 3 moves to attempt to put it out by Side Slipping and dropping
1 Level Band (throw 1010 per move and a score of 1 to 3 puts the fire out).
If DOt extinguished plane shot down in flames, if put out then plane makes a Forced
Landing as 'Tank Leaking' below.
3to5 Tank Leaking, switch off and leave the fight fast. Head home avoiding all combat. no
firing over the engine. can attempt to re-start engine by rolling IDlO:- 1 = Plane
explodes. 3 to 7 = Plane catches fire. roll each move.
6 to 10 No effect.
I Destroyed - Crash out of control.
2 Severe Damage - Forced Landing.
3 Damaged - Engine dead; glide home.
4or5 Minor Damage - Engine miss-firing. 3/4 speed and minus 1 Level Band on climbs. No
small turns, Immelmanns, Inverted Split S, Loops or Overclirnbs.
6 to 10 No effect.
1 Destroyed - Crash out of control.
2 Severe Damage - Forced Landing.
3 Damaged - Glide home.
4or5 Minor Damage - As for 4 or 5 in ENGINE section above.
6 to 10 No effect.

If attacking multi-engined planes, ie. Gotha's, determine hits as usual, except for + I for attacking a big target;
and use the following Damage Table:-

Dice Score Result

1 Main Spar broken -, Crash out of control.
2or3 Control Surfaces - Roll 1010:-
Odds - Aileron: half speed in all turns.
Evens - Elevators: no climbs, maximum dive = 1 Level Band
4 to 10 No Effect.
I Crew Member Hit - roll 1010;-
1 = Pilot hit.
2 to 7 = Nearest Observer hit.
8 to 10 = Furthest Observer hit.
Wounds as previously.
2 or 3 Controls Hit - roll IDIO:-
1 = Crash
2 = Forced Landing
3to6 = Ailerons hit :- see above section.
7 to 10 = Elevators hit:- see above section.
4 to 10 No effect.
lto3 Crew Member Hit - rolllDIO as above section.
4 to 10 No effect.
1 Explode - Crash in flames.
2 Serious Damage - on fire; see Fuel Tank Hit section 2 in the previous table.
3 Minor Damage - Tank leaking; see Fuel Tank Hit 3 to 5 in the previous table.
4 to 10 No effect.
1 Nearest Engine on fire - see Fuel Tank Hit section 2 in previous table.
2 Nearest Engine dead - half speed in turns, No climbs.
3 Nearest Engine Miss-firing - No effect unless hit again when 1 isdeducted from the
Damage Dice Score.
4 to 10 No effect.
1 Nearest Propellor Destroyed - half speed in all turns.
2 or 3 Nearest Propellor Damaged - No effect unless hit again then it is destroyed.
4 to 10 No effect.

1) 2 successful hits on Airelons = a Forced Landing.
2) 2 successful hits on Elevators = Crash out of control.
3) If both engines or propellors are destroyed (or 1 from each side) = Crash out of control.
4) Dead engines which are hit again catch fire.

During 1 patrol all strains and damage to the aircraft or wounds to its crew are '

WOUNDS 2 Light Wounds = I wound

2 Wounds = Serious wound
Serious Wound & Light Wound = Dead ie. 3 wounds or 6 light wounds.

DAMAGE 2 Strains = Minor damage

_ 2 Minor Damage = Forced Landing
Forced Landing & Minor Damage = Crash out of control, ie 3 minor damages

Effects of wounds on the pilot and damage to the plane combine to effect the handling of the aircraft:-
1 Light Wound = I Strain
1 Wound = Minor Damage
Serious Wound = Forced Landing


Light Wounds = No effect
Wounds = Miss 3 patrols or drop 1 Status Level for 4 patrols.
Serious Wounds = No flying for 7 patrols while at Casualty Clearing Station.
Return at 1 Status Level lower, unless Novice, for 2 patrols.
Strains = Repaired before the next patrol.
Minor Damage = Repaired by the following day.
Serious Damage = Repaired in 2 Days.
(or Forced Landings)

Observation Balloons can be used up to a height of 4000ft. (Level Band 4). TItey rise at a rate of 2 Level Bands
per move, and descend at a rate of 1 Level Band per 2 moves.
Balloons can be destroyed by normal ammunition, ttacer or Prieur rockets.
T0 hit measure the range as usual and roII 1020 per gun or rocket fired:-
Min. Dice Score/Firers Status
Range Ace & Average NoVIce
o to 50 3 4 4 KI1t'"
51 to 100 5 6 7
101 to 150 7 8 10
151 to 200 9 10 12

To hit with rockets (which have a range of l00mm) add 8 to each number in the above table.
Roll 1010 per gun or rocket hit and the Balloon is destroyed if the dice score is:-
1 For normal ammunition
1 to 3 For tracer ammunition
. 1 to 5 For rockets.

Remember, balloons had very heavy anti-aircraft defences that were difficult to penetrate, game organisers
sbould take this into account. See Anti-Aircraft Fire.

Attacking ground targets can only be attempted at Level Band I, the plane is assuriled to be at the same level as _
the target.
If the plane has dived down to Level Band I previously in the move then it is considered to be a diving attack,
but with a maximum range of lOOmm.
Range is measured from the attackers Support Wire to the centre of the target. The chances of hitting is as in
aerial firing but with no additions exceptJor + I for diving and +2 for target stationary (if applicable).

Possible targets for destruction by gunfire are:-

Grounded planes and crews (a really Hunnish thing to do).

Single vehicles - Staff Cars, Lorries, AA Trucks etc.
Artillery or AA Guns, MG nests etc. (if multiple gun positions then dice for which gun is hit).
Trains;- Pilot can choose which car he is aiming at and rolls 106:-
I or 2 he hits the car in front.
3 or 4 he hits the chosen car.
5 or 6 he hits the car behind.

When strafing camps, columns of men or vehicles, or the lines etc . only general disorder or scattering of troops
could be observed by the pilots, actual effects would not be known.
Roll 1010 per gun firing and consult the following tables:-

Dice Score Vehicle Single Gun Train Engine (Speed 9OKph)

I Explodes in flames Explodes Boiler damage, max speed 6OKph.

2 Overturned Fires at 112 effect Slows by 30Kph plus lOKph per move after
3 Damaged for 3 moves Out of action for -30Kph for 3 moves.
3 moves
4 or 5 Damaged for 2 moves Out of action for -30Kpb for 2 moves
2 moves
6 or 7 Damaged for I move Out of action for -30Kpb for I move
1 move
8 to 10 No visible effect

Train cars are de-railed (eXplodeif ammunition cars) on a dice score of 1.

High Level or Strategic bombing by Zepplins or Gotha's etc. is beyond the scope of this game, but Low Level
bombing by two seaters or scouts can be incorporated for attacking gun positions, aerodromes, camps etc.
To bomb a target the plane must approach in a straight line, towards the target in the preceding move, during
which it can dive. It must pass directly over the target. As soon as it has passed the target it can fly as normal.
Bombs can be dropped singly, in pairs, or all at once. Scouts, generally, only carried 2 to 4 bombs, two seater~
4 to 12.
Early bombs were hand held and simply dropped out of the cockpit, later bombs were
held in racks under the fusilage or wings.
The height and speed of the plane will affect the accuracy. For a chance of a hit on:- Individual buildings,
Multiple Gun Emplacements (up to 4 guns), Cross Roads etc. roll 1020 and obtain a score equal or greater
than the number shown 10. the fi0 IIOWIng
. Table:-
Hetght SPEED - up to in Kph.
in Feet 100 150 200 250

1000 10 12 14 16
2000 IS 16 17 18
3000 17 18 19 20

For single guns, MG Nests etc. add 3 to the numbers above.

For large area targets, ie. Camps, Towns, Airfields etc. Deduct 5 from the above.
For moving targets add 5 to the numbers above.

If the plane makes multiple bomb runs on the same target then deduct 2 from the above numbers per run after
the first.


Roll 10 I oI per bomb hit:-

IJIAND HELD BOMBS I Target destroyed.
20r3 Target Damaged - Guns etc. may take no action for 3 moves.
4to6 Light Damage to target - Guns etc may make no action next move.
7 to 10 No effect on the target.
iRACKED BOMBS I Target destroyed.
2 Heavy Damage to target - Guns etc out of action for I full day.
3or4 Target Damaged - Guns etc. may make no action for the rest of the
50r6 Light Damage to the target - Guns etc . may make no action for 3
8 to 10 No effect on the target.

The table aoove is for smaller bombs, 25lbs Cooper or French IOKg. as carried by most later scouts.
For the larger bombs, 1121bs etc. Deduct I from the Dice Score.

Generally this is carried out by 2 Seaters.
The spotting aircraft must stay within 300mm of the target, and follow the same route, at a constant height.

During the first full move over the target the crew will observe
the initial ranging shot and then radio back corrections.
In the second move more shells arrive and the crew dice
for accuracy. If not on target then further <:orrections are
radioed back and this continues each move until a hit is
achieved. Once on target the full battery opens up, the
spotting plane can then stay to observe until the target
is destroyed if required.
Accuracy If at or below 7000ft (Level Band 7), roll 106.
To hit a target with the first corrected fall of shells requires a 1 score.
For subsequent moves add 1 to the required dice score per move: ie. 2nd move requires a
2(or less) , 3rd move requires a 3 etc.
If over 7000ft (Lavel Band 7) but under 13,OOOft. (Level Band 13) use a DIO instead of
the D6, but otherwise the scores required are as above.
Over 13,OOOft there is no spotting possible, too far up to be accurate.
Destruction If over a target that requires observed destruction roll1D6:-
First move requires a score of 1 to achieve destruction.
Subsequent moves add I per move to the required score.

Spotting cannot be carried out whilst dog-fighting, avoiding enemy aircraft action or changing course and level
. to avoid AA fire. If chased away the spotter can return and carry on where he left off.

AlSo to be used for general visual reconnaissance patrols.
There are two basic Photographic Patrols:-
1) Strip Photographs
This is where a long strip of terrain is photographed in over-lapping sections,
ie. trenches.
2) Pin-Point Photography
This is where a certain terrain feature or map reference only is photographed.

1. Strip Photographs
The plane flies within 50mm of the required area at a maximum height of 7000ft. (level Band 7), height may
be designated by the Umpire or a dice roll. The length of the ground to be photographed may be described by
map references (ie.dimensions from table comer) or from a set point for so many moves.
One photograph is taken per undisturbed move, they must be taken all at the same level. They cannot be taken
whilst dog-fighting or avoiding enemy aircraft, but they can be taken through AA fire as long as the plane stays
within 50mm of required area and level.
If disturbed, or frightened off, the plane can return and carry on from where it left off.

2. Pin-Point Photographs
The plane must pass directly over the target at a maximum height of 7000ft. (Level Band 7), or at designated
height, flying straight and level for one full move before-hand (as for Bombing).
If disturbed it must try again.

Note:- reconnaissance planes have deductions for spotting other aircraft.

All Close Escort Fighters, ie. German Halberstadt CLD, or any scout when acting as close protection for
Observation or Photographic patrols are to stay within 300mm horizontal distance, with a maximum height
difference of 6000ft (6 Level Bands) of their charges, with no intervening clouds, until contact with enemy
aircraft is made. It is assumed that they are in visual contact from the start of the game unless a rendezvous is

The pilot of the escort fighter is assumed to keep an eye on his charge and therefore cannot observe the
surrounding sky as much as usual, hence the deduction in Target Acquisition.

Planes are considered to be flying in formation when, on the same course, within 200mm of each other and
with a maximum height difference of 1 Level Band between each plane.

Any cloud cover, partial or full, obscures the ground forcing any recce planes to fly below it. The clouds can
be at any level and of any thickness.
Any planes passing through a cloud is obviously flying 'blind'. This can be simulated by the player moving out
of sight of the table and stating his intentions to the Umpire, if there is one, who moves the model accordingly.
Frequently planes got lost in clouds and did not always come out in the intended direction, this can be up to the
Umpire, or the player can rolllD6 per move:-

Dice Score Result

1 Medium Turn Left

2 Large Turn Right
3 or 4 Straight on
5 Large Turn Left
6 Medium Turn Right

Remember what few instruments they had were unreliable and inaccurate.


As part of the game scenario Anti-Aircraft batteries can be placed as desired, ego guarding observation balloons
or artillery batteries, bridges etc.
AA Batteries consist of between 4 to 12 guns, dependant on the targets importance.
These batteries should be controlled by a player on each side, who should not be able to see the Height
Indicator Discs of any aircraft.
Guns have a maximum horizontal range of 250mm
for AA artillery, and 200mm for machine gUDS.
Vertical levels are divided as follows:-
Low Level - Level Bands 1 to 5
Medium Level - Level Bands 6 to 10
High Level - Level Bands 11 to15
Very High Level - Level Bands 15 to 20

Machine guns have a maximum height range of

Level Bandsl to 3.

The player controlling the planes; or the Umpire,
should give the AA controlling player an indication
of which Level Zone the plane is flying in.

The AA Controller, or gunner, at the beginning of the

move, before movement takes place, makes a note
of which levels he wishes the shells to explode in at the
end of the move.

To determine th accuracy of the height activated fuses.

roll 1010 for each gun firing:- .
Dice Score Resu t

I to 3 Shell explodess I Level Band lower than planned.

4to6 Shell explodes in the level planned.
7 to 9 Shell explodes 1 Level Band higher than planned.
10 Dud - Shell fails to explode.

All planes in the same Level Band, within horizontal range (250mm of the gun), as an exploding shell are at
risk. Dice to determine which plane has a chance of being hit.
Each she II can cause up to 2 hi ts on one piIane- RoII 106 -
Height Level Dice Score

7 8 9 10 11 12
lto5 1 Hit 2 Hits 1 Hit 1 Hit 1 Hit 1 Hit
6 to 10 1 Hit 2 Hits 1 Hit 1 Hit 1 Hit
11 to IS 1 Hit 2 Hits 1 Hit 1 Hit
16 to 20 I Hit 2 Hits 1 Hit

A blank square or scores leu than 7 are misses.

If a hit or hits are achieved determine any damage as for shooting, determining areas and damage as normal.
Note:- Machine gun fire or any ground fire from infantry, will always be calculated within Levels 1 to 5, but
the target plane must be at Level 3 or lower.


When passing over the trenches, another hot-bed of AA fire, there is a risk of being hit by normal artillery
If flying across, or down, within 200mm either side of the lines at, or below, Level Band 10, then roll 1020.
and on a result of 1 the plane is hit by a howitzer shell and instantly destroyed. Roll at the beginning of t:aCh
move that the aircraft is in this danger area.

.&A:> ... _,... "' .... I

This is the term we are using to describe pilots who are in the same mould as Richthofen. Ball or Guynemer.
The truly exceptional pilots who became the heroes of the age, amassed large numbers of victories to their
credit, the natural flyers.
They were, of course, rare considering the number of pilots involved, so should be as rare in your games.

If, when dicing for the pilOt's Status an Ace is obtained, then the player may roll again to see if he is an Ace of
Aces. A roll of 1 on a D 10 is required.

To obtain an Ace of Aces category during a campaign type game, or for that matter a single game, a total of 12
victories are required, Forced Landings do not count as victories in this respect.

Ace of Aces adjusts the Aircraft Stats as follows:-

Maximum Speed +lOKpb

Ceiling + 1 Level Band
Maximum Climb + 1 Level Band
Maximum Dive + 1 Level Band
Turns When flying Single Seat Fighters they only use the SMALL TURNS to the left
and right.


Aircraft Max Max Max . Max Turning Circles Notes
Name Speed Ceiling Climb Dive Left Right
Kph in Feet Levels Levels

Airco DH2 150 14,000 2 3 Small Large S
Airco DH4 190 IS,OOO 2 3 Medium Medium FR.B
Airco DH5 165 16,000 2 3 Large Small S -
Bristol Scout 150 16,000 2 3 Large Small S
Bristol Fighter
F2B(Arab Eng) 170 16,000 2 3 Medium Medium FR
F2B(RR Eng) 200 20,000 3 4 Medium Medium Fr
Nieuport 11 155 15,000 3 2 Large Small as
Nieuport 17 175 17,000 3 2 Large Small as
Nieuport 24 ISO 21 ,000 3 2 Large Small as
Nieuport 27 175 21 ,000 3 2 Large Small as
Nieuport 28 195 17,000 3 2 Large Small as
-Saulnier Al 210 22 ,000 3 4 Large Small S
R.A.F . BE2c 115 10,000 I 2 Medium Medium cR
R.A.F. FE2b 145 14,000 1 2 Medium Medium FR. B
R.A.F. RES 165 13,000 2 3 Medium Medium R
R.A.F . SES ISO 18,000 2 3 Medium Medium S
R.A.F. SESa 190 19,000 2 3 Medium Medium S
Sopwith 1112
Strutter 165 13,000 2 3 Medium Medium cFE
Sopwith Pup ISO 19,000 2 3 Large Small S
Sopwith Tri IS5 20,000 3 4 Large Small as
Sopwith Camel
(Clerget Eng) 175 IS,OOO 2 3 Large Small S
(Le Rhone Eng) IS5 24,000 3 4 Large Small bS
Sopwith Dolphin 205 22,000 2 3 Medium Medium S
Sopwith Snipe 200 19,000 3 4 Large Small S
Spad 7(150hp) 190 IS,OOO 2 4 Medium Medium S

Spad 13
Spad 7(IS0hp) 210
21 ,000
Vickers FBS 115 9,000 1 2 Medium Medium S

8AIsr..<- h';H-e~

Max Max Max. . Max TW'IIina Circles Notes
Name Speed Ceiling
Kph in Feet
Left I

' ' ....... IN'

A.E.G. CIV 160 16,000 2 3 Medium Medium R
Albatros cvn 170 16,000 2 3 Medium Medium R
Albatros OW 17S 17,000 2 3 Medium Medium S
AlbatrosOm 17S 18,000 2 3 Medium Medium S
Albitros OVNa 190 20,000 2 3 Medium Medium S
Aviatik DI ISS 20,000 2 3 Medium Medium S
O.F.W.CV ISS 16,000 2 3 Medium Medium R
Fokkcr Ell 130 11,000 1 2 Large Small S
FokkcrEm 140 11,000 1 2 Large Small S
FokkcrDrI ISO 20,000 3 3 Large Small bS
(Men:. Eng) ISS 19,000 2 3 Medium Medium S
(B.M.W. Eng) 190 23,000 3 4 Medium Medium bS
Fokkcr OVIII 20S 20,000 3 4 Large Small bS
GoUlaGIVIV 14Q 21,000 1 2 Large Large dB
HalberstadtCLD 17Q 17,000 2 3 Mec;lium Medium FE
Hannover ClJIIa 165 24,000 2 3 Medium Medium FE
LFG Roland CII 165 1)",000 2 3 Medium Medium R,FE
PfalzOIDa 165 17,000 2 4 Medium Medium S
RumplerCIV 170 21,000 2 3 Medium Medium R
S-Schuckert om ISO 26,000 4 S Large Small bS
S-Schuckert DIV 190 26,000 4 5 Large Small bS

a = Climb third Levd Band free with DO deduction in speed. ie. climb 1 Levd Band -SOmm, climb 2 or 3
Level Bands - l00mm.
b,.. Deduct 2Smm from the maximum movement for each Level Band climbed and NOT 50mm.
c = When used as a Bomber then .DO oI?server was carried, only the pilot.
d = Has a third gun which fires downwards from the rear observer position, this gun is the only gun, in the
game, that can fire down into the next Levd Band below, within an arc of 45 degrees to the rear, either
side of the planes centre line.

S = Scout or Fighter. FE = Fipter-Escon.

FR = Fighter-Reconnaissance. B = Bomber..
R - Reconnaissance Aircraft, - Artillery observation, photographic etc.

When two-seaters are used as bombers, whilst tbcy have the bombs on board. deduct 40Kph from their
maximum speed, 4000ft from their maximum Ceiling and 1 Levd Band from their maximum Climb and Dive
rates. This does not apply to Gotbas, or similar multi~ncd purpose built Bombers. or to the R.A.F. BE2c
(as the bombs replaced the observer). .
Similar !lCtiustiDeJ)tscan be made as appear suitable if you wish to use some of the variations or experimental
weapon layouts that were used at the time,"."ii. iinmelmann's 3 gun Fokker EIII. or the multi-gunned Morane-
Saulnier LA PIlruol described in Cecil Lewis's 'Sagittarius Rising'.

If you wish to use aircraft not covered in the previous listings then determining Stats is quite simple.

First find the planes maximum speed in kilometres per hour, (m.p.h. x 1.61 = Kph), and its maximum Ceiling
in feet, and you are a third of the way there.

To determine the Turing Circles required look at the plane, if it has 2 or more engines then use the Large turns
both ways, if it has an in-line engine, ie.'long straight one, or 2 occupants then use the Medium turns both
ways, The only confusion likely to occur is if the plane has a rotary engine, ie. short round one. These engines
were unusual in so much as the entire engine span around a stationary crankshaft, the propellor being simply
bolted to the engine, this created a lot of 'torque' ~ the direction of the engine's spin, and this 'torque"affected
the turning abilities of the plane (end of technical bit). So a rotary engined single seater will have a Small turn
one way, aided by the engine, and a large turn the other, hindered by the engine. As the vast majority of
engines span to the right and only the early planes were pushers, most rotary engined aircraft will make Small
Turns to the right and Large Turns to the left, but pushers, ie, those with the engines at the back, will do the
opposite, Large to the right and Small to the left, as would a plane fitted with an engine spinning to the left,
unless of course it is a pusher.......

The Climbing and Diving capabilities have been worked out by taking an average of 2 Level Bands going up
and 3 Level Bands coming dOwn and then adjusting this to suit particular aircraft. The earlier ~r-powered .
planes could not climb or dive particularly well, hence the poor figures, but a good guide is the maximum
speed, if it is 150Kph or lower then the maximum Climb is 1 and the maximum dive is 2. This also applies to
any multi-engined aircraft. For other later planes the figures are adjusted to suit their reputations, ego the
Nieuports were renowned for shedding wiDg fabric if it dived bard but were good at climbing, whilst the
Siemans-Schuckerts could climb nearly twice as fast as most other aircraft. Normally any aircraft known to
climb well should have 1 additional Level Band free of movement deduction as in No~ 'a' above, only
exceptional climbers should get the reduction movement penalty of 25mm per Level Band.itlimbed.

The maximum Dive is generally 1 Level Band greater than the Climb due to the effects of gravity but, again, is
adjusted to suit the planes reputation, ego the Spads and Pfalz were well known for their ability to out dive
most other planes.

We hope this is simple enough to follow and will aid you in the creation of your Air Forces.

Fighting the Flying Circus. Capt. Edie V. Rickenbacker.

Five Years in the R .F.C. Maj. James T. B. McCudden .
Flying Minnows. 'Roger Vee' (Viviav Voss).
No Parachute ArthUr G. Lee.
Observer A. J. Insall.
Sagittarius Rising Cecil Lewis.
The Red Baron Manfred von Richthofen.
Winged Warfare Lt.Col. William A. Bishop

Brief Glory, the life of Arthur Rbys Davids Alex Revell.

The Great War in the Air Vols 1 to 4 Flight Sub-Lt Edgar Middleton.
German Aircraft of the First World War P. Gray & O. Thetford.
The Aeroplanes of the Royal Flying Corps. J. M. Bruce.
Fighters 1914-1919 (Blanford Press) Kenneth Munson.
Bombers 1914-19189 (Blanford Press) Kenneth Munson.
German War Birds Kenneth Munson.

The Bandy Papers - Vols 1 to 4 Donald Jack.
Goshawk Squadron & War Story Derek Robinson.

TheBlu Max
Dawn Patrol
Aces High

and not forgeting the all time great 'BIGGLES'.

Dogfight Over Flanders - QUICKPLAY RULES
Speed -IKph of speed = Imm of movement, minimum movement 50mm.
Climbs -Deduct 50mm per Level.
Dives - No deduction
Aerobatics, Bombing, Reece etc. as main rules.

FIRING Shooting Jams

Attacker Target Roll 10\0:- Roll 106 per gun firing
Ace Veteran Average Novice
Ace 5 4 j 2 + I Diving Attack 1 = Gunjammed
Veteran 6 5 4 3 + 1 Within lOOmm 2to6=OK
Average 7 6 5 4 + 1 Attacking Gotha Clearing Jams - Roll 11>6
Novice 8 7 6 5 +2 Attacking 1st Attempt = 5 or 6
Balloons 2nd Attempt = 4 to 6
AREA OF IDT - Damage - RoD 1D6

Dice Score Area Hit Dice Score DaIlllIe
lor 2 Fusilage 1 Observer Hit, if carried, otherwise pilot hit.
2 Controls Hit - Plane crashes.
3 Controls Hit - Plane forced to land.
4to6 No Effect
3 Cockpit lor 2 Pilot Hit - Throw again:- lor 2 = Lt Wound,
3 or 4 = Severe Wound (head for home).
5 0,' 6 = Dead (End of Innings Old Chap).
3 Controls Hit - Plane forced to land.
4 to 6 No Effect
4 Fuel Tanks lor 2 Tanks Explode - Plane crashes.
3 to 6 No effect.
5 Engine I Destroyed - Plane crashes.
2 or 3 Damaged - Plane forced to land.
4to6 No Effect.
6 Propellor I Destroyed - Plane crashes.
2 or 3 Damaged - Plane forced to land.
4 to 6 No Effect

If forced to land then roll 106: Dice Score Result

lor 2 Land on enemy side of the lines.
30r4 Land in No Mans land.
5 or 6 Land behind own lines.
Aircraft can Overdive I extra Level Band than that shown in the lists, but throw ID6 for risk,
and if a 1 is scored than throw again:-
Dice Scor Result
1 Crash
2 or 3 Forced Landing
4to6 Airframe Strained - cannot overdive again this patrol.
INITIATIVE:- I) Anti-Aircraft ranging Novice. Average, Veteran. Ace.
Roll 106. bighest score 2) Target acquisition To determine Status rolllDlO:-
deciding to move first 3) Movement 1 to 3 = Novice 4 to 7 = Average
or second 4) Shooting 8 or 9 = Veteran 10 = Ace
5) AA Fire results Novice crew become Average after 2 patrols or
6) Bombing and downing 1 enemy aircraft (EA). Average become
Straffing etc. Veteran after downing 2 EA. Veteran become Ace
after downing 3 EA. ie.min victoreis for Ace = s.
Roll2D6. add scores. Check each target against this score:- SPIN RECOVERY INDICATOR
Determine distance in metres (rounded up). and add diference
in levels. ie. 1.2 m = 2. 17000ft - 12000ft = 5 levels = 2+5 = 7. Original direction.. 2
The target is seen if the total is equal or greater than the dice roll. of fRght 9"
+1 -1
Spotter is a Veteran. Spotter is a Novice.
Target at same level or fired Spotter in formation not leading. 8t---*- 4
Group of 3 planes( + 1 per add'L Target directly behind. same level.
3 p1aoes in group)
+2 -3
Spotter is an Ace Spotter fired in oWDIenemies last move
Target fired at 300m or "Archie" Involved in highllow level recce.
at any distance. Pilot on escort duty.
+5 -5
Target in specified area. or within Artillery spotting or low level photo recce
500m of bait p1aDe. Target directly behind or in Sun.

. -.AEROBA.TICS --.-, ' : ..._ of ;- INYEiliQ "S" _~

Rotate arCU1d ' -, ' -" ". ~~
this point . ~

50nIn ) climb 1 Iovol
~ crop 1 level
or 2 levels ~I
I 50mm Rotate around
thIs point


~~~ : 1/4 move

1/2 move
1/4 move ~ : _~~) ..... l.v.
"Rotate around
rIght this point


undamaged FOKKER DVll
~ ~ ~~
r- 50mm ACES VETS only

~ t~
2nd move
drop 1 level ( ...II!!!!!L.
.. 'l::.._ -FfI 50mm same level
5!M .:,

~.~. around
---.. r'--- Rotate around
son:~~ this poInt this point
Dice required per gun Guns have 2 chances of being cleared.
Test to clear jamss D6 Roll lD6 per gunjammed:- FIRST attempt requires a 5 or 6
Test for jams DI0 SECOND attempt requires 4, 5 or 6
Firing D20 If both attempts fail, gun jammed for rest of patrol.
Area of bits D6 JAMS:- Roll lDIO per gun firing:-
Damage DI0 1 = Jammed.
2 = Partial jam, cleared during move, fire at half effect
by doubling Damage dice roll;- Guns cleared that move
do NOT test again for jamming that move.
Measure range from firers support to the edeg of the target Height Indicator Disc.
Compare the firers and targets pilots Crew Status and roll I D20 per gun firing.

(mm) VET v NOV VET v AVE
AVE v NOV + 1 Large target or from above
or directly behind.
o to 50 3 9 4 8 5 7 6 + 2 Fixed gun fire passes through
51 to 100 5 11 6 10 7 9 8 support wire.
101 to 150 7 13 8 12 9 II 10 or stationary target.
151 to 200 9 15 10 14 11 13 12 or firer undetected.
-2 Target in a spin (not due to stall).
Higher Status Pilot/Observers Minimum required dice score.

AIMING AT CREW :- Add 12 to
1O~ minimum required score, or 10 if
undetected. Do not add any bonus, Lower
Lower Status Pilot/Observers Minimum required dice score scores in brackets on damage table.

. AREA OEJUT -;- ot re<J....-uired if ~crew;.:.... Roll W6 err bit... _

_~ -~~~" 0-.""",
- t-

Area Hit Fusilage Wings Cockpit Fuel Tank Engine Propeller -. ~ ~~~,/'-}
Dice Score 1 2 3 4 ~ 6 n .;:,.
"- ''< ~~


Die Roll Result Die Roll Result Die Roll Result
1 Observer bit (if any), or Pilot, 1 to 3 Pilot or Observer, Roll 1010:- 1 Explode in flames.
(see c(}~l<:pit hit) (1 to 5) 1 to 3 = Light Wound. 2 Serious leak, On fire, 3 attempts to
2 Controls wrecked, crash out of 4 to 6 = Wound, PILOT, -1 level extinguish, Roll I, 2 or 3 on lD 10.
cO'"trol. to climbs, no areobatics Side Slip, Drop 1 level per move.
3 Controls damaged, Land using except side slips/spins. If put out then forced landing.
large turns only. OBSERVER, Novice no If not put out then crash in flames.
4 or 5 Controls Hit, minor damage, firing, others downgrade 3 to 5 Tank leak, switch off engine, head
Roll lDlO:- 1 Status. home, no firing over engine.
ODDS = Elevator hit -1 level 7 to 9 = Serious Wound, PILOT; To restart engine RolllDlO;-
to all climbs & dives, forced landing with I = Explode
no Aerobatics except wound effect. 2 to 7 = Caught fire, can attempt
side slips. OBSERVER; no firing. to put out each move.
EVENS = Airelons Hit, enlarged 10 = End of Innings - DEAD6 to 10 No effect.
turning circles, ie. 4 (6) Controls damaged, forced landing
Small becomes medium. increased turning circles, ie. small ENGINE
6 to 10 No effect to medium. 1 Destroyed, Crash.
5 (7) Controls Hit, Roll 1D 10 and see 2 Severe Damage, forced landing.
PROPELLER ruSILAGE section 4 & 5. 3 Damage, glide home.
1 Destroyed, Crash. 6 to 10 No effect. 4 or 5 Minor Damage, mis-firing, 3/4 speed
2 Severe Damage, forced landing. (8 to 10) -1 level to climbs, NO small turns,
3 Damaged, glide home. lmmelmanns, inverted split S, loops
4 or 5 Minor Damage, as engine hit. or overclimbs.
6 to 10 No effect. 6 to 10 No effect.




09T + +


Pilot. Name Ie Rank:

Pilot Ability: Circle prellent NaUonality;

NOV AVE VET ACE Brit/Frog/Yank/Hun

Speed ce~ Ko: Ko: Kin Turn8 Gunll

kph=mm (1000' ClImb Dive Lett Rieht Pilot Obs

miD 60mm
stunt. (Ave's, Vet's Ie Ace's only)

1000tt ~

Pilot. Name Ie Rank;

Pilot Ability: Circle prellent NaUonality;

NOV AVE VET ACE Brit/Frog/Yank/Hun

Speed ce~ Ko: Ko: Kin Turn8 Guns

kph=mm (1000' ClImb Dive Left Rieht Pilot Obs

miD 60mm
stunta (Ave'., Vet'. Ie Ace'. only)
50mm [! lLEVEL
1000ft ~ 50mm)]~=
A Product of
Printed in England