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The Great Battles of the Napoleonic ~rs in Miniature
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Grande A,omee is a set of rules by which players can use miniature figures of any size or basing system to recreate the
famous, large-scale battles of the Napoleonic wars. In wargame parlance, it is "grand-tactical" in scope, in that players
command entire annies, moving whole corps and divisions on the table. The basic unit on the table-top is the brigade,
representing a few thousand soldiers. At this scale, of course, many things are ab tracted. We do not concern ourselves
with the actions of small groups of soldiers. Rather, we place ourselves in the roles of general, ordering thousands of
men to move, attack, or defend. And, like tho e general of history, we don't know whether or not our officers and men
are going to behave exactly as we hope or expect.
For maximum clarity, these rules are written in the order of the game's sequence of play. Whenever a new game
tenn or concept is introduced, it will be written for the first time in bold type. In some cases, when the "why" of a rule
would aid in comprehension, I have included a separate discu sion in an offset box. Each chapter is identified by a let-
ter, and each rule within that chapter by a number, so that players can quickly reference specific rules, such as: "D2.1."
After you have read the book all the way through, I have included a very brief, condensed version of the game in a
section called Eclaireur. (This was the French word for "scout," and in this four-page section you can quickly find the
information you need, without having to re-read entire chapters.) And finally, I have included an even more condensed
set of information - only the most frequently-used charts and tables - on cardstock, which you can affix to the edges
of your gaming table for quick reference.
Grande Annee does not follow a perfectly linear sequence of play. One sub-system in the rules relates to another,
which affects another, and so on. So it might be useful to make a copy of the sequence of play (found in :Eclaireur or on
page 8), and have it beside you as you read through this book for the first time.

This is the second printing. including errata. Differencesfrom the first printing are marked with the _ symbol.

Grande Annee is a registered U.S. Trademark name for the game of the great battles of the Napoleonic wars in minia-
ture. All material found herein is Copyright 2002 by Sam A. Mustafa. Except where explicitly noted, no part of this book
may be reproduced or transmitted in any fonn by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or oth-
erwise. All Rights Reserved.

Grande A rmee on the Web: www.sammustafa.comjgrandearmee.html

Grande Armee is published by Quantum Printing, 460 W. 34th Street, New York, NY 10001.
During the two years of its development, Grande Armee benefited greatly from the advice and counsel of
several "blind playtesters" who played the game without my presence:
In the United States, myoId friends and grognards Frank Buehren, Jr., Kevin Garber, Andrew Franke, and
their respective gaming clubs.
In Canada, Marc Rivet, who designed and playtested the Austerlitz scenario with his club. (This scenario is
available on the Grande Armee website. You can ask him how to spell "pzrbitschevsky.")
In Britain, Ian Wilson and Mark Urban provided much useful advice and counsel.
My own playtests were done with the Jersey Area Garners (JAG), and at the bunker-like headquarters of
the New York Wargamers Association (NYWA). I want to thank Dave Waxtel for inviting me to come teach
my game to these excellent players, who made a number of suggestions and refinements. In particular, I
thank Dino Diakolios, who scrutinized endless charts and tables, and did more than anyone to sharpen the
game's mechanics.

Artistic Credits
The photographs were taken by Mark Mosrie in Knoxville, TN. (
The line drawings were done by my wife, Theresa, who has been known to pick up a paintbrush from time
to time. Graphic design, computer art, and page layout were done by me.
Most of the 2smm figures appearing in the pictures were painted by me, but a substantial number of the
2smm Austrian figures were painted by DJD Miniatures, an excellent painting service and online store.
For more information, contact John Covello at John and his crew are fast, reason-
ably priced, and even send a digital photograph of the finished figures for your inspection, prior to com-
pleting the transaction.
The Ismm figures in the photographs were loaned to me by Craig Tyrell, who has recently taken over the
legendary "Mr. GAJO" painting service, now well into its second decade. GAJO has been providing fast,
reliable service to wargamers for so long it's hard to imagine the hobby without him: GAJO Enterprises,
8547 Senda Circle, Sandy, UT 84093. Email:

About the Author:

Sam A Mustafa is a professor of European history at Ramapo College of New
Jersey, where he teaches a course called "The Age of Napoleon." He became fas-
cinated by military history and wargames when he was a child, but didn't discov-
er miniatures until his early twenties. He hastily painted a handful of Napoleonic
Prussians and took them off to a local game. He 10 t. (Badly.) But it was the
beginning of a long love of the artistry, history, and fun of miniature wargaming.
Sam Mustafa has published one book and a number of historical articles. His
previous game designs include Battlegroup, Sabres, Usuthu!, The Spirit oj '76,
Monarch, Firelock, Myght and Magick, Comrades, and 1914. He lives in the New
York City area. He sold tho e Prussians, by the way.
Table of Contents
A. Setting up for Play 2 The Scenarios:
B. Playing the Game 8 Fuentes de Onoro 62
C. Weather 10 Aspern-Essling 67
D. The Command Phase 12 Friedland 75
E. Skirmishing 14 Waterloo 82
F. Artillery Fire 17
G. The Control Segment 20 Appendix One: Scales and Concepts 92
H. Movement 28 Appendix Two: Officer Listings 96
I. Combat 37 Appendix Three: Unit Type Listings 101
J. Things Fall Apart 44
K. The Rally Segment 47 Eclaireur 107
L. Victory 49
M. Special Cases 54
N. Optional Rules 58
A. Setting up for Play

1.0 E quipment Needed for Play The general idea is to keep the playing surface as pret-
To play Grande Annee, you will need the following: ty as possible by not having extraneous things on it,
it Six-sided dice. Having them in two different col- such as cardboard counters, pens or pencils, or even
ors can be very useful. Also, each army com- the dice.
mander should have a clear jar, with two white If you intend to play multiple-day battles or cam-
dice and one colored die. These are used for many paigns, you will also need an area set aside for keeping
rolls the army commanders must make. the units which have routed during the game, since
it Tape measures. these mayor may not recover and "come back" after
it Cardboard chits labeled "CP." A sheet of these has
the day of battle.
been provided; players should photocopy them to
cardboard and cut them out. There should be a 2.0 Basing Infantry and Cavalry
supply of about 100 of them on hand. These rep- Grande Armee u es standard base izes for all units of
resent "Command Points," and the players will a certain type. All infantry and all cavalry units are
spend them during the course of the game. mounted on 3" square base . Artillery units and offi-
it Two plastic cups. Any small, opaque containers cers are based differently, as will be explained later.
will do. They will hold each player's stash of CP A base of infantry or cavalry represents a brigade,
chits, out of sight of his opponent. or a grouping of several battalions or quadrons. There
it Some kind of markers to show broken units. For are, however, no rules for how many miniatures need
aesthetic purposes, the best thing is to paint some to be mounted on tho e base. You can choose any size
casualty figures, and mount them on small bases. and number of figures you like. We do away with the
But any sort of marker will do; poker chips, for notion that one figure represents any particular num-
instance, can fit the bill. ber of soldiers; it is the size of the base that matters.
it Rosters on which to mark hits for all the units in

a game. If playing a cenario included in this 2.1 Unit Labels

book, these have already been provided for you; Each infantry, cavalry, and artillery unit must have a
simply photocopy them and use on a clipboard unit label. These are pre-printed for you in the scenar-
with a pencil. ios that come with this book.
it Puffs of cotton serve nicely to designate which
Artillery unit lab els need only to convey the
units have fired. They can also be used to mark an identity of the Force to which this artillery belongs (II
artillery unit which has been suppressed. Corps, for instance), the size (in "poundage"), and type
(Foot or Horse) of artillery it represents:

IIV: 6-pdr Horse I

Infantry and Ca valry unit labels should include
the following information, in this order:
it Force / Divisional/Unit identity, as appropriate,

such as: 11/1/2 (II corps, 1st division, 2nd

it The name of the brigadier, or some identifying

characteristic of the unit, such as "Dragoons"

it Skirmish value (8 K). If the unit has a skirmish

value of zero, nothing will appear here.

it Mixed Brigade (MX). If the unit is a mixed

brigade (an infantry unit with some cavalry

attached), then the MX designation will appear
last on the label.

I11/1/2 Bourcier SK2 MX

Casualty figures, CP chits, and the "dice jar" with two

white dice and one colored die.
I IC/1/2 Cuirassiers
Setting up for Play"

2.2 Figures Based for Other Garnes

Here we see Grande Annee infantry units in 2 5mm, 15mm,
o you already have a large collection of miniatures for
and 6mm. The smallest figures allow for a kind of panoramic
the Napoleonic wars, probably ba ed to a different sys- effect, showing the different battalions deployed, with skir-
tem? Don't panic. No re-basing is required. mishers in front.
You will need to make some movement trays for The 15mm Spaniards, in the middle, are mounted for
Grande Armee. These are simply 3" squares of some- another popular game system, and have simply been placed
thing (cardboard, plastic, metal, whatever), spray- on top of a 3" square base to use in Grande Annee.
painted green. (Green cardboard framing matte works Those I 5mm figures were loaned to me by the excellent
" M r. GAlO" painting service. For more information, contact
nicely; it is cheap, easy to cut, and can be bought in any Craig Tyrell at: GAlO Enterprises, 8 547 Senda Circle,
color.) Sandy, UT 84093. Email: .

3.0 Basing Artillery Units

An artillery unit should be mounted on a base 1.5" wide Artillery units have only their I.D. and type, since
and 3" deep. (Optionally, Russian batteries may be all artillery have two SPs.
based 2" wide and 3" deep, if players agree.) Following this information is a long blank line,
In most armies, the uniforms of foot gunners were onto which players will mark changes in the unit's sta-
distinctive from horse gunners, but in case there is any tus as the game progresse . As a result of artillery fire,
confusion, the unit s label should also read "Foot" or combat, and other things, units will take Hits. Each
"Horse." Players should mount a single lsmm or hit reduces the unit's SPs by one. As the unit takes hits,
25mm gun on a base, with 2-3 crew figures. When mark its remaining SP on the line. When a unit's SPs
using 6mm figures, mount 2-3 guns, served by as many have been reduced to zero, it Breaks.
crew as you like. Use this line also to write an "R" (for 'routing') if a
unit breaks. If it Rallies , draw a circle around the R to
4.0 Using the Unit Rosters show that it has rallied. (It is important to keep track
In order to keep track of information about your units, of how many times a unit has broken and rallied.)
and to conceal that information from the enemy, It is best not to erase number on the roster, but
Grande Armee uses "ro ters." The rosters that come simply to keep adding new numbers, with the most
with the four scenarios in this book can be photocopied recent number showing the unit's current status. This
and kept on a clipboard. can avoid confusion and arguments, and can serve to
On the rosters, each unit has its identification confirm any disputes about a unit's condition, if neces-
(which matches the I.D. on its base), such as III/10/l sary.
(III Corps, 10th Division, 1st Brigade). Next is either
the name of the brigadier or some description of the See an example of a roster, on the following page.
troop-type (or both). Then the Morale class of the
unit is listed. There are six possible classes ranging in
quality: Guard, Elite, Veteran, Trained, Conscript, and
Raw. And finally the unit's Strength Points (SP ).
Setting up for Play

Unit Labels and Rosters

1st Division: pencer 2/7"
III Stoprord (Guards) Guards 9SP ~ 6
In Nightingale Elite 6SP II R
1/3 Howard Elite 7 P 5 ;, :2 (R) ~
1/4 Von Uiwe (KGL) Veteran SSP

On the left Is a typical inrantry unit, showing its label. Above,

we see a sample from a roster (in this case, from the British at
Fuentes de Oi'\oro.) Notice how, as the unit loses strength, you
write the new level of SPs on the roster, never erasing the pre-
vious number.
When the unit's SPs reach zero, mark the roster with an R,
for "routed." If the unit later rallies, then circle that R, and
write the new, rallied strength.
In this manner, SPs can wax and wane, with the roster serv-
ing as a record for each unit.
In the above example, Nightingale's brigade has routed,
but not rallied, while Howard's brigade routed, but rallied, and
now has 3 SPs.

5.0 The Two Kinds of Armies Here is an example of a Napoleonic army. There are three
army corps, each with three divisions:
For over a century, large armies had been organized
into sub-groupings only on the eve of a campaign or
battle. The units were then divided up amongst the
most senior commanders, hence the term "divi ions."
Therefore, the traditional European army had an army
commander, and then a number of divisions, varying
greatly in composition. Sometimes, in very large
armies, these divisions would be apportioned among
senior commanders as "wings" or "columns." The
French introduced a new system of army corps (corps
d'armee), which were permanent sub-groupings of a Here is an example of a Traditional army, with five divisions.
few divisions each: miniature armies which could fight The divisions are likely larger (containing more units) than a
on their own if necessary. Officers and staff were more division in a Napoleonic army:
or less permanently attached to each other, and
learned to work together more harmoniously. This sys-
tem was such an obvious improvement that by 1810
virtually all the major belligerents had adopted it.
(Britain was a notable exception.)
There are two kinds of armies that you might
encounter in the game. A Napoleonic Arm y uses the
corps system, as perfected by Napoleon, and later
adopted by mo t others. A Traditiona l Arm y bas an
army commander, and then a number of large divi-
Setting upfor Play e

The three types of officers: O n the left is an Army Commander (BlOcher, with Gneisenau and MOffling). In the center is a
SubCommander (the incom parablydressed Joachim Murat). And on the right a General (in this case, Grouchy - note the
handwrinen label, because he was deployed during the game.)

6.0 Officers on the Tabletop 6.1 Officers' Labels

In Grande Armee, all of the command figures are col- Officers should have labels on their bases. In addition
lectively called Officers. Officer figures represent a to the officer's name and command, there are ratings
leader and his headquarters staff. listed on the label. The army commander has a one-
Due to the differences in language, national sys- word rating called his Skill. Thi can be, from best to
tems, and ranks, Grande Armee u es its own generic worst: Great, Good, Average, or Poor. A sub-com-
terms for the different levels of command figure . Each mander will have a one-digit number, called his
side has an overall army commander, known hereafter Control Numbe r . He will then have a Radiu ,
as simply the Commander. Beneath him are the expressed as a number of inches. He might also have
Sub-commander , each of whom leads a Fo rce of any of the following: a (V) designating that he gives a
the army. Finally, under certain circumstances a play- bonus for Valor; and/or a P e r s onality rating
er can deploy Generals, who represent a lower rank expressed as either "Aggressive" or "Cautious." For
offield command: leaders of divisions, aides-de-camp, example:
artillery officers, etc.

For 2smmfigures:
I Lanoe (V) 1 / 16 "

The Commander should be mounted on a 3" square base, and

hould be surrounded by at least two aide .
I Bernadotte 4 / Cautious I
12 "

A Sub-commander should be mounted on a 2 square ba e,

with one aide.
I Ney (V) 3/ 4 " Aggre sive

A General is mounted by himself on a 11/2" square base. Valor bonus 7

For .1smm figures: Control Number
f RadIus Personality
(not all officers have
a note here.)
The Commander should be mounted on a 2" square base, and
should be surrounded by at least two aide .
A Sub-commander should be mounted on a 1 1/2 square 6.2 Sub-Commanders and Forces
base, with one aide. An army usually has several sub-commanders. A sub-
A General is mounted by himself on a 1" quare base. commander commands a large body of units, which we
call his Force (always capitalized). In a Napoleonic
For 6mm figures, use the lsmm base sizes, but feel free army, for instance, a Force would usually be a corp . In
to add more figures to the bases to give them a better a Traditional army, a Force would probably be a large
dioramic effect. division.
" setting upfor Play

The Napoleonic system was an improvement over the whole inch. (For example, if he has a radius multiplier
Traditional system in many ways. In game terms, we of 1.5, and his Force comprises 9 units, then his radius
represent the increased flexibility of the Napoleonic would be 14".)
system by allowing Napoleonic armies to create There are minimum and maximum allowable radii
Detachme nts and to deploy Ge n e ral . Only for sub-commanders, depending upon whether they
Napoleonic armies may deploy generals. are in Traditional or Napoleonic armies:

6.3 Establish the Number of Forces Traditional army N apoleonic army

in Each Army Sub-commander Sub-commande r
It is very important to establish before the game how Min: 3" Ma..x: 15" Min: 6" Max: 20"
many Forces (and thus, sub-commanders) exist in each
army. If playing a pre-made scenario, this information During the course of the battle, if units in his Force are
is already given to you. When designing your own sce- destroyed, the sub-com mander's radius does not
nario, make sure thi is clearly specified. Do cavalry decrease. If you are playing a scenario in which units of
corps count as Forces? If they are big enough to com- his Force arrive later on the field as reinforcements,
prise several units, yes. The decision will be yours you will have to expand his radius when they arrive.
when you design your own scenario. U e the scenarios Add the new arrivals to his original number of units,
included in this book as a guideline. even if some of those original units might no longer
Example: At Waterloo, Napoleon fielded the I, II, exist, and multiply the new total by his multiplier. A
and VI infantry corps, the Imperial Guard corps, and ub-commander's radius can increase, but it does not
the III and N caualry corps. Thus, Napoleon 's army decrea e during a day of battle.
at Waterloo comprises 6 Forces.
The number of Forces in the army might increase, 7.0 The Playing Surface
if reinforcemen arrive during the game. However, the Wargames are usually played on a flat tabletop that
number of Forces in an army neuer decreases. Even if assumes a basic "level" for the battlefield, which might
every single unit in a Force has been blasted to then include different levels of hills higher than that
smithereens and there is not a single living soul from base, or perhaps river valley or sunken roads lower
that Force still on the field , it is still counted for that than that base level.
day of battle. (If playing a multi-day battle, then a re- For each game, establish the "base level" of the
count of Forces will occur for the second day of battle, field . It should be the level of the table surface, itself, or
which is essentially another game.) the level with the majority of flat terrain. That is, in
game terms, "Level 0." A one-level hill thus rises to
6.4 Establish Ratings for Officers "Level One," and a two-level hill ri es to "Level Two,"
This book includes scenarios with all information etc. A sunken road or valley or riverbed might sink to
already provided to you: unit labels pre-printed with "Level -1," or even lower. All this should be clear to
information, and officers rated for that battle. If you both players at the outset of the game, unless you are
wish to design your own scenarios, however, you will using a referee, in which case it can be a lot more fun to
have to calculate values for the leaders you are depict- have the terrain slightly mysterious, so that the players
ing. The army commander will have to be given a Skill will blunder into it, just as real armies did. The referee
rating: Great, Good, Average, or Poor. The sub-com- can reveal idio yncrasies on the table as he sees fit.
manders will have to be given control numbers and The majority of most table-top battlefields consists
their radii calculated. Guidelines are in Appendix II. of "clear" terrain, which has no effect on movement or
combat. However, the battlefield might also have
6.41 Calculating the Radii of Sub- forests, roads, rivers, bridges, and built-up areas repre-
senting towns. For purposes of movement, there are
Commanders only three classes of terrain: 1) Clear, 2) Rough, and
A sub-commander has a Radius Multiplie r of 1.0 (if 3) Impa s able.
he is of "normal" ability), or 1.5 (if he and his staff are Impassable terrain, obviously, may not be moved
exceptionally skilled.) The radius multipliers for all across at all, by any units. This might include an
sub-commanders can be found in Appendix II. unfordable river or lake, or extremely rough ground.
Multiply the radius multiplier by the number of Rough terrain is anything that would slow and
units in the Force, and the result will be the sub-com- possibly disorder a moving unit: woods,
mander's radius, in inches. Round up to the nearest marsh/ swamp, crops, rocky ground, a ford in a river,
Setting up for Play .

etc. Rough terrain can have different effects on the dif- 8.0 Front, Flanks, Rear
ferent types of units. Infantry, for instance, can move From the comers of each
through woods more easily than cavalry, where the unit's base, imaginary
horses stumble on roots and the riders must duck out lines extend, dividing
of the way of branches. the space around that
In addition to terrain types are terrain Ob tac1es. unit into its front, flanks,
These would be thing which units do not occupy or and rear. The region
move through, but rather move across. These would stretching away from the
include walls, fences, hedge lines, or earthwork forts, unit's front is also
etc. These should also be made clear before the game. known as its "frontal
Some obstacles are completely impassable, while some perspective. "
are passable to infantry. Most obstacles are impassable It is often important to determine the position of
to artillery. enemy units relative to one's own. Does an enemy unit,
for instance, lie within your front, or is it on your flank?
7.1 Soft: and Hard Cover In many ca es, this will b obvious, but if you are not
Units may occupy various terrain or man-made fea- sure, extend those imaginary 4s-degree lines from the
tures which give them cover, either "soft" or "bard," corners of your unit, and determine how much of an
depending upon the type. These can be kept secret enemy unit's base lies within each perspective. If most
from one or both sides, if a referee is present, until of the enemy unit's base is within your flank perspec-
revealed by an action taken by one of the players (for tive, then that enemy unit i "on your flank."
instance, the attackers assault the chateau, only to real-
ize that it provides the defenders with hard cover.)
Without a referee, players should be clear up-front as
to what areas provide what type of cover.
Soft Cover is provided to units in earthen redoubts
or hasty trenches, wooden buildings, or by being com-
pletely in a forest or wooded area. Cover mean exact-
ly that; men's bodies are protected from fire. A wooden
fence, for instance, would not provide adequate cover.
Hard Cover is provided to units behind a stone
wall, in ide stone buildings, or behind fully prepared
defensive works.

In the diagram above, French unit 1 is near two

7.2 Towns / Built-Up Areas Prus ian units, A and B. Prussian A lies mo tly on 1's
The best way to simulate towns and built-up-areas is to flank; therefore A is said to be on l'S flank. Prussian B,
make cardboard square somewhat larger than a stan- however, lies mostly within l'S frontal perspective.
dard unit base: a 4" square, for instance. Paint the Therefore, Prussian B lies to 1's front.
square stone grey and then paint a brick pattern on it.
Onto this base you will place the miniature buildings of
the town, but when a unit enters the town area, remove 9.0 Pre-Measuring Distances
the buildings, and place the unit on the cardboard Player are always allowed to measure distances on the
base, centered so that only half an inch of "brick" is tabletop before they make decisions in the game.
showing all around. Only infantry may "occupy" a
town, meaning that they have started or ended their
movement on the town base. Others may move
Try to represent all towns or built-up-area this
way, using multiple town bases for larger towns. Each
base may fit one infantry unit, but no more. A large
town might have three or four bases, for instance.
At rtaht: A town "base" with the building model lifted away
to place an infantry unit on the base.
B. Playing the Game

Basic Concept 1.0 Pre-Game Preparation

A game of Grande Annee represents a single day of If players are playing a scenario written for this game,
battle. In a case where a battle lasts more than a single such as those provided in this book, then much of the
day, the game has a procedure to follow to represent pre-game preparation will already be done. The ratings
the transition from one day of battle to the next. A two- of the officers, the basic length of the game, and the
day battle would be, essentially, two games, one after weather effects will be noted. However, if players are
the other. devising their own cenario, then they will have to per-
The game divides the day of battle up into Turn . form these tasks prior to starting play.
These turns have a certain basic procedure, but no two The first step is give ratings to all the officers who
turns are alike. Each tum has a variable number of represent the army, corps, and divisional command-
Pulse . It is during these Pulses that the players take ers, and to ascertain the morale values and thus the
most actions, moving and fighting with their units. unit strengths for all units in play.
Furthermore, the day of battle has a randomly variable Second, the players should determine the weather
number of turns. The turns and pulses do not repre- conditions for the day of battle. Weather affects the
sent a specifically fixed amount of time; they repre- movement of units, combat resolutions, and the length
sent periods of activity, dependent upon human and of the battle.
natural variables.
Playing the Game e
1 . 1 Basic Length of the Game 3.1 Subsequent Initiative Rolls
One of the players hould determine the Ba ic When rolling for initiative for pulses after the first one,
Len gth of this game, in turns. Thi is done by rolling if the colored die roll a number equal to or less than
one die and adding it to the number associated with the number of thejust-completed pul e, then there are
the starting weather condition. (C1.l) For instance, if no more pulses. Proceed to the Rally egment.
the total is 8, then the players know that the day of bat-
tle this game represents will have at least eight turn . 4.0 Simultaneous Rally Segment
Players should write down or otherwise note this. At the end of the turn, both player carry out a Rally
Segment, making attempts to recover lost SPs and to
2.0 The Command Phase rally any broken units. Finally, any remaining CPs are
At the beginning of each turn, both sides simultane- discarded.
ou ly carry out a Command Phase. First, both players
check to see if any lightly-wounded officers have 5.0 E nding the Turn and/ or Game
returned to their duties (JS.2) This might affect the After one turn end, another begins. However, players
chain of command. Then, each of the two opposing should keep track of the number of turns as they pa s,
commanders rolls one die on the Command Table, and should note the game's basic length. At the end of
cro -indexing his roll with his Skill rating. The result . the turn whose number is equal to the basic length,
is a multiplier, which will give him the number of both players should roll two dice. If both players roll
Command Points (CPs) he will have available for equal to or less than the current turn's number, then
that entire turn. Each player should get that number of there are no more turns: the day of battle has ended,
CP chits and place them in his cup. These will be spent and it is time to move on to assessing victory, or if play-
during the tum for various things. ing a campaign or multi-day battle, to the procedures
Next in the Command Phase each player should for that.
roll two dice for Initiative. One pla y er s h o uld a lso Example: The basic length was established as 7.
r o ll a colored d ie. The player who won the initiative At the end of Turn 7, the game will end if both players
choo es whether he wishes to be the First Sid e or the roll seven or less. If not, then there will be another
Second Side in the upcoming Pul e. turn. At the end of that turn, they must both roll 8 or
less for the game to end. The game continues until the
3.0 The Pulses end ofa turn in which both players roll equal to or less
Much of what happens in each pul e will be explained than that tur'n's number.
in detail in subsequent chapters. We will quickly pre-
In most wargames, players know in advance how many turns
view it here. Both sides simultaneously resolve skir-
they will have to complete their missions, exactly what actions
mish attacks between their units which are close may happen in those turns, and in what order. By contraSt, in
enough to do so. They then simultaneously resolve any Grande Armfe there is no fixed time scale because a tum
artillery fire. Then, the first side player this pulse must might represent a furious fifteen minutes packed with action,
choo e which of his sub-commanders will receive com- or it might represent two hours of lull, depending upon how
mands. Those who do not must take control tests. players use time. Instead of representing a fixed division of
(Issuing commands costs CP chits, which are taken time, the tum represents a period of activity.
from the cup and "spent" in this fashion.) A control We should bear in mind that the entire concept of a
test might result in certain restrictions being placed on "tum" is an utterly artificial creation which has nothing to do
with the way that a battle unfolded. Time flows differently for
a Force for this pulse.
different people in different situations. We've all had the
Then the first side moves its units. When the first
experience of time flying by, or dragging by, depending upon
side has finished moving, any combats it has initiated our activities. Better organized people have a better command
are resolved. Next, the second side does the same of time, and are more efficient in their work. Better com
thing: issuing commands, taking control tests for sub- manders can do more things at once. They are (as one biog
commanders, moving units, initiating and resolving rapher of Wellington put it), good "battlefield managers."
combats. So, to summarize: whether the game lasts six turns or
After this, both ides simultaneously remove sup- eleven turns, it still represents a "day of battle." Some battles
pression markers from all artillery units. were more furious and fastmoving than others. Some were
Finally, both sides roll for initiative again. The cut short by exhaustion, or delayed by weather or ground
conditions, or by neither side wanting to get started just yeL
winner of this roll gets to choose whether he will be the
The game's day of battle mayor may not allow you to com-
first side or the second side for the next pulse.
plete your plans.
c. Weather
It was the Duke of Brunswick's wish, that the
whole army should be dmwn up in close order of
battle, and no important step taken until the fog
Historical Note had sufficiently dispersed .... MollendoTfinsisted
Weather is probably the mo t neglected aspect of that no time should be lost... and the army was
wargame rules, yet it was absolutely central to under- ordered to march in aduance, incommoded by a
standing how a battle was fought. Weather conditions mist that preuented the soldiers seeing objects
affected the way individual units performed, but also within twenty yards of them.
affected the judgment of the senior commanders.
Grande Armee tries to focu on the most important - Gneisenau, describing the Pruss ian deployment
impact of weather on command: the ability to see. The at Auerstadt
army commander's radius is dependent upon the
weather. The smaller his radiu becomes, the more
CPs he will have to spend to control distant Forces. 2.0 Visibility and the Army
Commander's Radius
1.0 Weather Conditions The weather conditions determine the visibility each
Grande Armee recognizes four basic weather condi- turn. This is used by sub-commanders when acting on
tions: Sunny, Normal, Overcast, and Precipitating. (If their own, to determine whether or not they can see
the temperature is above freezing, then precipitation the enemy. It is used by units, to determine visibility
will be rain. If below freezing, then now.) for artillery fire. T h e curr e nt vi ibiJity i als o each
arm y c omma nde r ' radiu .
1.1Weather Condition and the If the army (or wing) commander is on a Vantage
Game's Basic Length P oint, he may add 6" to his vi ibility, in any weather
The number as ociated with each starting weather condition. If there is currently Fog on the field, all
condition is al 0 the number used to determine the army or wing commanders must subtract 6" from their
game's basic length. If, for instance, the starting visibility limits.
weather is "Normal," then 3 will be added to a die roll, Note that the sub-commanders' radii were not
to determine the game's basic length, in turns. (See the dependent upon vi ibility, but determined by their
chart, below right.) multipliers.
The army commander's radius is based upon a
1.2 Variation visual limit, which determines the speed of his deci-
A scenario will specify the weather condition and sions (his use of CPs.) But a sub-com mander's radius
ground condition at game-start, but also should speci- is based on how well he can manage the forces under
fy whether or not there will be "variation." If there is no his command: a function of staff efficiency and his own
variation, then the weather and ground condition skills. There is only so much "front" that he can cover.
remain constant for the day of battle; nobody rolls to Units fight as compactly as possible in order to stay
change them at any point. However, if there is weath- coherent. Thus it is unlikely that a corps will be spread
er variation, then starting on the second turn, at the out thinly across a wide swath of battlefield. Instead,
beginning of the turn, one player should roll the dice to the sub-commander must have some depth in his
determine if the weather has changed. Roll all three deployment, some reserves.
dice together in the commander's jar. If the two white
dice roll doubles, then the weather has changed. 3.0 What Affects Visibility?
Consult the colored die. If the colored die is odd, then Visibility does not extend more than one inch through
the weather condition goes up one. If even, down one. woods or a town. An enemy unit 2" behind the edge of
"Up one" and "Down one" refer to the current a forest can not be seen from outside that forest. Make
weather condition, literally up and down on the weath- sure, before beginning a game, that both players
er condition chart, at right. If
the weather last turn was
"Normal," and the player
rolls "Up one," then the
weather is now "Sunny." The Sunny 24"
weather can't go higher than
"Sunny" or lower than Normal 3 20"
"Precipitating. " Overcast 2 16"
Precipitating 1 12"
Weather .

understand the effects of the terrain on visibility, and 6.0 Other Effe cts of Precipitation
u e common ense to judge when a line of sight is No unit may skirmish attack in the rain or snow. Also,
blocked. because of the impotence of muskets in a heavy rain,
Visibility is not blocked by the presence of units, infantry becomes les effective again t cavalry. In com-
friendly or enemy. It is assumed that the officer, bat, cavalry get a saving throw in the rain against
mounted on a horse, and/or on a patch of higher infantry. Artillery fire is not affected by rain, although
ground, and/or using a telescope, can see over, it is affected if the ground gets soft or muddy.
through, and around the formations of men on the
field. (It would be too hard to write a rule, at thi scale, 7.0 Fog
for the presence of smoke in front of units which have It is difficult to state a general rule for fog, because it
been firing, etc.) could exist in certain areas ofthe battlefield and not in
others. For game purposes, when we say there is fog on
4.0 Vantage Points the field, we mean that it is generally hard to see
An officer is said to occupy a "vantage point" ifhe is on because of early morning mist or low-lying clouds.
the highest elevation level possible on the table. If If the players are recreating a battle at which they
there are no elevations on the table at all (i.e., there are know fog was a factor, then they should note that the
no hill - everything is Level 0 or less), then there is no game opens with fog, and thus reduce all visibility by
modifier for vantage point. 6". Starting on the second turn, roll one die during the
Example: The "normal" level of a battlefield is weather variation phase. If the die roll i equal to or
considered Level o. Hills may be various levels above less than the current turn number, then the fog has
the norm. If there are any level-2 hills on the board, burned off.
the army commander would need to be on a level-2
hill in order to meet this criterion. If there are only
level-l hills on the table, the army commander would
get the "vantage point" designation for being on a Many miniatures games try to recreate the various advantages
level-l hill. or disadvantages of staff systems by renecting these differences
in a commanders radius. While staff systems did differ from
5.0 Ground Condition army to army, these differences were more likely to be seen
The game designates three different ground condi- while on campaign, not once battle was joined. When armies
tions: Hard, Soft, and M ud. deployed for battle, commanders tended to issue orders ver-
Hard ground will change to Soft after two consec- bally, or perhaps scribbled out a few lines to an aide.
utive turns of rain or snow. (Even though the ground In other words, most staffs functioned alike on the bat-
might be frozen, thousands of men and horses will tlefield. There were certainly differences in the energy, com-
soon turn the accumulated snow into a slippery petence, and perceptiveness of commanders and their assis-
sludge.) Soft ground will turn to Mud after two more tants, and these differences we depict by the different
consecutive turns of rain (but not snow). amounts of CPs available to each chief, tum by tum. But when
Ground can also dry out. Mud will turn to Soft we speak of a command "radius" (which of course is a com-
ground after two consecutive turns of Sunny or plete wargame abstraction), our comma nders are more limit-
Normal weather, and Soft ground will turn to Hard ed by geography and weather than by their staff officers. O n
after two more consecutive turns of Sunny or Normal a clear, sunny day, a commander with a good vantage point
weather. might be able to distinguish different formations up to two
Hard ground is considered "normal" for game pur- miles away (roughly 33"). In a blinding snowstorm like that at
poses. Soft ground incurs some penalties. Mud incurs the battle of Eylau, a commander would be lucky to see much
further penalties. Long-range artillery fire is not as more than half a mile (roughly 9").
effective in soft ground or mud, although point-blank Commanders used telescopes, but these were rarely bet-
artillery fire in defense of the battery is actually more ter than x4 magnification. So this immediate visual distance is
effective, since the soft ground slows the approach of important, because it represents the maximum point at which
enemy infantry and cavalry, exposing them longer to a commander can make decisions based upon what he himself
canister, which doesn't need hard ground to bounce can observe. Beyond that distance, he depends upon news
along. brought to him by couriers, and his decisions are hamstrung
In the Mud, artillery units become more difficult by the uncertainty of assigning objectives he can't see to units
to move (their wheels bog down). Also, no unit may he can't see.
ford a river if the ground condition is Mud.
D. The Command Phase
Wellington was stumping about and munching in
a littlefarmyard among the brown cottages of Los
Arapiles, lunching apparently off alternate bites of
1.0 Lightly Wounded Officers May chicken and glances at the French through a tele-
scope. The Peer's lunch was interrupted by afinal
Return to Duty look towards the French. "By God," he suddenly
At the beginning of the command phase, both sides roll
exclaimed, "that will do!"
to see if any officers who had been lightly wounded in
a previous turn may return to their duties. For each - Guedalla, describing Wellington's decision to
such officer, roll one die. On a roll of 5 or higher, the attack at Salamanca
officer has recovered and returned to his duties.
be a multiplier. Multiply this by the number of Forces
2.0 Using the CP Chits
in the army. Round up any decimals. This is the num-
Keep a pile of CP chits somewhere handy, but prefer-
ber of CPs the player will have for that turn.
ably not on the game table itself. Each player should
Example: For Waterloo, we rate Napoleon as
have an opaque cup. In the command phase of each
~verage. n Let's say that he rolls a 3. That's a multi-
turn, a player receives a certain amount of CP chits. He
plier of 3.5 times his 6 Forces = 21. This turn,
expends them performing certain activities, and when
Napoleon will have 21 Command Points. The
they are expended, they should be tossed back into the
Napoleon player should draw 21 CP chits and put
pile. At certain points in a turn, if a player rolls doubles
them in his cup.
on the initiative roll, he may be able to get more CPs
added to hi cup. CPs can not be accumulated from
turn to turn. If the turn ends and he still ha CP chits 3.1 Limits on CPs
left in his cup, he must dump them all back into the No matter what is rolled on the Command Table, a
pile. Napoleonic army may never have more than 60 CPs in
its cup at any time, and a Traditional army may never
have more than 50. Any xce s must be discarded at
3.0 The Command Table - Getting once. If you roll doubles and get more CPs during the
CPs each Turn turn, then you may only take as many CPs as would get
The second action of the command phase is for each you up to that maximum level.
commander to determine how many CPs he will have
available for that turn. To do this, he must know how
No maner how great the commander, the limits of commu
many Forces he has on the field. Remember that this is nicatlon (not to mention human endurance) in the horse and
calculated at the beginning of the game, but the arrival musket era meant that when armies exceeded 100,000
of reinforcements might increase this number. men, command efficiency tended to bog down. The really
Players should consult the Command Table, big banles were long, grueling affairs that moved slowly.
rolling a die on the correct row for either a Napoleonic They were characterized by inaction or stalemate in one part
or a Traditional army, and cross-indexing with the of the "front" while activity raged in another are.]. In some
commander's Skill rating for that day. The result will ways, they were a harbinger of the First World Wa r.

D3.0 The Command Table

Die Roll
Napoleonic Army 1 2 3 4 5 6
Traditional Army 1 2 3 4 5 6
Great 40 45 50 55 6.0 65 70
Good 30 35 40 45 50 55 6.0
Average 30 30 35 35 40 45 50
Poor 30 30 30 35 35 40 45
The Command Phase G
4.0 Roll to Determine Initiative for 4.2 Receiving Extra CPs
the First Pulse Also, when rolling for initiative after thefirst pulse, if
The final step in the Command Pha e is to determine a player rolls d oub le , he may be entitled to receive
I n itiative. Both players should have two dice, and one more CP . Assuming the colored die hasn't ended the
player should also have a colored die. When rolling turn, a player who e initiative roll is doubles may take
for initiative for the first pulse of a tum, the colored die a number of CPs equal to the colored die's roll, and add
is u ed only as a tie-breaker. However, when rolling for them to his cup.
initiative in all subsequent pul es, this colored die is a
tie-breaker and also has two other important func- 5.0 CPs and Army Morale
tion . It will determine whether or not there will be a Prior to completing a Command Phase, a player may
next pulse, and may also determine how many addi- expend CPs that will be applied toward an army
tional CPs a player receives. morale check at the end of the tum. (See L3.1) These
Prior to the initiative roll, players may secretly CP chits should be set aside; they are "spent" and not
allocate CPs from their cups to add to the initiative roll. u able for anything else this turn, but they should not
(Hide them in your hand, and then release them while be di carded until actually used for army morale.
rolling - both sides do this simultaneously.) Each CP
chit thrown in gives a +1 bonus to the player's roll. (A
roll of 3 plus two CP chits becomes a roll of 5, etc.)
Command Points: The General Concept
Wargames have always struggled with ways to show that
The player with the higher modified roll has won
one general was better than another, particularly since we
the initiative for the first Pulse. In a tie, the colored die
players who represent the generals possess advantages the
serves as a tie-breaker: if the colored die comes up
generals would never have had. Grande Annee is based
even, the tie is won by the player who rolled it. If odd,
upon the premise that a "great" general is somebody who
by the other player.
can manage time better than the average person, perhaps
The player who won the initiative chooses whether
concentrating on one thing, perhaps devoting a little time
he wishes to be the Fir t Sid e or the Second Side in
to each or several things. Command efrectiveness, in our
the upcoming Pulse.
system, is measured by the amount or attention a general
chooses to give to various tasks, under the limitation that he
4.1 Subsequent Initiative Rolls: has only so much attention to give. The commander can
only directly manage so many things at once. The more
How Many Pulses in a Turn?
spread out his army becomes, the harder it is to manage,
At the completion of each pulse, both sides roll for ini-
and the more his attention will be sapped (and, thus, the
tiative again. Again, they may secretly commit CP chits
more he will have to depend upon his subordinates.)
to modify the roll. The winner of this roll gets to choo e
whether he will be the first side or the second side for
the next pulse.
When rolling for initiative for pul es after the fir t
one, if the colored die rolls a number equal to or less
than the number of thejust-completed pulse, then the
turn ends immediately. Any CPs not spent are lost.
(For example, Pulse #2 has just ended. The players
are rolling to see who will have the initiative in Pulse
#3. If the colored die comes up huo or less, then there
will be no Pulse #3 - the turn has ended.) Obviously,
this means that a turn will never have more than six
pulses, and it could have as few as one.
When the colored die ends the tum, both players
should carry out the Rally Segment.

Ah, even great commanders run out or CPs sooner or

later Don't let this be you!
E. Skirmishing
We saw [the Cossacks] calmly reloading their mus-
kets as they left theJield, walking their horses
1 .0 Basic Concept between our squadrons. They relied upon the slow-
In the scale represented by Grande Armee, skinnish- ness of our picked troops as much as on their own
ers are invisible. Yet we must imagine that they are mounts.... They turned around several times and
everywhere, spread out in small groups and squads, faced us, but always just beyond musket range.
crouching behind rocks or stalks of wheat in the fields,
or behind trees. When their anny is on the attack, they - Segur, Napoleon's Russian Campaign
advance ahead of the formed troops, and when on the
defense they do their be t to disrupt and break up the 2.0 Who Can Skirmish Attack
enemy assaults as they approach. As an anny com- Only certain infantry units can initiate skinnishing,
mander, the most important thing to remember about which is known as a "skirmish attack." In Appendix III
skinni hers is that they are completely beyond your infantry units are assigned a kinnish rating, hereafter
control. referred to as "SK." This can be 0, 1, or 2,as follows:
In each pul e, skinnish combat i resolved simul-
taneously, prior to either side moving and initiating o The unit has only rudimentary skirmish
"real" combats. Skinnishers can cause confusion in
enemy units, are sometimes able to cause light 10 es, capability, and can't skirmish attack.
and might even get very lucky and pick off a general 1 The unit has "average" skirmish ability.
every now and then. 2 The unit has good skirmish ability.

Only infantry units with a SK greater than zero may

skinnish attack. A routed unit may not skinnish attack
The skinnishers' main duty was to harass and distract the nor be the target of skirmish attack. A unit may not
enemy. A5 with maneuver and drill systems, each nation make a skirmish attack if it is beyond the radius of its
used a different doctrine for skinnishing, and these doctrines sub-commander.
changed over time during the wars. The British appear to For clarity on the unit labels, it is not necessary to
have been the most bold skinnishers, venturing 500-600 mark a unit that has a zero skinni h ability. If there is
yards in front of their fonned troops. Some Austrian no SK value printed, it should be assumed that the unit
Grenzers and French Legere battalions, when completely has SKo. Units which can initiate skinnish attacks are
broken down to skinnish, might also stray that far afield. But marked SKI or SK2.
in general, the skinnish "line" was supposed to exist just
beyond musketry range of the fonned troops. M arshal
3.0 Skirmishing and Targets
Davout, for instance, instructed his officers to place skir-
A unit may skirmish attack any enemy infantry or
mishers no more than 200 yards in front of their parent bat-
artillery (not cavalry) unit within range of its frontal
talions. M any annies used a two-tiered system with a thin
perspective, even if it can not see that unit. (The skir-
skinnish line perhaps 200-300 yards in front, and a heavier
mishers have undoubtedly snuck up within range, and
"reserve" skirmish screen about 100 yards from the main
from several different angles, so visibility isn't a prob-
line, with men rotating through this rank when they were
lem.) The range for SKI units is 4". The range for SK2
tired or low on ammunition. The Russians seem to have had
units is 6".
virtually no system for infantry skirmishing before I B 10,
sometimes drafting whole battalions of militia as "strelki,"
sometimes using the "third rankers," as the Austrians occa- 3.1 Skirmishing Restrictions
sionally did, sometimes deploying select J;!gers only 30-60 A unit may only skirmish attack one enemy unit per
yards ahead of the main body. Russian Cossacks, however, pulse. If more than one possible target exists, the own-
were probably the best cavalry skinnishers in the world. ing player may select. No unit may be the target of
In Grande AlTTlee we represent the "range" of skir- more than one skinnish attack per pulse, although a
mishing as roughly double the distance that these screens single attack might involve multiple attackers.
theoretically operated, because we are showing the effect of It is possible for two or more units to skirmish
skirmishers versus skirmishers. If your skirmishers gain the attack a single enemy target, but only if no other
upper hand, as the two sides draw close, then they will push enemy targets exi t for those units. If a player has mul-
the enemy skirmishers back, and now your sharpshooters will tiple SK-capable units within range of multiple eligible
be in a position to annoy, distract (and kill!) the enemy enemy targets, then he must skinnish attack as many
formed troops. of those enemy units as possible. For instance, if there
are three SK-capable units and two eligible targets,
then both of those eligible targets must be attacked by
Skirmishing e
somebody. All three attackers couldn't "gang up" on 4.0 Skirmish Attacks
one target, leaving the other unmolested. Both players resolve skirmi h attack, and all results
are applied simultaneously, after all those attacks are
3.2 Cavalry resolved. In the Skirmish phase of the pul e, each play-
In the presence of cavalry, infantry commanders tend- er starts on his leftrno t side of the battlefield, check-
ed to consolidate, forming rna s or square, and draw- ing to see if his infantry units meet the above criteria
ing in light troops (or at least the light troops would lay for making skirmi h attacks. He can freely measure
low to avoid the menace of cavalry.) Consequently, a distance to any enemy units, to check. When opportu-
unit may not kirmish attack if there is an enemy cav- nities for skirmish attacks arise, they must be resolved.
alry unit within 2" of it or its target, in any direction (Remember that the skirmishers are not under your
(even if the cavalry is behind the target, not "in the control. They are seeking all targets of opportunity.)
way" of the skirmish attack.) Obviously, this mean
that cavalry may never be the target of a skirmish 4.1 The Order of Skirmish Attacks
attack. Any unit can defend against a skirmish attack, even if
it has an SK value of zero. But only units with SK val-
ues of lor 2 may initiate skirmi h attacks.
The player designates an enemy unit as the target
of a skirmish attack. All of his units that will skirmish
Example of Sldnnlshlng: I;:] attack that enemy must now do so, together. After that

GJ 0 [Il~
attack is resolved, the player may designate a different
enemy unit. Remember:

No unit may skirmish attack more than one
xxxx ~x ~ enemy unit per puis .
Any unit which may skirmi h attack must do so.
x~: No enemy unit can be the target of more than
one skirmish attack per pulse, although it might
Austrian infantry units 1,2,3, and a cavalry unit face French be attacked by more than one unit in a single
infantry units A,B, and C during skirmish combat. Assume attack.
that all infantry units are within range to make SK-attacks If you have multiple SK-attackers and multiple
against each other, and that the cavalry is within 2" of eligible targets, you must attack as many of those
Austrian 3. targets as you can.

The Austrians make their attadcs first: 4.2 Resolving Skirmish Attacks
Each Austrian infantry unit has at least one French unit to its To re olve a skirmish attack, the attacker rolls a die
front, and there are no opportunities to double up against and adds the SK value of all his units which are partic-
anyone French defender. Therefore, I will attack A, 2 will ipating in this attack. The target rolls a die and adds his
attack B, and 3 will attack C. SK (if any). There are no modifiers for terrain, since we
are depicting many small firefights and ambushes, and
Now the French make their attacks: terrain conditions hamper and aid both sides.
French C can't attack Austrian 3, because the Austrian cav-
alry is too close to 3. But it could attack Austrian 2.
Therefore, French Band C will double up against Austrian
4.21 Against an Infantry Target
If the attacker's total is higher than the target's, then
2. French A will attack Austrian I. In this way, all Austrian
the attack was successful. The target unit loses lSP.
units which are eligible to be attacked have been attacked.
Obviously, this will occasionally break weak units. This
would represent the unit completely losing cohesion as
Remember that all SK-attack results are applied simultane-
a result of the death of officers and collapse of morale.
ously, so even though the Austrians went "first," any hits
If the attacker s total is equal to or less than the
scored are applied only after all attacks are clone on both
target's total, the attack was unsuccessful; move on to
the next skirmish attack.

4.22 Against an Artillery Target snow to melt as soon as it lands on it, and thus makes
The attacker's total must be at least double the target's it wet after one or two shots. Snow al 0 obscures visi-
to be successful. If successful, the artillery unit has bility, making it hard to get a good shot, or to stay in
been "suppressed." (The gunners are distracted and touch with other skirmishers.
harried by the skirmishers, perhaps trying to drive
them off with fire.) Place a marker on a suppre ed bat- 6.0 The Cossacks: SK2
tery (a puff of cotton works well). A suppressed battery Russian Kazakh ("Cossack") units are an exception to
may not fire in the upcoming artillery fire phase. the rule which states that cavalry may not skirmish
Suppression only lasts one pul e. In the Rally attack. Not only are Co acks cavalry which prevent
Segment of each pulse, remove all suppression mark- skirmi h attacks within 2", they are also considered
ers from all artillery. (J3.0) SK2 units which can skirmish attack just like infantry.
The Cossacks may have been nearly worthle s as battle
There was little that artillerists could do against enemy skir- cavalry, but there is a reason that mo t Russian armies
mishers, to their great frustration. A Federal gunner in the traveled with a horde of them. They were aggre sive
Civil War once said: "Firing at skirmishers with artillery is like and brilliant skirmishers who compensated the
chasing a swarm of bees with a club." Rus ian army for its ineptitude in infantry skirmishing.
(And, best of all, the Cossacks never asked for a pay-
4.23 Completing Skirmish Attacks
Take turns resolving the attacks, if you wish, or pro- 7.0 Mixed Brigades: +1 on defense
ceed through one side completely, and then the other. Because of their attached cavalry, mixed brigades
All skirmi h attacks on both sides are resolved in this receive a +1 to their die rolls when defending against a
phase, and are resolved before any of the effects are skirmish attack. Their SK value, however (when mak-
placed on any units; it is all considered to be happen- ing a skirmi h attack) is still dependent upon the pre-
ing simultaneously. (A unit broken by losing its last SP dominant type of infantry in the brigade.
from a skirmish attack would still get the chance to
make its own skirmish attack, if eligible, before it 8.0 Ottoman Artillery
Skirmishers: +1 on defense
Examples of Skirmish A ttacks:
A typical Ottoman artillery battery comprised ten guns,
Two French infantry units (both SK2) are skirmish served by 80 gunners and about 40 other men, includ-
attacking a Prussian infantry unit (SKl). The Prussians ing officers and NCOs. Unique to the Ottoman army,
roll a "4," giving them a total of 5. The French roll a however, was the practice of including an additional
20-60 sharpshooters, attached to the battery specifi-
"2," which when added to their SK numbers, gives
them a total of 6. The French total is higher; the cally for the purpo e of defending it from enemy
infantry and cavalry skirmishers. Due to the presence
Prussians lose ISP.
Example Two: A French infantry unit (SK2) is 5" of these men, Ottoman artillery units receive a +1 to
from an Austrian infantry unit (SKl). The French, their die roll when defending against skirmish attacks.
because they are SK2, can initiate an attack up to 6"
away. But the Austrians, because they are SKl, could 9.0 Hard Cover and Towns
only skirmish attack an enemy unit up to 4" away. So If the target of a skirmish attack is completely protect-
the French will skirmish attack the Austrians, using ed by (I.e., in) hard cover or a town, then it gets a +2
one die plus two, while the Austrians defend using one modifier to its roll when defending against a skirmish
die plus one. But the Austrian unit won't be able to attack. The target unit's base must be entirely protect-
make an attack against this French unit, because it is ed by the cover. Being behind a stone wall isn't enough;
too far away. a unit would have to be entirely in a walled town or for-
tified area in order to get the hard cover bonus. (This is
5.0 Rain and Snow usually the case for garrisons.)
Skirmishing is nearly impossible in the rain or snow, However, a unit in hard cover or a town may not
due to wet muskets and poor visibility. Therefore, no make a skirmish attack.
units may skirmish attack on a turn when it is raining
or snowing. Although the weather may be relatively
"dry" in a snowstorm, the heat of a musket causes any
F. Artillery Fire
... the very damp soil thatformed the ridges of
these furrows wasjlying about in little black
lumpsjlung three or four feet into the air. He 2.0 Facing and Firing
heard a sharp cry close by him; it was two hus- An artillery unit may fire at any unit which is at least
sarsfalling struck by a shot. He looked in vain in partially within range (some part of its base is within
the direction from which the shots were coming. the artillery unit's range), and at least partially within
He saw the white smoke of the battery an enor- its frontal perspective. The artillery must be able to see
mous distance away, and in the midst of the its target, given the limits on visibility for weather and
steady and continuous rumble produced by theftr- terrain. Artillery fire may only penetrate one inch into
ing of the guns, he seemed to hear the volleys of woods or forest, and is blocked completely by building
shot much closer at hand. He could not make or other forms of cover. (Units in those buildings or
head or tail of what was happening. cover may be fired upon, but the fire can't go through
the buildings or cover to hit another unit behind them.)
- Stendhal, La Chartreuse de Parme Artillery may not pivot or change facing prior to
firing. This might result in some strange-looking situa-
Historical Note tions, such as when an enemy unit has passed by the
Artillery was the deadlie t branch of Napoleonic artillery, or is immediately to its rear. But a battery of
armies, accounting for anywhere from 60-80% of casu- artillery was not like a gun turret. Two hundred men
alties on the battlefield. In Grande Armee, our cale with two-ton guns, cai sons, and dozens of hor es
means that artillery units are very small, yet very couldn't simply "rotate" and fire. They had to limber
important entities. The guns we place on the table rep- up, move the battery, and unlimber again. If the enemy
resent those batteries which were not specifically dedi- had broken through on the flank or rear, they would
cated to the support of an infantry division. Since mo t mo t likely be busy getting the hell out of there!
guns in a corps were indeed deployed in light or medi-
um foot batteries which were assigned at the divisional 3.0 Targets
level (and sometimes broken up into sections across Artillery fire in Grande A,mee is resolved by target.
the front of infantry units), we thus limit ourselves to Starting at his left, the firing player points out an
the hor e batteries and the heavy corp reserve batter- enemy unit he wishes to fire on, and then all of his
ies. Though few in number, when these mobile reserve units that will fire on that target must do so together.
artillery units are combined on the field, they can be Once that fire is re olved, no other units may fire on
formidable. that enemy unit in thi pulse. Mark units which have
fired with cotton balls. (This prevents the silly
1.0 Basic Concepts warga me practice of shooting at a unit, seeing how it
Just as Grande Armee doe n't distinguish between for- goes, and then shooting with another unit, and so on,
mations for infantry and cavalry units, we likewise until you get the result you want.)
don't make artillery limber in order to move, and The firing player may always measure the distance
unlimber to fire. It is assumed that the local com- to any target before he announces which units will be
manders will take care of thi . Your job as army com- shooting. He then resolves fire against that target.
mander is simply to tell the artillery where you want
them to be. They must then find the best means of get- 4.0 Line of Fire
ting there and deploying to fight. The line of fire is not a razor-thin line; it is as wide as
Artillery fire is resolved simultaneously. Each the artillery unit's frontage. When tracing a line of fire
player starts on his left - at the left-most side of his to a target, your artillery unit must have an "alley" of
army - and works his way to the right, resolving unob tTucted fire on that target at least as wide as the
artillery fire. Players can take turns resolving, although artillery unit's frontage, in order to make a clear shot.
no results apply to any targets until all fire is resolved. If the line of fire is partially obstructed by terrain or
Each artillery unit may only fire once per pul e. cover, or the presence of another unit, then no shot
After it fires, place a puff of cotton in front of it, to show may be taken.
that it may not fire again. Artillery units which are sup- A player may not fire "over" or "through" one unit
pressed will already have that cotton there, to remind to hit another. The gunners shoot at the closest target
you that they may not fire in this pulse. they can see in the direction they have chosen.
Artillery Fire

5.0 Mandatory Fire 12-pdr artillery unit scores hits on rolls of 2-6. When
If there are no non-routed enemy units within 6" of its firing beyond 6" and up to 10", it scores hits on rolls of
frontal perspective, then an artillery unit may fire on 4-6. Between 10" and 16" it scores hits on rolls of 5-6.
any target it wishes. However, if there is at least one Beyond 16" it may not fire.
non-routed enemy unit within 6" of its front, then that
artillery unit mustfire on the closest enemy unit to its 6.1 Saving Throws
front to which it has a clear line offire. Once the fire is re olved, the target unit may be eligible
for saving throws, which might negate some of those
6.0 Resolving Artillery Fire hits just scored.
An artillery unit r oll one die p er SP. (Normally
that means it rolls two dice, but if it has suffered one 6.11 Resolving Saving Throws
hit, it only rolls one die.) An artillery unit may also add A target has a Save Number, calculated by adding
a bonus die if the target is Vulnerable (Using road together all the factors from the Saving Throw List. For
movement, on a bridge, fording, or an infantry or cav- example: An artillery unit (2) protected by soft cover
alry unit being fired at from the flank or rear.) An (2) has a Save Number of 4. No matter how many of
artillery unit may never add more than one bonus die. the above apply, a target unit's Save Number can never
The firing player rolls his dice, hoping to score be more than 5.
Hits. Consult the Artille ry Chart. It shows the range The target player rolls a number of dice equal to
brackets of each gun-type, as well as the To Hit the number of hits scored. For each die which is equal
Numbe r s for each type, at each range. to or less than the save number, a hit is negated. Any
French Old Guard units may add 1 to each die, hits which are not saved are now applied to the target
although a natural " I " always misses. unit.
F6.o The Artillery Chart
A die scores a
hit if it rolls with-
in the printed To
Gun Size To Hit # / Range
Hit numbers for Heavy (9-12 1bs) 2-6 6" 4-6 10" 5-6 16"
that type of gun,
at that range. For Medium (6-8 lbs) 3-6 4" 5-6 12"
instance, when Light (3-41bs) 3-6 3" 6 9"
firing up to 6", a
A rtillery Fir e .

Saving Throw List 7.0 The "Final Shot"

2 Soft cover If an artillery unit is attacked by enemy infantry or cav-
alry from its front, it will get a "final shot" at its attack-
4 Hard cover or unit within town base
er prior to contact. This is slightly different from nor-
2 The target unit is artillery or engineer mal artillery fire, because it repre ents a fairly con-
1 Firer and target on different elevations. fused situation, with a limited amount of time and the
3 The ground condition is Mud * panic of an approaching enemy.
2 The ground is Soft * For a final shot, roll the correct number of dice as
These two save numbers are ignored if the artillery unit is fir- in normal artillery fire. The To-Hit numbers, however,
ing at hort range (in its shortest range bracket.) Cani ter is, if are different. Regardle of gun size, an artillery
anything actually more effective in the mud, inee horses and
final shot hits enemy infantry on roll of 4-6
and hits enemy cavalry on rolls of 5-6. Ther~
men are lower, easier targets.

are no aving throw and no modifier

6 .2 Cover From Artillery Fire It is possible that an artillery unit may get its final
When dealing with cover, it is po ible that the target shot, and then escape its attacker. It is also possible
might have cover against the fire of one artillery unit, that the final shot might break an attacker. An artillery
but not another. (It might be behind a tone wall, unit may only make one final hot per pul e. If attacked
~gain in that pulse, it might still be able to escape, but
which gives it a save against a shot coming acro s that
wall, but not a save against a shot coming from It couldn't take another final shot.
behind.) Again, it is u eful to use dice of different col- Unlike normal fire, an artillery unit may take a
ors, so as to keep clear which hits are being saved for final shot even if it is suppres ed.
under which circumstances. '
8.0 Artillery Beyo n d the Sub-
Commander's Radius
If an artillery unit is ever beyond the radius of its sub-
6-pdr gun is 6" from target.
commander, it may not fire in the artillery pha e,
It gets a bonu die, and hits
on roll of 5-6.
although it may still make a Final hot.

Why Is there no "pass-through" fire?

In Grande Ann~e a unit represents a target of several bat-

talions, SQuadrons, or many gun crews, limbers, etc. The
bounce-through of the ball is factored into the damage done
12-pdr gun is 9" from target.
to all those ranks arrayed on the base-stand. Otherwise, the
It hits on rolls of 4-6, but its fire is
damage dished out by artillery would be far too great.
coming across the wall, so the tar-
get will get a saving throw against
any of these hits.
Shouldn't Cavalry be Harder to Hit Than Infantry?
Grande Ann~e scales cavalry differendy at the outset. A sin-
In the diagram above, the 6-pdr gets a bonus die because it is
gle SP of veteran infantry represents the fighting power of
firing into the Hank of the infantry (the infantry is a Vulnerable
400 men. But an SP of veteran cavalry represents only 250
target from that direction.) At its range of 6", it hits on 5-6. men. So artillery is already less effective at killing cavalry; it's
The 12-pdr is 9" away, and hits on rolls of 4-6. But any factored into the strength points. If you're interested in the
hits scored by the 12-pdr might be negated by the target's sav- nitty gritty of figure-to-SP ratios, see Appendix I.
ing throw, because of the wall across which this fire is coming.
G. The Control Segment
The Emperor went up into the windmill, and,
looking through a hole, watched all the move-
1.0 Bas ic Concepts ments. "Gerard," said he, "You must go toward
The fir t segment of each player's pulse i the "control that steeple, and drive the ?russians in asfar as
segment." At this time the commander decides you can. I will support you."
whether or not to give "commands" to his various sub-
commanders. A Command costs a number of CPs - Coignet, observing Napoleon at Ligny
ba ed on that ub-commander's Control N umber,
modified by his distance from the army commander. If
a sub-commander receives a command, his Force will
The army commander gives all command he
be fully under control, and the owning player may act
wishes to give. Place the CP chits that were expended
with its units in any way he please . If no command
on each sub-commander' base, to remind you that he
was received, that sub-commander must take a
was given a command this pulse.
Control Test. If he pas es the control test, that sub-
Then, after all commands are issued, he must take
commander's Force is fully under control, just as if
a "Control Test" for each sub-commander who did not
he'd received a command. But if he fails the control
get a command this pulse.
test, the owning player must check the Force's status,
as follows :
If the sub-commander can not see any enemy 3.1 Grabbing the Lapels ...
forces, then his Force will be Inactive in that pulse. If the commander is in ba e-to-base contact with a
If the sub-commander can see the enemy, then sub-commander, then a command to that sub-com-
two dice must be rolled, modified by his Personality, to mander is free and automatic. It co ts no CPs, and
determine the status of his Force: Inactive , Adjust, requires no control test.
or Attack !
Thus, at the end of the Control Segment, the status 4.0 The Control Test
of all Forces in the army is determined. Roll one die for a sub-commander, attempting to roll
greater than his control number. If successful, then he
2.0 Command Radii has passed his control test. If you rolled equal to or less
All officers have a command radius. The radius of an than his control number, then he has "failed" his con-
army or wing commander is equal to the current visi- trol test, and will be acting On His Own in this pulse.
bility condition, plus any modifier for a vantage point, If the sub-commander is within half or less of the
or penalty for fog. It may thus change during a game, army commander's radius, then he may add one to his
as the weather changes. The radius of a sub-com- control test roll. (Thus, if Napoleon's radius is 20", a
mander was established before the game, using his sub-commander within 10" of Napoleon may add one
radius multiplier. to a control te t roll.) Nonetheless, a natural roll Of"l"
Radius is measured from the edge of the officer's always fails a control test.
base outward in all directions. If a unit's Cor another
officer's) base is even partially within the distance of 4.1 Force "Under Control"
the radius, it is considered within the radius. Radius is If a sub-commander received a command for this pulse
measured as the crow flies: it is not affected by ter- OR ifhe passed his control test, then he is "under con-
rain or even by the presence of enemy units. trol" for this pulse. He is in touch with army head-
quarters, and understands his mission and is doing his
3.0 Giving Commands best to carry it out. You may move and fight with his
The commander may give a command to a sub-com- Force in any way you please.
mander whose base is within his radius by paying a
number of CPs equal to that ub-commander's control 4.2 Sub-Commander On His Own
number. He may issue a command to a sub-command- If a sub-commander received no command for this
er who is beyond his radius, by paying additional CPs, pulse and failed his control test, then he is acting "on
depending on how far away he is. If a sub-commander- his own" for this pulse. Perhaps he no longer under-
is up to 10 beyond the army commander's radius, a stands ~is mission, or perhaps he has lost touch with
command co ts an additionallCP to issue. Each incre- army headquarters, or maybe his fears or passions
ment of 10" costs another lCP. have gotten him a little carried away. In short, he is no
longer totally reliable. The behavior of his Force is now
The Control Segment CD
dependent on what he can see. (Remember to u e the
current visibility limits from his ba e-stand, as defined
by the weather and terrain.)
If there are no enemy force vi ible to the
ub-commander, then his entire Force is "inactive"
for this pulse. It may not move, nor initiate combats.
Units of the Force do not even roll to establish their
movement allowances, since they can't move at all.
If the s ub-co mma nder can see en m y
fo r ce , then you must roll to determine his reaction.
Roll two dice on the table on the following page, to
determine what hi Force's status will be: Inactive,
Adjusting, or an Attack.
Note that the best way to do this is to roll all three
dice in the jar, for each sub-commander who received
no command. The colored die represents the control
check. If that fails, the two white dice represent the roll
to determine Force status.

has received a command.

g Uhoul I j L4"

' e)" (q 3 / .2"

Example of GMng Commands:

The weather is " Norma!." Thus, Napoleon has a radius of 20" today. He has three sub-commanders, as follows: Ney is 13" away,
Davout is 25" away, and Mmnont is 47" from Napoleon.
Napoleon can issue a command to Ney for 3 CPs, because Ney is within Napoleon's radius, and Ney's control number is 3.
Napoleon can issue a command to Davout at a cost of 2 CPs. (Davout's control number is only I, but he is 5" beyond Napoleon's
radius, meaning a command costs an additional I CP.)
A command to Mmnont would cost 5 CPs. (Marmont's control number is 2, but he is 27" beyond Napoleon's radius. That's
three increments of 10", each with a I CP extra cost.)
CD The Control Segment

Summary of the Control Segment:

This flowchart reviews the procedure that the commander must follow
with each Force, to determine its status.

Yes: CPs Force is in

were spent You may move with it

~NO on it. freely.

Take a Control Test

(roll> control number on one die)
Add 1 to the roll if within half the comman-
der's radius, but a natural " I " always fails.
Did the sub-commander pass
the Control Test? Yes
Roll 2 dice to deter-
~NO mine Force Status:

Can the sub-commander see

the enemy?
if the sub-commander is
if visible enemies are only cav-
O alry and/or artillery, but no
if the sub-commander is
The Control Segment CD
4.21 What "Force Status" Means GS.2: Deploying a General
I nactive: In this pulse, the sub-commander himself
can move in any way, but no infantry or cavalry units Fre n ch Russia
may move. Artillery units may only pivot in place. British Spain
Adjust: The infantry and cavalry units of the Force N.Italians Aus tria
may not move except to change their facings only. Poles Prussia < 1810
Artillery units of that Force may move normally, and White Die Prussia >18 11 All others
the sub-commander may move. Excellent 1 / 1.5 1
Atta ck ! The Force will, in this pulse, move in the Good 2 / 1.5 2-4 1-2
shortest possible path, toward the greatest number of Average 3 / 1 5-6 3-6
enemy units, with the goal of initiating combats with
them if at all possible. Units of the Force must move Colored Die (all nations) :
their full movement allowances toward the enemy, and Aggressive & (V) 1
the sub-commander should move so as to accommo- Aggressive 2
date his entire Force going over to the attack. No Personality 3-5
Cautious 6
5.0 Deploying Generals
The Napoleonic system of corps d'armees that was The white die will determine the general's control
ultimately adopted by most of the armies of the period number and radius multiplier. The colored die will
had clear advantages over the older "traditional" sys- determine whether the general has a personality rat-
tem. In Grande Armee we reflect this superiority by ing. Note that the ratings are all average to excellent.
allowing the commander of a Napoleonic army to sub- This is because the people we call "generals" represent
divide and "fine tune" the composition of his Forces, the best and most independent commanders in the
even in the midst of a battle. army: those capable of higher command. (The army is
A Napoleonic army can deploy a number of gener- full of generals, but these men are exceptional.)
als equal to half the number of Forces it has, rounded You should give your general a name. The orders
up. An army of five Forces could thus deploy three gen- of battle for the scenarios list the actual division com-
erals, while an army of two Forces would have one gen- manders in each corps, if you want to be accurate. The
eral, etc. These generals can be deployed anywhere in appendix also lists exceptional divisional commanders
the army; they don't have to be placed one per Force. If for each nation.
subsequent Forces arrive and increase the size of the
army, more generals can be deployed. 5.3 Uses for Generals
A general may be deployed to form a detachment, to
5.1 How to Deploy a General form a grand battery, or to replace a fallen sub-com-
The commander may deploy a general at the beginning mander.
of the control segment, prior to issuing any com-
mands. He spends 2CPS to deploy a general within his 5.31 Forming Detachments
radius, plus another lCP for each increment of 10" Sometimes the army commander needed to form an
beyond his radius. (There is no limit to the distance impromptu battlegroup to carry out a local task. These
from the army commander where a general may be troops might have to be pulled out of a standing corps.
deployed.) Any number of generals may be deployed in (Napoleon frequently did this with elements of his
a single pulse, subject to the cost in CPs for doing so, Guard whenever he needed a "fire brigade" to rectify
and up to the limit of generals available to the army. some local disaster.) In Grande AT7nee, this practice is
known as forming a Detachment.
5.2 Rating Generals The commander deploys a general, spends the
A general is a single mounted officer. On his base appropriate number of CPs, and declares that he is
should be a blank unit label, onto which you can write forming a detachment. He may choose any number
his command ratings. These are determined randomly and type of units from one Force to comprise the
at the moment you deploy him. Roll one white die and detachment, under the following guidelines:
one colored die, and consult the chart.
CD The Control Segm en t

1) At the moment the general is placed on the At the moment it is created, a detachment is con-
table, and the units of his detachment sidered to have received a command for that pulse.
declared, his radius is calculated, as for a nor- (The CPs expended in its creation 'cover' its first com-
mal sub-commander. The units designated mand.) In sub equent pulses, however, it will have to
must already be within his radius. receive commands or take control tests.
2) The units designated for the detachment may
not leave the Force with fewer remaining
units than the newly-created detachment. Radonale for the CP & Command System:
As players, we generally micro-manage our forces. In games
Example of Forming a Detachment: where we supposedly represent army commanders, we still
The Austrian Reserve Corps has 16 units. This is a big, make all kinds of little decisions that an army commander
unwieldy Force, and the Archduke Charles wants to would never make: the placement of skirmishers, when to
form a detachment so he can use the reserve cavalry unlimber a specific battery, which target a particular infantry
and horse artillery as a separate body. He declares battalion fires on, when to form square, etc. There is really
where he wants to deploy a general, measures to see no way around this, given that there is only one player's
how many CPs it will cost him, and declares that he is brain to encompass all the decisions that would have been
forming a detachment. He rolls: the white die comes made historically by hundreds of different officers. Thus
up 3, meaning this general will have a control number we're never really in the head of the commanding general.
of 3 and a radius multiplier of 1 . The colored die is a Instead, we're a conglomeration of dozens of different corps,
4, meaning he will have no personality modifier. divisional, and brigade commanders, all psychically channel-
He could choose up to 8 unitsfor this detachment ing the commanding general.
(up to half the Reserve Corps, ifhe wanted.) He selects Grande Annfe starts with the admission that we are
five units - three cavally and two horse artillery - micro-managing our armies whenever possible. If you, the
all of which are grouped in the same vicinity. They army commander, devote CPs to issue commands to your
will all have to be within 5" of the general, since his sub-commanders, that means that you are micro-managing
radius multiplier is 1. (A 1 radius multiplier times 5 those particular Forces. You are paying close attention to
units equals a 5" radius.) them, probably at the expense of paying attention to some-
Charles now has a new Force in his army. He thing else. (Some sub-commanders are easier to manage than
must proceed with the pulse, giving out commands others, hence the different Control ratings.) If you choose to
and taking control tests, as he wishes. let your sub-commanders act on their own, there is always
the possibility that they will do exactly what you want them
5 .311 Detachments and th e to do. This is renected by the control number. A more reli-
able general - by this definition - is a man who under-
Command System stands and intuits your plans perfectly. Therefore, we allow
From the moment of its creation to the end of the day
you to micro-manage his Force, even though you didn't issue
of battle, a detachment acts like a Force, and its gener-
CPs to him. For this pulse, at least, he is doing exactly what
al is a new sub-commander. However, it does not
you hoped he would do: he sees the same problems and
count toward the number of Forces in the anny when
opportunities that you see from Army H.Q., and he is
rolling on the command table. (Nor would it raise the
responding to them the way you would.
number of Force, making the anny eligible for more
Finally, as the Archduke Charles learned, much to his
agony, there are never enough CPs to get all your sub-com-
In other words, a detachment represents an added
manders on the same sheet of music, and the bigger the bat-
burden on the commander: it is another sub-com-
tle, the bigger a problem this becomes, as distance over-
mander who need commands or will have to take con-
whelms your ability to "think" for your sub-commanders.
trol tests. There is no limit to the number of detach-
Always remember that time is nexible in this game. If one
ments that can be created, but it would be unwise to
Force is inactive in a pulse, while another one is moving
create too many of them. Because they require CPs to
quickly, that does not imply that these actions are happening
manage, yet do not count as Forces when rolling on the
at the exact same times, or even requiring the same amount
CP table, detachments spread the commander's abili-
of time to happen.
ties thinly. And since they can't be "re-attached" on
this day of battle, they bog down the command ystem
if they proliferate.
The Control Segment CD
5-4 French Aides-de -Camp (ADCs) for the remainder of the day of battle. A player may
In most armies, an Aide-de-Camp (AD C) was a well- only create a grand battery once per game, and no
connected young man who hung around the com- more than one grand battery may exist on a side. In
manding general, occasionally making himself useful order to qualify as a "grand battery," this force must
by carrying messages or running errands. Usually, comprise at leastfour artillery units.
though, he was a toady whose parents had arranged for
him to have this cu hy assignment, rather than a dirty 5.51 Starting With a Grand Battery
and dangerous field command. Napoleon, however, An army commander may opt to create a grand battery
had a completely different system. French imperial when he is setting up, before the game begins. He may
ADCs were seasoned, field-grade combat officers who take the artillery units from any of his corps, anywhere
could take over formations as large as a whole corps in on the field. He may place these anywhere within the
the event of officer casualties. army commander's radius, and then must place the
When Napoleon is leading a French army, he will general or ADC who will be commanding the grand
have a supply of ADCs. If the scenario doesn't specify battery. Calculate his radius based on his radius multi-
how many, roll a die before the game. If the die comes plier and the number of artillery units in the grand bat-
up 5-6, roll again until a number between 1 and 4 is tery. He is now the sub-commander of this Force.
rolled. That will be the number of ADCs the French
army will have at" this battle. 5.52 Creating a Grand Battery
If the commander does not create a grand battery
5.41 Deploying ADCs before the game begins, he may still do so during the
An ADC i an "extra" general waiting to be assigned. game. At the beginning of any pulse, the commander
Like other Napoleonic armies, the French get generals may create a grand battery by placing his ADC or gen-
based on the number of Forces in the army, but also eral anywhere and spending the CPs, as per creating a
get ADCs. ADCs have special characteristics: normal detachment. The artillery units that will com-
1) They all have a control number of 2 and a prise the grand battery would have to be within the
radius multiplier of 1.5. There is no need to radius of the officer deployed as their commander.
roll the white die when deploying them. Roll During that fir t pulse in which it is created, all the
the colored die, as with other generals, to see component artillery units must attempt to move so
if they have a personality modifier. they are in base-to-base contact with another unit
2) ADCs may form detachments from any units already part of the grand battery. During the time the
in any Forces in the army, or any combination artillery units are moving, they don't have to be within
of Forces. (They still may not take more than anybody's radius - the CP cost covers the orders to
half the units from any Force, and the units them all to move to form a grand battery. However,
they form into their detachment must still be once declared as part of a grand battery, none of them
within their radii when the detachment is may fire until deployed base-to-base as a grand bat-
formed.) tery, except if taking final shots.
Like a general, an ADC requires 2CPS to deploy,
plus 1CP for every 10" beyond the army commander's 5.521 Grand Battery Restrictions
radius. When created, a grand battery may not start within 16"
Only Napoleon himself may deploy ADCs. If he is of any enemy units. All artillery units must b in base-
not present with the French army, or ifhe is wounded to-base contact, forming a contiguous line of artillery.
and/or removed from play, the French may not deploy Once created, if the grand battery ever falls below
any more ADCs. four artillery units, it is still a grand battery in all other
ways; it still acts as a Force.
5.5 Grand Batteries
A grand battery is a Force, created by the army com- 5.53 Moving a Grand Battery
mander, and consisting only of artillery units. Like a For a grand battery to move, none of its component
detachment it does not count toward the number of batteries may be marked as suppressed or having fired
Forces in the army, when rolling on the Command in that pulse. (Exception: if the grand battery is entire-
Table. A player may only create a grand battery if he ly comprised of horse batteries, it may ignore this
has an available general or ADC. Like any detachment, restriction.)
a grand battery must remain as a separate detachment
CD The Control Segment

The grand battery will move as a single unit, rolling a Doing these things is always voluntary. Each time the
single die for movement and terrain, and paying the sub-commander does #3, he must subject himself to
cost of any terrain entered by any of its component an officer casualty check.
battries. Its movement allowance is based on the slow-
est unit in the grand battery. 6.1 The Commander's Influence
If component units ofthe grand battery are driven Proximity to the commander may confer certain bene-
back or destroyed, then the remaining units "clo e up," fits. The commander is too busy to do the things listed
reforming the continuous frontage. above, but he may contribute CPs to influence the rally
factor rolls of units up to half his radius away. (This
5.54 Firing a Grand Battery does not require him to check for officer casualty.)
For every two units it comprises, the grand battery
may select o n e target. (A 9-unit grand battery could 7.0 Battles With More than One
thus have up to four different targets.) The grand bat- Army on a Side
tery is never required to split its fire - if all its units Some battles featured the presence of more than one
are eligible to fire on a single enemy target, it may do army on a side. At Waterloo, for instance, the Prussian
so. (God help them.) If it does split its fire, it may split army steadily arrived throughout the afternoon. The
it any way it choo es, so long as the 2 unit / 1 target classic example is Leipzig, where Napoleon fought off
allowance is observed. no less than four allied armies. In general, this only
works if there is a single army on one side, facing two
5.55 Grand Battery Force Status or more on the other side.
A grand battery behaves slightly differently than other We shall call the multi-army side the "allied" side.
Forces if its commander is "On His Own." Take a Force On the allied side, a player exists for each army com-
status check, like any other Force. But interpret the mander, but designate one player as the Commander-
results as follows : in-Chief. This designation exists only for game purpo -
Inactive: Same as any other Force: no movement es, to designate which player will roll for initiative.
except the sub-commander. During the Command Phase, each army com-
Adj ust: The grand battery may move normally mander on the allied side counts the Forces in his army
under an "AdjusC order. and rolls on the command table, as normal. However,
Attack: The grand battery may not move away if the CinC rolls doubles during initiative rolls, then
from visible enemy units, unless doing so brings it each allied army commander gets extra CPs.
closer to other enemy units. All the allied armies move during the same half of
the pulse. The CinC, if he wins initiative, will choose
6.0 "Attached" Officers when they move in the upcoming pulse.
It was relatively rare for corps and army commanders
to become "attached" to individual units, although it 8.0 Wing Commanders
did happen. In an emergency, a general might escape Sometimes a large army was sub-divided into two or
to cover in a friendly square, or ride in amongst his three "wings," each comprising several Forces. This
cavalry troopers. At the scale we represent, though, we was frequently the case in the Russian army, even after
have to assume that the officer in question is moving they reformed to a Napoleonic system of permanent
around, exerting appropriate influence on local situa- corps. A wing commander's job was to manage a large
tions as he sees fit. We don't literally attach and detach sector of the battlefield, theoretically simplifying the
the officer base to units, but rather allow him to affect management tasks of the overall army commander. In
things when he is close enough. reality, these were often political appointments - gen-
A sub-commander may exert the following influ- erals whose reputations and/or ranks were too high to
ences on any unit of his Force within 3". He may do give them a single Force - resulting in yet another
each of these things once per pul e, all for the same layer of command.
friendly unit, or spreading these activities out over sev- In Grande Armee there are two ways to simulate
eral different units. this, depending on whether or not an actual player is
1) He may re-roll a movement roll for a unit. present to play the role of the wing commander. Note
2) He may re-roll a terrain table roll. that in either case, the army commander still counts
3) If he has the (V)alor bonus, a friendly unit the total number of Forces in his army, when using the
within 3" may get a bonus die in combat. command table to see how many CPs he will have each
The Control Segment CD
8.1 A Player as Wing Commander instead to that wing commander. It is the wing com-
The wing commander hould have his own cup to con- mander's control number that is u ed, plus his dis-
tain CP chits. Each turn, after the army commander tance from the army commander, to determine the
has rolled to obtain his CPs, he must decide how many cost in CPs.
CPs he will allocate to his wing commander. This is For example, Barclay de Tolly is a Russian wing
kept secret from the enemy side. The army command- commander. He has three corps under him. Kutusou
er chooses a number of CPs to give to his wing com- is the army commander. Visibility, and thus radius, is
mander, then measures the distance between his fig- 20". If Kutusou wants to send a command to any of
ure and the wing commander's. If the wing command- Barclay's corps, he uses Barclay's control number (2),
er is within the army commander's radius, then all the and measures the distance to Barclay (3'/). Barclay is
CPs allocated are given to the wing commander. For 1,/ beyond Kutusou's radius, so this command will
each ten inches the wing commander is beyond the cost 2 extra CPs, for a total of 4. This will saue
army commander's radius, one of the allocated CPs is Kutusou some CPs, as long as Barclay keeps all his
instead lost - going back to the pile. The army com- corps within his own radius. The wing commander
mander should perform this task at the beginning of allows the army commander to extend his radius.
each turn, for each wing commander he has that is Note that this is usually, but not always, advanta-
played by a player. geous. It is possible, for instance, that a Force might be
For example, Kutusou's radius is 20". Barclay de only 18" from the army commander, but part of a wing
Tolly is one of his wing commanders, and is 3'/ away. whose wing commander is 27" away from the army
Kutusou wants to giue Barclay 10 CPs, but because commander. Even 0, if the Force i within the wing
Barclay is 1,/ beyond Kutusou's radius, two of those commander's radius, then the command must go to
CPs are lost en route. Barclay only gets 8. the wing commander.
Now we proceed to the control segment, as nor- If, however, a Force is beyond the radius of its
mal. However, the commander does not perform these wing commander, the army commander - if he wants
tasks for any of the Forces in the wing commander's to send a command to that Force - must s nd it
wing. The wing commander choo es which of his directly to the sub-commander, as normal.
Forces will receive commands, or will take control A sub-commander who doe not receive a com-
tests, etc. The wing commander has a radius, equal to mand must take a control test, whether he is within his
the current visibility, and he follows the exact same wing commander's radius or not. In a control test,
procedure for issuing command to his Forces as a always use the sub-commander's control number, not
normal army commander would. (And when he runs that of his wing commander.
out of CPs, he can't issue any more commands.)
Note that the army commander is still the person 9.0 What if the Army Commander
who uses CPs to move his base- a wing commander
doesn't have to spend the 3CPs to move his figure. And
Hasn't Arrived Yet?
Generally, Grande Armee works best for set-piece bat-
the army commander is the only one who makes the
tles where the opposing forces are both deployed. But
initiative rolls each pulse, and may employ CPs to alter
what about those battles in which one Force got itself
tho e rolls. And if the roll (doubles) results in more
into action, and the army commander rushed to the
CPs, these are kept by the army commander; they can't
scene with the rest of the army?
be sent on to the wing commander. He must make do
Until the army commander is on the board, each
with his "allowance" from the beginning of the turn.
sub-commander is on his own. The army commander
player still rolls for initiative for each pulse, but he col-
8.2 If there is no Player for a Wing lects no CPs until he is on the table. (Thus, he can't
modify his initiative rolls). During the control segment
Commander of each pulse, each sub-commander takes a control
As noted above, the wing commander has his own
test. Passing the test enables him to act with his Force
radius, determined the same way as the army com- in any way he please. Failure of the control test will
mander's. And a wing commander will al 0 have a con-
require him to check his Force's status.
trol number, like a sub-commander. When there is no
Once the commander arrives, he begins using the
person playing the wing commander, the army com- command system normally, and all sub-commanders
mander must follow this procedure:
are subject to commands, and to the normal rules of
Any command sent to a Force which is part of a
the game.
wing and within the wing commander's radius, goes
H. The Movement Segment
Mortier gaue orders for them to retreat slowly, and
1.0 Random Movement Allowances General Laborde, repeating his orders, exclaimed,
All units have a basic minimum movement allowance "Do you hear, soldiers? The marshal orders ordi-
(called "Base Move"), which is combined with a die
nary time. Ordinary time, soldiers!" and amid that
incessant tempest of grapeshot and balls it was
roll, to give a movement allowance for that pulse. A
"ordinary time" with them.
player must roll for a unit and move it, before rolling
for another unit. He may opt not to move a unit, in
-The Young Guard at Krasnoi, 1812. (From:
which case he should not roll for it at all. He may opt
Napoleon and his Marshals, Volume I, Chapter IX)
not to move a unit the full distance it is allowed.
Players may always measure as they go.

2.0 Maneuver Systems

The myth persists among wargamers that nations 0
the Napoleonic wars recognized two distinct maneuver
systems, which they would have identified as
"Prussian" versus "French." In fact, every nation from Notes on the Movement Allowances
little Baden to mighty Russia had its own system for
Randomized movement allowances may not be a "realistic"
maneuvering platoons, companies, battalions, method, but they give a realistic result for a specific problem
squadrons, etc, on the field, and many countries went commanders faced: getting multiple units to move in syn-
through several changes during this period. chronization. Despite all the tools for keeping men in time -
At the scale of Grande Armee, we are concerned drums, music, singing, and endless training - this remained a
with whole brigades of several battalions. So we need problem. Soldiers marched at more or less the same speeds,
to know only a bottom-line kind of distinction: who from nation to nation. Where they differed was in tactical
"evolutions" for changing direction and formation. Nobody
was fa t and who was slow, relative to each other? The was faster at changing formations than the French. A French
French, for instance, had done away with many of the infantry battalion could change from line into SQuare in
time-consuming "evolutions" by company, and thus about 90 seconds, or from SQuare into column in about 30
changed direction and formation very quickly. (To pic- (!) seconds.
ture this in your mind, consider the difference between Contrast this with the desperately slow Prussians of the
jay-walking and crossing the street 'correctly.') Rather revolutionary period: all of those evolutions meant that a
than using the labels "French" and "Prussian," we'll Prussian battalion took nearly eleven minutes to change from
column into SQuare. By 18 12 the Prussians had stripped
call the distinction "Fast versus Slow."
away most of their clunky evolutions, with miraculous
results. They were actually now a few seconds faster than the
Slow Infantry: French on some parade-ground maneuvers. The Russians
weren't as plodding as the 1806 Prussians, but they weren't
Austria, Prussia before 18 I I, Russia, Spain, Portugal as fast as the French and British, either. The Austrians, with
before I 809, Gennan minor states before I 809. their huge battalions, were a bit slower still. The Ottoman
Turks, with their loose formations and large numbers of
irregular infantry, tended to be quite fast and flexible, albeit
Fast InfantJy: not well ordered.
France, Britain (and British minor allies), Ottomans, Because Grande Armee does not use a rlXed time-scale,
there is also no such thing as a fixed movement rate. You
Prussia after 18 I I, and all others not yet mentioned.
may find it Strange or unrealistic to have infantry occasional-
ly moving "faster" than cavalry, but bear In mind that we are
simulating time as well as speed. Perhaps the cavalry did not
Start moving at the same time. Perhaps its officers halted it
H2.0: Movement Allowances for some reason. Remember that cavalry moved at a "walk"
Type Base Move Plus nineey percent of the time, saving a gallop for a few rare
charges. Generally, cavalry will be faster than Infantry, but
Foot Artillery and Fast Infantry 6 1 die
you can't always count on that.
Slow Infantry 4 1 die
Light Cavalry 10 1 die
Horse Artillery and Heavy Cavalry 8 1 die
Officers * 18
You must spend 3CPs to moue the army commander.
Movement m

3.0 Movement and Terrain 3.11 Obstacles

For each point of movement allowance, a unit may Note that the cost for moving across an obstacle is sim-
move 1" in clear terrain. Non-clear terrain however ply an additional expenditure of movement points
affects different unit-types in different wa;s. As with caused by the obstacle, plus whatever normal move-
the movement allowance themselv ,the effects of ment would otherwise have occurred. The unit must
terrain are randomized. pay that number of points, plus whatever co t of the
If any portion of a unit's base moves through terrain it is moving acro s. A unit must have enough
rough terrain or acro s an ob tacle, then the whole total movement points remaining to get its whole base
unit must be considered a doing so. acro the obstacle; it can't end the pulse "sitting on"
the obstacle. So an infantry unit, for instance, would
3.1 The Terrain Table have to spend the extra point(s) to cro s the obstacle,
When a player wi hes to move a unit through rough plus at least three more to move itself across com-
terrain, or acro s an obstacle, he must roll on the pletely, since its base is 3" deep.
Terrain Table to determine the effect of that terrain for If moving acro san ob tacle which is aloin rough
this pul e. The player must always do it in this order: terrain, a unit would have to have rolled twice on the
First, he rolls for his movement allowance, as nor- Terrain Table in this pulse.
mal. econd, he announces his intent to move the unit
through the terrain in question. Third, he roll one die Example of using the Terrain Table: The player rolls
and consults the Terrain Table. The table always gives for his mouement allowance this turnfor an infantry
two numbers as po sible results, one odd and one unit, and comes up with "8". His unit has 8 mouement
even, for each unit-type moving through rough terrain points. He moues huo inches across clear terrain, and
or across an ob tacle. If the die comes up odd, u e the now his unit has come to a stone wall - an obstacle.
odd number, and if even, u e the even number. That He announces he will cross the obstacle and keep
number is the amount of movement points that must mouing. He rolls a die, which comes up odd. That
be expended to move that unit I" through the terrain means he will haue to pay an additional 1 mouement
(or completely acro s the ob tacle) during this pulse. point to cross this obstacle. So far he has spent huo
points mouing in clear terrain, and now another for
this obstacle, and he has fiue remaining. He crosses
H3.1: The Terrain Table the obstacle and moues another 5" straight ahead.
Cost of
Type Rough Ob tacIe 4.0 Roads
An artillery unit may move along a road at a standard
Infantry 2-3 1-2 rate of 2" per every movement point expended, regard-
Cavalry 3-4 2-3 less of what other terrain may be in the area. A road
Artillery 3-4 3-4 through rough terrain is still a road - not rough ter-
Officers 1-2 1-2 rain. Bridges and towns are "road ," for movement
purpo es.
Infantry and cavalry units move along roads at a
Once having announced the move and rolled for it, rate of I" per movement point, regardless of surround-
a player may not change his mind. He has to go ing terrain.
through with the move as best possible. A unit which In addition to the above, any unit which will move
does not have enough movement points to clear an entirely along a road in a pulse and never in that move
obstacle may not do so. It halts behind the obstacle comes within 6" of any non-routing enemy unit, does
ending its movement for the pulse there. ' not have to roll a die to move, but rather adds an auto-
A player must make a separate roll for each of his matic "6" to its base movement rate. A player who opts
units which tries to move through rough terrain or to do this, rather than roll for movement allowance,
acros an obstacle. He must do this each pulse, so it is may not move that unit off the road in that pulse.
entirely po sible that a unit could move with great dif- Due to the game's basing system, all the figures
ficulty through a patch of rough terrain in one pulse, may not fit on the road. Move with the base as centered
and then in the next pulse get a better die roll, and as po sible on the road. Also, because it is assumed
move faster through that very same terrain. that a cavalry or infantry unit on a road is in "road col-
umn," no other unit may be within 3" of its rear. It
must have a 3" area behind it, representing the long
4D M ovement

straggling columns of the road, if it is going to use the 6.0 Directions of Movement
road movement rate. (Artillery units on roads do not Units may always move straight ahead. There are sev-
have to do this.) It is assumed that, once off the road, eral ways, however, that a unit may move in a different
or once enemy units approach, the regimental colonels direction.
will form the men up into a more practical battlefield
If the ground condition is "Mud," then a road con- 6.1 Wheeling
fers no bonus to any unit. It is instead Mud, like the Any unit may "wheel," thus turning as it moves, to face
other clear terrain. For those rare occasions when a a new direction. In this maneuver, the unit simply
road was fully paved, the players can agree before the moves around to a new facing, covering ground, as
game, and ignore the effect of mud while on that road. shown by the arc of its movement. One front corner
stays in place while the other front corner "wheels" in
A "road" in the early 19th century was usually little more an arc, and the rest of the base swings around.
than a muddy track, wide enough for a wagon axle. M ost Measure the distance along this outside arc; that is the
infantry and cavalry units marching along a road were actual amount of movement expended. Wheeling is simply a
Iy marching along the sides of that road, because the road function of movement - it is done during movement.
itself was reserved for artillery, supply wagons and ambu If the wheel carries the unit through different terrain,
lances, and of course officers and couriers who would gallop it may require a roll on the terrain table. Any unit may
by, splattering everybody with mud. (Even most "paved" wheel any number of times, movement allowances
roads in the Napoleonic era were cobblestone, which was permitting. A unit may wheel bac1,-wards. A unit may
extremely difficult for horses to handle; they would stumble wheel into contact with the enemy.
and break their legs.)
6.2 Change Face
5.0 Elevations Any unit may make one "change of face" per pulse.
No battlefield is flat. The "hills" we place on the field This maneuver involves pivoting the unit either 90 or
represent notable slopes which would disrupt or 180 degrees, while not moving at all. The base is sim-
impede movement in some way. Obviously, not all ply turned around to face a new direction. This was a
slopes are the same, and going downhill could be just relatively easy maneuver for artillery or cavalry, but
as difficult as going up, especially for horses pulling a trid.-y for infantry. An artillery or cavalry unit may do
two-ton artillery limber (the men have to set a brake to this free, once, in any pulse, prior to expending any
keep it under control.) movement points at all. Infantry may also perform this
The penalty for ascending or descending an eleva- once in a pulse: an infantry unit must change face first,
tion is one extra movement point. Whenever a unit before expending any other movement points.
changes elevation in its move, it must subtract one Changing face requires fo ur movement points if the
from its available movement allowance. If it moves infantry unit is entirely in clear terrain or a town. The
along clear terrain and then comes to a hill, it must unit can move normally with any remaining points. If
first subtract one. Then, with whatever amount of the ground is mud, or the unit is at least partially in
movement is remaining, it may move up (or down) the rough terrain, then changing face requires all of its
hill normally. movement points. A unit may not change facing on a
5.1 Cavalry and Elevations
Horses have great difficulty descending hills in a 6.3 Retrograde & Flank Movement
straight line. Therefore, no cavalry unit may "charge Retrograding means moving backward while facing
downhill." A cavalry unit may not move to contact with forward. Flank movement means moving to one side
the enemy if that means that the attacking cavalry while facing forward. This is not to be understood lit-
would have its base on a downhill slope at the time of erally; the men aren't side-stepping or walking back-
contact, or on a higher elevation than the enemy it is wards. Individual companies turn around, march, then
contacting. (It could still be attacked by an enemy unit turn around again.
coming up the hill, of course.) Artillery units may flank move or retrograde with-
out any penalty at all. Infantry and cavalry units retro-
grade and flank move at double the normal terrain
cost. In other words, whatever terrain they are moving
through costs twice as many movement points as
Movement 0

the distance
covered by the
unit's outside arc Moving by Front
a it wheels. the flank

Front 4:

usual. (An inch of clear terrain costs 2 movement 6.S Summary: Changing Direction
points, rough terrain costs double whatever the
Terrain Table says, etc.) Wheeling:
No unit may ever retrograde or flank move into Any unit may do so as a function of movement
contact with the enemy. 0 unit may flank move with-
in 6" of any non-routing enemy unit No unit may ret- Change Face:
rograde within 6" of any non-routing enemy unit Artillery or Cavalry: once, free, at the beginning of a pul e.
unless moving directly away from enemy units without Infantry: once, at beginning of pulse, for four movement
getting closer to any other enemy units (i.e., retreat- points in clear terrain, or all movement points in rough
ing.) Any infantry or cavalry unit which retrogrades or terrain or in mud.
flank moves through rough terrain or across an obsta-
cle loses -lSP, to represent disorder and straggling. Re tro/Flank Move :
No unit may use the road movement bonus rate while Artillery: flank move or retrograde is free
retrograding or flank moving. Infantry and Cavalry: double cost to move.

6-4 Oblique Movement Oblique :

Any unit may move obliquely, up to 45 degrees off its Up to 45 degree, forward only, free. Infantry may move to
frontal perspective, without penalty. A unit may not contact.
combine oblique movement with retrograde or flank
movement, or with the road bonus. An infantry unit 7.0 Towns / Built-Up Areas
(not cavalry) may move obliquely into contact with the Any unit may move through a built-up area, treating it
enemy. A unit may not oblique in, from, or through a as a road, for purposes of movement, but cavalry and
town base. artillery may not end their movement in them. Only
As with the other maneuvers, don't take oblique infantry units may start or end their movement in
movement literally. It wasn't done by individual bat- built-up areas.
talions in the Napoleonic period. (Except briefly by the Remember that towns should be comprised of one
Austrians.) Your men aren't really advancing, crab- or more 4" square bases, with buildings that can be
like, by inching forward at 45-degree angles. Rather, removed when a unit occupies the base. Do not end a
the companies or squadrons are wheeling, moving for- unit's movement partially in and partially out of a town
ward, then re-aligning. base. If the unit does not have enough movement to
enter the town base fully, then it can't enter at all.

A unit may not wheel or oblique move in, from, or Interpenetration may be done as a part of any per-
through a town base. A unit may, however, change face missible movement, including retrograde, oblique, and
in a town base, and it may retrograde and/or flank moving by the flank. It may be done in rough terrain
move in or through a town base. and across ob tacles. In all ca es, normal movement
rules and penalties apply.
8.0 Mud
When the ground condition is "Mud," most movement 12.0 Contacting the Enemy
co ts are doubled . Two movement points must be There is no "charge," per se. Units move into contact
spent to move 1" of clear terrain, for instance. The with enemy units as part of their movement in a pulse.
penalties for terrain are doubled. Ascending or Moving to contact an enemy unit is also called "attack-
descending a slope co ts an extra two movement ing" it. For simplicity, the side moving to contact is
points, rather than the normal one. No unit may use called the "attacker" and the other side the "defender."
the road bonus in mud. A change of face requires all of
an infantry unit's movement allowance, not just four 12.1 "Who May Contact Whom
points. Artillery units may never attack an enemy unit.
Infantry may attack any enemy unit, but it suffers a
9.0 Doubled Movement Penalties penalty if attacking cavalry. (It is assumed that the
Movement penalties may only be doubled once. A unit infantry has advanced toward the cavalry to attempt to
trying to retrograde move in the mud, for instance, drive it off, which is very ri ky.) Ca aIry may attack
does not have its movement co ts doubled for retro- any enemy unit unless that unit is in a town or hard
grade, then doubled again for mud. The double-cost cover.
penalty is only applied once.
12.2 How Units React "When
10.0 Foot Artillery Penalty Attacked
A foot artillery unit which fires has its movement Infantry does not react when contacted by the enemy.
allowance halved in that ame pulse. Roll for move- If hit in the flank or rear by enemy infantry, it is
ment, add to its base move, and then halve the total. assumed that the brigadiers will try to tum some bat-
Note that this is done before applying any movement talions to face the threat. When infantry is attacked by
penalties: a foot artillery unit might still have to pay enemy cavalry, it is assumed that the brigadier in
double movement costs for moving in mud, etc. (Make charge is trying to form squares.
sure to keep those cotton puffs on all your guns that
fired, so that when movement comes, you will remem-
ber whose movement is halved.) 12.21 Cavalry Attacked by Infantry
Cavalry may opt to fight a combat when attacked by
enemy infantry. Tum the cavalry to face an infantry
11.0 Interpenetration attacker (if not already facing), and the combat will be
Units can never end a move overlapping each other's fought there. Alternatively, cavalry may Evade, when-
bases. However, in certain cases a friendly unit may ever attacked by infantry.
move "through" another friendly unit, as follows :
First, Artillery units are the only units which may
interpenetrate and be interpenetrated by friendly 12.21 Cavalry Attacked by Cavalry
units. Infantry or cavalry units may move through a Cavalry may opt to fight a combat when attacked by
friendly artillery unit as long as they have enough enemy cavalry. Tum the cavalry to face the attacker (if
movement to move completely through, and thus not not already facing), and the combat will be fought
overlap the artillery unit's base at the end of their there. (A counter-charge is assumed to have hap-
moves. Artillery units may interpenetrate any friendly pened.)
unit under the same condition. Se cond, any unit, Alternatively, cavalry may attempt to Evade, when
friend or foe, may move through any routedfbroken attacked by cavalry. Unlike cavalry evading infantry,
unit as if it weren't there. Thir d , any unit may move this is not automatic. An attempt to evade enemy cav-
"through" an officer, since officers are not units. No alry could result in combat anyway, but under disad-
other interpenetration of units is allowed. vantageous circumstances, a one side pursues the
other. To make an evasion attempt against enemy cav-
alry, follow this procedure:
Movement 0
To resolve an evasion attempt, the attacker and 12.3 Attacking Artillery
defender each roll one die. The defender's die is modi- When attacked, artillery batteries tried to fire cani ter
fied as follows: at the approaching enemy, then to limber up and
escape. If friendly infantry was nearby, the gunners
-1 if defender is heavy cavalry and attacker is light. would often take shelter in the infantry formations.
+1 if defender is light cavalry and attacker is heavy. The reaction of the artillery unit depends on whether
+2 if defender is Cossack, against any attacker or not it is attached to a friendly infantry unit, as well
as what sort of enemy is attacking.
If the defender's modified roll is equal or higher, If the artillery is attacked by an enemy unit within
then his cavalry has succe fully evaded. If the attack- its frontal4s-degree perspective, then the gunners will
er's roll is higher, then there is no evasion: a combat get one "final shot" at the incoming enemy. (See F7.0)
will take place. Turn the defender to face the attacker Then, after this is resolved, and the attacker is still in
(if not already), and the defender immediately 10 es contact, roll to ee if the artillery e caped.
ISP, prior to resolving the combat. (If this breaks the If the artillery is attacked by an enemy unit com-
defender, the attacker may continue his move, and ing from the flank or rear, it will not get a final shot.
even contact another defender if he is eligible.) Roll to see if it escaped.

12.23 How Cavalry Evades

The attacking unit moves to contact with the cavalry. 12.31 Artillery Escape
The cavalry rolls for its movement allowance, as nor- Cross-index the type of artillery trying to escape with
mal (base move plus one die), and then moves half that the type of attacker contacting it. Roll one die,
number of inches as directly away from the attacker as attempting to roll less than or equal to the number
pos ible. (Simply move that distance backward, shown on the Artillery Escape table, below. If the roll
regardless of terrain, while still facing the attacker.) If fails, leave the artillery in place; there will be a combat
an evasion would take a cavalry unit beyond its sub- there. If the roll succeeds, the artillery has escaped.
commander's radius, move no further than that radiu .
If an evasion would leave the cavalry "sitting on" other
friendly units, then move through those enemy units
and stop behind them. An evasion may not bring cav- H 12.31: Artillery Escape
alry within 6" of other non-routed enemy units that it
wasn't already within 6" of before the evasion. A ttacker
If an evading cavalry unit would have to move D ef ender Infantry HvyCav. LtCav.
through other friendly units in order to evade an Ft. Artillery 3 2 I
attacker, then it would cause the "Fall Back" p nalty of Hs. Artillery 4 3 2
-ISP to any friendly unit moved through. (See HIS.O
Modifie r s to Die Roll :
and Jl.l).
+1 in Mud, Snow, or Rain
A cavalry unit may evade any number of times it is
+1 Artillery in rough terrain
attacked in a pulse.
-1 Artillery behind an ob tacle (such as a wall or ditch)
If an evasion is not po ible due to the restrictions
Ii ted above, then it may not be done. Fight a combat (It is possible, with enough modifiers in certain circum-
instead. stances, to be unable to escape.)
Once a defending cavalry unit has evaded, the
attacker may continue his move with any remaining
movement allowance, and contact another defender if 12.311 Moving to Escape
he is eligible, or even this same defender again, if clo e An escaping artillery unit must move as directly away
enough. from the attacker which contacted it as possible. As
with normal artillery movement, it may interpenetrate
12.24 Multiple Contacts friendly units as it escapes. Roll for its movement
Once a unit is already contacted by the enemy, it is allowance, as normal, but then halve that total. That
locked in combat. It may not react in any way if will be the distance it will fall back in its escape. If that
attacked by an additional enemy unit. leaves it sitting on top of friendly units, fall back more
until the artillery does not overlap any unit. Ignore ter-
rain penalties - simply fall back that number of inches.
fD Movement

Example: A horse artillery unit is attacked by 12.33 Against two Artillery Units
enemy infantry. It must roll S4 to escape. It does so, Due to the smaller frontages of artillery units, it is pos-
and now must see how far back it moves. Horse sible that one attacker might contact two artillery units
artillery has a base move of 8 plus one die. It rolls a 3; simultaneously. Each rolls to fire, if eligible (if the
adding to 8, gives it an 11 movement allowance. Halve attack came from the front). Each rolls separately to
that: the horse artillery unit willfall back 5-5". escape.

If no escape path exists because of impassable terrain,

or if impassable terrain limits the artillery unit to a 13.0 Moving Through Officers
horter escape path than that which was rolled, then If an enemy unit of any type moves through an officer,
move as far back as possible. that officer mu t take a casualty check. (J5.0) If he
survives, move him to safety. You may move him up to
his normal IS" movement distance.
12.312 Attacker Continue/Overrun
If the attacking unit still had movement points remain-
ing, and it contacted an artillery unit which escaped, 14.0 Moving in the Presence of the
then it may continue its move, possibly contacting Enemy (The 6 " Rule)
another enemy unit. If it still has enough movement to There is a basic limitation on how your units can move
"catch" the artillery which just escaped from it, then it when close to the enemy. Non-routed units have a
has overrun that artillery unit: remove the artillery at "contact zone" which extends 6" in all direction . Once
once, and stop the attacker's movement. an inf antry or cavalry unit enters the enemy's con-
An attacking unit does not have to continue mov- tact zone it must move either directly toward or direct-
ing after an artillery unit escapes it. Continuing its ly away from the clo est enemy units. If several enemy
move is always optional, since it has accomplished its unit are equidistant, the moving player may choo e.
immediate mission : driving off the enemy artillery. Enemy units to the front take priority. Only if
there were no enemy units in the frontal arc and with-
12.313 Multiple Escapes in 6" would a unit be obligated to move toward or away
It is possible that an artillery unit may be contacted by from the nearest enemy units on the flank or rear.
more than one enemy unit in a single pulse. For Note that this rule applies only if the unit moves.
instance, it might escape one enemy, then another You might elect not to move a unit.
attacks it. It does not get a final shot at subsequent Cavalry may ignore enemy infantry in a town; it is
attackers, but may still roll to escape. There is no never required to move only directly toward or away
penalty for this, and the process is repeated each time from a garrisoned town base.
a unit is eligible to escape. The 6" Rule applies whether or not your unit could
see the enemy unites) ; even, for instance, if concealed
behind a hill or in a forest.
12.32 Artillery is attached to
Friendly Infantry
If artillery is attached (base-to-ba e and con-
tinuous frontage) to friendly infantry, there
will be no escape attempt. If the attack came
from the artillery's front, then take their
final shot at the attacker. The combat will be
between the attacker(s) and the attached
infantry unit. If the attack came from a flank
or rear, and the gunners couldn't get a shot,
then simply ignore them; they take shelter in
the infantry unit, and that combat is
resolved. Either way, the artillery unit will
share the fate of that infantry unit. If it is
broken, the artillery unit is destroyed. If the
friendly infantry survives the combat, no
matter how battered, the attached artillery .............----
unit survives unscathed. The Austrian artillery above is attached to an infantry unit. The
French cuirassiers must attack them both as a single enemy.
Movement 0
Note that you might start your move more than 6" 14.1 Chaos and Friction: The
from the enemy, but once you've drawn within 6" you
mu t abide by the 6" Rule. Rule, Part Two ...
Artillery is exempt from this rule; it may maneu- When within the contact zone, your infantry and cav-
ver freely in the enemy's 6" zone. alry commanders might no longer be reliable. When
In other words, once your units are within 6" of rolling for the movement of an infantry or cavalry unit
the enemy, they are so clo e that their commanders which st arts its move in the enemy's contact zone,
will turn them to face the enemy automatically, as a note this additional restriction:
basic precaution - unle s they are retreating, in which H you r oll a 1 on the move die, this unit may not
case the commanders will get them away from danger move to clo e with the enemy, even if his movement
as expeditiously as pos ible. Once you have drawn that allowance would permit it. The unit may not move
close to the enemy, the time for maneuvering is over; closer to any enemy units, although it may move away
you are "stuck in," as Wellington would say. from the enemy. If any move, in any direction, would
bring it closer to the enemy, then it simply may not
move this pulse at all!
Even if acting in accordance with your overall plan, a H you roll a 6 on the move die, this unit m u t
brigadier isn't going to do something stupid, like marching move to close with the closest enemy unit within its
his brigade across the front of an enemy formation, so as to frontal perspective. You may not choose an enemy unit
catch a more distant enemy unit in the nank .... You might unless two are equidistant; it must charge toward the
be a warga mer looking for a + I modifier, but he's got closest one, even if terrain penalties ultimately don't
2, 500 young lives to worry about! permit contact. You may not opt not to move this unit
after having rolled; it must charge the nearest enemy
to its front. If there are no enemy units within its
Infantry B
frontal perspective at all, then ignore this result.
Cavalry may ignore this result if it would force them to
"charge downhill" (HS.l) or attack an enemy in a town
or hard cover (H12.1)
Any other roll of the unit's movement die is treat-
ed normally. Note that a player does not have to make
the roll at all ifhe doesn't want to take any risks. Ifhe
wants his unit to hold its position, he may opt not to
Infantry A roll, and thus not to move. But to move at all (even
simply to change facing) requires a roll, and thus the
risk of an uncooperative or hot-headed local brigadier
who acts against your wi hes.
Artillery units n ver suffer from these restrictions,
nor Guard or Elite units . They are always reliable.
This rule remains in place regardless of Force
The cavalry can't pass by Status. If, for instance, the Force must" Attack!" in this
infantry A, in order to attack pulse, but the player rolls a "1" for a unit, then that unit
B. Unit A is the closest to still may not close with the enemy. (You can argue
his front. If he is going to
about it later, at his court-martial.)
attack anybody, it will be A.
This rule does not apply outside the 6" contact
zone. If you roll a 1 or 6 for the movement allowance of
a unit that starts its move more than 6" from the
enemy, you may move with it freely, as you wish.

15.0 Forced Movement

Units which win or 10 e combats may have to move out
of the normal movement sequence of the pulse. They
might fall back as a result of losing a combat (Jl.o), or
they may pursue as a result of winning (I4.7).
m Movement

Any infantry or cavalry unit that must fall back - 17.1 Penalties for Being Beyond the
whether as a result of evading or falling back from
combat - which interpenetrates friendly infantry or Sub-Comrnander's Radius
cavalry units, causes a -lSP loss to itself and any Sometimes, as a result of combat, units might advance
infantry or cavalry units it falls back through (Jl.l). or fall back out of their sub-commander's radius. The
Note that this is not the same procedure nor player, at his first opportunity in the next pulse, must
penalty as when a unit breaks. move his sub-commander and the units of that Force
in such a way as to bring all units back within the sub-
commander's radius. Until this is accomplished, a unit
16.0 Moving Officers outside its sub-commander's radius i penalized as fol-
Officers can move at any time during the Pulse, and lows:
this should be done with care, so as to keep units with- It uses lower To-Hit numb rs in combat
in their radii. Since you often don't know how fast It may not make a skirmish attack
your units will be moving, it is probably best to move An artillery unit may not fire, other than to
officers last. make a Final Shot when attacked.
All officers may move up to 18". Unlike units, they It may not recover any 10 t SPs.
have no flank or rear and can move in any direction ;
their movement is always voluntary and reliable One
does not roll to move them; they can always mo~e up
to 18". But What About Divisional Integrity... ?
Most games place a lot of emphasis on unit integrity: all bat-
talions of a regiment must be within X" of each other, all
16.1 Moving the Commander
regiments of a brigade formed together, all brigades of a divi-
All officers may move freely except the army com-
sion together, and they can't overlap other divisions, and so
mander. In order to move the commander, a player
on_ Wasn't this, after all, the way Napoleonic armies oper-
must pay 3 CPs. This represents the effort of moving
the headquarters and staff and disrupting the circuits
In cheory, yes. But once a battle was underway, these
of command during such a move.
tidy formations often became hopelessly jumbled and inter-
mixed. By the mid-point of most battles we find senior com-
17.0 Units and Radii
manders grabbing units from each other's commands throw-
As we've seen, each sub-commander has a radius. All
ing in a regiment from one division, a section of a' battery
units of his Force must remain within that radius by
from somewhere else, and some cavalry support, perhaps
the end of every pulse. A player may never deliberate-
from an entirely different corps.
ly end a pulse with units out of the radius, if that can
There is also the problem of scale_ Because the units we
be prevented by moving tho e units or the sub-com-
deploy represent historical bodies of men, and those bodies
mander in a different way.
vary greatly in size, there can be no standardized system for
Aside from remaining within the radius of their
placement, relative position, and integrity. In some cases a
sub-commander, units of a Force do not have to obey
unit represents an entire understrength division. In some
other restrictions of command control. Brigades of the
cases a big division might be four or five units. Unit integri-
sa~e division do not nece sarily have to stay together,
ty is left to your brigadiers: you have to assume that they
for mstance.
know what they're doing and are putting their battalions
where they need to be. You will get the best results from
Most wargames allow the army commanders to roam the your brigades if you deploy them with secure nanks and
battlefield without consequence. This was not common prac- reserves behind them (there are potential combat penalties
tice_ The best course of action for an army commander was for allowing the enemy too near an exposed nank_l
to find a good observation point, to set up his headquarters What matters in Grande Armee is that a sub-com-
there, and to stay put_ The army headquarters could be quite mander can still "reach" his local brigadiers_ The radii of sub-
an elaborate affair. At the very least, it had to function as a commanders sometimes overlaps, and thus units find them-
nexus of information; couriers needed to know where they selves intermingled with the units of other Forces. This is not
terribly important, as long as the players pay attention to
could find the commander and chief of staff, and of course
any time spent moving was time that the commander could which units belong in which Forces, and as long as each unit
not spend looking at maps, looking through his telescope, stays within its Force's radius. Most armies started out neat-
reading and writing messages, etc. So moving the army head- ly divided by corps command, but became increasingly worn
quarters was rarely done_ and mingled as the day went on.
I. Combat
"...OUr skirmishers were pushed in by superior
numbers. In readiness for receiving cavalry we
changedjrom line into massformation, but the
grapeshot merely ploughed deeper gaps in our 1.0Grande Armee's Approach to
ranks. Combat
The Prussian infantry battalions were approach- At the large scale we use in this game, we must assume
ing so close, thanks to their artillery support and that tactical decisions are made by the captains,
our immobility, that their mnks met ours, so much majors, and colonels on the scene. Formations within
so that a sergeant-major named Mourgue took even a single brigade might change two or three times
them to be French on account of their blue great- during the course of what this game represents as one
coats which were like our own. He went unofficial- "combat." There might be charges and countercharges,
ly to one of these battalions to warn them that they volleys of musketry at point-blank range, and perhaps
were firing into their comrades and was very lucky one side drives home a charge with cold steel. But back
to escape being captured. at army headquarters we strain and squint through our
Our position was becoming untenable. Besides telescopes, seeing only that our boys are mixing it up
the enemy artillery which was killing us at point- with the enemy. Far away, obscured by smoke, terrain,
blank range, an imposing force of cavalry waited a and other troops, these combats are occurring well
mere twenty meters awayfor us to break, where beyond our control.
they would spring at us like tigers waiting for their There is no distinction made between melee, mus-
prey. Our companies were becoming more and ket fire, and the supporting fire of attached brigade
more disorganized, and very soon the battalions, and divi ional artillery. All of this is assumed when
being crowded together, presented nothing more units make contact, and it is all called "combat."
than unformed heaps.... This could not last very
much longer. The instinctfor self-preservation
became too strong. The men broke andjled." 2.0 Moving to Contact
The player who is moving his units is called the
A French infantry captain at the Battle of Leipzig. Attacker. The player who is not active in that part of
(from Digby Smith's 1813: Leipzig. (London: the pulse is the Defender. There is no "charge." The
Greenhill Books, 2001) attacker simply moves, announcing his intention to
move units into contact, and then doing so, assuming
the die rolls cooperate. At this time, as they are con-
Historical Commentary tacted, defending units must react, if they are eligible:
The above passage is a fascinating account of... what cavalry might evade (unless already contacted by
exactly? Is it a melee combat? The units in question are another attacker), and artillery must fire a Final Shot
very close, after all. The enemy cavalry, he says, are (if eligible) and try to escape.
only twenty meters from him - that's one fifth of one
inch in our game- cale. Yet, the cavalry never
"charged." They just stood there, waiting for the 2.1 Direction of Contact
infantry to collapse, so they could pursue. As we can An attacking unit may only move into contact using its
see, the cavalry's main job was to keep the French in a front. It may never move backwards or sideways into
mass formation, so that the Prussian artillery could contact with the enemy.
blast them. But there is no melee. No contact. Even An attacking unit need not be able to see a defend-
though he hints that Prussian infantry are drawing ing unit at the beginning of its move, in order to attack
close enough to run over and talk to them, the confu- it. For example, attacking cavalry might move around
sion is still such that he can't tell the Prussians are in a hill and be able to see a defending infantry unit which
fact Prussians until one officer goes to greet them. had previously been invisible due to the hill. Assuming
This passage is a good example of what this game the cavalry unit obeys the 6" Rule, it may move to con-
tries to represent when units come into contact. There tact this infantry.
is no sense of time; we have no idea how long the An attacking unit may contact a defender's flank
Frenchmen were under fire, or how quickly the or rear, but only if it obeys the restrictions to attack the
Prussians were approaching. Our captain never looked closest enemy to its front (See AS.o, H14.0 , and 12.2,
at a clock, or at least didn't remember looking at one. below.)
There is no "charge," per se. There is only the sense Tum a defending unit to face its attacker. (If a sec-
that units of men have drawn close together, that fric- ond attacking unit contacts him, the defender is
tion and violence are occurring, and that sooner or 'pinned' and doesn't tum again, and is thus hit by the
later somebody will have to break, or at least fall back. second unit in the flank or rear.) In other words, there
is never a one-on-one flank or rear attack.
o Combat

2.2 Closest Enemy to Your Front 2.4 Multiple Contacts

Once within 6" of the enemy, an attacking unit must An attacking unit may only move to contact with one
contact the closest enemy unit to its front. If two defending unit. No more than one attacking unit may
defending units are equidistant from the attacker's contact anyone side of a defender's base. The attacker
front, the attacking player may choose. If it is unclear may ultimately move a second of his units into contact
which enemy unit is closest to a unit's front, review with that same defending unit, but only if it can contact
RuleA8.0. the defender in the flank or rear. For each instance of
combat, there may be only one defending unit.
2.3 Squaring Up (Exception: see rules for artillery, 13.0 and 13.1.) No
Although units will usually contact each other at some more than two attackers may contact the same
sort of angle, players should "square up" the attacker's defender. Thus, a combat may consist of one attacker
base once contact is made, so that the attacker and versus one defender, or two attackers versus one
defender's bases are evenly in contact, and not in con- defender.
tact with any other unit. Thi makes it much easier to
tell, in complex situations, which units are contacting
which, and who may advance in what direction, etc. In
a tight situation with many units, it might happen that
by squaring up, you inadvertently swing your flank
around into contact with somebody else. If there's no
way to square up without doing that, then square up as
best possible without contacting any other enemy
Allowed: Up to two allxkers per Not Allowed: No more than one
units. defender. This Is a flank all.lCk. all.lCker on a defender's side.

Ist: French I attacks Front 25 Contact and Obstacles/Cover
Prusslan A on Its Flank. If a defending unit is directly behind an obstacle, the

attacker need not have enough movement to clear the

obstacle; he need only be able to move into base-to-
base contact with the defender. The obstacle (a wall,
for instance) will be between them, giving the defend-
er a bonus in this combat. It will count as either hard
or soft cover, depending on what it is.

Front Why Are the Contact Rules SO RestrlctJve?

Wargamers traditionally try to "gang up" several attacking

2nd: Note that French I on units against one defender, but this rarely happened in bat-
Is mosdy on Prusslan A's
~ tles. The most important thing for an attacker was to main-
tain good order, and this would be lost if units crammed
together, making tactical maneuvers impossible. Second,
remember that at our scale, when two of our brigades come
into base-ta-base contaCt, what we are really representing is
a kind of showdown between multiple units, with infantry
probably deploying from colums into lines, delivering vol-
leys, and cavalry trying to ride around infantry squares,
and/or around and through enemy cavalry squadrons. The
3rd: Prusslan A turns to fxe Its Flank attacker simply can't bring any more forces to bear than 2-
all.lCker, while French I squar~ up
I odds; the battlefield is too crowded. And even then he can

rn ~
to perfectly contact A's base.
only bring 2-1 odds if the defenders flank or rear is com-
(If there were another French unit, pletely exposed. In other words, if the defender is doing
now elieible to attxk A, It could do what he is supposed to be dOing, and deploying his units with
so, on A's flank or rear.) Flank supported flanks, then all combats will be grueling I: I
slugfests. That may not be as much fun as the way other
games let you do it, but that's the way it was in the
Napoleonic Wars.
Combat 0
3.0 Artillery Units in Combat possible so that each attacker contacts as few as po i-
Becau e of the smaller frontages of artillery units, it is ble defenders. But in the end, simply add together the
possible for an attacker to have contacted two artillery SPs of all defenders against that attacker.
units. If neither has escaped, then combine their dice
as if they were one defending unit. 4.0 Procedure for Combat
Remember that if the enemy attacked from the 1. An attacking unit moves to contact a defending
artillery's front, the artillery will get a final shot prior unit. Cavalry might try to evade.
to checking for escape. If the artillery did not escape, 2. If the defender is artillery, he may get a shot at
then there will be a combat. the attacker, and/or might e cape (meaning
there is no contact.) Determine this.
3.1 Attached Artillery in Combat 3. Turn to face the attacker, if necessary. Another
An artillery unit may be deployed in base-to-base con- attacking unit may contact this defender, if eli-
tact with a friendly infantry unit, so that their fronts gible.
combine to form a contiguous line. This is done a part 4. The attacking side keeps moving, repeating this
of movement, by moving the artillery and infantry so procedure as more of his units continue to con-
that they end their moves together in this fashion. Only tact more defending units.
one such artillery unit may ever be thus Attach ed to Then, once there are no more attacking units to move,
anyone infantry unit. Artillery, even horse artillery, combats are re olved one at a time, starting at one
does not attach to cavalry. Artillery may only attach to side of the board (attacker's choice) and moving down
infantry, as follows: to the other side. This order must be obeyed! The
1. If the artillery unit is part of a grand battery, it attacker can not "plan" the order of combat resolutions
may not attach to any infantry unit at all. to try to get a more advantageous situation (see 14.32).
2. An artillery unit may only attach to an infantry Each combat is re olved in this fashion:
unit in its same Force. 1. The attacker adds together the SP of his
3. Remember that artillery may never move to con- attacking units. If there are two attacking units,
tact with the enemy, so attached artillery may the attacker must designate which one is the
only ever be attached to a defender. "Dominant Unit."
2. Each side grabs a handful of dice equal to the
An attacker who charges an attached artillery unit is
amount of SPs they have in the combat.
also charging the attached infantry unit. If the attack
3. Each ide may get bonu dice.
comes against the artillery's front, then a final shot
4. Each side throws all the dice it has, hoping to
may be taken. Regardless of which dir ction the attack
score Hits. Each Hit scored will cause a 1SP
comes from, an attached artillery unit will not try to
loss to the enemy side. Under certain circum-
escape; the gunners will take shelter in the friendly
stances, one or both sides may be eligible to
infantry unit. The defending infantry unit does not get
make Saving Throws to negate hits.
any extra SPs (since the gunners are getting out of the
5. The side which has scored the most hits has
way, not fighting). The artillery crew will share the fate
won the combat, with ties won by the defender.
of the attached infantry unit: if it is broken, the
artillery unit is destroyed. If the friendly infantry sur-
vives the combat, no matter how battered, the attached 4.1 Designate the Dominant Unit,
artillery unit survives unscathed. If the infantry falls if Appropriate
back, the artillery falls back with it, still attached. If the attacker has more than one unit in the combat,
he must designate one as the Dominant U nit. It
3.2 Combat Versus a Grand Battery must be the unit which has the higher SP strength. If
A grand battery is simply a collection of several there is a tie, and one unit is cavalry and one is
artillery units. If attacking a grand battery, move infantry, the cavalry unit will be dominant. If both
attacking units against the enemy artillery units, with attacking units have the same SPs and are of the same
each defending artillery unit eligible to shoot and/or to type, the attacker may choose. The dominant unit is
escape, as normal. It is likely, if attacking the front of a the one which will bear the brunt of most of the losses.
grand battery, that an attacking unit will contact more
than one defender, because of the different frontages
involved. Try to square up these melees as neatly as
o Combat

4.2 How Many Dice to Roll 4.32 "Flanked"

In the combat, each side will roll a number of dice As combats are resolved, units may fall back or
equal to its total SPs. Plus, either side may be eligible advance, and a unit may find itself suddenly flanked :
for Bonus Dice. A sub-commander with the Mal or it has not yet resolved its combat, but a friendly unit
bonus within 3" of the dominant unit may give a bonus nearby has retreated, and an enemy unit i now on its
die. He may only do this for one friendly unit per pulse, flank. In this case, it is indeed now flanked, and suffers
and doing so will force him to take an officer casualty the to-hit penalty accordingly.
test. Also, any side gets a bonu die for each mixed Remember, however, that the attacker - before
brigade (MX) it ha in the combat. (Exception : A MX resolving any combats - must choo e one side of the
unit does not get its bonus die if it is in a town or forti- board, and resolve his combats strictly in order moving
fication.) from that side to the other side. He may not otherwise
plan or arrange the resolution of his combats to make
Example of this step : uch advantages more likely.
The French haue managed to attack the British from A unit in a town or other hard cover i never
both front andflank. A French caualry brigade (sSPs) flanked , nor may it be considered as flanking an enemy
and an infantry brigade (SSPs) are attacking a unit. (It is holed up in the town, not maneuvering in
British infantry brigade (BSPs) with an attached the field as a threat to the enemy.)
artillery unit. The British are protected by soft couer.
(The French attack, the artillery unit takes its Final
Shot, but does no harm to the French. Then the gun- 4.321 Who is Flanked?
ners runfor couer within the British infantry unit.) In order to "flank" your unit, the majority of an enemy
Since both French units haue SSPs, the caualry unit's base must lie behind your unit's front:
will be dominant. Neither side get any bonus dice.
Thus: the British roll B dice, and the French roll 10.
Fr sfront
4.3 How to Score Hits
Both sides roll all their dice. The goal is to score Hits.
Infantry and cavalry units score hits on rolls of On the left, Au trian unit Al is within 3" of the French
four or higher. However, certain circumstances can flank, but most of Al's base is not behind Fr's front.
modify the dice rolls, making it harder to hit. A unit Thus, Fr is not flanked.
mu t subtract one pip from each die roll for each of On the right, however, mo t of Al's base falls
the following criteria that applies to it: behind Fr's front line, and is within 3" of his flank.
A It is Vulnerable (It is on a bridge, or fording a Thus, Fr is flanked .
river.) Note that this does not in any way change rule
B. It is Flanked (a non-routed enemy unit is within 3" AB.o. You still need to use AB.o to detennine when an
of its flank or rear) enemy is "to your front" or "to your flank," when mov-
c. It is fighting a combat against combined arms ing (the 6" Rule), when firing artillery, skinnishing,
(both infantry and cavalry units.) and in many other cases.
D. It is outside the radius of its sub-commander.
E. It is infantry attacking cavalry. 4.33 Infantry in "Squares"
An infantry unit attacked by cavalry (even if also
Artillery units in combat only hit on rolls of 6. attacked by infantry in the same combat) is considered
to be in Square . (Not one big square, but most or all
of the battalions of this unit are in squares.)
4.31 To-Hit Numbers Infantry in squares are never flanked . They would
For each of the above, the unit must subtract one from
suffer a -1 pip in combat if attacked by combined arms,
its rolls, although no matter how many of these nega-
but not an additional -1 pip for being flanked , since
tive criteria apply, ixes are alway hits. If the
squares have no open flanks.
attacker has two units in the combat, the e criteria are
Infantry in squares never fall back if they lose a
applied to each attacking unit eparately. (Thus one
combat (see J1.o). Instead, they hold their ground
attacker might hit on rolls of 4-6, and the other might
while the attackers (even if tho e attackers "won" the
hit only on rolls of 5-6. Dice in different colors will be
combat) fall back. In other words, the only way to beat
useful here.)
a square is to break it.
Combat 0
4-4 Saving Throws unit reaches zero SPs, it is Broken. In a simple one
Once both sides have rolled and counted how many versus one combat, it is easy to apply the hits. But
hits they scored against the enemy, the fi nal step is to when one side has more than one unit involved, hits
check to see if either side receives any Saving mu t be applied in the following manner.
For each of the followi ng criteria that applies to a 4.51 Dividing Hits Between Two
unit, that unit receives one Save Number. Again, if
there are two attacking units, each attacker might have
Attacking Units
The fir t two hits are applied against the dominant
a different save number, based on its individual crite-
unit, then one on the other unit, then two more on the
ria. (Note that these are not the same numbers as sav-
dominant unit, then one on the other, and so on in a 2-
ing throws for artillery fire!)
1-2-1-2-1.. . fashion until all hits are applied. If the
dominant unit is broken, aU remaining hits apply to
1 if this is an infantry or artiUery unit (not cavalry)
the other unit.
on a higher elevation than the enemy
2 if this is a cavalry unit saving against an infantry Continuing with our example:
unit in the rain Neither side breaks, and the number of hits was the
2 if this is a heavy cavalry unit saving against hits same for both sides. This is a utie," which is always
scored by light cavalry won by the defender, so the British won this combat.
2 if this is a unit protected by oft cover Thus, the British artillery unit is unscathed. The
4 if this is a unit protected by hard cover British infantry absorbs all three French hits. It start-
ed with 8SPs, and it now has US" written on its roster.
Add together all the criteria which apply to your The French suffered three hits. Thejirst two go on
unit(s). (For example, an infantry unit on a hilltop, the cavalry, since it's the dominant unit, then one on
protected by soft cover, would have a save number of the infantly. Thus, the cavalry had started with sSPs,
3.) A unit's Save Number may never b e greater and are now down to 3SPs. The French infantly unit,
than 5. which had also started with SSPs, took one hit, and
Then, take a number of dice equal to the number thus has 4SPs left.
of hits the enemy scored against you in the combat,
and roll, hoping to roll equal to or Ie s than your
ave number on each die. For each successful save, 4.52 SP Loss
one hit on your side is removed. When we speak of hits "scored" against the enemy, we
mean after any attempt at a saving throw. So if you
Let's continue with our previous example: score 6 hits, but then the enemy saves 2 of them,
The French cavalry and infantry units roll 10 dice, you've really only scored four hits on the enemy.
and the British injantly rolls 8 dice. The French will A unit never ha negative SPs. As soon as losses
hit on rolls of 4 or higher, but the British, who arefac- reduce its SPs to zero, it Breaks.
ing a combined arms attack, need rolls of S-6 to hit.
The French roll and score S hits. The British roll 4.6 Who Won the Combat?
and score 3 hits. But now it's time to see if anybody In the simplest sense, whichever side scored the mo t
gets a saving throw. The French don't meet any sav- hits "won" the combat, with ties always going to the
ing throw criteria, so the French side won't get any defender. Normally, when an attacker wins the com-
saves. But the British unit is protected by soft cover. bat, his dominant unit must advance to occupy the
So that's a Save Number of2. The British can take jive ground formerly held by the defender. There are
dice for saving throws - one die for each hit on them four possible outcomesfrom a combat:
the French had scored. For each of those dice that rolls
a 1 or 2, the British remove a hit. 4.61 One Side Is Broken But The
As it turns out, the British get lucky and roll two
ones. So two of their hits disappear. Final result of the Other Side Isn't
combat: the British score 3 hits, the French score 3. The side which breaks has lost the combat. If the
defender broke, then the attacker must move his dom-
inant unit to occupy the defender's ground, if possible.
4.5 Applying Losses If the attacker's dominant unit breaks, then another
Now we apply tho e hits to both sides. Remember that attacking unit (if there is one) may occupy the ground.
each hit against a unit reduces it by lSP, and once a
o Combat

Remember that it is possible for an attacker to An advancing unit which is partially blocked by
have up to two units on his side in the combat. For the other friendly or enemy units must advance as far as
attacking side to have broken, all attacking units must possible to occupy the vacated ground, without con-
break. tacting any other units.
An advance that carries the attacker into rough
4.62 Neither Side is Broken But terrain, a town, or across an obstacle does not involve
any movement penalties: the momentum of victory
One Side Scored More Hits has carried the position.
The side which scored the mo t hits wins the melee. If
the attackers lost, they must fall back, and the defend-
ers hold their position. If the defenders lost, the 5.0 Combat Involving a Town
defending unit must fall back, and the attacker's dom- If a defending unit is in a town, and must fall back,
inant unit must occupy the defender's ground, if possi- then it must fall back completely out of the town base
ble. If the dominant unit is broken, but the attacking it had occupied. The victorious attacker will occupy
side till won and still has an unbroken unit, that other that town base. Remember that cavalry may not attack
attacking unit may advance to occupy the ground. a town.
If, however, the defending unit is prevented from
4.621 Defender in Squares falling back completely out of the town base (by, for
Remember that a defender in quares must break in instance, impassable terrain), then the defending unit
order to be considered "defeated" in melee (14.33). If loses another ISP instead. (It remain holed up in the
the attacker wins the combat but doesn't break a town, unless that one more SP 10 s caused it to break.)
defender in squares, then he hasn't really won. In thi The attacker's units fall back 3". (They are regrouping
instance, all attacking units fall back 3". for another attempt to storm the town.)
4.63 Nobody Scores Any Hits, Or
There Is A Tie And Nobody Breaks 6.0 A Complex Combat Example
In this case, the defender has won. All attackers must It is the Au trian phase in the pulse. Austrian units 1,
fall back. 2 , 3, 4 have French units A, B ,C, D within 6" of their
fronts at the beginning of their moves.
4.64 Everybody Breaks
It is possible, albeit statistically unlikely, that both
sides will break in the combat. This represents a melee
which has completely chewed up both sides to the
point where there are no effective formations left in the
vicinity. Both sides break, leaving a stream of chaos,
stragglers, scattered firefights and pockets of resist-
ance in their wake.
Remember that if an attacker has more than one Austrian 1 will attack French A; this is a clear-cut com-
unit in the combat, both his units would have to break, bat with no modifiers. Austrian 2 , however, is flanked
for the attacking side to have broken. by the presence of French C. Austrian 2 can't turn to
strike C, because a unit must always contact the closest
A n example of combat r esolution: A defending enemy to its front. Thus - if it attacks - it must charge
infantry unit scores only three hits, while the attack- French B, and will be flanked in the process. Austrian
ers score five. However, those three hits are enough to 3 will attack French C. Here, the French are flanked
break the attackers, while the defending unit is still because of Austrian 2 on their flanks.
there. Consequently, with no attackers left, the And what about Austrian 4? He would very much
defender wins the combat, even though he had scored like to wheel and take French C in the flank, but most
fewer hits. of French C's base is actually to his flank, not his front.
Remember that units within 6" of one s front take pri-
4.7 Advance After Victory ority (H14.o). Thus, if Austrian 4 attacks, it must
A victorious defending unit never advances after com- attack French D, who is clo est to his front. In fact,
bat; it holds its po ition. A victorious attacking unit Austrian 4's best move is no move at all. He will stay in
mu t advance to occupy the space left by the defender reserve, rather than placing himself in jeopardy of
who fell back or routed . being flanked in the next French pulse.

Radonale for the Combat Rules

During the playtesting, all sorts of circumstances of combat
were tried out. There were arguments, for instance, that cav-
alry should fight at a severe disadvantage in the woods (rid-
ers getting unhorsed by tree limbs) or in a swamp (two thou-
sand pound horses sinking into the mud). But upon renec-
tlon, infantry and artillery would certainly be at equal disad-
vantages defending against cavalry in a forest or marsh, due
to the inability to make tight formations, or the trees block-
ing fire. So the ultimate decision was to make "rough" ter-
rain difficult on everyone more or less equally, by giving sav-
ing throws to any side which is in such terrain.
Some players commented that the combat system was
very "bloody." Especially in the case of cavalry charges, in
which casualties were historically light, the Grande Armee
system seemed awfully lethal. First of all, bear in mind that
"combat" in this game refers to several activities, performed
by several units, over a variable period of time: musketry vol-
leys at close range, the canister fire of the attached brigade
and divisional artillery, and finally the charge itself. In most
games, those are all different resolutions, each causing a cer-
tain number of casualties.
Second, remember that "hits" are not necessarily
"kills." In most games, hits don't come back. In Grande
Armee, however, they represent the temporary weakening
of a unit; hits can be recovered. There is always the possibil- Who says the Allies have no heroic leaders?
ity that a broken unit will not recover, and will disintegrate, Above: a brilliant mind and great spirit trapped in a frail
but there is also the possibility that this combat in which it body: the Archduke Karl (Charles), Austria's best com-
suffered so heavily was simply a setback, and with rest the mander. Below: Prince Peter Bagratlan, the fearless and
unit can return to fight again, albeit with reduced vigor. dashing Russian commander who met his end at Borodino.
If the combat seems too abstract to be "Napoleonic,"
remember this: All game rules ask you to resolve things
whenever chance intersects with your decisions. For instance,
if you make a cavalry charge, then you might check your
cavalry's morale (roll a die), then the target unit's morale
(roll a die), then to see if the target unit formed SQuare (roll
a die). If yes, then will your cavalry break that SQuare, or ride
around it, or recall? (roll more dice.) What will be the casu-
alties? (roll more dice.) Will you have to check morale again
afterwards? (roll yet more dice.) Grande Armee trusts a sin-
gle fistful of dice on each side to "resolve" all of these things
in a single moment. If you roll a lot of ones and the defend-
ing infantry rolled a lot of sixes, then your charge failed for
any or all of the above reasons. Far away at the army head-
quarters, you really wouldn't have much more knowledge
than that, anyway. You would ask only: did our boys break
the enemy SQuares, or were they repulsed?
If you need to go through all those steps in order to feel
that you're really playing "Napoleonics," well, sorry. I guess
this isn't the game for you.
As army commander, you make the big decisions, then
you place your trust in the skill of your subordinates. And
then, frankly, you hope for the best.
J. Things Fall Apart
(Falling Back, Routing, Officer Casualties, and other Friction)

When you moue up into combat, nothing is more

1.0 Falling Back discouraging to young soldiers than the remarks of
As a result of losing a combat, a unit will Fall Back, wounded men straggling to the rear.
retreating, still under the control of its officers,
although probably a bit shaken. Resolve each fall back - Memoirs of Elzear Blaze
as it happens - after resolving the combat which
caused it. Then move on to resolving the next combat.
The units of the losing side calculate the difference
between the number of hits they scored and the num-
ber the winners scored on them. For example, if the
losers scored 2 hits, and the winners scored 5, then the 2.0 Where are the Morale Checks, Disorder,
difference is 3. The fall-back distance i 3" plus Fatigue, and all that stuff ?
the SP los difference.
A unit that must fall back is moved as directly Most games assign a unit a strength value based upon sheer
away from its enemy in this combat as possible, with- numbers, then a morale rating based upon that unit's Quali-
ty, and then have special markers to desginate whether or
out moving closer to other non-routing enemy units, if
not a unit has become disordered, or fatigued, or is suffering
possible. This is a special kind of movement that does
from some other malady. By this point you have noticed that
not account for terrain, or direction, etc. The distance Grande Armee has none of this. A unit's Strength Points
of the fall-back is determined, and then the player (SPs) are the measure of its effectiveness under all circum-
measures, and simply moves the unit this new dis- stances. Period. If this seems like a cop-out or gross over-
tance, still facing in the direction of the enemy from Simplification, then please bear some things in mind:
this combat. First, the unit's historical numerical strength is divided
by a divisor corresponding to its morale class. This process is
explained in detail in Appendix One, so that you can design
1.1 Falling Back Penalties your own units for your own scenarios. The result of this
A unit which falls back as a result of combat might division is then added to any bonuses for attached artillery
have to fall back "through" friendly units. If its fall- units. Thus, a unit's SPs reflect: a) actual historical numbers,
back distance would result in it overlapping friendly not some generic game unit, as in most rules, b) the unit's
morale class, and c) the presence or absence of attached
units or obstacles, then keep falling back until it has
divisional, brigade, or regimental artillery. Rather than going
enough open ground to stop. Do the same with obsta- through the steps of checking for casualties, then checking
cles: don't leave a unit "sitting on" an obstacle as a morale, etc., Grande Armee rolls it all up into one. And it's
result of a fall-back. Keep falling back until it clears the no longer the brittle either/or system of morale checks, but
obstacle. Obviously, this means that units might fall rather a continuum of strength, as each unit's SPs wax and
back much more than their initial intent or die roll wane.
would indicate. Second, ask yourself what "Disorder" usually means in
If a unit must fall back through rough terrain or wargame parlance. In the horse-and-musket period, where
across an obstacle, it suffers an additional lSP loss. tight unit cohesion was crucial, it usually means some loss of
(This might, of course, break it, at which point its "fall that cohesion, perhaps from combat, perhaps from moving
through difficult terrain, perhaps from intermixing with
back" becomes a rout, instead.)
friendly units. The net result, however, is always the same: a
If there is no path open for a unit to fall back, disordered unit is less effective in combat, and more likely to
except by moving through friendly infantry or cavalry break. Thus, Grande Armee represents disorder in exactly
units, then the falling-back unit and every friendly that way: a unit which suffers a loss of cohesion suffers the
infantry or cavalry unit thus interpenetrated suffers an loss of additional SPs. When your units roll on the terrain
additional -lSP loss. (Note that artillery may always table and receive the higher terrain cost, it represents the
interpenetrate and be interpenetrated by friendly slower pace of a unit that has become disordered.
units, and this penalty does not apply to artillery.) I realize that I'm asking you to think outside the box of
If a unit can't fall back the entire distance it is what a wargame "ought" to include. With Grande Armee,
required to, due to the presence of enemy units or you must always keep in mind your role as player: you are
an army commander. Army commanders did not worry with
impassable terrain, then it falls back as far as it can. If
dressing the lines of individual battalions. In any large batde,
it can't fall back at least 3" then it loses another lSP. they probably couldn't see most of the units in their armies,
and thus had no idea whether they were disordered or not.
An example of falling back: A French infantry Either your brigadiers and colonels took care of this, or they
unit has lost a combat. It scored 2 hits, but the British didn't, and their units suffered accordingly.
scored 6 hits. So it lost by a difference of 4. It must
fall back 3 + 4for a total of 7'.
Things Fall A part

3.0 Suppres sion If a unit has its back to impassable terrain, or is com-
Artillery units may be S uppressed by skirmish pletely surrounded by enemy units such that no path at
attacks. A suppressed artillery unit may not fire in the least 3" wide exists in any direction free of enemy
upcoming artillery fire phase. (It may still take a "Final units, then when that unit breaks, it is eliminated
Shot.") It is not otherwise penalized. Suppression is instead: it may not be rallied.
removed at the end of each pulse.
Players must get it out of their heads that routing units are
4.0 Broken Units and "Routing" actually somewhere, moving on the table like normal units.
The terms Broken and Ro uted are used fairly inter- They aren't. We place them at the back of the Force purely
changeably in this book. Technically, routing is what as a game convenience, but in reality the unit has come
the men of a unit do after that unit breaks. It describes apart, and is strung out along the whole line of its rout. A
an uncontrolled scattering and flight as a unit comes routed unit doesn't really exist at the moment. We keep it
apart. Within relatively short order, the officers on the on the table only as a reminder and a point of reference for
scene will have to put this unit back together again the rally attempt. The question is: can the ofHcers put this
("rally" it), or these men will never again constitute an unit back together before it disintegrates completely? If so,
effective body on today's battlefield. then the unit will "rally," and thus retum within the radius
of the Force. If not, then it is hors de combat - removed
4.1 Marking Broken Units from play altogether. Perhaps after dark, or in the morning,
When a unit breaks, the owning player should place a the men will be able to reform in some fashion, or the rem-
casualty marker on its base and immediately move it to nants might be re-assembled.
the rear of the Force. It doesn't matter exactly where
the routed unit is, because it is nowhere. It can be
moved around as needed; we keep it only on the table 5.0 Officer Casualties
to remind our elves that it needs to be rallied later. An officer (of any rank) must roll to determine his fate
The routed unit has no effect on play at all. Any unit, whenever he exposes himself to certain dangers. The
friend or foe, may move through any routed/broken owning player must make this roll for each of his offi-
unit as if it weren't there. (Because it isn t.) cers, each time they meet any of the criteria, below.
The player should write the letter "R" on its roster, (This could entail several rolls in a single pulse, if the
to show it has routed, and currently has zero SPs. officer is really in the thick of it.)

When within 1" of a unit that is the target of a

4.2 Routing Through Friendlies successful skirmish attack.
Because our bases represent so much open space, it is When he uses his Malor bonus to influence a
possible for units to rout "through" friendly units with- combat.
out necessarily causing them disorder or panic. Thus, When any enemy unit moves through him.
even if units are tightly packed together, and there is When within 1" of a unit that breaks.
seemingly nowhere for the routing men to "go," there
is in fact a lot of open ground across which they can Whenever an officer meets any of these criteria, the
run. A routing unit does not penalize friendly units. owning player must roll two dice. An officer has "fall-
en" on a roll of 11 or higher. A sub-commander with a
Malor bonus has fallen on a roll of 10 or higher. If so,
roll again on one die on the Fallen Officers Table.
No doubt this will seem "wrong:" that a unit falling back dis-
orders friendlies, but a unit routing does not. But this is
because a unit falling back represents whole, intact forma-
tions still trying to maintain order and discipline, and the
very long formations of their companies and squadrons.
When two such formations collide, they do indeed disorder
each other.
o Things Fall Apart

had been replaced by a deployed General or ADC, then

that General or ADC returns to the commander's pool
J5.0: Fallen Officers Table of available officers.
During the Command Phase, roll one die for each
1-2 "Aiee! Putain de Merde!" Lightly lightly wounded officer. On a roll of 5-6, he returns.
wounded, may re-appear in this battle. An officer who is captured may not return to the
3-4 * "I say, Smedly ... I rather think I battle on this day. (He might be exchanged during a
shan't be seeing this one through to campaign, or even during a long battle, as Meerveldt
the finish ... n Badly wounded. He'll live, was at Leipzig.)
but he's out of action for this battle.
5-6 "Herr General ... ? Herr General ... ?" 5.3 Fallen Army Commander
Killed in action. (If it's a French Marshal, The players of that side should choo e a sub-com-
Napoleon shows up, says something heroic, and mander who will take over. They should choose a sub-
makes sure everybody sees him weeping over commander who also has a rating in the appendix for
army command. The newly-promoted sub-command-
the corpse.)
er is immediately replaced, using the method in J5.1.
If the officer casualty check was occasiolled by all ellemy Move the army commander's base to where the sub-
IlIIit 1II0llillg "through" his stolid, thell a roll of 3-4 all thi commander is, pencil in the new army commander's
table also mealls that the officer has beell caplllred. Skill rating, and pencil in the new ratings for the
replacement sub-commander.
If the army commander wa lightly wounded, roll
When an officer is killed or wounded, he might not be each turn during the Command Phase to see if he
immediately replaced. Still, somebody on his staff returns. Again, a roll of 5 or higher indicates that he
takes over the reins, whether or not a battlefield pro- has recovered. When he recovers, his ba e stand
motion occurs. Since our game u es no particular time resumes its old Skill rating, and the sub-commander
scale, we abstract the period of confusion when an offi- who replaced him returns to his duties, also recovering
cer falls. his old ratings.
An ADC or general may not be deployed to replace
5.1 Replacing a Fallen Officer the army commander.
When a sub-commander or deployed general falls, the
owning player has certain options: 5.4 Fallen Wing Commanders
If he has ADCs available, he may deploy one to A fallen wing commander is not replaced on this day of
replace the fallen officer. battle. If only lightly wounded, he might return to
If he does not have any ADCs, but does have gen- action, but otherwise the armis command system
erals available, he must deploy a general to replace the simply carries on, without the benefits of having a wing
fallen officer. Generals and ADCs may only be commander.
deployed in a player's Control Segment.
If the turn ends before the opportunity for anoth-
Rallying has usually been taken too literally by wargames,
er Control Segment, OR if the player has no ADCs or
which tend to give us a picture of a mob of men running
generals remaining, OR if he lacks the CPs to deploy
away, chased down by a general officer who waves his hat
them, then a staff officer will take over. With a pencil,
and shout:s something patriotic.
increase the fallen officer's control number by 1 (to a
Consider the physical space occupied by a unit that has
maximum of 5), and cross out any personality rating.
broken. It is no longer a unit, but a stream of men, stretch-
This could happen any number of times, if that staff
ing from the point of rout (where some stalwart:s are proba-
officer, in turn, was killed, etc.
bly still hanging on, and about to become prisoners), all the
way back several hundred yards to the rear, perhaps even half
5.2 Returning to Duty a mile, when dealing with mounted troops. Across this
If a lightly-wounded sub-commander returns to his expanse of ground are perhaps 2,000 men or more.
duties in the Command Phase, the staff officer is What Grande Annee tries to represent with rallying is
immediately "erased," and the original sub-com man- that the surviving officers of the brigade have made an
der's values are used. (His wound does not affect his attempt to halt this stream, and thus to collect the men as
ratings because the Control number is based on his they filter back from the front.
personality, and the radius is based on his staff.) If he
K. The Rally Segment
My men saw mefall and atfirstfell back in disor-
der, leaving me in the hands of the Spanish. As it
turned out, although I had been plundered, our If the unit meets all these criteria, then calculate its
troops received reinforcements, returned to the rally factor, and consult the SP Recovery Table to
offensive, andfinally took the positionjrom the determine how many of its lost SPs it recovers.
4.0 Rallying Broken Units
- Memoirs of Heinrich von Brandt. As the final step of the rally segment, a rally attempt
must be made for every broken unit. This is an
1.0 General Concept either/or proposition. Either the officers can bring the
unit back together then and there, or the unit will com-
At the end of the turn, after all pulse for that turn have
pletely disintegrate, and is removed from play.
been played, both players attempt simultaneously to
A broken unit should have been placed at the
"repair" their units. Players must perform these
"back" of its Force when it routed. Where, exactly, is
actions in the following order: 1) Attempt to recover
not important, but there must be a space for it to rally
lost SPs, and 2) Attempt to rally broken units. Only one
within its sub-commander's radius that will not be
kind of action may be taken for each unit in the rally
within 6" of any non-routed enemy units. If, in the
segment. To perform either, the player must calculate
a unit's Rally Fa ctor. rally segment, there is no place for it except within 6"
of enemy units, then it may not rally; it is eliminated.
Calculate the unit's rally factor. If the total is seven
2.0 The Rally Factor or more, the unit has rallied. Place it anywhere in its
The owning player designates a unit and establishes its sub-commander's radius facing any direction, but not
rally factor by rolling one die and adding it to a num- within 6" of enemy units. Now, consult the SP
ber based on its morale class, plus any appropriate Recovery Table, using that rally factor to determine
modifiers: how many SPs the unit rallied with (what its strength
will be, upon rallying.)
If the rally factor totaled six or less, the rally
K2.0 The Rally Factor attempt has failed. Remove the unit from play; it is
eliminated. Mark its loss against the army's morale.
.. one die plu : Artillery units are never broken - they don't rout.
When they take two hits, they are eliminated instead.
6 Gu ard
Elite Even if the gunners could rally, the guns themselves might be
spiked by the enemy and thus useless, or the train company
4 Vete ran (limbers, horses, and caissons) might be captured; in other
3 Train e d words, the supporting structure that keeps the battery in
2 Con cript action is broken and can't be repaired on this batdefield.
1 Raw
4.1 Marking a Rallied Unit
-2 for each circled " R" marked on the unit's ro - When a unit breaks, mark an "R" on its roster line.
ter, showing a previou rally. When it rallies, draw a circle around that "R." In the
+? for CPs spent by the army commander for thi future, this unit will have a penalty if broken again and
unit's rally factor trying again to rally. If it manages to rally a second
time, mark a second "R" on the roster, and so on. There
is theoretically no limit to the number of R's that can
3.0 Recovering Lost SPs accumulate on a unit, but with each one it will be pro-
A non-routed infantry or cavalry unit may attempt to gressively harder to rally the unit, until finally it
recover SPs that have been 10 t. To be eligible for this, becomes impossible, and the unit will disintegrate.
however, a unit must meet the following criteria: When a unit rallies, also mark its new, rallied SPs
immediately following the circled "R."
It must be within its sub-commander's radius.
It may not be within 6" of any non-routed
enemy unit. 5.0 The SP Recovery Table
It may not be artillery. This table is used by a unit which is attempting to
It has 10 t more than one SP. recover lost SPs, as well by a unit that has just rallied,
in order to see how many SPs it will have upon rallying.
Rally Segment

He now looks at the SP Recovery Table to see how

many SPs the unit will have upon rallying. He needs
to recover 7SPs, so he's in the "6+" column. His Rally
Factor of B means that he will recover three SPs. Thus
his unit rallies with 3SPs. He writes a "3" on the unit's
None 0 -6 0 -4 0 -3 0 -2 0 -1 roster and he circles the "R n he had written when it
One 4-6 2-4 broke, to show that it has broken and rallied once
7+ 5-7 3-5
already in the game.
Two 8+ 7-8 6-7 5-6
Three 9+ 8 -9 7-8 6.0 Army Commander's Influence
Four 10 + 9-10 If the commander wishes, he may spend CPs to influ-
ence any raUy factor roll for any units up to half his
Fi ve 11+
radius away. He may do this any number of times in a
rally segment. Each CP spent adds 1 to a unit's rally
Across the top find the column for how many SPs the factor. He must commit all CPs before rolling for any
unit needs to recover. Moving down that column, find unit's raJIy factor. No unit may receive more than three
the unit's Rally Factor. Slide to the left to find how CPs toward its rally factor in a single raUy segment.
many SPs are recovered. Note that a unit with only one (Remember that player may place rallying units any-
SP to recover may not use this table (you can never where within their sub-commander's radius, not cIo -
recover all your lost SPs.) And a unit with six or more er than 6" from the enemy. If that location chosen for
SPs to recover can never recover more than five in one the rallying unit is al 0 within half the army comman-
pulse. der's radius, be may contribute CPs to the rally
A n example of Rallying: If playing a game with two or more allied armi ,
A Prussian infantry unit (Trained) originally had a commander may only sp nd CPs to rally the units of
7SPs. It has broken, and the owning player is trying his army.
to rally it. First he establishes the Rally Factor. The A wing commander may do this, too, if he is played
unit is Trained, which gives a 3, and he rolls a 5 on the by a person, and has a CP "allowance" at his disposal.
die,for a total Rally Factor of B. Thus his unit rallies. He may influence rally factor rolls for any units in his
wing, within half his radius, as above.
L. Victory
Nightfall put an end to the fighting. Both sides were
so weary that in several places the firing ceased
without orders having been given. Never was a bat- Most of the time, an army would be rated "fair."
tlefield so thickly strewn with dead. I cannot Sometimes armies had units of varying quality, such as
describe myfeelings as I passed over the ground Wellington's army at Waterloo, and one would average
which had been dyed by my brother's blood. their overall confidence.
Next, count all the units of the army: infantry, cav-
- Culaincourt (who 10 t his brother at Borodino), alry, and artillery. (In an Ottoman army, count the
With Napoleon in Russia engineers, too.) Multiply this number by the percent-
age, rounding up fractions over 0.5. For instance, if
Wellington's army is confident, and has a total of 26
units, then 26 X .35 = 9.1. His army's break point for
1 .0 H ow a Battle Ends this game will be 9.
A battle can end in one of three ways:
What Is Army Morale?
1. Army B might break (suffer a collapse of army
An anny goes into battle with a certain "mood." Much of
morale), resulting in a Deci ive Victory for
this has to do with things far beyond the scope of this par-
Army A. There might then be a Pur uit of defeat-
ticular battle. Does this anny have a tradition of victory
ed Army B.
against this particular enemy? Have the men been fed,
2. The game might end by both players rolling less
clothed, and paid properly? Do they have enough ammuni-
than or equal to the turn number, once the game's
tion and other supplies? Has the weather been awful? Does
basic length has been reached. If this happens
the enemy commander have a certain reputation? (The
without either army having broken, night falls and
French came to dread Wellington, as the other allies dread-
this day of battle is (thus far) a Draw. There might
ed Napoleon.)
be another day of battle, or Army A might retreat
Once the annies have concentrated into the confines of
during the night, re ulting in a Marginal
a battlefield, the deployment of the anny and the sight of the
Victory for Army B.
enemy can also affect the mood. In the days of linear war-
3. Both armies might break at the end of the same
fare, when men were packed closely together and all com-
turn. In this case, the battle ha ended in a Draw.
munication had to be either verbal or brought by courier,
this mood was carried by the officers. If the men saw their
1 . 1 The Victory Flowchart officers panicky, shouting, or looking confused, the soldiers'
The flowchart on the following page explains the pro- confidence quickly collapsed. Because of the tight fonnations
cedures to follow at the conclusion of a day of battle. and proximity of soldiers to each other, changes in morale
These procedures are explained in this chapter. (good or bad) spread very quickly.
Finally, battles were usually long. (Americans, who live
2.0 Army Break P oint on more southerly latitudes, may not realize that the North-
Each army has a Break Point. If playing a scenario, European day in summer begins around 4:00 AM, and the
then this has been provided for you. If designing your sun doesn't set until about II :OOPM.) A Napoleonic battle
own cenario, you must calculate it, as follows: consisted of hours of waiting and standing still, perhaps
First, establish the army's level of confidence. This under enemy fire, and then sudden, desperate periods of
can be one of three levels. Each has a percentage value: intense activity. No wonder men might "snap" or break and
run, or perhaps go wild in the frenzy of a charge: they are
Confident (35%) finally relieving all the hours of stress and strain leading up to
The army has complete faith in its leadership, and that moment.
perhaps even contemptfor the enemy.
Fair (30%) Why are ArtIllery Counted the Same as Infantry?
The army's level of confidence is "normal. " Although losing an artillery battery might mean the loss of
only 100-200 men, while losing a brigade could easily be fif-
Shaky (25%)
teen times that many men, generals were very concerned
There is a morale problem. Perhaps the men doubt
about the loss of guns. In every battle report from the era,
their leadership, or perhaps they dread this enemy. the victorious commander lists the number of nags (or
"eagles") taken, and the number of cannon. Losing the big
reserve batteries or the valuable horse batteries was definite-
ly bad for morale!

Ll.l The Victory Flowchart

--------------- -------, How Did the Battle End?
lOne Army Breaks I Nightfall: Neither
Army Breaks Both Armies Break
(A defeats B) This Battle is a Draw
Both players secretly choose, then
I The Battle is Over

reveal to either " tay" or "Leave"

I Does Army B (defeated) have

~ Lt. Cavalry SPs?
EJ EJ End ofDay

Retreat is
Marginal Victory
for Side A 1. Stragglers & Lightly
Deci ive Victory wounded return
for Side A (L7 1 )
Army B i Pur ued
Resolve Pursuit Losses 2. Weak units may be
There will be another converged (L7.2)
day of battle
3. If the battle is not over, there
will be another day ofbattle:
The Battle
is Over * Make new rosters
* Add overnight reinforcements
* Recalculate Army break points
Resolve "End of Day"
fur Army A --------------4.~
The Battle is Over

L _____________________ _ I
VictOry .

3.0 Army Morale Check of that turn. (DS.o) Once et aside, tho e CPs may not
Keep track of all units in an army which have been be used for anything else in the turn . They represent
routed and not rallied (eliminated), or units that are the time and attention the commander and hi staff are
overrun - i.e., all units that are eliminated and paying to the growing problem of keeping the army
removed from play. At the end of a turn in which the together in the face of attrition and entropy, not to
number of these units equals or exceeds the army's mention exhaustion.
break point, you mu t roll to check Army Morale. The greater the loss of army morale, the greater
Indeed, from that point forward, at the end of every the proportion of CPs which must be committed. To
turn in this day of battle, you must check. influence the morale check by a certain number, you
If an army fails its morale check, it has broken, must commit the square of that number in CPs.
and the game proceeds to its final stages, as illustrated Therefore, a -1 modifier costs 1CP, but a -2 modifier
by the Victory flowchart. costs 4CPs. To influence the army morale check by -3,
To check army morale, the commander should roll you would have to set aside 9CPs, and for -4, 16CPs,
two dice. Prior to rolling, he may subtract a number for and so on. There is only so much that the army com-
CPs he had earlier committed (see LJ.1) to army mander can do, once the collapse begins.
morale. To the roll, however, he must add the number
of the current turn just completed, and he must add 3.2 Les Gardes Reculent!
one for each eliminated unit beyond the army's break When any infantry or cavalry of "guard" morale
point. (For example, if the break point was 9, and he breaks, immediately count it as a unit lost against army
has 10 t 11 units, then he must add two.) morale. If, in the rally segment, it fails to rally, count it
Thus the army morale check roll is: again. Thus, completely losing a guard unit costs dou-
ble for army morale. (Merely seeing the guards break
2 Dice could have a negative impact on army morale, even if
+ Tur n Number they rally later, not just because of rumors of defeat
+ U nits 10 t beyond Br eak Point preading through the ranks, but also because of the
- CP committed effect on the morale of the army command and staff,
who no doubt are becoming depressed and certain of
If the result of this roll total 14 or Ie s, the army defeat at this point.)
h a p as e d its morale check. Proceed to the next
turn, if there is one. If the result was 15 or more, the
a rmy' morale ha colla p ed . Proceed to the
3.3 Reinforcements and Army
Pursuit steps, explained later in this chapter. Morale
As reinforcements enter the field, they increase the
A n example of army morale: army's break point. Apply the multiplier for confidence
Wellington's aI-my has a Break Point of 9. At the end level to the total number of reinforcements that have
of Tum Six, he has lost a total often units. Therefore arrived this turn, and increase the break point accord-
he must check morale. He has not committed any CPs ingly. (If a corps of 14 units has arrived, and the army's
to army morale. confidence is "fair," then 3096 of 14 is 4.2 - add 4 to
He rolls a 6, adds it to the tum number (6), and the army's break point.) Note that this can get an army
adds an additional one, because he has lost one more out of trouble, if it has just passed its break point, but
unit than his break point. 6+6+1 = 13. Therefore, his is "saved" by the arrival of fresh troops. Everybody
army has passed this tum. He'l[ have to check again loves to be reinforced: go get 'em, lads!
at the end of each subsequent tum, though.
4.0 If Both Armies Break.
Once your army's break-point has been reached, It is possible that both armies might break at the end
you can only hope that the enemy is in even worse of the same turn. In this case, the battle has ended in a
shape, or that the day of battle will end (night will fall) draw. (Both sides have fought each other to the point
before your army morale collap es. where neither army is battle-effective any more.) Both
armies go to the "End of Day Procedure."
3.1 CPs and Army Morale
If you are worried that your army is nearing its break
point, you may set aside CPs during the command
phase, to be used for an army morale check at the end
e Victory

5.0 If Nightfall Comes and Neither 6.2 Pursued Procedure

Army bas Broken The winner must establish the ratio of superiority he
If the two sides are unbroken, each player should take holds in light cavalry SPs. This is called the Pur ui t
a piece of paper and secretly write "stay" or "leave" on Ratio, and it can be: 1:1, 3:2, 2:1, or 3:1+. Next, note
it, then reveal them simultaneously. If both have writ- the weather at the time the game ended. Finally, calcu-
ten "stay," then there will be a second day of battle. If late the Time Factor (how much daylight is left for
there are multiple allied armies on one side, the two the victors to pursue.) Calculate this by taking the
(or more) commanders may talk and decide if they will game's basic length, and subtracting the number of the
stay or go. The allies need not agree; one of their turn on which the game actually ended. The time fac-
armies can quit the field , while the other remains for a tor could thus be zero, or a negative number. (A po i-
second day of battle. tive time factor means that there is still a lot of daylight
If both players have written "leave," then the bat- left, and thus more chance to pursue.)
tle has ended in a draw. Both armies go to the "End of
Day Procedure." 6.21 Resolving the Pursuit
If side A has written "leave," then his army with- On the Pursuit Table, the winning player roUs to deter-
draws during the night. The battle is over; side B win mine the fate of every unit in the losing army which
a Marginal Victory. Both armie go to the "End of Day survived the battle. In each case he points to a unit on
Procedure. " the losing side, then rolls two dice, adding the time fac-
tor to his roll:
6.0 If One Army Breaks Example of Pursuit: The Prussian army broke while
If Army B breaks, then Army A has won. (If more than
checking army morale at the end of Turn 8 in a game
one army is present on a side, both must break in order
to say that this side has broken.) Army A (the victori- whose basic length was 7. (That means it was getting
dark.) The time factor is thus -1 . The weather is
ous side) now checks to see if it can Purs u e the
"Normal. " The French haue a substantial aduantage
defeated Army B.
in light caualry SPs, so there is going to be a pursuit.
Both sides tally up their light caualry SPs, and the
6.1 Will there be a Pursuit? French find that they haue 34 remaining, while the
Total the number of light cavalry SPs remaining to Prussians haue only 14 left That's a 2-1 aduantagefor
both armies, at the moment Army B's morale col- the French.
lapsed. If Army B (the loser) has equal or more light Using the 2:1 column aligned with 'All Other
cavalry SPs than Army A, then its withdrawal is Weather, " the French player will check against euery
Co e r ed . There is no pursuit, at least not in game suruiuing Prussian unit, rolling two dice and sub-
terms. Army A has won a M arginal victory. Both tracting one (the time factor of -1). Let's say he starts
armies go to the "End of Day Procedure." with a unit of Prussian infantry. He rolls a 5, minus
If, however, Army A (the winner) has more light one is 4. That means "No Harm ." This Prussian
cavalry SPs remaining than Army B, then B will be infantry unit suffers no losses during the pursuit.
Pur ued. Army B will u e the "Pursued Procedure,
while Army A goes to the "End of Day Procedure." 6.22 Pursuit Losses
Army A has won a Deci ive victory.
Obviously, certain units might be eliminated by losing
1 or 2 SPs, if that was all they had left to lose at the time
their army broke. Artillery,
of course, would be elimi-
nated by losing 2SPS. A unit
eliminated on this table is
considered to have come
apart, and the stragglers and
s8 s7 s6 S5 S4 No Harm survivors are run down by
lose 1SP enemy cavalry, or captured,
9-10 8-9 7-8 6-7 5-6
or otherwise unable to
11-12 10-11 9 -10 8-9 7-8 10 e 2SPS rejoin the army in this cam-
13+ 12+ 11+ 10+ 9+ Eliminated paign.
VictOry .

6.23 Pursuit and Multiple Armies 7.3 Make New Rosters

A broken army may not be pursued, if it has another If playing a second day of battle, or an ongoing cam-
allied army still holding the field . Let us say that the paign, then the next step of the procedure is to make
(F)rench army i facing both the (A)ustrians and new ro ters for the armies, using the SPs and radii
(R)ussians. If A breaks at the end of Turn 5, but R is arrived at in L7.2, above - or L6.21, if the army was
still holding the field, then A will not be pursued at all; pursued.
even if R then breaks next turn. (Only R would be pur-
sued in this case, since it was the only army of that side 7.4 Final Steps
remaining when its morale broke.) La tly, any reinforcements aid to arrive overnight are
added to the army, and the army's new Break Point
7.0 The "End of the Day" Procedure may thus be calculated for the next day of battle.
Armies that are not being pursued at the end of the day
mu t complete certain steps. There are additional 7.5 If Pursued ...
steps that need to be completed, if the battle is not over Remember that an army being pursued does not go
and there is to be a econd day of fighting. through any of the "End of Day Procedure." It may
therefore not recover lightly wounded officers, con-
7.1 Stragglers and Lightly verge weak units, exchange prisoners, roll to recover
Wounded Return SPs, etc.
First, any lightly wounded officers return to duty. If
players have captured any of each other's officers, they
may negotiate now to exchange them. About the Victory Rules:
Next, determine if unitS can recover any addition- In most wargames there Is "no tomorrow," and thus no
al lost SPs during the night. This procedure is exactly penalty for completely wrecking one's army. Very few
like recovering SPs during the normal Rally Segment, wargamers would hesitate, as Napoleon did, to commit the
except that no modifiers are u ed besides a -1 for all Guard at Borodino. These rules address the crucially impor-
tant events that happened immediately following a battle. A
rolls if your army lost the battle (marginaly or deci-
general who throws away his light cavalry in reckless charges
will nnd himself without a cavalry screen if pursuing or pur-
Roll to recover lost SPs for each infantry and cav- sued. (This will tum a marginal defeat into a decisive one.)
alry unit in the army, as in Ks.o. Artillery, baggage A general who hurls his whole army into battle early, with-
trains, and engineers may never be recovered. out keeping a reserve, runs the risk of breaking it early, too.
That means that the enemy pursuit will have all afternoon to
7.2 Converging Weak Units run him down. It Is no coincidence that most batdes were
decided in the waning hours of the day. The commanders
Next, as part of the "End of the Day" procedure, play-
tried to set up a situation where they could make a nnal push
ers may converge pairs of weakened units if they
when the enemy was exhausted, but they also wanted to
belong to the same Force and if both are reduced to make sure that if this big gamble failed, darkness would pre-
half or less of their original SPs. They must be the same vent the enemy from punishing them too severely. Don't
type of units: infantry may only converge with ruin your army; there's always tomorrow, after all.
infantry, light cavalry only with light cavalry, and
heavy cavalry only with heavy cavalry. If they are two
different morale classes and skirmish values, the con-
verged unit will take the lower values in each case.
Artillery can never recover hits and may only be
converged if they are the exact same type, both in gun
size and with regard to Foot/Horse, and they both
belong to the same Force. Otherwise, surviving
artillery units must limp along with 1SP.
If there are no infantry or cavalry units left in a
Force, then that Force can be abolished, and any sur-
viving artillery can be given to another Force.
Otherwi e, Forces can not be converged with other
Forces. Sub-commanders should have their radii
adjusted accordingly.
M. Special Cases
Cries of alarm among the troops shall be punished
by death .
1.0 Garrisons
In Grande Armee, a "garrison" is a small group of - The Archduke Charles, 7 July, 1809
infantry that has been assigned the defense of a town
or fortified area. Since these men were frequently
drawn from elite companies of various units, and A player may not create a garrison if by doing so he
because they were assigned to hold the place at all would transform the only remaining infantry unit of a
costs, we do not represent them as a normal infantry Force.
brigade. Instead, at the beginning of a game, the sce- A garrison is different from an infantry unit which
nario rules will specify that a particular town block or is in hard cover. An infantry unit may always be in
fortified area has a garrison. hard cover and enjoy the benefits of that cover.
The garrison has an SP strength, like any other Becoming a garrison is a deliberate action which trans-
unit, based upon the number of men and its average forms the unit, making it immune to retreat, but also
morale level. A garrison does not have to be represent- impossible to rally once broken.
ed by figures on the table, although you could certain-
ly create a small diorama of infantrymen to represent a 2.0 Towns: A Summary
garrison, if you wanted. All that is necessary is a note These rules have been stated in various other sections
in the army's roster, showing the morale and SPs of the of this book, but it would be useful here to review all
garrison. The garrison is in cover, and thus has advan- the special considerations involving towns (or "built-
tages in combat, and when being fired upon. up areas.")
A garrison may never leave its place during the day
of battle. If it loses a combat but is not broken, it does 2 .1 A town should be composed of one or more 4"
not have to fall back. (In this case, during combat, the square bases. A unit is never partially in the
attacker would have to fall back, instead, even if victo- town base; it either has enough movement to
rious against the garrison.) The only way to dislodge a enter the base completely, or it may not enter it.
garrison from its place is to break it. Only one unit may occupy the base. If a unit is
A garrison which is broken may not rally. It is falling back, and its fall back move would place
eliminated instead. It counts as a unit lost, toward an it partially within a town, decide whether the
army's break point. Obviously, the army might recover fall back places more than half of the unit with-
that point where the garrison once stood, but alas, the in the town base. If so, place the entire unit
brave garrison is no more. within the town. If not, stop the fall back just
Although it may not rally, a garrison may recover short of the town.
lost SPs during a pulse in which it meets all the normal 2.2 A unit moves through a town base as if moving
criteria to do that. Unless otherwise specified in the along a road. But an artillery or cavalry unit
scenario, consider the garrison to have "Veteran" may not end its movement in a pulse in the
morale. town base. Only an infantry unit may end its
A garrison is a unit, and thus forces enemy units to move in a town base. A unit may not wheel or
obey the 6" Rule in its presence. oblique move in, from, or through a town base.
A garrison may not be the target of a skirmish A unit may, however, change face in a town
attack, nor may it skirmish attack any enemy units. base, and it may retrograde and/or flank move
in, from, or through a town base.
2.3 A unit in a town base may not make a skirmish
1.1 Creating New Garrisons attack. However, when defending against a
During the game, a player may create a garrison by skirmish attack, it receives a +2 bonus to its die.
deliberately placing an infantry unit in a town block or 2 .4 A unit in a town base receives a saving throw
fortified area. The unit must spend one complete pulse against artillery fire.
"fortifying" the place: it must start and end the pulse 2 .5 A unit in a town has no "flank" or rear, so it is
there, doing nothing but that. If it moves or partici- never a Vulnerable target for artillery. A unit in
pates in a combat in that pulse, it is not fortifying. (It a town or other hard cover is never flanked, nor
could be the target of skirmish or artillery attack, with- may it be considered as flanking an enemy unit.
out losing its ability to fortify the place.) Once it has (It is holed up in the town, not maneuvering in
finished fortifying at the end of the pulse it is no longer the field as a threat to the enemy.)
a normal unit: it has become a garrison, and is now 2.51 A unit in a town does, however, have
subject to the rules above. Remove it from the table. front/flanks/rear for purposes of its own move-
ment. For example, if it chooses to leave the
Special cases .

town to attack an enemy, it still must obey artillery have already fired on that enemy unit.
restrictions about movement, and the cIo est Likewise, normal artillery can fire on an enemy unit,
enemy to its front, etc. even if a howitzer battery has already fired on it.
2.6 If a defending unit is in a town, and must fall Howitzers have special abilities. They may fire
back, then it must fall back completely out of over any friendly or enemy units, hitting any enemy
the town base it had occupied. The victorious unit in range which they can see.
attacker will occupy that town ba e. Remember A howitzer unit always has a range of 12". Like
that cavalry units may not (and are never forced other artillery units, they roll two dice, or one if they
to) attack a unit in a town base. have one hit on them. They get no bonus dice.
2.61 If, however, the defending unit is prevented Howitzers hit on roll of 4-6, regardless of
from falling back completely out of the town range and target type. Furthermore, when saving
base by impassable terrain, then the defending against howitzer hits, target units must use special
unit does not fall back at all. It loses another Save Numbers, which apply only against howitzers:
1SP instead. (It remains holed up in the town,
unless that one more SP loss caused it to Saving Throws against Howitzer Fire
break.) The attacker's units fall back 3". (They 1 Soft cover
are regrouping for another attempt to storm the 2 Hard cover or town
town.) 1 The target unit is artillery
1 The ground condition is Mud

3.0 Prussian Howitzer Batteries 4.0 British Rocket Batteries

Most armies employed howitzers, usually as one-third or The British army deployed at least two batteries of Congreve
one-fourth of the tubes in each battery. They were more rockets. Oddly enough, one battery served with Bemadotte's
expensive than cannon, and made in fewer numbers, and not Army of the North in Germany in I 8 I 3. While they were
every battery would have its full complement of howitzers in wildly inaccurate and had nowhere near the killing power of
every case. Unlike cannon, howitzers fired in an obvious arc regular artillery, the rockets were useful in at least two ways.
and their shells exploded. They were thus very useful for One: they were an indirect fire weapon which could hit men
those instances when direct-fire was least effective, such as behind fortifications and set buildings on fire. And two: they
hitting men behind defensive works or setting towns ablaze. made a God-awful noise which frightened men and terrified
Armies sometimes removed howitzers from batteries into horses. Wittgenstein once called them, "the Devil's own
makeshift "howitzer batteries," but Prussia had the only artillery."
army which specifically raised howitzer batteries as such (in
addition to the howitzers in "normal" batteries.) There were
at least two Prussian howitzer batteries in service with A rocket battery is treated as a horse artillery unit
Blucher's Army of Silesia in 1813-14, and the Prussian for purposes of movement. However, if it is contacted
1815 army had a howitzer battery attached to each corps. by the enemy and fails to evade, then it is automatical-
ly overrun instead. It may not engage in combat, nor
attach to a friendly infantry unit. It has no SPs, and
Howitzer batteries move as foot artillery. (The does not count as a unit lost toward army morale. (Half
gunners were supposed to ride on the horses which the army would probably be happy to see the rocke-
also pulled the limbers, but apparently there were not teers gone!)
enough horses, so some gunners walked.) They are Like a howitzer, rockets may fire over the heads of
also normal foot artillery units in combat, eligible for a friendly and even enemy units, to hit any enemy
final shot, taking escape rolls and able to attach to infantry or cavalry unit within range that it can see.
infantry units. They have 2SPS. The rockets have a range of 12".
Howitzer batteries were not intended to combine When firing a rocket battery, resolve its fire as if it
their fire with normal artillery. (The regular batteries were a skirmish attack with an SKt value against
had their own integral howitzers for that.) Therefore, infantry and an SK2 value against cavalry. If its attack
howitzer units may not combine fire with anything but succeeds, it might cause 1SP loss. The rockets are inef-
other howitzer units. However, a howitzer unit may fective against enemy artillery. Target units receive no
fire on any enemy unit in range, even if other friendly defense bonuses of any kind, and in fact do not use
their own SK values; the target of a rocket attack sim-
o Special Cases

ply rolls one die, comparing it to the rocket unit, which Iy behind the army commander's base at the beginning
rolls one die +1 or +2, as the case may be. of the game.
Rocket batteries do not combine their fire with any Exception: The Ottoman empire had a huge and
other artillery unit, and they may fire at any enemy cherished engineer corps, and placed special emphasis
unit in range, even if other friendly artillery have on siegecraft and battlefield engineers. Unlike most
already fired on that enemy unit. European armie , who often thought of engineers as a
necessary evil, the Turks considered engineering the
5.0 Reinforcements and Off-Map most honorable of all military profes ions. An
Ottoman army may deploy one engineer stand for
Movement every two Forces in the army, plus one for the army
In a perfect world, we would have a wargames table so Engineer units have ISP. They may not skirmish,
immense that there would be no need for anything like "off nor be skirmish attacked. They move entirely on their
board" movement, or that sense of the tableedge being the own, anywhere on the board, with the expenditure of
end of the world. There is no good reason, of course, why a lCP per unit, no matter how far they are from the army
unit two inches off the table should be out of the game. But commander. They are "fast infantry" for purposes of
since this is a game, with all the limitations that implies, we movement. When on their own (not attached to a
must state a clear rule to avoid player arguments that would friendly unit), they may not move into combat with
arise when units "magically" appear and disappear. enemy units, and if contacted, they automatically
evade, falling back before the enemy, as many times as
neces ary. They may, however, be shot at by artillery,
A unit which is forced off the board or driven into in which case their save number is the same as
impas able terrain is eliminated. This could happen as artiilery.
a result of a rout or fall-back in combat, if the enemy In all armies except the Turks, engineers are not
has pushed you right up against the edge of the board. counted for purpo es of army morale, and their loss
In many cenarios, one or both sides have rein- has no effect on army morale. In the Ottoman army,
forcements that are scheduled to arrive at a specific they are counted, and their loss counts toward the
point of the table, on some later turn. During the army's break-point.
Command Phase of a turn in which a player might
receive reinforcements, he must check to see if they
have arrived. If so, he can immediately raise his army's Every nation had a corps of engineers. (Known as "sappers,"
break point, and re-calculate the number of Forces he "pioneers," etc.) These brave souls were tasked with the
now has, for rolling on the Command Table. demolition or construction of various things, often under
The units may enter using the road movement enemy fire, and they were frequently used to assault heavi-
bonus, if there is a road there. They must enter and ly-defended works. In some armies they were also responsi-
remain within the radius of their sub-commander, and ble for the army's siege train and/or bridging equipment. In
in that pulse spent "entering," they must all enter, if at Grande Aimee, we will simply call them all "Engineers."
all possible. In the next pulse after these units have Most army-corps had at least a company of engineers
entered, the newly-arrived sub-commander(s) will attached to the headquarters. We're interested, however, in
behave according to the command rules, as normal. the situations where the army commander would deploy his
(Up to now, they've just been marching to the sound of reserve force of engineers, or pemaps mass them for a spe-
the guns. Now that they've arrived, they have to be cific task.
integrated into the battleplan.)
6.1 Attached Engineers
6.0 Sappers and Other Specialists By spending ICP to move an engineer unit, a player
You will need to make special one-inch square bases can attach that engineer to a friendly infantry unit of
for massed engineer companies. Each army gets one of any Force. Place it in base-to-base contact, although it
these stands deployed with the army commander. For doesn't have to add any frontage - it can be placed
a Napoleonic army, deploy an additional stand for behind the infantry. On the turn they are attached, nei-
each two Forces in the army. Thus, a Traditional army ther unit may exceed its movement allowance; the
will only have one stand of engineers, while a engineer couldn't move its maximum, attach, and then
Napoleonic army of four Forces would have a total of move again with the infantry, for instance.
three. All these engineer stands will be placed I" direct-
Special cases .

An infantry unit with attached engineers gets one laid a 3" bridge section across the river. If not, it must
bonus die in combat. When it attacks a defending unit spend the next pulse in the same fashion, requiring
which is holding light or heavy cover, it negates the another CP, unable to do anything but work on the
defender's bonus for that cover. (The defender would- bridge. At the end of the second pulse, change the
n't get any saving throw for hard cover, for instance, if marker to "2" and try to roll two or less on the die, and
he's being attacked by an infantry unit with attached so on, until you roll equal to or less than the number of
engineers.) Engineers are thus especially useful for the marker at the end of a pulse.
blasting their way into towns or forts. Exception: When the bridge is built, remove the bridging
Engineers do not negate a defender's save number for train for the rest of this day of battle.
being in woods. Your men can lay more than 3" of bridge, but they
If the attached infantry unit is broken, the engi- have to work in 3" sections. First, they lay a 3" section.
neers are removed from the board. (They do not rally Then, if there is another bridging train available, they
with the unit, if it rallies.) Otherwise, the engineer must be adjacent to that section, to begin working on
remain with the attached unit, no matter how much of the next section, starting in the same manner, trying to
a beating it takes. (Unrealistic, perhaps, since they'd be roll a 1 or less after one pulse, and so on, until they've
in the front ranks, but then again most of these guys built another 3" section.
were wearing helmets and metal body-armor.) If the bridging train unit is destroyed by enemy
While attached, an engineer unit requires no CPs fire or combat, its work is lost; remove the marker.
to move. It simply moves with its parent infantry unit. Friendly engineer units can assist the bridging
It may be detached, at the beginning of any pulse, prior unit. For each engineer unit in contact with the bridge
to that infantry unit's move, by spending 1CP. If, how- train unit, and also receiving its own 1CP, subtract one
ever, the infantry unit is falling back, the engineers from the die roll to determine if the bridge is complet-
may not detach - they are along for the ride, and suf- ed.
fer the fate of the infantry unit. If is raining, or if the weather is below freezing,
you must add one to your die rolls for bridging
6.2 Bridging attempts.
To recreate bridging operations, you will need to Pontoon bridges were nowhere near as strong as a
model a pontoon bridging train on a stand the same normal bridge, and were at the mercy of rough cur-
size as those used for artillery. The bridging train rep- rents or enemy artillery fire. Rules for river current are
rents a team of pontonnieT"s (specialized bridging best left to individual scenario "special rules." A sec-
engineers) and enough pontoons to make a bridge 3" tion of pontoon bridge may be destroyed by enemy
long. Each army may deploy one such unit, although in artillery fire. The bridge gets a :5:4 saving throw. One
certain cases there might be more. A French army with bit will destroy it.
the Imperial Guard present would have at least anoth-
er bridging train present, since the Guard had a very
sizable corps of pontonniers.
Each bridging train moves at the speed of foot
artillery, and requires 1CP to move, no matter how far
it is from the army commander. A bridging train unit
has 1SP. If fired on by enemy artillery, its target class is
the same as artillery. It may not be the target of a skir-
mish attack. (It was probably the target of skirmishers
all the time, but that didn't stop our intrepid ponton-
niers.) It may never move to contact with the enemy,
can not evade if contacted, and will fight as a 1SP
infantry unit.
To build a bridge, a bridging unit must begin its
move at water's edge, receive 1CP to "move," and then
spend that entire pulse working on the bridge. Place a
die or numerical marker showing "1" at the end of the
first pulse it has spent working on the bridge. At the
end of the pulse, roll one die. If the roll is 1, then it has
N. Optional Rules
Thefortunes of war arejickle, my dear general. We
shall retrieve tomorrow or the day after what you
have lost today .... Nothing is lost so long as courage
1.0 Human "Personality" Ratings remains.
Players representing sub-commanders are still part of
the command system. They must be given a command, - Buonaparte to Massena, 29 July 1796
or they will have to take a control test. But if you would
prefer a more free-wheeling system for sub-command-
ers played by actual player , then apply this rule: 3.0 "Hidden" Sub-Co mmanders
If a player sub-commander fails a control test, and If a sub-commander is within the army commander's
no enemy units are visible, then his Force is inactive radius, but the army commander can't actually see
for that pulse. However, if a player fails his control test him, due to some terrain obstruction like a forest,
when he has a visible enemy, then he uses his own town, or hill between them, then a command to that
judgment to interpret the army commander's wi hes sub-commander requires an extra CPo
as he sees fit. When a player represents a sub-com-
mander, ignore that historical commander's personal- It is unlikely that the army commander could pick out a spe-
ity rating. (You've replaced it with your friend's "per- cific officer (no matter how Hamboyantly dressed) beyond a
sonality rating.") Clearly, sub-commanders could be few hundred feet. This is purely a game convention to sym-
quite independent fellows, and they did, in fact, some- bolize the problems that might stem from a commander's
times change the battle plan without their chiefs inability to see part or all of that sub-commander's Force. If
approval. Sometimes that change of plan even saved the army commander can't see the units to which he is giv-
the day. ing orders, then his situation becomes more complicated. He
If you want to get technical, players should not be requires more information and time, perhaps the sending of
allowed to talk to each other about the game unless aides to report on exactly what this Force is doing.
their officer ba es are touching. They may send notes
to each other, which will get delivered on the next
pulse after ending. Ideally, this is the way you hould
play it, if you strive for "historicity." As a veteran
4.0 Blown Cavalry
wargame referee, though, I would be frankly aston-
ished if players could abide by this rule. Cavalry could not charge over and over again because the
horses (not to mention the men) would become "blown," or
worn out. Even the healthiest horse had only one really good
2 .0 Vive I'Empereur! charge in it, and then with rest might be able to come back
again with somewhat reduced vigor, perhaps repeating this
Many commanders had an emotional impact on their sol pattern four or five times in a day. M ost battle horses had
diers, to the point that the men could be moved to greater already spent weeks on the campaign trail, though, and had
exertions if they knew that the boss was watching. Officers lost a lot of weight and strength. They might not even have
wanted to be remembered for the heroic exploits of their one good charge in them.
units, and men of all ranks hoped for decorations or promo I have decided to relegate this rule to the optional rules.
tions, which were much more likely if the army commander There are many problems with writing a rule that covers the
was paying special attention to this sector of the field. issue of blown cavalry. First, obviously, not all horses in the
army are in the same condition. Some have more "gallop"
in them than others. Second, not all charges are carried out
Before the game, players must agree on whether the
in the same way. Sometimes cavalry went pell-mell in an all-
commander's charisma was such to justify the inclu-
out charge - this was frequently the case with the Turks and
sion of this rule. (Obvious examples are Napoleon,
the British. More often, the troopers fought at the trot, or
Blucher, Tsar Alexander, Ney, Suvarov, etc. Players
even at the walk, because of the better control it gave them
will have to decide for others.)
over the animals and over their formations. Well-disciplined
A unit which is "under the chiefs eye" must be half
heavy cavalry would reserve a real charge for only the final
or Ie s the current visibility distance to the comman-
J 00 yards or so, specifically to conserve the strength of their
der's base-stand. Such a unit gets a bonus die in com-
mounts, and be able to fight their way out if counter-charged
bat, a saving throw of 1 (added to any other applicable
by enemy cavalry. A nd finally, since our turns don't repre-
save numbers), and a +1 to its Rally Factor if trying to
sent any fIXed period of time, but rather periods of activity
rally or recover lost SPs. (In addition to any CPs the
or inaction, each varying in length, it seems difficult to estab-
commander might contribute to a rally attempt.)
lish how many turns or pulses would have to pass for horses
to regain their strength.
Optional Rules .

After a normal combat in which cavalry attacked an For every three Forces in an army, the army will travel
enemy unit, roll one die. On an odd roll, the cavalry has with one baggage wagon. Mount this figure on an
become blown. Some sort of marker will be needed. (A artillery-sized base. A baggage wagon must be placed
foaming horse, perhap ? A broken-down nag?) within 12" of the army commander at the beginning of
Blown cavalry counts as a "Vulnerable" unit in the game. During the game, the wagons move as foot
combat, though not if being shot at by artillery. Blown artillery units. They are not part of any Force, but each
cavalry may not be counted in the post-battle period a wagon requires lCP to move, each time it is moved,
cavalry that could be used in pursuit of a beaten foe, regardless of its distance from the commander. The
nor as cavalry covering the retreating (beaten) army. wagons may never move off the table, nor may they be
Cavalry that is blown may not prevent skirmish attacks more than 36" from the commander at any time.
within 2", although as usual for cavalry they may not The wagons are supremely vulnerable. If contact-
be skirmish attacked, them elves. ed by an enemy infantry or cavalry unit, they are cap-
If, at the end of a pulse, a blown cavalry unit has tured. (Artillery can't move into contact with any
not moved, nor engaged in any combats with enemy enemy unit, even a lowly baggage wagon.) When a unit
units, it may remove the Blown status marker. captures an enemy baggage wagon, it will almost cer-
tainly stop to loot it.
5.0 Baggage Trains and Loot At the moment of capture, the capturing unit must
stop immediately. It may occupy the ground covered
by the baggage wagon, as b st po ible, but may move
This game makes no provision for supply. Running out of no further that pulse. In the next pulse, the a player
ammunition was a rather rare occurrence for a large army must roll one die. An infantry unit will continue to loot
during a Napoleonic battle. Even after three full days of on a roll of 3+, a cavalry unit on a roll of 4+. A unit with
intense fighting at Leipzig, for instance, the French artillery "Guard" morale will only loot on a roll of 6. If a unit
still had about a day's supply of ammunition remaining. So continues to loot, it may not do anything else that
we do not place supply wagons on the table, nor worry with pulse at all, no matter how close the enemy is. It may
re-supply rules. Capturing the enemy's ammunition was usu- not move, nor recover lost SPs. Its SK value is reduced
ally of little use anyway, since most armies used different cal- to zero. If fired upon or attacked by the enemy, it may
ibres of musket and different systems of artillery. not evade, and is a Vulnerable unit in combat. If the
Capturing the enemy's food and alcohol, however, was unit has finished looting, it is a normal unit again, and
another matter entirely. We must remember that above all, capable of any of its normal game actions.
soldiers were hungry. It is likely that they got nothing at all On the next pulse, roll again, but this time subtract
to eat during a day of battle, and probably had had very lit- one to the roll. (Guards may thus never loot more than
tle during the march to the battlefield the day before. If, one pulse before their officers recover their composure
when breaking through enemy lines, soldiers found a wagon and get them in formation again.) Continue this every
full of food, it was almost certain that they would stop to pulse for a unit that is looting until it ceases, each pulse
plunder it, if not sit down right there and eat a meal. Alcohol subtracting another one from the die roll (subtract two
was such a treat that it was even more irresistible than food. on the second pulse, etc.) If a turn ends, simply treat
Russian and British troops in particular would usually stop the next pulse played as the next pulse, when calculat-
dead in their tracks, even in the midst of pursuing a beaten ing how long a unit has been looting.
enemy, to guule down every drop they could find. Combine A baggage wagon does not count toward an army's
that with empty stomachs and a day of stress, and the men total number of units, when figuring the army's break
usually ran wild or collapsed. And we mustn't assume that it point. However, the capture of a baggage counts as
was just the private soldiers who looted. Several French two units against that break point. The capture of bag-
Marshals like Soult and Massena were infamous looters. gage wagons is a mixed blessing: it can seriously hurt
Soldiers were as likely to plunder a fat-looking town as the enemy's morale, yet it can also incapacitate your
they were to loot the enemy's baggage, but the enemy bag- units.
gage train held a special significance for both sides. It often
contained the army's pay, as well as supplies and other 6.0 Random Starting Weather
assorted loot. Its capture implied to the losing soldiers that If you are playing a campaign, or designing your own
their officers had been careless, or that the enemy had scenario and wish to randomize the weather condi-
humiliated them. Its effect on morale was similar to taking tions, then prior to set-up roll two dice for the starting
standards or cannon. weather:
Optional Rules

N6.o Random Starting Weather 8.0 Stubborn Defenders

Under this optional rule, a Spanish, Ottoman, or
Weather Nov-April May-Oct Ru sian infantry unit receives a bonus die in combat if
Precipitation 2-S 2-4 it is protected from all attackers by soft or hard cover.
Overcast 6-8 S-6
Normal 9-10 7-9 9.0 The End of the World
Sunny 11-12 10-12 One of the frustrating things about wargaming is the
limit of the table-edge, and our inability to "scroll" the
+1 iffighting in Spain or Italy
battlefield. Instead of being automatically eliminated if
routed or pushed back at the edge of the table (as in
If playing a game set in the period November-April,
rule MS.o), apply the following rule.
roll again. 1-4 is Rain, and S-6 is now.
This unit applies to a unit that i backed against
the table edge, and: a) is a cavalry or artillery unit that
If the roll is even, then the weather will not be variable
evades, b) falls back as a result of combat, or c) is bro-
on this day. If the roll was odd, then there will b
ken. If the involuntary movement would carry it off the
weather variation. If the weather starts as Rain, then
table edge, roll a die. On an odd roll, the unit is elimi-
the ground condition will be Soft. Otherwise the
nated. On an even roll, "turn" and withdraw as best
ground is Hard, though it may change during the day if
you can, staying on the table edge. Gamers will need to
rain or snow persi ts.
apply some common sense here: you mustn't manipu-
late the situation so as to retreat towards the enemy,
7.0 P laying Without Ros t e r s you must try to retreat toward the other friendlies of
The original playtest version of thi game did not use your Force, etc.
rosters, but rather a ystem of numerical markers to If a unit is pushed off the table edge by an enemy
show hits. These were placed on a unit's ba e, and were unit contacting and/or combating it, then that enemy
thus visible to both sides. At the suggestion of a strong might follow it off the table edge. Roll a die: on an odd
majority of playtesters, Grande Armee ultimately roll, the victorious enemy unit pursues its victim right
dropped this method and used ro ters, instead. But off the table edge, and i also eliminated from play. On
not everybody is happy with pen-and-paper book- an even roll, the victorious enemy unit stops at the
keeping. table edge.
If you would prefer not to use the rosters, you will A unit which is pushed off the table edge becau e
need some sort of markers or numerical chits. These it is broken, counts as a unit lost for Army Morale. But
should be placed at the rear of a unit's base. An a unit that moves off the table edge otherwise (evading,
artillery unit, obviously, could take only one before it is pursuing, falling back), does not count as lost for Army
destroyed. Once the hits equal the unit's SPs, it breaks. Morale.
To play this way, the unit labels will have to be
modified to show unit morale and SPs, as well as their
other information: 10.0 Wing Commander Personality
The last paragraph of G8.2 explains that sub-com-
I II/ 1/ 2 Bourcier Trained SSP, SK2 MX I manders always use their personality ratings, whether
part of a wing, or not. In other words, a wing comman-
der's personality rating is ignored. This optional rule
When a unit breaks, write an "R" directly on its unit provides an exception to this:
label. If it rallies and returns to the game, and then On a scenario-by-scenario basis, if you do not have
later breaks again, the presence of that "R" will serve to a person playing a wing commander, you may choose
remind you of the appropriate modifiers for its rally to use that wing commander's personality rating. This
attempt. A unit can theoretically acquire any number represents a case where the wing commander is either
of R's on its label, just as on its ro ter. obviously aggressive (such as Ney at Waterloo) or
In this system, each unit's label becomes its own obviously reluctant to bring his entire wing into action.
roster. In such a case, when failing a Control Test for any sub-
commander within his wing and within his radius, add
the wing commander's personality modifier to that
sub-commander's sub equent Force Status roll, and
ignore the sub-commander's own personality rating.
S. Grande Arntee Scenarios
Grande Armee comes with four scenarios, fully
prepared with rosters and labels that you may
photocopy and u e. The scenarios were chosen
with an eye toward variety in both nationality
and size. There is one small scenario from the
Peninsular War (Fuentes), two "medium" ones
from the continental struggle (Friedland and
Aspern-Essling), and one large one (Waterloo).
In the future I will publish additional Grande
Armee scenario books, as well as a campaign sys-
tem. Additional scenarios will be offered on the
website, and several are already available.

Visit the Grande Armee website at:

Map key for the scenarios:

/VVV'>. Fortifications
- Road
~ Town
......"..... River
~ ~~ Marsh

@HillS .

Note on the Rosters:

If a roster entry does not designate a specific type
of unit (such as "Grenzers or "Dragoons, etc),
then assume the unit is line infantry.
I never slept when opposed by Massena . I never
knew a moment's rest... The Battle Of
-The Duke of Wellington Fuentes de Oiioro
Defeated by Wellington at Bussaco and stymied in the long,
5 May 1811
hungry siege of lisbon, Massena's" Anny of Portugal" limped
back Into Spain. The men were exhausted, many horses died
along the retreat, and Massena had lost the confidence of his
subordinates. After reading reports of the French defeat,
Napoleon decided to retire his old friend, and drafted orders for
his dismissal.
Andre Massena had once been one of the finest generals in
Europe, but by 181 I he was aging, tired, and past his prime.
(General Maxlmilien Foy wrote that "he is only fifty-two but he
looks well over sixty.") Massena traveled now with his mistress
and a staff of plunderers to fill his personal coffers, and he no
longer took the kind of care in reconaissance that he once did.
Still, he was as good a French commander as Wellington would
face in the Peninsula, and in his last battle at Fuentes, he gave
the "Iron Duke" his hardest fight. Left: Arthur Wellesley, the Duke of Wellington.
Wellington had decided that the French withdrawal from Right: Marshal Andre Massena, Duke of Rivoli.
Portugal was the perfect opportunity to open some modest
operations in Spain. To do this he began cooperating with Spanish partisans, and planned to take two border fortresses at Almeida and
Ciudad-Rodrigo. When he realized that he lacked the power to lay siege to both, he settled for Almeida. In April I 8 I I the Anglo-
Portuguese anny began to move rapidly toward the frontier, expecting Massena's French to be far away, still licking their wounds.
But Massena, unaware that his dismissal (and his replacement, Marshal Mannont) were both en route from France, had no intention
of letting Almeida fall without a fight, and he was eager to save his reputation and his personal honor. He spent only two weeks re-sup-
plying and resting his anny, and absorbing some ten thousand fresh replacements from France. Then at the end of April the Anny of
Portugal set out to meet Wellington once again. The anny was desperately short of horses, and as a result had left behind half of its artillery
and cavalry. At the last minute Massena was reinforced by the nearby forces of Marshal Bessieres, from northern Spain. This proved to
be a mixed blessing; Bessieres seemed bent on preventing his cavalry from seeing action, and flagrantly disregarded Massena's instructions.
Wellington saw it all coming, of course, well-infonned as he was by Spanish guerillas and his own scouts. He chose a strong defen-
sive position that allowed him to keep an eye on Almeida and still left him room to move if Massena got tricky. But the French were not
trying to out-maneuver him; they were coming for a fight. Slightly outnumbered, Wellington nonetheless had more and better artillery.
Fuentes is actually two battles. The first occurred on 3 May. Massena tried to stonn the town of Fuentes with elements of three
infantry divisions, but his men were driven back. There was a period of relative Quiet on the 4th, as the French pondered their next move.
Then on the Sth a renewed French attack In the South made headway and bent back Wellington's line into a right angle. Trying to clinch
the victory, Massena's Infantry became bogged down in the center, as the whole battle devolved into a back-and-forth struggle for the
town of Fuentes itself. Ultimately frustrated, the French withdrew. This scenario represents the second day, with both annies fully drawn

The Scenario:
The weather is Sunny, with no variation. The ground is Hard. The game's Basic Length is 6.
The town of Fuentes (1 base) is Hard Cover. The two streams are both fordable, and constitute ob tacles.
The morale of the allied anny is Confident. Its Break Point is 9.
The morale of the French anny is Fair. Its Break Point is 8.
Fuentes de Oiioro "

Roster for the A nglo-Portuguese A rmy

Commander: The Duke of Wellington (Great)
Weather: Sunny, No Variation (24") _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Army's Break Point: 9 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
This is a Traditional Army of 6 Forces

Garris on of Fuentes Veteran 7SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

1st Division: Spe n cer 2/7"
1/1 Stopford (Guards) Guards 9SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _
1/2 Nightingale Elite 6SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
1/ 3 Howard Elite 7SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
1/ 4 Von LOwe (KGL) Veteran sSP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _
3 r d Division: Picton (V) 1 / 7"
3/ 1 MacKinnon Veteran sSP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
3/ 2 Colville Veteran sSP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _
3/ 3 Powers (Portuguese) Trained 4SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
5th Division: Erskine 4 / 5" Cautious
5/1 Hay Veteran sSP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
5/2 Dunlop Veteran sSP_ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
5/3 Spry (Portuguese) Trained 4SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
6th Division: Campbell 3 / 5"
6/ 1 Hulse Veteran sSP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
6/ 2 Burne Veteran 4SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
6/ 3 Madden (Portuguese) Trained sSP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
7th Division: Houston 3/ 4'
7/ 1 Sontag (Light) Veteran 6SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
7/2 Doyle (Portugue e) Trained sSP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Light Divis ion: Craufurd (V) 1 / 7"
L/1 Beckwith (Light) Elite sSP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
L/2 Drummond (Light) Veteran 6SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
L/ 3 Ashworth (Portuguese) Trained 4SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Artille ry: Wellington must attach these to his Forces prior to set-up, but the choices of which Forces to attach them
to is completely up to him. British sub-commanders' radii have been slightly increased, in order to add the artillery. No
more than two artillery units may be added to anyone Force.
9-pdr Foot (A) _
9-pdr Foot (B) _
6-pdr Horse (C) _
6-pdr Horse (D) _
Port. 6-pdr Foot (E) _
Port. 6-pdr Horse (F) _

Cavalry: Likewi e, choo e one of the Forces to add Cotton's cavalry unit:
Mixed Light Cavalry Trained 6SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
" Fuentes de Ofioro

Roster for the Army ofPortugal

Commander: Marshal Massena (Good)
Weather: Sunny, No Variation (24") _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Army's Break Point: 8 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Generals Available: 2
This is a Napoleonic army of 5 Forces.

II Corps: Reynier 3 / 9 "

1st Division: Merle
II/l/l Sarrut (Legere) Veteran 8SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
II/l/2 Graindorge (Legere) Veteran SSP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
2nd Division: Heudelet
II/2/l Godard Veteran 6SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
II/2/2 Arnaud (Legere) Veteran 8SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Corps Cav P. Soult (Light)Trained 4SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
II: 6-pdr Horse __
VI Corps: Loison (V) 2 / 12"
1st Division: Marchand
VI/l/l Maucune Veteran 7SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
VI/l/2 Chemineau Veteran 6SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
2nd Division: Mermet
VI/2/l Menard (Legere) Trained 8SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
VI/2/2 Taupin Trained 6SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
3rd Division: Ferey
VI/3/l Simon (mixed types) Trained SSP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
VI/3/2 Line Trained SSP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
VI: 8-pdr Foot __
VIII Corps: Junot 3 / 6"
1st Division: Solignac
VIII/l/l Gratien Trained SSP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
VIII/l/2 Thomiere (Fr., Irish, Pr.) Conscript 4SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
VIII: 4-pdr Horse __
IX Corps: d'Erlon 3 / 6"
1st Division: Claparede
IX/l/l Claparede (Legere) Trained 6SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
IX/l/2 Vichery Trained SSP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
2nd Division: Conroux
IX/2/l Gerard Trained 6SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
IX: Fournier (Chasseurs) Trained 4SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
IX: 8-pdr Foot __
Cavalry Reserve: Bessieres (V) 5 / 8"
C/l Montbrun (Dragoons) Trained 4SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
C/2 Wathier (Chasseurs) Veteran SSP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
C/3 Lepic (Gren. a Cheval) Guards 6SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Cav: 4-pdr Horse __
Fuentes de Oiioro "


The Battlefield of
Fuentes de Oiioro

Alternative Fuentes, Play-Balancing, and What-Ifs:

1 . French Reinforceme nt
Junot's 8th Corps had taken a pounding in the Portugue e campaign, and Massena took only one division of it with
him to Fuentes, leaving the rest to guard communications. He could have caned on these men for the battle, if needed.
(This would have scrambled orne of the names of his brigadiers, who had just been re-a igned before Fuentes, so I
won't include brigade names for these units.)
A. Increase Junot's radius to 9", and add the following two infantry units:

Clau el' Divi ion:

VIII/ 2/l Line inf. Trained SSP, SK2
VIII/ 2/2 Line inf. Trained SSP, SK2

Increase the French army's break-point to 9.

2. Be ieres Play Ball

Massena had asked for cavalry from Marshal Bes iere's strong "Army of the North." He did get some cavalry, but alas
the Marshal came along, too, and proceeded to make Massena miserable. This variant assumes that Bessieres simply
sent the cavalry, as requested.
A. Instead of Bessieres, have the cavalry reserve commanded by Montbrun, rated 3/6".

3. Spanish Reinforcements
Wellington had the assistance on this campaign of Julian Sanchez's irregular cavalry, who screened his right flank quite
well. He had chosen, however, not to wait for Spanish reinforcements for this campaign, given his unpleasant experi-
ences with Spanish armies at Talavera. This variant assumes that Wellington had the service of the remnants of La
Romana's army, which had served with him at the lines of Torres Vedras.
A. Add one Force (the first three units are all Spanish line infantry) to Wellington's army, as follows :

La Romana 3 / 6"
S/ l La Carrera Conscript 6SP
S/ 2 O'Donnell Trained SSP
S/ 3 Zamora Trained SSP
SI C Sanchez Oight cavalry) Raw 4SP
" Fuentes de Ofioro

Labels for Fuentes de Ofloro (cut and paste to unit bases)

Massena (Good)
Wellington (Great) II: Reynier 3 / 9"
Cotton's Light Cavalry 11/1/1 Sarrut (Legere) SK2
1: Spencer 2 / 7" II/1/2 Graindorge (Legere) SK2
1/1 Stopford SK2 11/2/1 Godard SK2
1/2 Nightingale SK2 11/2/2 Arnaud (Legere) SK2
1/3 Howard SK2 II: P. Soult (Light)
1/4 Von LOwe (KGL) SK2 II: 6-pdr Horse
3: Picton (V) 1/7" VI: Loison (V) 2 / 12 '
3/1 MacKinnon SK2 VI/1/1 Maucune SK2
3/2 Colville SK2 VI/1/2 Chemineau SK2
3/3 Powers (Portuguese) SKI VI/2/1 Menard (Legere) SK2
5: Erskine 4 / 5" Cautious VI/2/2 Taupin SK2
5/1 Hay SK2 VI/3/1 Simon (mixed types) SKI
5/2 Dunlop SK2 VI/3/2 Line SKI
5/3 Spry (Portuguese) SK2 VI: 8-pdr foot
6: Campbell 3 / 5" VIII: Junot 3 / 6"
6/1 Hulse SK2 VIII/1/l Gratien SK2
6/2 Burne SKI VIII/1/2 Thomiere (Fr., Irish, Prussian) SKI
6/3 Madden (Portuguese) SKI VIII: 4-pdr Horse
7: Houston 3 / 4" IX: d'Erlon 3 / 6"
7/1 Sontag (Light) SK2 IX/1/1 Claparede (Legere) SK2
7/2 Doyle (Portuguese) SK2 IX/1/2 Vichery SKI
Lt: Craufurd (V) 1 / 7" IX/2/1 Gerard SK2
L/1 Beckwith (Light) SK2 IX: Fournier (Chasseurs)
L/2 Drummond (Light) SK2 IX: 8-pdr Foot
L/3 Ashworth (Portuguese) SK2 Cav: Bessieres (V) 5 / 8"
9-pdr Foot (A) C: Montbrun (Dragoons)
9-pdr Foot (B) C: Wathier (Chasseurs)
6-pdr Horse (C) C: Lepic (Grenadiers a Cheval)
6-pdr Horse (D) C: 4-pdr Horse
Port. 6-pdr Foot (E)
Port. 6-pdr Horse (F)
The loss of Marshal Lannes wasfelt by the The Battle Of
whole army, and completed the disasters of that
fatal day. Aspern-Essling
-Savary, Memoires (Vol. 2, Ch. 9)
The Second Day: 22 May, 1809
In retrospect it is easy to criticize Austria for tackling France
alone in 1809, but the Austrians were counting on a number of
pre-conditions. Their plans assumed a continued French entan-
glement in Spain, a British landing in northern Germany, a
Prussian uprising, Quiet on the Turkish frontier, and a neutral or
even sympathetic Russia. In the end, Vienna got less than half of
these things.
The army of I 809 was the biggest and in many ways the
best force that Austria fielded during the Napoleonic wars. The
artillery had been completely re-organized, a corps d'armee sys-
tem was implemented (although Charles later said that it had
never worked as he intended), and a number of deadwood sen
ior officers had been trimmed from the military hierarchy.
Napoleon's Army of Germany was a hastily-assembled
affair, thrown together in the face of a full-scale Austrian attack,
built around a few veteran units (like Davout's III Corps, the
heavy cavalry, and the Guard), then neshed out with conscripts and allied contingents from the German states. In the confusing early bat-
tles of the Spring, the Austrians were pushed back out of Bavaria, and Napoleon advanced Quickly down the Danube valley and occupied
Vienna. But the Austrian Hauptarmee had withdrawn north of the river, while the French had advanced from the south, and thus the
two armies were still very much intact, separated by the Danube. Napoleon, nushed with confidence that he faced a broken and demor-
alized foe, looked for a crossing point, and began building a pontoon bridge to move his army to the north bank.
The battle of Aspem-Essling occurred only because Charles let it occur. He could have opposed any French attempt to cross the
river, leaving the two armies in a stalemate, divided by the Danube. But he wanted Napoleon to get a sizable army across - just barely
- and then to mount a concentric attack that would drive the French Into the river. Charles did fool Napoleon into thinking that the
Austrians were dispirited and weak. As the French crossed the river virtually unopposed, Napoleon chose to lead with his pursuit forma-
tions: heavy in cavalry. This was the wrong kind of force he would need for the desperate defensive struggle which ensued, but the sin-
gle pontoon bridge and his constricted position did not allow for reinforcement once he had placed his head in Charles' noose.
On 21 May, the forces of both sides arrived piecemeal, and the outnumbered French clung to their bridgehead, which was anchored
on the towns of Aspem and Essllng, just across the northern bank of the river. During the night both sides drew up their annies, but the
French were hampered by constant Austrian interference with their sole pontoon bridge. Thus, as day broke on 22 May, Napoleon was
outnumbered, with his back to a major river. As Shakespeare had once said: We are chained to the stake, and bear-like we must fight.
The second day of Aspern-Essling was a ferocious and desperate struggle, made even bloodier by the restricted space. Both towns
were the scenes of repeated infantry assaults, and both changed hands several times. The ground between them was the site of large-scale
cavalry actions, where the Austrians generally had the advantage of more infantry for support. By afternoon, Napoleon had lost both
Aspern and Essling, and his situation was grave. In order to extricate his army, Napoleon would have to gain time and space. So around
2:00 he launched a gigantic cavalry attack into the left-center of the Austrian position, while the Young Guard stormed and re-took
By 4:00 PM Napoleon had sufficiently regained the initiative to begin his withdrawal without peril. Charles had pulled back several
of his formations for rest and reorganization, and to replenish their exhausted supplies of ammunition. The French engineers, assisted by
the Old Guard, had repaired the pontoon bridge in Napoleon's rear. Thus the French, covered by the cavalry and Guard, began to edge
back along the whole line. It was during this retreat that Marshal Jean Lmnes, one of the best field commanders in the French anny, was
struck by an Austrian cannonball which crushed both his legs. He died a few days later.
Aspern-Essling was a hecatomb. On a front line of only two miles, nearly 45,000 men lay dead or wounded. Both sides had lost
grievously, and both needed a period of rest and reinforcement_ While the 1809 campaign ground on in the secondary theatres of Italy,
Poland, the Tyrol, and Dalmatia, the main Danube theatre would be quiet until July, when the final showdown occurred at Wagram.
Napoleon Bonaparte had suffered his first defeat.
" Aspern-Essling

The Scenario:
This game examines the f erocious fighting on the second day of the battle, with both armies deployed,jac-
ing each other at close quarters.

The weather is Nonnal, and variable. The ground is Hard. The game's Basic Length is 7 turns.
All towns - Aspern (2 bases), Essling and Gross Enzersdorf (1 base each) - are hard cover. The Danube
river is impassable terrain.

The French army is "Confident." Its Break Point is: 14.

The Austrian army is "Fair." Its Break Point is: 16.

The Battlefield of
Aspern-Essling "

Roster for the armee d 'allemagne

Commander: Napoleon (Great)
Weather: Normal, Variable (20") _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Army's Break Point: 14 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ __
Generals Available: 2. ADCs: 2
This is a Napoleonic army of 3 Forces, plus two detachments.

IV Corps: Massena 2 / 18"

1St Divi ion: Legrand
IV/l/l Ledru (Legere) Veteran 6SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
IV/l/ 2 Ravier Veteran 6SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
IV/1/3 von Harrant (Baden inf.) Elite 6SP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
2nd Division: Carra St. Cyr
IV/2/1 Cosson (Legere) Veteran 7SP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
IV/2/2 Dalesme Trained 8SP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
3rd Divi ion: Molitor
IV/3/1 Leguay Trained 7SP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
IV/3/2 Vivies Trained 7SP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
4th Division: Boudet
IV/4/l Boudet Trained 8SP _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Cavalry Division: Lasalle
IV/ C/l Lasalle (Hus . & Chass.) Veteran 7SP _ _ _ _ _ __ __ __ _ _ _ _ __
IV/C/2 Marulaz (Chasseurs) Elite 8SP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Corp Artillery:
IV: l2-pdr Foot __
IV: 6-pdr Horse __

II COrpS: Lannes (V) 1/17"

1st Division: Tharreau
II/l/l Conroux (Legere) Trained 7SP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _
II/l/2 Albert Trained 7SP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
II/l/3 J arry Trained SSP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _-'--_ _ _ __
2nd Division: Claparede
II/ 2/l Coehom (Legere) Elite 9SP -::-:::-_ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
II/2/2 Lesuire & Ficatier Trained 7SP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
3rd Division: St. Hilaire
II/3/l Lorencz (Legere) Veteran 6SP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
II/ 3/2 Destabenrath Trained SSP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Reserve Division: Demont
II/ R/l Trained SSP _ __ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _
II/R/2 Trained 6SP _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Corps Artillery:
II: l2-pdr Foot A __
II: l2-pdr Foot B __
" Aspern-Essling

French roster for Aspern-Essling, continued

Cavalry Reserve: Bessieres (V) 3 / 9"

1st Hvy Division: Nan outy
C/I/I Defrance (Carabiniers) Elite 6SP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
C/I/2 Doumerc (Cuirassiers) Elite 7SP -=:-=-_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
C/I/3 St. Germain (Cuirassiers) Elite 7SP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
2nd Hvy Division: St. Sulpice
C/2/1 Lagrange (Cuirassiers) Elite 6SP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
C/2/2 Guiton (Cuirassiers) Elite 7SP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
3rd Hvy Division: d'Espagne
C/3/1 Raynaud (Cuirassiers) Elite 7SP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
C/3/2 Fouler (Cuirassiers) Elite 7SP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Corps Artillery:
C: 8-pdr Horse A __
C: 8-pdr Horse B __

Imperial Guard: (Detachments)

(The Guard has already been broken up into two detachments, which do not count as Forces when rolling for CPs.)

1st (Young Guard) Division: Curial 2/6"

G/I/I Roguet (Tirailleurs) Elite 8SP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
G/I/2 Gros (Fusiliers) Elite 9SP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

2nd (Old Guard) Division: Dor enne (V) 2/6"

OG/I Old Guard Infantry Guard 13SP ---,-_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
OG/2 Arrighi (Combined Gd. Cavalry) Guard IOSP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Guard Artillery: (Napoleon must assign these to either Guard detachment at the beginning of the game)
G: 12-pdr Gd Foot __
G: 6-pdr Gd. Horse __
Aspern-Essling "

Roster for the Austrian Hauptarmee

Commander: Charles (Good)
Weather: Normal, Variable (20") _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Army's Break Point: 16 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Generals Available: 3
This is a Napoleonic army of S Forces.

VI Corps: Hiller 2 / 10"

Adv. Guard:
VI/ A Nordmann Veteran 8SP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
1St Division: Kottulinski
VI/l/ l Hohenfeld Trained 6SP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
2nd Division: Vincent
VI/ 2/ l Splenyi Trained 7SP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
VI/ 2/2 Bianchi Trruned SSP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Corps Artillery:
VI: l2-pdr Foot _
VI: 6-pdr Foot __

I Corps: Bellegarde (V) 3 / 10"

1St Division: Fresnel
1/ 1/ 1 Wintzingerode Veteran 7SP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
1/ 1/ 2 Vecsey (Chevauxleger) Veteran 7SP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
2nd Divi ion: Vogelsang
1/ 2/ 1 IR17 Reuss-Plauen Trained 7SP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
1/ 2/ 2 IR36 Kollowrath Trruned 6SP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
3rd Divi ion: Ulm
1/ 3/ 1 IR1l Rainer Trained 6SP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
1/ 3/ 2 I147Vogelsang Trained 6SP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
4th Division: Nostitz
1/4/1 IR3S Argenteau Trained 7SP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
1/4/2 1142 Erbach Trained SSP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Corps Artillery:
I: l2-pdr Foot __
I: 6-pdr Foot __

n Corps: Hohenzollern 3 / 8"

Adv. Guard: Provencheres
II/ A Provencheres Veteran 7SP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
1 t Division: Brady
II/ l/l Buresch Trained 7SP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
II/l/2 Koller Trained 7SP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
2nd Division: Weber
II/ 2/ l IR2l Rohan Trained 6SP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
II/ 2/ 2 IR18 Stuart Trruned 6SP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
II/ 2/ 3 IR28 Frelich Trained 7SP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Corps Artillery:
II: l2-pdr Foot _
II: 6-pdr Foot _
" Aspern-Essling

Austrian roster for Aspern-Essling, continued

IV COrpS: Rosenberg 4 / 13" Cautious

Technically, the IV Corps was split into two "columns" under Dedovich and Hohenlohe, but by the second day of the
battle they compri ed the Austrian left flank, and fought (mostly) unified under Rosenberg's command.
Adv. Guard: Rlenau
IV/A/1 (Uhlans & Hussars) Veteran 7SP :=-_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
IV/A/2 Hardegg (IR3 & Jagers) Veteran SSP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
1St Division: Dedovich
IV/1/1 Gratze (Grenzers) Veteran SSP
IV/1/2 Ludwig & Koburg Trained 8SP - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
IV/1/3 Neustadter Trained 7SP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
2nd Division: Rohan
IV/2/1 Carneville (Grenzers) Veteran 4SP :----==--_________________
IV/2/2 Stutterheim (Hu ars & Chv.lgr.) Elite SSP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
3rd Division: Hohenlohe
IV/3/1 Reise Trained 7SP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
IV/3/2 IR2 Hiller Trained 7SP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
IV/3/3 IR33 Sztaray Trained 6SP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _~--------
Corps Artillery:
IV: 12-pdr Foot __
IV: 6-pdr Foot __

Reserve Corps: Liechtenstein (V) 3/13"

1 tDivision: d'Aspre
R/1/1 Scovaud 1 (Converged Grenadiers) Elite 7SP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
R/1/2 Scovaud 2 (Converged Grenadiers) Elite 7SP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
2nd Division: Lindenau
R/2/1 Murray 1 (Converged Grenadiers) Elite 7SP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
R/2/2 Murray 2 (Converged Grenadiers) Elite 7SP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
3rd Division: Hessen-Homburg
R/3/1 Wartensleben (Hussars) Elite SSP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
R/3/2 Siegenthal (Cuirassiers) Elite 6SP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
R/3/3 Lederer (Cuirassiers) Elite 6SP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
4th Division: Keinrnayer
R/4/1 Kroyer (Cuirassiers) Elite SSP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
R/4/2 Rottermund (Dragoons) Veteran SSP -:--_-==_________________
R/4/3 Kerekes (Insurrection Hussars) Conscript 4SP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Corps Artillery:
R: 6-pdr Horse A __
R: 6-pdr Horse B _
R: 6-pdr Horse C __
Aspern-Essling "

Alternative Aspern-Esslings, Play-Balancing, and What-lfs:

Aspern-Essling is the most tightly balanced scenario in this book. But... if you must tinker, here are some

1. French Reserves
Marshal Davout's III Corps was standing by on the south bank of the river, waiting to cross over to the
Aspern-Essling battlefield. Napoleon desperately needed these veteran regiments, but the French pontoon
bridge was so constantly in a state of repair that he never had a chance to deploy III Corps. Indeed, even if
Davout had been able to cross, it is likely there wouldn't have been room on the battlefield for him. Under
this variant, however, given a little luck, Napoleon can bring III Corps aero s the bridge.
A. At the end of each turn, the Napoleon player should roll a die. On a roll ofl-3 the bridge is once again
down, due to Austrian sabotage. In thi case, on the following turn, no French reinforcements can
arrive. However, on a roll of 4-6, the bridge has been secured enough to bring across Marshal Davout
and a single infantry division from III Corps (French player's choice) in the next turn.
B. When Davout arrives with his leading divi ion, raise French army morale, and the number of Forces
accordingly, and calculate his radius.
C. At the end of each turn, the French player makes this roll, until all of Davout's divisions are across.
Raise Davout's radius as new units arrive.

2. Austrian Re erves
Charles was in the midst of re-organizing his command structure, and the Austrian army was in a weird
limbo between "Corps" and "Columns." The corp of Feldmarschall Reuss-Plauen consisted of only a sin-
gle division of mixed units - everything from local Vienna militia to Jagers, Grenzers, and Uhlans. Reuss-
Plauen was unengaged during the battle, but could easily have joined the second day's fighting.
A. Under thi variant, include Reuss-Plauen's "corps" as a single division detachment, deployed within
12" of Ch arles.

3. Vive l'empereur!
At several points during the battle, the Archduke Charles exposed himself to extreme danger, riding into
the midst of broken Austrian units and rallying them. Napoleon maintained a glacial calm throughout most
of the battle, as wa his custom, but his presence was famous ly crucial to French morale.
A. Use the Vive l'empereur! optional rule for both commanders, as described in N2.0.

m Corps: Davout 1 / 1.5 Detachment: Reuss-Plauen 3/6"

1 t Divi ion: Morand RP/ l Reinwaldt Trained SSP, SKl MX
III/ l/ l Lacour (Legere) Veteran 9SP, SK2 RP/ 2 Militia and Landwehr Con cript SSP
I1I/ l/ 2I'Huillier Veteran SSP, SK2 RP/ 3 Radetzky (Grenz & Jagers) Veteran 7SP, SK2 MX
2nd Division: Friant RP/ 4 Kerpen Trained SSP, SKl
I1I/ 2/ 1 Gilly (Legere) Veteran 9 P, SK2
IlI/ 2/ 2 Barbanegre Veteran 7SP, SK2
IlI/ 2/ 3 Grandeau Veteran SSP, SK2
3rd Divi ion: Gudin
I1I/ 3/ 1 Leclerc (Legere) Veteran 6SP, SK2
IIl/ 3/ 2 Boyer Veteran 9SP, SK2
IIl/ 3/ 3 Duppelin Veteran SSP, SK2
Cavalry Division: Montbrun
IIl/ C/ l Pajol (Hu sars) Elite lOSP
III/ C/ 2 Jacquinot (Cha seurs & Hussars) Elite 7SP
Corp Artillery:
1 12-pdr Foot B1Y
1 6-pdr Ilorse B1Y
" Aspern-Essling

Labels for the Aspern-Essling Scenario (cut and paste to unit base)

Napoleon (Great) Y.G: Curial '2 / 6" ll : l2-pdr Foot

IV: Mas e n a 2 /18 " G/l/l Roguet (Tirailleurs) SK2 ll: 6-pdr Foot
N/l/l Ledru (Legere) SK2 G/l/2 Gros (Fusiliers) SK2 IV: Ro enbe r g 4 /13" Cautiou
N/l/2 Ravier SK2 O.G: Dor e nne (V) 2 / 6" IV/A/l (Uhlans & Hussars)
N/l/3 v.Harrant (Baden) SKI OG/l Old Guard Infantry SK2 IV/ A/2 Hardegg SK2
N/2/l Cosson (Legere) SK2 OG/2 Arrighi (Gd Cavalry) IV/l/l Gratze (Grenzers) SK2
N/2/2 Dalesme SK2 G: l2-pdr Foot IV/1/2 Ludwig & Koburg SKI
N/3/l Leguay SK2 G: 6-pdr Horse N /1/3 Neustiidter SKI MX
N /3/2 Vivies SK2 IV/2/l Carneville (Grenzers) SK2
IV/4/l Boudet SK2 IV/2/2 Stutterheim (Hus & Chev)
IV/C/l Lasalle (Hus & Chas) Charles (Good) N/3/l Reise SKI
IV/C/2 Marulaz (Chasseurs) VI: Hille r 2 / 10" IV/3/2 IR2 Hiller SKI
IV: l2-pdr Foot VI/A Nordmann SK2 MX IV/3/3 IR33 Sztaray SKI
IV: 6-pdr Horse VI/l/l Hohenfeld SK2 MX IV: l2-pdr Foot
ll: Lannes (V) 1/ 17" VI/2/l Splenyi SK2 MX IV: 6-pdr Foot
11/1/1 Conroux (Legere) SK2 VI/2/2 Bianchi SKI R: Liechte n tein (V) 3 /13 "
11/1/2 Albert SK2 VI: l2-pdr Foot R/l/l Scovaud 1 (Grenadiers)
I1/l/3 Jany SK2 VI : 6-pdr Foot R/l/2 Scovaud 2 (Grenadiers)
11/2/1 Coehorn (Legere) SK2 I : Bellegarde (V) 3 / 10 " R/2/l Murray 1 (Grenadiers)
II/2/2 Lesuire & Ficatier SK2 1/1/1 Wintzingerode SKI R/2/2 Murray 2 (Grenadiers)
II/3/l Lorencz (Legere) SK2 1/1/2 Vecsey (Chevauxleger) R/3/l Wartensleben (Hussars)
II/3/2 Destabenrath SK2 1/2/1 IRI7 Reuss-Plauen SKI R/3/2 Siegenthal (Cuiras iers)
I1/R/l SK2 1/2/2 IR36 Kollowrath SKI R/3/3 Lederer (Cuirassiers)
II/R/2 SK2 1/3/1 IRII Rainer SKI R/4/l Kroyer (Cuirassiers)
11: l2-pdr Foot (A) 1/3/2 IR47 Vogelsang SKI R/4/2 Rottermund (Dragoons)
ll: l2-pdr Foot (B) 1/4/1 IR35 Argenteau SKI R/4/3 Kerekes (Ins. Hussars)
C: Bessie res (V) 3 / 9" 1/4/2 IR42 Erbach SKI R: 6-pdr Horse (A)
C/l/l Defrance (Carabiniers) I: l2-pdr Foot R: 6-pdr Horse (B)
C/l/2 Doumerc (Cuirassiers) I : 6-pdr Foot R: 6-pdr Horse (C)
C/l/3 St. Germain (Cuirassiers) ll: Hohenzolle rn 3 / 8 "
C/2/l Lagrange (Cuirassiers) II/A Provencheres SK2 MX
C/2/2 Guiton (Cuirassiers) II/l/l Buresch SKI
C/3/l Raynaud (Cuirassiers) II/l/2 Koller SKI
C/3/2 Fouler (Cuirassiers) II/2/ l IR2l Rohan SKI
C: 8-pdr Horse (A) II/2/2 IRI8 Stuart SKI
C: 8-pdr Horse (B) II/2/ 3 IR28 Frelich SKI
He who fears being conquered is sure of def eat. The Battle Of
During the long and frustrating winter of 1806/07, Napoleon's 14 June, 1807
Grande Armee lost over 30,000 men, more than half of whom
were casualties from the single bloodbath at Eylau. Only a few
French replacements arrived, and Napoleon made good his loss-
es with allied contingents. The Russian army had also suffered,
had also refitted during the early Spring, and now both sides
were eager for a final showdown.
The spring campaign opened badly for Napoleon. French
dispatches had been captured by the Russians, revealing deploy-
ments and movement orders. Count Levin Bennigsen, com-
manding the Russian army, used his Cossacks to confuse the
French cavalry scouts, and had stolen an entire week's march on
Napoleon. Bennigsen thus made the first moves while Napoleon
was still groping. The Russians crossed the Aile river into old
East Prussia. Murat's cavalry finally fixed them, and Napoleon
quickly moved in for what he thought would be the kill. But
Bennigsen got the jump on him, and mauled a portion of the
French army at Heilsberg on June 10th - Soult's and Lannes'
corps were both injured, as was Murat's cavalry reserve. Davout
saved the day by swinging behind the Russian army, forcing Bennigsen to abandon a strong position and fall back toward the river.
Four days later at the battle of Friedland, Levin Bennigsen, who had opened the campaign so well, lost his nerve. And Napoleon,
who had blundered for two weeks, suddenly found his game and delivered a brilliant performance.
The Russian army was badly deployed. True, it was in a compact formation with a good killing zone in front of it, but the Russians
had their backs to the Aile River, with only two bridges (and pontoons for two more). An area of marshy creek separated the Russian
right wing from the left, making coordination difflcult. Fixed by Lannes' corps early in the morning, the Russians dithered for hours as
French reinforcements trickled in. Napoleon arrived just after noon, with most of the Grande Armt!e already marching onto the field.
As the French corps arrived, Napoleon directed them into action. Around 5:00 PM Ney's corps, supported by Victor and a grand bat-
tery, delivered the decisive blow that crushed the Russian left_
Friedland was an infantry battle. The French out-marched and out-skirmished the Russians, and then blasted them at point-blank
range with canister fire from a 70-gun grand battery assembled by St!narmont, Victor's chief of artillery, acting under Napoleon's orders.
The French cavalry did not make much of a showing in this battle. Murat was not present (he was in the doghouse after his poor per-
formance at Heilsberg, and was detached by Napoleon to supervise the siege of KOnigsberg.) So the French heavy cavalry divisions were
divided up among the infantry corps, and not used to their full potential. Uvarov's Russian cavalry also made heroic charges as the Russian
army began to collapse, covering the retreat and preventing a French pursuit. Had Murat been present, and the French cavalry massed
as normal, it is likely that Bennigsen's heavy defeat would have been a total catastrophe. Still, Friedland must rank as one of Napoleon's
masterpieces. The Russians left some 20,000 casualties behind, though very few had surrendered.
Our scenario begins with Napoleon's arrival on the field. There are about nine hours of daylight remaining; plenty of time for the
Russians to get their act together, if they can, and change history.

The Scenario:
The weather is Normal, with no variation. The ground is Hard. The game's Basic Length is 6 turns.
The towns of Friedland (2 bases) and Sortlach (1 base) are Hard Cover. Posthenen (1 base) is Soft Cover. The Alle river
is unfordable. The MuhlenfluB stream is an obstacle. All hiJIs are Level One.
The Russians deploy first, then the French VI, VIII, and Reserve Corps. The French Guard and I Corps will arrive later
during the battle.
The Russian army is "Fair." Its Break Point is 15.
The French army is "Confident." Its Break Point starts at 11, but it will receive reinforcements during the game.
o Friedland

Roster for the Russian A rmy

Commander: Count Bennigsen (Poor)
Weather: Normal, No Variation (20") _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Army's Break Point: 15 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
This is a Traditional Army of 11 Forces, organized under two wing commanders
In theory, the Russian reserves (including most of the Guard) were a separate Force under Constantine (who did not lead them
in this battle). Apparently, early in the day, many of these units were broken up and committed piecemeal to the two wings. By
the time our scenario begins, this has probably already happened. Howeuer, because sources differ on who went where, and
because it will help the Russians to have an elite reserve, I haue kept them as a sin'gle Force.

Left Wing: Bagratian (V) 2

Ad vanced Guard Division: Rayev ky (V) 2 / 8 "
AG/1 Jager Brigade Veteran SSP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
AG/2 Ogarev (Jagers) Veteran SSP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
AG/3 Fritsch (Jagers) Veteran 6SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
AG/4 Cavalry (Hussars) Elite 8SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
AG: 6-pdr Horse __

Support Divi ion: Markov 3 / 3"

S/l Trained 6SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
S/2 (with Grenadiers) Veteran 7SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

6th D ivision: Lovov 4 /4"

6/1 Rachmaninov Trained 6SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
6/2 Glouchkov Trained 6SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
6: 12-pdr Foot A __
6: 12-pdr Foot B __

2nd Division: Ost ermann 5/ 4 "

2/1 Mazovski (with Grenadiers) Veteran 7SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
2/2 Sukin (with Grenadiers) Veteran 7SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
2: 12-pdr Foot A __
2: 12-pdr Foot B __

Left Wing Cavalry Re e rve : Gallitzin (V) 2 / 9" Aggre ive

LC/1 Korff (Drag. & Uhlans) Veteran 6SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
LC/2 Cuirassiers Elite 7SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
LC/3 Lambert (Hussars) Elite 6SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
LC/4 Dorochov (Hus ars) Elite 6SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
LC: 6-pdr Horse A __
LC: 6-pdr Horse B _

Right Wing: Gortchakov (V) 3

8th Division: Dochturov 4 / 5"
8/1 Engelhardt Trained 7SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
8/2 Sakomelski (Dragoons) Veteran 6SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
8 : 12-pdr Foot A __
8 : 12-pdr Foot B _
8 : 6-pdr Horse __
Friedland "

Russian roster for Friedland, continued

7th Division: Essen 4 / 4"

7/1 Zaposki (Grenadiers) Elite 8SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
7/ 2 Trained 8SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
7: 12-pdr Foot A __
7: 12-pdr Foot B __

3rd Divi ion: Sacken 3 / 8"

3/ 1 Uschakov (w/ Grenadiers) Veteran 8SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
3/ 2 Titov Trained 7SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
3/ 3 Netting Trained 7SP_ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
3: 12-pdr Foot A __
3: 12-pdr Foot B __

Right Wing Cavalry Reserve: Uvarov (V) 3 / 3" Aggressive

RC/1 Cossacks Raw 2SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
RC/2 Lourkovski (Hussars) Elite 6SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Reserve Division: Constantine (V) 4 / 8" (a separate Force, not under either Wing)
R/1 Deperadovich (Guard inf.) Elite lOSP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
R/2 Bachoutzki (Guard inf.) Elite 8SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
R/ 3 Alexseyev Veteran 7SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
R/4 Gersdorf Veteran 6SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
R/ S Kollogirov (Gd Cavalry) Guards 8SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
R: 12-pdr Foot A __
R: 12-pdr Foot B __
R: 12-pdr Foot C __

Platov's Cossacks: Platov (V) 1 / 8" Aggressive (a separate Force, not under either Wing)
C/1 Cossacks Raw 4SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
C/2 Cossacks Raw 4SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___
C/3 Co sacks Raw 4SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
C/4 Cossacks Raw 4SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
C: 6-pdr Horse __
" Friedland

Roster for the French Army

Commander: Napoleon (Great)
Weather: Normal, No Variation (20") _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Army's Break Point: 11 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
This is a Napoleonic Army of 3 Forces. During the game, two more will enter.
Napoleon has two ADCs and 2 Generals.

VI Corp : N ey (V) 3 / 11" Aggressive

1St Division: Marchand
VI/l/l Maucune Veteran 8SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
VI/l/2 Marcognet Veteran 8SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
2nd Divi ion: Bi on
VI/2/1 Roguet (Legere) Veteran 8SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
VI/2/2 Labasse Veteran 8SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
3rd Divi ion: Brun
VI/3/1 Bardet (Legere) Veteran SSP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Corp Cav: Colbert (Chass.) Veteran 4SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
1 t Dragoon Div: Latour-Maubourg
VI/D/l Perreymond Veteran SSP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
VI/D/2 Fresia (Fr. & Dutch cay) Veteran 6SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
VI: 4-pdr Horse __
VI: l2-pdr Foot A __
VI: l2-pdr Foot B __

Reserve Corps: Lannes (V) 1 / 15"

Grenadier Divi ion: Oudinot
R/l/l Ruffin Elite 8SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
R/l/2 Conroux Elite 7SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
R/l/3 Coehorn Elite 8SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
2nd Divi ion: Verdier
R/2/l Vedel (Legere) Veteran 7SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
R/2/2 Harispe Veteran 7SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
3rd Division (Saxons): Polentz
R/3/1 Sii6milch (Gren & elites) Veteran SSP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
R/3/2 Saxon line infantry Trained 6SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Hvy Cavalry Division: Nan outy
R/C/l (Carab & Cuir) Elite 8SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
R/C/2 (Cuirassiers) Elite 7SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
R: Saxon 6-pdr Horse __

VIII Corps: Mortier (V) 3 / 14" Aggre sive

1 t Division: Dupas
VIII/l/l Venux (Legere) Veteran 8SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
VIII/l/2 Gency Trained 7SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
2nd (Polish) Division: Dombrowski
VIII/2/l Kozinski (Polish inO Veteran 9SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
VIII/2/2 Sokolnicki (Polish It. cav.) Trained 4SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
2nd Cavalry Division: Grouchy
VIII/C/l Dragoons Veteran 4SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
VIII/C/2 Hussars Elite SSP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
VIII: l2-pdr Foot A __
VIII: 12-pdr Foot B __
VITI: Dutch 4-pdr Hor e __
Friedland 0
Starting at the end of Turn One, roll one die. On a roll of 4+ the Guard corps will enter on the next turn. Continue
each turn until the Guard enters.

Guard Corps: Bes ieres (V) 3 / 14"

Infantry Division: Hulin
G/ 1/1 Dorsenne (Gren a Pied) Guards 8SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
G/ 1/2 Soules (Chass a Pied) Guards 8SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
G/ 1/3 Reveval (Fusiliers) Guards 6SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Cavalry Divi ion: Walthier
G/2/1 Lepic (Gren & Gend) Guards 8SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
G/2/2 Guyot (Chass & Drag) Guar~ 8SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
G: 6-pdr Gd. Horse A __
G: 6-pdr Gd. Horse B _
G: 6-pdr Gd. Horse C _
G: 6-pdr Gd. Horse D _

Starting at the end of Turn Two, roll one die. On a roll of 4+ the I Corps will enter on the next turn. Continue each
turn until the I Corps enters.

I Corps: Victor 3 / 14 Cautious

1St Infantry Divi ion: Dupont
1/1/1 Labruyere Veteran 9SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
1/1/2 Barrois Veteran 9SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
2nd Infantry Divi ion: Lapi se
1/2/1 Pacthod (Legere) Veteran 9SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
1/2/2 Darricau Veteran 8SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
3rd Infantry Divis ion: VilIatte
1/3/1 Frere (Legere) Veteran 8SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
1/3/2 Girard Veteran 8SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
I: Beaumont (Hus ars) Elite 8SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
4th Dragoon Divis ion: Lahou aye
I/D/1 Margaron (Dragoons) Veteran 4SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
I/D/2 Laplanche (Dragoons) Veteran 4SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _
I/D/3 Thielemann (Saxon Hv. Cav) Elite 4SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
I: 4-pdr Horse A __
I: 4-pdr Horse B __
I: 4-pdr Horse C __

The Battlefield of
o Friedland

Alternative Friedlands, Play-Balancing, and What-lfs:

1. Bennigsen Has a Better Day
Levin Bennigsen has not fared well with historians. Even among his contemporaries in the Russian high command, he
was not well liked, and many have argued that he owed his frequent prestigious commands to his political skill, rather
than to military talent. Still, he had fought very skillfully at Pultusk in late 1806, he opened the 1807 campaign well,
and he should have done better at Friedland, particularly in the morning before the French army was fully assembled.
A. Upgrade Bennigsen's Skill rating to "Average."
B. Allow the Russians to set up second, and to re-deploy in any fashion, as long as their forces cover the same rough
area that they do in the normal set-up. (They can't deploy any more forward (i.e., closer to the French) than
they are allowed under the normal setup.)

2. Early Start
For much of the morning, Jean Lannes' corps bluffed the Russians into a stalemate while Napoleon rushed the rest of
the French army to the scene. Had the Russians attacked, Lannes could probably have made a fighting withdrawal, but
it would have changed the whole nature of the battle, making it much more fluid. In this variant, we also make things
interesting by scrambling the arrival of the French Forces.
A. Add two to the game's Basic Length.
B. Deploy the Russian army first, and then Lannes' corps. Use rule G9.0. Each of the other French forces has a pos-
sible "arrival number," as follows :
1-2 Mortier 3-4 Ney 5 The Guard 6 Victor
C. At the end of tum two, the French player rolls a die. Using the arrival numbers shown above, the die will deter-
mine which French Force begins entering on the first French pulse of turn three. Whichever Force it is,
Napoleon enters with it, and thus the French command system becomes normal, as per the game rules.
D. At the end of tum three, roll another die. If the die shows a Force that has already entered, then the French play-
er may roll once again. But if the die again shows an already-entered Force, then no French Force will enter on
the next tum. This procedure is repeated at the end of each turn, until all the French Forces have entered.

3. Murat Is Present
Murat had been detached by Napoleon to assist in the nearby siege of Konigsberg. The French cavalry reserve was nom-
inally led by Grouchy, but was actually broken up into divisional units, and used by the infantry commanders.
A. Create a new French Force - the cavalry reserve under Murat: 4/ 11" (V) Aggressive. It consists of the divi-
sions of Latour, Nansouty, and Grouchy. Remove the Dutch horse battery from Mortier, and give it to this Force.
B. Murat's Force deploys behind Mortier's corps.
C. Reduce the radii of the other French corps commanders accordingly.

4. Ru ian Reinforcements
Prior to falling back on Friedland, Bennigsen had detached two divisions to guard against the French forces at
Konigsberg. These included the Prussian corps of General Lestocq, the last Prussian forces still in the field after the dis-
astrous 1806 campaign. It is doubtful whether or not the constricted battlefield would have made these forces useful
to Bennigsen, but if players would like to add to the Russian army, then include these:
A. At the end of Tum 2, and each tum thereafter until this occurs, the allied commander should roll one die. If the
die is equal to or less than the number of the current tum, Lestocq's Force arrives to reinforce Bennigsen. It will
enter from the eastern board-edge (behind the river). Raise the allied army's number of Forces by one and
break-point by two.

Pru sian Corps: Lestocq (V) 2 / 7"

P/1 Prussian line Trained SSP
P/2 Prussian fusiliers & Light info Veteran 6SP
P/3 Prussian grenadiers Veteran SSP
P/4 Uhlans & Hussars Veteran SSP
1 12-pdr Foot BIT
Friedland "

Labels for the Friedland Scenario (Cut and paste to unit bases)
Napoleon (Great) Gd: 6-pdr Gd Horse B LC/2 Cuirassiers
VI: Ney (V) 3 /11" Agg Gd: 6-pdr Gd Horse C LC/3 Lambert (Hussars)
VI/l/l Maucune SK2 Gd: 6-pdr Gd Horse D LC/4 Dorochov (Hussars)
VI/l/2 Marcognet SK2 I: Victor 3 / 14" Cautiou LC: 6-pdr Horse A
VI/2/l Roguet (Legere) SK2 1/1/1 Labruyere SK2 LC: 6-pdr Horse B
VI/2/2 Labasse SK2 1/1/2 Barrois SK2 Right: Gortchakov (V) 3
VI/3/l Bardet (Legere) SK2 1/2/1 Pacthod (Legere) SK2 8: Dochturov 4 / 5"
VI/C: Colbert (Chas eurs) 1/2/2 Darricau SK2 8/1 Engelhardt
VI/D/l Perreymond 1/3/1 Frere (Legere) SK2 8/2 Sakomelski (Dragoons)
VI/D/2 Fre ia 1/3/2 Girard SK2 8: 12-pdr Foot A
VI: l2-pdr Foot A I: Beaumont (Hussars) 8: 12-pdr foot B
VI: l2-pdr Foot B I/D/1 Margaron 8: 6-pdr Horse
VI: 4-pdr Horse I/D/2 Laplanche 7: en 4/4"
R: Lannes (V) 1/ 15 I/D/3 Thielemann 7/ 1 Zaposki (Grenadiers)
R/l/l Ruffin SKI I: 4-pdr Horse A 7/2 Line
R/l/2 Conroux SKI I: 4-pdr Horse B 7: l2-pdr foot A
R/l/3 Coehorn SKI I: 4-pdr Horse C 7: 12-pdr foot B
R/2/l Vedel (Legere) SK2 3: Sacken 3/8"
R/2/2 Harispe SK2 Bennigsen (Poor) 3/1 Uschakov
R/3/l SuBmilch Left: Bagratian (V) 2 3/2 Titov
R/3/2 Saxon line AG: Rayevsky (V) 2 / 8 3/3 Netting
R/C/l (Carab & Cuir) AG/1 Jager Brigade SKI 3: l2-pdr foot A
R/C/2 (Cuirassiers) AG/2 Ogarev (Jagers) SKI 3: 12-pdr foot B
R: Saxon 6-pdr Hor e AG/3 Fritsch (Jagers) SKI RC: Uvarov (V) 3 / 3" Agg
VITI: Mortier (V) 3/ 14 Agg AG/4 Cavalry (Hu sars) RC/l Cossacks SK2
VIII/l/l Venux (Legere) SK2 AG: 6-pdr Horse RC/2 Lourkovski (Hussars)
VIII/l/2 Gency SKI S: Markov 3 / 3" R: Constantine (V) 4 / 8"
VIII/2/l Kozinski SKI S/l R/1 Deperadovich
VIII/2/2 Sokolnicki S/2 (with Grenadiers) R/2 Bachoutzki
VIII/C/l Dragoons 6: Lovov 4/4" R/3 Alexseyev
VIII/C/2 Hussars 6/1 Rachmaninov R/4 Gersdorf
VITI: l2-pdr Foot A 6/2 Glouchkov R/S Kollogirov (Gd Cav)
VIll: l2-pdr Foot B 6: l2-pdr foot A R: l2-pdr foot A
VITI: 4-pdr Horse (Dutch) 6: l2-pdr foot B R: l2-pdr foot B
Guard: Be siere (V) 3/ 14" 2: Ostermann 5/4" R: 12-pdr foot C
G/l/l Dorsenne SK2 2/1 Mazovski C: Platov (V) 1 / 8" Agg
C/l Cossacks SK2
G/l/2 Soules SK2 2/2 Sukin
C/2 Cos acks SK2
G/ l/3 Reveval (Fusiliers) SK2 2: 12-pdr foot A
C/ 3 Cossacks SK2
G/2/l Lepic 2: l2-pdr foot B
C/4 Cossacks SK2
G/2/2 Guyot LC: Gallitzin (V) 2 / 9" Agg C: 6-pdr Horse
Gd: 6-pdr Gd Horse A LC/1 Korff (Drag & UbI)
But Wellington cried, "Up Guards, and shoot The Battle Of

-Victor Hugo, Les Miserables. Waterloo

18 June, 1815
So much has been written about the battle of Waterloo that it
seems superfluous to add anything else. Although it was a rather
"medium-sized" struggle compared to the immense slaughters of the 1809-13 period, its role as the
final defeat of Napoleon has assured it a place as the signature battle of the Napoleonic Wars.
Furthermore, all the sides engaged immediately romanticized the battle, surprisingly the French more
so than anyone else. By the time Victor Hugo was writing his melodramatic Waterloo scenes, nearly
two generations after the fact, the battle had become a legend of irresistible romantic power.
The battlefield finds the Duke of Wellington leading an army in many ways inferior to the force he
had honed in the Peninsula. Furthermore, Wellington has misjudged Napoleon's intent, and has
deployed his line with a powerful right, although Napoleon's initial assault would fall on his left. And
most crucially, Wellington has chosen to stand only because he has been assured of the aide of Blucher's
Army of the Rhine; a risky gambit, since the Prussians were several miles away and still smarting from
a serious defeat two days earlier at Ligny.
Napoleon, for his part, has already made some crippling errors by the time the armies have
deployed at Mont St. Jean. A third of his army is out of reach of the battlefield, under the command
of Grouchy, the most freshly-minted of the marshals. Grouchy's "pursuit" of Blucher has failed, and
worse, has surrendered the interior position to the numerically-superior allies. Napoleon has shown
astonishing lethargy in the past few days, increasingly to the distress of his corps commanders. At break-
fast he prophesied that his army - as soon as he felt the ground was dry enough - would gobble up
the contemptible English comme un pedt-dejuner ("like a breakfast.")
And so the decision would be left to the army not yet present: the Prusslan Army of the Rhine.
Historian Peter Hofschroer has called Waterloo "the German victory," and rightly so. It was Blucher's
army, holding Grouchy at bay in their rear, and marching all morning and day toward the guns at Mont
St. Jean, that turned the tide_ The Prussians first occupied Napoleon's reserves, depriving him of a
masse de decision, and then built up relentlessly along his flank.
You know the rest.

The Scenario:
The weather is Overcast, and variable. The ground is Soft. The game's Basic Length is 7
turns. All towns are hard cover, and one base each.
Garrisons: The Anglo-Allied army has an Elite 9SP garrison in the "town" of
Hougomont, a Veteran 4SP garrison in La Haye Sainte, and a Conscript 10SP garrison in
Braine l'Alleud.
The French army is "Fair." Its Break Point is 17.
The Anglo-Allied army is "Fair." Its Break Point is 13.
The Prussian army is "Fair." Calculate its Break Point as its component Forces arrive.
Prussian Forces Enter: Napoleon I
At the end of certain turns, the allied player rolls to enter Prussian forces. If the roll is suc- The Duke of Wellington
cessful, those forces will enter in the first pulse of the next tum. Feldmarschall Prince Blucher
End of Tum 1: Roll S2 for Bliicher and the IV Korps
End of Tum 2: Roll S4" "
End of Tum 3: if not already entered, Bliicher enters with IV Korps. Roll S2 for II Korp .
End of Tum 4: Roll S4 for II Korps.
End of Tum 5: if not already entered, II Korps enters.
I Korps enters on the first pul e of the tum after II Korps, whatever that may be.
WaterlOO .

Ro ter for the Anglo-Allied Army

ommander: Wellington (Great)
Weather: Overea t, Variable (16") _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Army' Break Point: 13
Generals Available: 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
This is a Napoleonic Army of 5 Forces. (Wellington has already deployed one general (Vandeleur) to form a cavalry

I Corp : the Prince of Orange 3 / 10"

1st Divi ion: Cooke
1/1/1 Maitland (Foot Guards) Guard 8SP~-----------------
1/1/2 Byng (Foot Guards) Guard uSP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
3rd Division: A1ten
1/3/1 Halkett (Br. Line) Veteran 6SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
1/3/20mpteda (KGL infantry) Veteran 6SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
1/3/3 Kielmansegge (Hanoverian) Conscript SSP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
2nd Dutch/Belgian Div: Perponcher
1/2D/l Bijlandt (Dutch) Conscript 6SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
1/2D/2 Bernard (Nas au) Conscript 8SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Corp Artillery
I: 9-pdr Horse __
I: 9-pdr Foot A _
I: 9-pdr Foot B _
II Corp : Hill 2 / 9"
2nd Divi ion: Clinton
11/2/1 Adam (Lt. & Highlanders) Elite lOSP~-----------------
JI/2/2 du Plat (KGL infantry) Veteran 6SP___- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
11/2/3 Halkett (Hanoverians) Conscript SSP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
4th Divi ion: Colville
II/4/1 Mitchell (Br. Line) Veteran SSP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Corp Artillery
ll: 9-pdr Horse __
ll: 9-pdr Foot _
Reserve Divi ion: Picton 2/12"
5th Division: Picton
R/S/1 Kempt (Briti h line) Veteran 6SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
R/S/2 Pack (British line) Veteran SSP=-_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
R/S/3 Vincke (Hanoverian) Conscript SSP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
6th Division: (Cole)
R/6/1 Lambert (British line) Veteran 6SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
R/6/2 Best (Hanoverian) Conscript 4SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Nassau Brigade Veteran 7SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Corps Artillery
R: 9-pdr Foot A _
R: 9-pdr Foot B _
R: 6-pdr Horse __
Brunswick Divi ion: Heinemann 3 / 6"
B/1 Light Brigade Veteran 8SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
B/2 Line Brigade Veteran 7SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
B/3 Brunswick Lt. Cavalry Veteran 4SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Corp Artillery
B: 6-pdr Horse __
" Waterloo

Roster for the Anglo-Allied army, continued:

Cavalry Corps: Uxbridge (V) 2 114" Aggre ive

C/l Somer et (Guards) Guard 9Sp___- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
C/2 Posonby (Dragoons) Veteran 6SP
C/3 Domberg (Lt. Dragoons) Veteran 6 S P - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
C/6 Arenschildt (KGL cay)
C/7 Dutch-Belgian cay
Corp Artillery ~~~er:~p:~~=P=================================~_
C: 9-pdr Horse A __
C: 9-pdr Horse B __
C: 6-pdr Horse A __
C: 6-pdr Horse B _

[detachment]: Vandeleur (V) 3 I 6 " Aggre ive

V/4 Vandeleur (Lt. Dragoons) Veteran 6SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
VIs Grant & Vivian (Hussars) Elite 9SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
V: 6-pdr Horse A __
V: 6-pdr Horse B __

Roster for die Rheinarmee

Commander: Bliicher (Good)
Army's Break Point: ? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
(Prussian army morale is "Fair." Calculate its Break Point as its component Forces aniue.)
Generals Available: a total of 2, once all three Forces have arrived.
This is a Napoleonic Army. The number of Forces will increase as they arrive.

I Korp : Ziethen 3 I 6"

1 t Brigade: Steinmetz
1/1/1 Othengraven
1/1/2 Laurens
1/1/3 Riichel ~;~~~:~ ~~;~~=================================
Conscript 4SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Trained SSP_ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
I/C Roeder Oight cay)
Corps Artillery:
I: 6-pdr Horse __

II Korp : PITch 3 I 12"

5th Brigade: Tippelskirch
II/s/l Cardell Veteran 7SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
II/s/2 Petersdorff Veteran 6SP:=-_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
II/s/3 Roebel Conscript 4SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
7th Brigade: Brau e
II/7/1 Mirbach Veteran 6SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
II/7/2 Sack Trained SSP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
8th Brigade: Bose
II/8/1 Reckow Veteran 6SP=:-_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
II/8/2 Rangow Conscript SSP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
II/CI Jiirgass Oight cay) Trained SSP._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
II/C2 Sohr Oight cay) Trained 4SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Corp Artillery:
II: 6-pdr Horse A __
II: 6-pdr Horse B _ _
WaterlOO .

Roster for the Rheinarmee, continued:

IV Korp : Billow 2 / 20"

13th Brigade: Hake
IV/13/1 Lettow Veteran 6SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
IV/13/2 (Landwehr) Conscrip t 7SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___
14th Brigade: Funck
IV/14/1 Reichenbach Veteran SSP~------------------
IV/14/2 Brandenstein Conscript 4SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___
IV/14/3 Pawels COMcript 4SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___
15th Brigade: Lo thin
IV/IS/1 LObell Trained SSP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
IV/IS/2 (Silesian landwehr) Trained 7SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
16th Brigade: Hiller
IV/16/1 Creilsheim Trained SSP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
IV/16/2 (Silesian landwehr) Trained 7SP"_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___
IV/Cl Schwerin (Hus. & Uhlans) Veteran 6SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
IV/C2 Sydow Oandwehr cay) Conscript 7SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Corp Artillery:
IV: 6-pdr Horse A __
IV: 6-pdr Horse B _
IV: 6-pdr Horse C _
IV: 12-pdr Foot A __
IV: 12-pdr Foot B __
IV: 12-pdr Foot C __
IV: Howitzer BIT

The Battlefield
of Waterloo
" Waterloo

Roster for l'armee duNord

Commander: Napoleon (Average)
Weather: Overcast, Variable (16") _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Army's Break Point: 17 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Generals Available: 3
This is a Napoleonic Army of 6 Forces. Napoleon has no ADCs, however, be does have Marshal Ney (V) 4
Aggre ive whom he must assign as a Wing Commander over any two or more Forces in the army prior to begin-
ning the game.

Imperial Guard: Drouot 3 / 16"

1st Division: Friant
G/1/1 O.G. Grenadiers a Pied Guard 12SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___
Gu~d 9SP______________________________
G/1/2 M.G. Grenadiers
2nd Divi ion: Morand
G/2/1 O.G. Chas eurs a Pied Guard 12SP
Guard 10SP- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
G/2/2 M.G. Chasseurs
3rd Divi ion: Duhesme
G/3/1 Chartrand (Y.G.) Elite 8SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
G/3/2 Guye (Y.G.) Elite 7SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Guard Cavalry: Lefebvre-Desnouettes
G/C/1 Gd. Light Cavalry Guard 12SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
G/C/2 Gd. Hvy. Cavalry Guard uSP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Corps Artillery:
G: O.G. 12-pdr Foot A __
G: O.G. 12-pdr Foot B __
G: O.G. 12-pdr Foot C _
G: O.G. 12-pdr Foot D _
G: O.G. 6-pdr Horse A _
G: O.G. 6-pdr Horse B _
G: O.G. 6-pdr Horse C __
G: O.G. 6-pdr Horse D __

I Corp : D'Erlon 3 / 12"

1st Division: Quiot
1/1/1 Quiot Veteran 6SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
1/1/2 Bourgeois Trained SSP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___
2nd Division: Donzelot
1/2/1 Schmitz (Legere) Veteran 7SP._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
1/2/2 Aulard Veteran 6SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
3rd Division: Marcognet
1/3/1 Nogues Veteran 6SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
1/3/2 Grenier Veteran 6SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
4th Division: Durutte
1/4/1 Pegot Trained SSP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
1/4/2 Brue Veteran SSP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
I/C Jacquinot (Hussars, Lancers) Veteran 7SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Corp Artillery:
I: 12-pdr Foot__
I: 6-pdr Horse __
WaterlOO .

Roster for the Armee du Nord, continued:

II Corp : Reille 2 / 14"

5th Division: Bachelu
II/s/l Husson Veteran 6SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
1I/s/2 Campi Veteran 6SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
6th Divi ion: Jerome
1I/6/l Bauduin (Legere) Veteran lOSP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
II/6/2 Soye Veteran 9SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
9th Division: Foy
11/9/1 Gauthier Trained 6SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
IJ/9/2 Jamin (Legere) Veteran 8SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
II/C Pire (Chasseurs & Lancers) Veteran sSP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Corp Artillery:
ll: l2-pdr Foot __
ll: 6-pdr Horse __

VI Corps: Lobau (V) 2 / 12"

19th Division: Simmer
VI/19/l Bellair Veteran 6SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
VI/19/2 Thevenet Veteran 6SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
20th Division: Jeanin
VI/20/l Bony (Legere) Veteran 7SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Attached Cavalry:
VI/Cl Domon (Cha eurs) Trained 4SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
VI/C2 Subervie (Lancers & Chas.) Veteran 6SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Corp Artillery:
VI: l2-pdr Foot __
VI: 6-pdr Horse A __
VI: 6-pdr Horse B __

III Cavalry Corps: Kellerman (V) 1 / 8"

lIIC/ll'Heritier (Dragoon & Cuir.) Veteran 8SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
IIIC/2 Blancard (Carabiniers) Elite sSP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
IIIC/3 Donop (Cuirassiers) Elite sSP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Corps Artillery:
lllC: 6-pdr Horse A _
lllC: 6-pdr Horse B _

IV Cavalry Corp : Milhaud (V) 2 / 8 "

NC/l Watier (Cuirassiers) Elite 7SP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
NC/2 Farine (Cuirassiers) Elite sSP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
NC/3 Vial (Cuirassiers) Elite sSP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Corps Artillery:
IVC: 6-pdr Horse A __
IVC: 6-pdr Horse B _
" Waterloo

Alternative Waterloos, Play-Balancing, and What-Ifs:

If you have never contemplated alternative Waterloo , you can't really call yourself a wargamer!

1. Weather
Given the French superiority in artillery, it is likely that hard ground and better visibility would have greatly improved
Napoleon's chances for battering the weak allied left with his grand battery. Change the weather to "Normal" and the
ground to "Hard," with variation or no variation, as you prefer. That means the battle will start earlier, too. Change the
Basic Length to 8 turns, and add one to all turn numbers for arriving Prussian forces. (Tho e scheduled to arrive at the
end of Turn 2 will arrive at the end of Turn 3 instead, etc.)

2. Napoleon ha a Better Day

Chronic ulcers, a fumbling chief of staff, a confused Marshal Ney, a gout-ridden Marshal Mortier, dyslexic aides who
mis-write orders for infantry formations ... Napoleon made some bad decisions in the 1815 campaign, but it wasn't all
his fault. This option assumes that the French command system of 1815 operated a bit more like the army of 1805.
A. Upgrade Napoleon's skill rating to "Good" or "Great," depending upon your preferences.

3. The Grouchy Option

After Napoleon split his army on the 17th, he surrendered the interior position to the allies, and thus there was no real
possibility that Grouchy's wing could have arrived. Grouchy might, however, have been able to pin a more substantial
portion of Blucher's army near Wavre. Furthermore, Napoleon might have cho en a different composition for
Grouchy's force, resulting in different forces at Waterloo.
A. Option One: Grouchy gets aggressive. Thielemann's small corps is mauled at Wavre, caving in the rear of
Blucher's army and forcing the Prussians to detail more forces as a rear-guard. The Prus ian I Korps will not
arrive at Waterloo, and all rolls for the other Prussian forces suffer a +1 modifier.
B. Option Two: Alternative Grouchy. Napoleon gives Grouchy the understrength VI Corps and instead takes the
III Corps with him to Waterloo. Add this Force to the French OB, in place of the VI Corps, and upgrade army
break-point accordingly.

III Corps Vandamme (V) 2/14" Aggressive

8th Division: Lefol
III/8/l Brice (Legere) Veteran 8SP, SK2
III/8/2 Corsin Veteran 6SP, SK2
10th Division: Habert
III/l0/l Gengoult Veteran 8SP, SK2
1II/10/2 Dupeyroux Veteran 8SP, SK2
11th Divi ion: Berthezene
1II/11/l Dufour Veteran 7SP, SK2
III/11/2 Logarde Veteran 6SP, SK2
VI/C1 Domon (Chasseurs) Trained 4SP
Corp Artillery:
1 12-pdr Foot BTY
1 6-pdr Horse BTY

4. C'est la Trahison!
Historians have long argued over the state of the morale of l'armee du Nord. On one hand, a majority of the men were
volunteers and professional soldiers, since Napoleon had been unable for political reasons to raise conscription in 1815.
That meant that the soldiers were largely veterans. On the other hand, there was still a lot of bitterness left from 1814,
between those who were Bonapartists and those who were simply French patriots. The double-switching of Marshal
Ney and especially the last-minute treason of General Bourmont gave the men good cau e for suspicion of their offi-
cers. To make matters worse, Napoleon deliberately lied to his men at Waterloo, telling them that Grouchy was
approaching, when he knew it was more Prussians. When that mass of soldiery opened fire on the exhausted French,
a rumor spread that Grouchy had switched sides with his whole wing, as Marmont had done in 1814.
A. Change the French army morale to "ShaI--y." The army break-point is 14.
WaterlOO .

5. Wellington 's Options

The complexities of Wellington's OB were in some part dictated by politics and the nature of his polyglot army.
Although a corps system existed on paper, in reality Wellington managed the battle much as he had done in the early
Peninsular period; one division at a time.
A. Picton's ratings in this scenario reflect the fact that he had been wounded two days earlier at Quatre Bras, and
he was doing the work not only for his 5th Division, but also for the absent Lowry Cole's 6th Division. You can
postulate that Picton was not wounded, and rate: Picton (V) 1/ 12". While you're at it, you can bring the
Duke of Brunswick back from the dead at Quatre Bras, and replace Heinemann with: Brunswick (V) 2 /6".
B. Wellington had a number of formations in the immediate vicinity of Waterloo. Many of these were sub-par
quality units and were being used to guard communications in the army's rear (such as 10,000 Hanoverian
militia in Antwerp.) But there were also important British formations that would have substantially increased
Hill's II Corps. Change that Force to read as follows:
n Corp : HiU 2 / 18"
2nd Divi io n : Clin to n
II/2/1 Adam (Br. Light & Highlanders) Elite lOSP, SK2
II/2/2 du Plat (KGL infantry) Veteran 6SP, SK2
II/2/3 Halkett (Ilanoverians) Conscript sSP
4 th Divisio n : Colville
II/4/1 Mitchell (Br. Line) Veteran SSP, SK2
II/4/2 Johnstone (Br. Line) Veteran 7SP, SK2
II/4/3 Lyon (Hanoverian) Conscript SSP
Prince Fred erick's "Corp "
II/F/1 Anthing (West Indian) Conscript 6SP, SKI
II/F/2 Stedman (Dutch) Con cript SSP, SKI
II/F/3 de Eerens (Dutch) Conscript SSP, SKI
Corp ArtiUery:
1 9-pdr Foot STY
1 9-pdr Horse STY
1 12-pdr (Dutch) Foot BTY

6. More Prus ians

Blucher's army, tired and still smarting from their defeat at Ligny two day earlier, was strung out along twenty miles
of road, while "old Forwards" urged them on with jokes and oaths and reminders of their duty. He managed to get
about half his army onto the field by sundown; enough to defeat Napoleon, as it turned out. But if you would like to
add more Prussians, it is certainly feasible that they could have joined the battle. This variant brings the Prussian I and
II Korps up to (near) full strength as they enter:

I Ko rps : Zie the n 3 / 16" n Korps : Pirch 3/17"

1 t Brigad e : Ste inmetz 5th Brigad e : Tippelskirch
1/1/1 Othengraven Veteran 6SP, SK2 II/S/1 Cardell Veteran 7SP, SK2
1/1/2 Laurens Trained SSP, SKI II/S/2 Petersdorff Veteran 6SP, SK2
1/1/3 Riichel Con cript 4SP, SKI II/S/3 Roebel Conscript 4SP, SKI
2nd Brigade : Pirch n 6th Brigad e: Krafft
1/2/1 Kemphen Veteran 7SP, SK2 11/6/1 Schmidt Veteran 7SP, SK2
1/2/2 Quadt Trained SSP, SKI 11/6/2 Bismarck Conscript SSP, SKI
1/2/3 Winterfeld Conscript 4SP, SKI 7th Brigade: Brau e
3 rd Brigade: Jagow 11/7/1 Mirbach Veteran 6SP, SK2 MX
1/3/1 Seydlitz Veteran 6SP, SK2 11/7/2 Sack Trained SSP, SKI
1/3/2 Hymmen Trained 6SP, SK2 8th Brigad e : Bo e
1/3/3 Friccius Conscript 4SP, SKI 11/8/1 Reckow Veteran 6SP, SK2 MX
l/C Roeder Oight cay) Trained SSP 11/8/2 Rangow Conscript SSP, SKI
Corp Artillery: II/C1 Jiirgas Oight cay) Trained SSP
3 12-pdr Foot BTYs II/C2 Sohr Oight cay) Trained 4SP
2 6-pdr Horse BlYs Corp ArtiUery:
1 Howitzer BlY 2 12-pdr Foot BTYs
2 6-pdr Ilorse BlYs
1 Howitzer BTY
Labels for the Waterloo Scenario (cut and paste to unit base)

Wellington (Great) Napoleon (Average) IIlC/2 Blancard (Carabiniers)

I: Orange 3 I 10" G: Drouot 3 I 16" mC/3 Donop (Cuiras iers)
1/1/1 Maitland (Foot Guards) SK2 Gllll O.G. Grenadiers a Pied SK2 mc: 6-pdr Horse A
1/1/2 Byng (Foot Guards) SK2 G/1/2 M.G. Grenadiers SK2 mc: 6-pdr Ilorse B
1/3/1 Halkett (Br. Line) SK2 G/2/1 O.G. Chasseurs a Pied SK2 IVC: Milhaud (V) 2 I 8"
1/3/2 Ompteda (KGL infantry) SK2 G/2/2 M.G. Cha eurs SK2 IVC/l Watier (Cuira siers)
1/3/3 Kielmansegge (Hanov.) SKI G/3/1 Chartrand (V.G.) SK2 IVC/2 Farine (Cuirassiers)
1/20/1 Bijlandt (Dutch) SKI G/3/2 Guye (V.G.) SK2 IVC/3 Vial (Cuirassiers)
1/20/2 Bernard ( assau) SKI G/C/l Gd. Light Cavalry IVC: 6-pdr Horse A
I: 9-pdr Horse G/C/2 Gd. Hvy. Cavalry IVC: 6-pdr Hor e B
I: 9-pdr Foot A G: O.G. 12-pdr Foot A
I: 9-pdr Foot B G: O.G. 12-pdr Foot B Blucher (Good)
II: Hill 2 I 9" G: O.G. 12-pdr Foot C I: Zi then 3 I 6"
II/2/1 Adam (Lt & Highlanders) SK2 G: O.G. 12-pdr Foot 0 1/1/1 Othengraven SK2
II/2/2 du Plat (KGL infantry) SK2 G: O.G. 6-pdr I lorse A 1/1/2 Laurens SKI
II/2/3 Halkett (Hanoverians) G: O.G. 6-pdr I Iorse B 1/1/3 Ruchel SKI
II/4/1 Mitchell (Br. Line) SK2 G: O.G. 6-pdr Ilorse C I/C Roeder (light cav)
II: 9-pdr Horse G: O.G. 6-pdr Ilorse 0 I: 6-pdr Horse
II: 9-pdr Foot I: D Erion 3 I 12" II Korp : Pirch 3 I 12"
R: Picton 2 I 12" 1/1/1 Quiot SK2 IIlsll Cardell SK2
RIs/l Kempt (British line) SK2 1/1/2 Bourgeois SK2 II/s/2 Petersdorff SK2
RIs/2 Pack (British line) SK2 1/2/1 Schmitz (Legere) SK2 II/s/3 Roebel SKI
RIs/3 Vincke (Hanoverian) SKI 1/2/2 Aulard SK2 II/7/1 Mirbach SK2 MX
R/6/1 Lambert (British line) SK2 1/3/1 ogue SK2 II/7/2 Sack SKI
R/6/2 Best (Hanoverian) SKI 1/3/2 Grenier SK2 II/8/1 Reckow SK2 MX
Nassau Brigade SK2 1/4/1 pegot SK2 II/8/2 Rangow SKI
R: 9-pdr Foot A 1/4/2 Brue SK2 II/CI Jurgass (light cav)
R: 9-pdr Foot B I/C Jacquinot (Hu Lancer) II/C2 Sohr (light cav)
R: 6-pdr Horse I: 12-pdr Foot II: 6-pdr Horse A _
B: Heinemann 3 I 6" I: 6-pdr Horse II: 6-pdr Horse B _
Bll Light Brigade SK2 II: Reille 2 114" IV Korp : BUlow 2 I 20"
B/2 Line Brigade SK2 IIlsll Husson SK2 IV/t3/1 Lettow SK2
B/3 Brunswick Lt. Cavalry II/s/2 Campi SK2 IV/13/2 (Landwehr)
B: 6-pdr Ilorse II /6/1 Bauduin (Legere) SK2 IV/14/t Reichenbach SK2
C: Uxbridge (V) 2 114" Agg. II/6/2 Soye SK2 IV/14/2 Branden tein
C/l Somerset (Guards) II/9/1 Gauthier SK2 IV/14/3 Pawel
C/2 Posonby (Dragoon ) II/9/2 Jamin (Legere) SK2 IVl1sl1 LObell SK2
C/3 Dornberg (Lt. Dragoon) II/C Pin~ (Chasseurs & Lancers) IV/ls/2 (Silesian landwehr) SKI
C/6 Arenschildt (KGL cav) II: 12-pdr Foot IV/16/t Creil heim SK2
C/7 Dutch-Belgian Cav. II: 6-pdr Horse IV/t6/2 (Sile ian landwehr)
C: 9-pdr Horse A VI: Lobau (V) 2 I 12" IV/Ct Schwerin (Hussars & Uhlans)
C: 9-pdr Horse B VI/19/1 Bellair SK2 IVIC2 Sydow (Iandwehr cavalry)
C: 6-pdr Horse A VI/19/2 Thevenet SK2 IV: 6-pdr Horse A
C: 6-pdr Ilorse B VII2011 Bony (Legere) SK2 IV: 6-pdr Horse B
V: Vandeleur (V) 3 I 6" Agg VI/C1 Domon (Chasseurs) IV: 6-pdr Horse C
V/4 Vandeleur (Lt. Dragoons) VI/C2 Subervie (Lancers & Cha .) IV: 12-pdr Foot A
VIs Grant & Vivian (Hu ars) VI: 12-pdr Foot IV: 12-pdr Foot B
V: 6-pdr Horse A VI: 6-pdr Horse A IV: t2-pdr Foot C
V: 6-pdr Horse B VI: 6-pdr Horse B IV: Howitzer BTY
mc: Kellerman (V) 1 I 8"
mC/l I'Heritier (Dragoon & Cuir.)
Ap. Appendices
You do not need the appendices in order to know how to play the cenarios included with Grande Armee. In fact, if
you've been reading up to this point, then you're done: you're ready to play! Come back to this later, after you've got-
ten a good working knowledge of the game. The appendices provide useful information to help you get the mo t out of
Grande Annee, and in particular to design your own scenarios.

Appendix I explains how the game's scales and basing system work, and demonstrates how to convert historical
Orders of Battle (OBs) into Grande Annee units. These are the methods used in designing the scenarios in this book.
This will give you more perspective on why units have the SPs that they do, how things like divisional artillery and
mixed brigades of infantry and cavalry are handled in the scenario design proce ,and how officers are assigned their

Appendix II provides an exhau tive list of the major officers of the Napoleonic period, organized by nationality. You
can use this as an encyclopedia of names you might encounter when designing your own battle ,and needing to estab-
lish the ratings for officers. This section also provides a list of exceptional divisional commanders for each army, if you
would like to choose from among those names when deploying a general in the midst of a game.

Appendix ill is a compendium of the unit types for all the Napoleonic combatants, and how those units would be
rated using the Grande Armee system of morale classes and values. Here you will also find the distinctions between
heavy and light cavalry explained, and a note for each army on what types of artillery it would field under which cir-

Finally you will find the Eclaireur (the 'scout'). This is a handy quick-reference section of condensed rules and all the
major tables needed for play. I recommend that you photocopy the Eclaireur and keep it nearby as you play. In nine-
ty percent of the ca es you will not need to open the rulebook during a game; the Eclaireur should provide the answers.
Appendix I: Design-Your-Own

No matter what scale we choose to represent a battle in 1 . 0 Th e Units and the Scale
miniature, certain abstractions and simplifications are Grande Armee is a "brigade game," meaning that the
inevitable. Many games prefer to fudge historical OBs until units of infantry and cavalry we place on the table rep-
they resemble the game. Battalions become standardized to resent brigades. There is no figure-scale, since a single
equal numbers of figures, in increments conveniently divisi- ba e of figures on the table represents a variable num-
ble by the game's figure-per-base ratio. (Ever notice how ber of men. The ground scale of the game is essential-
French battalions always seem to have either 9 or 12 figures, ly 1:100. One inch oftabletop surface equals 100 yards
no matter how many men were actually in them?) Rather of ground.
than do that, Grande Armee uses actual historical OBs, then The choice of a 3" square base was not simply
applies the term "brigade" as a generic multi-battalion or drawn from a hat, nor was it elected because other
multi-squadron entity. popular games have used it. In fact, it represents the
Grande Armee is designed for those players who want frontage (at our ground scale) occupied by two full-
to fight the major, decisive battles of the Napoleonic wars. strength infantry battalions in three-rank lines. In
Consequently the brigade is our basic tabletop unit_ What we other words, three inches is the fighting edge of an
are really doing is cobbling together the battalions that would infantry brigade, and the depth represents the second
be operating together in some kind of cohesion, and calling line of units in that brigade, whether in line or column.
that a "unit," entirely for game purposes. You must imagine (In an attack posture, the battalions in column would
that a stand of infantry represents several battalions operat- often be formed in a checkerboard style, leaving
ing together, plus the empty spaces between them. The same enough room b tween them to form out into line.)
is true for cavalry: a stand represents several squadrons. Either way, for attack or defense, we have a roughly
And what about the fact that these units represent sub- squari h shape: the "area" of a brigade, even though
units of different strengths, abilities, and even functions? We much of it is empty space.
do our best to average. In a Prussian unit, for inStance, where Three inches also represents the frontage occupied
the grenadier companies of all the regiments have been by two full-strength cavalry squadrons deployed in
pulled out to form a massed grenadier brigade somewhere lines of battle. The other squadrons would be at least
else, we might rate that unit a notch lower than we would if 60 yards behind the first rank, and subsequent
those grenadiers were left in. In the end, it's entirely up to squadrons would be in re erve. The British, for
the players themselves; they get to play game designer. instance, preferred a reserve about 200 yards behind
Appendix III will provide you with the statistics for the vari- the second rank. The Prussians had a number of vari-
ous unit-types of each army. It will be your job to decide ations, but again a three-wave pattern was standard.
how to apply them. Does a cavalry brigade comprise The Ru sians tended to prefer a more linear formation
Hussars, Chasseurs, and Dragoons, all mixed together? Ask with a greater frontage, but this also meant that they
yourself which unit type was most numerous in that unit, and needed more space between the squadrons, in order to
if no clear majority appears, use your own judgment. allow for wheeling of the squadrons. (Deploying a sin-
Unlike most games that try to depict process, Grande gle squadron from column into line required 400 feet
Armee asks you to concentrate on outcomes. What would of open field!) So a cavalry stand, like infantry, repre-
be the effectiveness of this brigade, overall? That's your bot- sents several tightly packed groups of men, separated
tom-line when designing units for your own scenarios. by the open spaces they would need to change forma-
As with any brigade-level game, one must imagine that tions and facings.
a unit represents any number of possible configurations of
battalions. Perhaps it is something like the French ordre 2.0 Morale Classes and Scale
mixte, with a linear center, flanking columns, skirmishers out Grande Armee uses a simple method to depict the
front, and reserves in the rear. Perhaps it ls more like the relationship between numerical strength and morale.
Russian double line, with grenadiers stiffening the regular Each morale level uses a different scale. If designing a
Infantry. In any event, we assume that the brigade com- scenario from scratch, players will have to calculate
mander on the scene will be making the decisions about the these things themselves. They should adhere to the fol-
formations his battalions will adopt. If he is charged by cav- lowing system of six morale c1as es:
alry, we hope he will form square. It is not the province of
the commander of the army to order each battalion and
squadron, or even whole regiments, to change formation at
every change of circumStance. Like any army commander,
we depend upon the competence of our subordinates.
Appendix I: Design-Your-own _

Gu ard A category that should be reserved for 2.2 Cavalry Brigades

the most elite of an army's units. Only a Again, whenever possible, use historical brigades as
handful are at this level. units in the game. Although technically assigned to
Elite Tough as nails. The finest regiments in "regiments," cavalry usually operated in semi-inde-
the regular army. These are often the pendent squadrons which were frequently grouped
Grenadier formations. This would also together in brigades. (The first and second squadrons
include a few exceptional line regiments. of a French dragoon regiment might be serving in
Spain, and the third and fourth squadrons might be in
Vet eran A fine unit, well-trained and equipped Germany, brigaded together with three squadrons
and well-led. from another regiment, etc.)
Tr ain ed These are "regulars:" men who were Cavalry brigades are smaller, and we use a smaller
drafted into the service and are led com- scale ratio, although we use the same system. You
petently. The vast majority of infantry in should aim for cavalry units whose strength ranges
this period falls into this category. from 1,000 to 2,500 men. Assign the brigade a morale
value, then determine its SPs.
Conscript The Germans call this category
"Landwehr," and it represents a levee of
men from all walks of life, rather hastily 2.3 Avoid Super-Units, if Possible
trained, and equipped as best possible. Generally, it is best not to create any units with more
than about 12SPS. Indeed, the average should be
Raw We have reached the bottom of the bar- somewhere around 5-9, with higher ratings reserved
rel. These men are little better than rab- for special elite or Guards units. Remember that elite
ble, and sometimes exactly that. Expect units were often used in smaller formations, precisely
to see their backs at the first sound of because they could do the job of many "normal"
gunfire. troops. So there is nothing wrong with breaking down
the Guards into smaller units of 1,500 - 2,OO(} men,
2.1 Infantry Brigades while your line units might be brigades of 3,000 men.
Whenever possible, use historical brigades as brigades Even with the smaller units, the Guards will still have
in the game. You should aim for infantry units which higher SP values.
represent anywhere from 1,500 to 4,000 men, with the
best sizes being in the middle. You must then decide on 2.4 Mixed Brigades
the morale class you will give to that unit. Early in the Napoleonic wars some of the allied armies
Now that you have chosen a brigade and given it a employed brigades which combined cavalry with
morale rating, you must apply a scale ratio to it, to infantry. Normally these were primarily infantry for-
determine how many Strength Points (SPs) the unit mations, with a few squadrons or perhaps an entire
will have in game terms. Depending upon the morale regiment of light cavalry attached. Prussia retained
grade, we apply different scale ratios. A Guard unit, for this concept through 1815, specifically for the benefits
instance, has one SP per every 200 men in that histor- of driving away French skirmishers and presenting
ical brigade, whereas a Conscript unit has one SP per French infantry with the unpleasant task of simultane-
every 600. ously facing infantry and cavalry.
To represent an infantry brigade with a small unit
API 2.1: Scale Ratios of cavalry attached, simply count the cavalrymen as
Infantry Cavalry part of the unit's total strength, when calculating its
Morale SPs (use the infantry ratios). Then add the designation
SPs per men SPs per men
"MX" to its unit label. Mixed brigades get bonus dice in
Guard 1:200 1:150
combat, and have an advantage in skirmishing.
Elite 1:300 1:200
Veteran 1:400 1:250
Trained 1:500 1:300
3. 0 Representing Artillery Units
A company of artillery comprised anywhere from six to
Conscript 1:600 1:350 twelve guns, depending upon its type and nationality.
Raw 1:400 A typical 8-gun battery unlimbered and deployed for
action might occupy about 100-150 yards of front, but
Use your ownjudgment when rounding numbers. It makes its supporting "tail" of caissons, limbers, horses and
sense to round up anything above 0-5-
Appendix I: Design-Your-own

teamsters, etc, could stretch back 200 yards to the The Russians deployed very large batteries, with anywhere
rear. from 50100% more cannon than other nations, but
In Grande Annee, we do not actually represent Grande Annee does not renect this, other than to broaden
with miniatures all the batteries that would have been the frontage of Russian batteries. The Russian guns were
in action on a battlefield. First, our scale is too large to sound, horses were plentiful, and the men were brave, but
show the small sections of "regimental" or "battalion" there were many problems which made a Russian battery less
guns that were often attached to infantry units. Their effective than its smaller British or French counterparts. Poor
firepower is assumed to be part of the infantry units ofncer training resulted in atrocious tactical mistakes in the
themselves. And second, we don't (directly) show the early years. Russian generals, who almost never came from
the artillery, didn't appreciate their gunners. (By contrast,
regular foot batteries that were attached to most
the French had many old artillerists in the highest ranks, such
infantry divisions or brigades. What, then, do we as Eblt!, lauriston, Drouot, Mannont, and of course
depict using miniatures? We depict the heavy (usually, Napoleon himself.) Other nations devoted more manpower
but not always 12-pounder) batteries which were to artillery than did the Russians. A Russian foot battery of
assigned to corps or army reserves, and the lighter 12 guns was served by 82 gunners. A French 8-gun battery,
(usually 3-6 pounder) batteries of horse artillery. by contrast, was served by 86 gunners. That's four more
men per gun in the French unit: a lot more hands for mov-
ing, aiming, and serving the piece. The most serious prob-
3. 1 Artillery Strength and Type lems seem to have been bad powder and fuses. Depending
Because of the small size of artillery units, we do not upon the campaign, as many as a third of Russian fuses and
apply a scale based on morale, as we do for infantry howitzer shells might be duds. And there was less of it to
and cavalry. The quality of artillerists was more often spare - Russian caissons carried 25% less ammunition per
differentiated by their training and tactical doctrine, as gun than did the French.
well as their equipment, rather than by their morale.
Gunners tended to be a brave lot, regardless of nation-
ality. 4.0 Rating the Officers
The most important thing to remember about the rat-
ings of officers in Grande Armee is that we rate the
3.2 Factoring Divisional Artillery officer's abilitiesfor that particular day of battle. Like
We don't deploy guns on the table to show individual
all commanders, Napoleon had his off-days. He wasn't
light and medium companies of artillery that are
always "Great." If we were recreating the battle of
attached to infantry units, but we do "factor" them into
Borodino, for instance, we would have to rate him as
the strength of infantry units. This is important,
"Average," since he was sick that day and decidedly
because not all divisions had the same level of artillery
unimaginative in his thinking. If we were playing
support, and thus firepower.
Waterloo, we might even have to rate him as "Poor,"
When looking at an historical order of battle and
since not only was he ill and uninspired for that whole
creating units for the game, note how much artillery
week, but his staff system wa barely functional. A sub-
was assigned to a particular infantry division. Usually
commander who might merit the (V) bonus in one bat-
it was one battery, but sometimes more, and some-
tle might not in another. Use your own judgment,
times none at all. However many batteries were
based on what you know of the battle you're recreating.
attached to that division, multiply that number of bat-
teries by two. This is the number of extra SPs that we 4.1 Rating the Commander
will factor in to all brigades in that division. Distribute The army commander is rated for his own skills, which
these SPs as equally as you can among the brigades of include the efficiency of his staff. The commander's
that division. Skill can be one of four ratings which express his intu-
ition and quickness of mind on the particular day of
Example: an infantry division has three infantry battle we are depicting:
brigades and one battery of artillery (2SPS). Two
brigades will each get a 1SP bonus, and the third is Great A rare, brilliant man at the peak of his
out of luck. (Choose randomly, if you like.) powers.
Good A sharp and highly competent general.
Another example: a division has three infantry Average A competent but unremarkable per-
brigades, and two batteries (4SPs) of attached formance.
artillery. Give each brigade 1SP, then randomly select Poor A general who is having trouble con-
one brigade to get thefourth. trolling his forces and staying on top of
Appendix I: Design-Your-own

The commander also has a Radius, which is depend-

ent upon the current weather conditions. The Radius is
equal to the current tum's Visibilty, and represents the
maximum distance the commander could actually see
1St Division: General de division Abbe
and distinguish formations, and thus keep them under
1st Brigade: General de brigade Soulier
his eye. This is not a reflection of his abilities or staff
l/sth Legere Regiment (24/672)
work, since even the best commanders were limited by
2/5th Legere Regiment (17/645)
weather and terrain conditions. If the current Visibility
1/1St Line Regiment (28/942)
is 20" then each army (and wing) commander's radius
1/62nd Line Regiment (25/792)
is 20". Having the army headquarters on a Vantage
2nd Brigade: General de brigade Baron Cassan
Point can affect the Radius.
l/lOth Legere Regiment (16/569)
2/lOth Legere Regiment (14/551)
4.2 Rating the Sub-Commanders 1/2/52nd Line Regiment (57/1545)
Each sub-commander is rated for certain characteris- 1/20th Dragoon Regiment (3/143/158)
tics: Artillery: Capitaine Bessonne
If he showed himself to be exceptionally inspira- 8/6th Foot Artillery Regiment (3/60)
tional and brave in this battle, he gets the (V)alor 17/6th Foot Artillery Regiment (2/77)
bonus. 5/5th Principal Train Battalion (1/71)
If he showed himself to be unusually Aggre sive 6/5th Principal Train Battalion (0/78)
or Cautious in this battle, he gets that personality dis-
tinction. (Otherwise, he is "normal" in this regard.) Let's begin with Souliers I st Brigade. This is four battalions,
If he and his staff were exceptionally skilled, then two Legere (total 1358 officers and men), and two Line
his Radius Multiplier will be 1.5. Otherwise, most (total 1787 officers and men). That's a total strength of
sub-commanders have a radius multiplier of 1. This is 3145 men, with the majority being Line infantry. Since we
multiplied by the number of units in his Force, to don't have infonnation that these were exceptional units, we
obtain his Radius. will rate them the nonnal "Trained" morale class. 3145 ~
Finally, his Control Number must be estab- 500 = 6.29. Souliers brigade will thus have 6SPs, and
lished, which ranges from 1 (excellent) to 5 (very poor.) given the presence of the light infantry, we will rate it as
This represents his utility and reliability as a subordi- SK2.
nate. Now we do the same with Cassan's 2nd brigade. Here
See A6.41 for a review of the rules regarding the we have an interesting situation: a two-battalion regiment of
radii of sub-commanders, and the minimum and max- legere (I 150 officers and men), two battalions of line
imum radii permissible. A sub-commander's radius infantry (1602 officers and men), and a large squadron of
might increase during the day of battle, if units of his dragoons. We know the dragoons are in fact mounted
Force arrive as reinforcements, but his radius never because the O.B. shows the number of men as well as hors-
decreases during the day of battle, even ifhis units are es. So this is a Mixed Brigade; a rarity in the French anny.
destroyed. The total strength is 2899 men, and we know that the 10th
Legere was an excellent unit, so let's designate this brigade as
Remember that the imny commanders radius is based upon "Veteran," meaning we divide the 2899 men by 400,
a visual limit, which detennines the speed of his decisions which gives us 7.24, or 7SPs.
(his use of CPs.) But a sub-commanders radius is based on Finally, this division includes two understrength compa-
how well he can manage the forces under his command.
nies of artillery and their train. We don't know how many
guns were actually present, but with only 137 artillerists in
both companies, combined, I think it would be safe to count
5.0 Extended Example: this as a single battery (2SPs), and thus add I SP to each of
How to Convert an Historical Order of Battle our units for the attached divisional artillery.
(O.B.) into Grande Armee units Thus our units look like this:

On the right is a sample segment of an historical 1/1/1 Soulier Trained ,sp, SK2
order of battle. This shows a French infantry division 1/1/2 Cas san Veteran SSP, SK2 MX
from the 1813 campaign in Spain. In Grande Armee it
is two units. Let's review how to create those units:
Appendix II: Officers

There is no way to make a comprehensive catalog of every

Army Force Notes officer in the Napoleonic wars, from divisional command up.
Alvintzy Average 3/ 1 France alone had nearly 300 generaux de division in the
Bellegarde Poor 4/1 V period 1800181 S. The best we can hope for is to make a
Bianchi 3/1 list of outstanding officers you will frequently encounter in
Brady 5/ 1 your games. Adding to, subtracting from, and modifying this
Bubna 2/15 V, Aggressive list to suit your needs is perfectly fine.
(Archduke) Charles Good 2/15 V This appendix assigns game ratings to officers who
Chasteler 3/ 1 would command an army or a Force. If they did not com-
(GraO Colloredo 3/1 mand at one of these levels, no data will be present. In a few
Davidovich 3/ 1.5 cases, I have assigned "army" command ratings to good,
(Archduke) Ferdinand Poor 4/1 Cautious highranking officers, although they never actually com
Frimont Average 2/1 Cautiou manded a fully-independent army. Davout, BUlow, and Hill
Gyulai 3/ 1 Aggressive are examples. Surely these men would have been capable of
lIardegg 4/1 Cautiou independent army command, and this provides us with some
lie e-llomburg 2/1.5 interesting "What-Ifs." Feel free to add your own.
Hiller Average 4/1 Some officers might have a different rating on this chart
Hohenzollern 3/ 1 from the rating that appears in a particular scenario. Again,
Jellacic Average 3/ 1 Cautious remember that each game should rate the commanders for
(Archduke) John Poor 5/ 1 Cautious their performance on that day. These ratings are guidelines.
Keinmeyer 3/ 1 Scenario ratings always take precedence.
K1enau Average 3/ 1.5 Aggre sive
Kollowrath 3/ 1
Laudon Good 2/15
Lichtenstein Average 3/ 1 V, Aggressive Britain
(Archduke) Louis Poor 4/1
Mack Poor 4/1
Officer Army Force Notes
Abercromby Good V
Meerveldt 3/ 1.5 V
Melas Beresford Good 2/1.5 Cautious
Good 2/1.5
o titz 2/1.5 V, Aggre ive Chatham Poor
Radetzky 1/15 V Clinton Average 3/ 1
Ro enberg Poor Fraser Average
II ill Good 2/15
Schwarzenberg Average 3/ 1 Cautious
Poor Moore Great 1/15 V
Stoyevich 4/1
Vukassovich 3/1
Uxbridge 3/ 1.5 V, Aggressive
Wartensleben Average Wellington Great 1/1.5

E.xceptional Au man Divi ion General Exceptional Briti h Divi ion Generals
eipperg Cole
Hofer Cotton
ordmann Craufurd
Simonyi Hope
Wacquandt LeMarchant
Weissenwolf Lumley
Appendix II: Officers _

France Officer Army Force

(Gouvion) St. Cyr Good 2/1.5
Officer Army Force Notes 5ebastiani Average 3/ 1
Arrighi de Casanova Average 3/1 Aggressive Souh am Average 2/1
Augereau Poor 3/1 V Soult Good 2/15
Bernadotte Poor 4/1 Cautious Suchet Good 1/15
Bertrand 2/1.5 V Vandamme Average 3/15 V, Aggressive
Bessieres Average 2/1 V Victor Poor 3/1 Cautious
Jerome Bonaparte Poor 4/1 Wathier 3/1
Joseph Bonaparte Poor
Napoleon Bonaparte Great Exce ptional Fr e nch Divis ion Ge nerals
Bourcier 3/ 1 Brennier
Brune Average 3/1 Delaborde
Caffarelli Average 3/ 1 Cautious Dorsenne
Clausel Average 2/15 V Dubreton
Davout Great 1/15 Duhesme
Drouet d'Erlon 3/ 1 V Eble
Drouot 2/15 V Foy
Dupont Average 3/1 Cautious Friant
Duroc 2/1 V Legrand
Eugene de Beauharnais Good 2/1.5 V, Cautious Marchand
Exelmans 3/ 1 Montbrun
Gazan Average 3/ 1 Morand
Gerard 2/1.5 V Pajol
Girard 3/1.5 V Rey
Grouchy Good 2/15 5enarmont
d'Hautpoul 2/1 St. Hilaire
(BargtJaY) d'HilIiers 3/ 1
Jourdan Poor 4/1 Cautious
Junot Average 2/15
Kellerman, Sr. Average
Kellerman, Jr. 2/15 V, Aggressive
Kleber Good 2/15 V
Lannes 1/15 V
Latour-Maubourg 1/1.5 V, Aggressive
Lauriston 2/15 Aggressive
Laval 3/ 1
Lefebvre Good 3/15 Cautious
Lefebvre- Desnoettes 2/1.5 V, Aggressive
Lobau (Mouton) 2/15 V
Loison 2/1.5 V
MacDonald Average 3/15
Marmont Good 2/15
Massena Great 1/1.5 V, Aggressive
Milhaud 2/1 V, Aggressive
Mortier 2/15 V, Aggressive
Murat Poor 4/ 1.5 V, Aggressive
Ney Poor 3/1 V, Aggressive
Oudinot Poor 3/15 V, Aggressive
Rapp Good 2/15 V, Aggressive
Mack surrenders at Ulm, 1805.
Reille Average 2/1
Reynier Average 3/1
(Carra) St. Cyr 3/1 Cautious
Appendix II: Officers

Ottoman Empire Prussia

Officer Army Force Notes Officer Army Force Notes
'Abd ar-Rahman 1,5 Average 2/15 V, Aggre ive Bliicher Good 2/15 V, Aggressive
Ahmad Pasha Average 3/ 1 Biilow Good 2/1.5 V
Ahmet Jezzar 2/1 V, Aggressive Ferdinand (Bruns.wick) Poor 4/1
Alemdar Mustafa 2 Good 2/15 Cautiou Gnei enau Good Cautious
'Ali Tepelin 4 Good 5/ 1.5 Aggre ive Hohenlohe Poor 5/ 1
Baykradar Mustafa Poor 4/1 1<1 ist 2/15 V,Aggr ive
KethudaAli Average 3/1 Aggre ive L'estoq 2/1 Aggre ive
Hajji Mustafa Poor 2/15 (Prince) Louis 2/1 V,Aggre ive
Ilakki Mehmed Average 2/1.5 V,Aggre ive Pirch 3/ 1
Ibrahim Bey 6 Good 2/1 V, Aggre ive Ruchel Average 3/ 1 Cautious
Ibrahim Pasha Average 3/ 1 Tauentzien 3/ 1 Cautious
Ismail Poor 3/ 1 Aggre ive Thielemann 2/15
Khurshid Pasha Average 1/1 Aggressive Wartensleben Poor 4/1 Cautiou
Laz Ahmet Agha 3 Average 3/1.5 V,Aggre ive (Prince) Wilhelm 3/ 1
Murad Bey Poor 1/1 V,Aggre ive Yorck Average 4/ 1.5
Mustafa Rashid 1 2/1 V Ziethen 2/1 V
Pechlivan Khan Poor 3/1
Yu sef Zia Pasha 3 Poor 3/ 1 (Yorck was a strange case; a competent and effectiue corps
commander (hence his good radius), but a uery stubborn
The Ottoman Thrks lauished titles oj rank upon ciuilian subordinate who did not like taking orders (hence his high
administrators, much in the way that European nobility had Control Number.)
proliferated a Jorest oj Marquises, Viscomtes, Baronets,
Earls, etc. When you see a ~Pasha, n ~Bey, n "Agha," or "Qadi," Exceptional Pru ian Divi ion General
you are dealing with an Ottoman official oj land and title. Alven leben
Some superlatiues were traditional Muslim designations in Jurga s
Arabic, Thrkish, or Persian, such as ~llajji ' (one who has Kalkreuth
made the pi/grimmage to Mecca), or "Khan" (king). Since ROder
Muslim names were patronymic, these people haue no "last
names," in the European sense.

These men were part of the Nizami Jedid, and thus wouldn't be
in play after 1807.
2 The only man who could handle the Janissarics by 1807 -
commander of the Danube front for several years.
3 This man was a Grand Vizier (Prime Minister, essentially) of
the Empire.
4 (Ali Pasha of Janina). A fascinating man; the best Ottoman
commander of the era, but flagrantly disloyal to the govern-
5 Also known as the Qadi 'Abd-ar-Rahman. A "Qadi" was techni-
cally a judge. lie owed his command to court prestige, but the
judge turned out to be a decent general.
6 Bonaparte's wily opponent in the Levant campaign of 1798-<}9.

Exceptional Ottoman Divi ion Generals

Veliuddin (Ali Pasha's son)

Platov, Russia's great Cossack commander,

Appendix II: Officers 41
Russia Spain
Officer Army Force Notes Officer Army Force Notes
(Tsar) Alexander Poor V Albuquerque Poor 3/ 1 V
8aggavout 4/1 Cautious Areizaga Poor Cautious
Bagratian Average 2/1.5 V, Aggressive Ballastero Poor 4/1 Cautious
Barclay de Tolly Good 2/15 Blake Average Cautious
Bennigsen Poor 4/1 Castano Average 2/1 V
Buxhowden Poor 5/ 1 Aggressive Cuesta Poor
(Archduke) Constantine Poor 4/1 V del Parque Average 3/1.5
Oochturov Poor 4/1 d'Espana Poor
Essen 4/1 Freire Average 4/1
Eugene of Wiirttemberg 3/ 1 Cautiou Igle ias Poor 4/1 Cautious
Gallitzin 2/15 V O'Oonnell Poor 5/1 Cautious
Gorchakov 3/ 1 V Palafox Average 3/ 1 V
Kamen koi 3/1 Reding Average 3/1
Kapzewich 4/1 Romana Average 3/1.5
Karpov 3/1 V Santocildes Average 3/ 1 V
Korff 4/1 Venegas Poor 4/1 Cautious
Kutusov Average Zayas 2/15 V
Langeron Poor 4/1 V
Lieven 3/1
Mildoravitch 2/15 V, Aggressive E.~cepti onal S panis h Divis ion Ge n e r a ls
OIsufiev 3/ 1 Alvarez de Castro
Ostermann-Tol toy 4/1 Cautious llerresi
(Graf) Pahlen 4/1 V Longa
Platov (commands Cossacks only) 1/1.5 V, Aggressive Porlier
Prozorovi ki Average 3/ 1 Cautiou Saint-Marq
Przschibitzhevsky Poor 5/1
Rayevski 3/1.5 V
Sacken Average 3/1 It's bard to judge Blake. Should we rate a general poorly
St. Priest 3/ 1 becau e he rarely wanted to fight , and generally avoided bat-
Sievers 2/15 V, Aggressive ties whenever he could? Or should we rate him highly
Suvarov Good becau e he had the good sense to realize when there was no
Tormassov Poor 4/1 possible hope of winning with the forces he had, and there-
Tchichigov Poor 4/1 Cautious fore didn't waste the lives of his men?
Tuchkov 4/1
Uvarov 3/ 1 V
Vorontzov 3/1
Winzingerode Poor 4/1 Cautious
Wittgenstein Average 3/15 Cautious
Yermalov 2/1 V

Exce ptional Russian Divi ion Ge neral

Appendix II: Officers

Officers of the Minor States Poles

Most of the time, when designing scenarios, you will Officer Army Force Not
find that the armies of minor states are led by generals Dombrowski 1/1.5 V
and marshals from their "master" state. At the corps Poniatowski Good 2/1.5 V, Aggressive
level, for instance, the Saxons were often led by the
French General Reynier, the Westphalians by Junot or (Note that these two men despise each other, and wont
Jerome, the Italians by Eugene, the Portuguese by serve together!)
Bere ford, and so on. So the list of minor state gener-
als here will seem very incomplete. There are no offi- Exceptional Poli h Division Gen erals
cers at all listed for many imprtant states because they Kiaziewicz
never had their own corp commanders, and they had Sokolnicki
no exceptional division generals. In some cases, such Zayonchek
as Denmark, there are no listings becau e of a lack of
information about senior commanders. There were so
few instances of large Danish forces in combat during Saxony
the Napoleonic wars that it is impossible to determine
if they had any noteworthy officers or not. Feel free to Exceptional Saxon Divi ion Generals
make up your own ratings (most games do that, any- Zeschwitz

Bavaria Sweden
Officer Army Force Note Officer Arm y Force Notes
Crown Prince Ludwig 3/ 1 Adlercreutz Good 2/1.5 Aggre ive
Raglovich 4/ 1 Cautious Bemadotte (as Prince) Poor
Wrede Average 4/ 1 V K1ercker Average 3/1 Cautious
K1ingspor Average 3/ 1 Cautious
Exceptional Bavarian Divi ion General Stedingk 3/ 1 Cautious
Exceptional Swedish Division General
von Dobeln
Officer Army Force Note
Prince of Orange Average 2/1 Wurttem b erg
Exceptional Dutch-Belgian Division General Officer Army Force Not
Chas e Crown Prince Poor 3/ 1

Officer Army Force Notes
Fontanelli 3/ 1 V
Lecchi 3/1 V
Omano 2/1 V, Aggressive
Appendix III: Unit Ratings

A ustria Notes on CavaJry Type

The tenns "light" and "heavy" originated with a conception
Infantry Morale K
of size and weight but they are not very specific with regard
Grenadiers, pre-1809 Elite 0
to function. Heavy cavalry were supposed to be used for bat-
Grenadiers, 1809+ Elite
tlefield action only. They were to be preserved for the big,
Jiigers, pre-1809 Veteran 1
battle-winning charges. Light cavalry, on the other hand,
Jiigers, 1809+ Veterans 2
found most of its employment off the battlefield, in scout-
Line Infantry Trained 1
ing, screening, skirmishing, and pursuit. Their weaponry also
Grenzers varies 2
differed, with light cavalry more likely to carry firearms and
Landwehr Conscripts 0
a curved "slashing" sword, rather than a heavier, straight
(Grenz morale could vary from Raw to Veteran.) "thrusting" sword.
These differences aside, light cavalry were nonetheless
Cavalry Morale CavType thrown into battlefield charges, and thus had to do every-
Hussars Elite Light thing. Heavy cavalry, however, were rarely used for the
Cheveaulegers Veterans Light "light" cavalry duties. In Grande Ann~e, if cavalry is desig-
Uhlans Trained Light nated "light," that means that it can perform all the screen-
Dragoons Veterans Light ing, and pursuit-related tasks, as well as charge on the bat-
Kuirassiers Elite Ileavy tlefield. If cavalry is listed as "heavy," then it is used only for
Landwehr & Insurrection Cavalry Raw Light battlefield shock. (Dragoons, who had evolved from mount-
ed infantry, tended to fit neither of these descriptions pre-
Artillery: cisely, but since they rode smaller horses than true "heav-
Before 1809, the heavy "Po ition" batteries consisted of 12- ies," and since they often moved in open order, I usually
pdrs, and the light "Po ition" batteries used 6-pdrs. These classify them as "light.")
might both be used as reserve artillery, since the "Brigade"
batteries, con isting of either 6-pdrs or 3-pdrs, were mo t
likely attached to infantry units (who also had their own bat- Britain and British A llies
talion guns.)
There were no true "horse batteries, since the gunners
rode the cai on, rather than riding horses. But since a "true" I n fantry Morale SK
horse battery could only go as fast a a caisson anyway, thi Foot Guards Guard 2
didn't really make the Austrians any slower than anybody Light Infantry & runes Veteran or Elite 2
el e, and probably saved horses. These so-called "cavalry bat- IIighlanders Veteran or Elite 2
teries" had either 3-pdrs or 6-pdrs. Fusili r , KGL, & other Line Veteran 2
After 1809, the Au trians began pha ing out 3-pdr gun
altogether, and got rid of the battalion guns. Reserve batter- Hanoverian Infantry, ]815 Con cript 0
ies were uniformly 12-pdrs, and all else were 6-pdrs. Hanoverian Landwehr, 1815 Raw 0

a sau Infantry Trained

Brun wick Light & other elites Veteran 2

Brunswick Line Trained

Caval ry Morale CavType

Light Dragoons Veteran Light
Heavy Dragoons Elite Heavy
Hu ars Elite Light
Guards Guard Heavy

Brunswick Light Cavalry Veteran Light

Briti hand KGL foot batteries could field 6-pdr or 9-pdr
guns, depending on whether they were "light" or "heavy." The
9-pdrs were, of course, rarer, though they were excellent
guns; nearly as powerful as a French 12-pdr. Horse batteries
nearly alway used 6-pdrs, although occasionally might be
found with 9-pdrs. The British-trained Portuguese artillery
also u ed 6-pdrs almost exclusively, as did Dutch-Belgian,
Brunswick, and Hanoverian artillery companies.
e Appendix Ill: Unit Ratings

France The Ottoman Empire

Infantry Morale SK Infantry Morale SK
Old Guard Grenadiers, Chasseurs Guard 2 Jani aries Trained or Conscript 2
Old Guard Marines Guard 2 Bostancis, Guard Janis aries Elite 2
Young Guard, 1808-12, and 1815 Elite 2 Nizami Jedid Veteran or Trained 2
Young Guard, 1813-14 2 Sekhans Conscript 2
Ugere infantry 1805-07 Elite 2 Marines (after 1803) Veteran 2
1808-12, and 1815 Veteran 2 Rayas Conscript 2
1813-14 Trained 2 Militias: Derbents, Fellahin, etc. Raw 2
Ligne infantry 1805-07 Veteran 2
1808-12, and 1815 Trained 2 Cavalry Morale CavType
1813-14 Conscripts 1 Suvarileri Trained lleavy
Swis regiments Elite 2 Guard Suvarileri Veteran Heavy
Marines (Regiments 1-5) Veteran Sipahis of the Porte Trained Light
Other Marines Con cripts Other Sipahi Con cript Light
Feudal Cavalry Raw Light
Cavalry Morale CavTyp Mameluks of Egypt Elite Heavy
Guard Grenadiers, Gendarmes Guard Heavy
Gd. Chas eurs, Lancers, Dragoons Guard Light Artillery:
Young Guard Cavalry Trained varies The Ottomans had been using artillery for centuries, but they
Gardes d'ilonneur Trained varies regarded it as primarily a siege weapon. In the 1790 some
Cuira iers, Carabiniers Elite Heavy reform and re tructuring of the field artillery began, ome-
Dragoons, 1805-12, and 1815 Trained Light times with French advisors. The Ottoman batterie were
Dragoons, 1813-14 Light "foot"-only for many years. Even after a regiment of Horse
Bu ars, 1805-12, and 1815 Elite Light artillery was rai ed in 1808, Turkish guns were too heavy to
Bu ars, 1813-14 Veteran Light really take advantage of the extra mobility. Therefore, all
Lancers, 1805-12 and 1815 Veteran Light Ottoman batteries are "Foot" for this game.
Lancers, 1813-14 Trained Light The Ottomans did not use the pounder" sy tern of most
Chasseurs, 1805-12, and 1815 Trained Light European nations, but rather measured the diameter of the
Chasseurs, 1813-14 Light barrel. The main field gun fired a hot a little lighter than a
French 8-pdr, so we will call it an "S-pdr" for game purposes.
The Young Guard regiments in 1813-14 varied wildly in There was a heavier cannon which fired a 14-pound shot, but
quality. Some were good unit, culled from the best recruit no records sub tantiate its use in full batteries. To confuse
and given experienced officers from Spain. Others were com- matters further, there was a light gun which did indeed meas-
pletely green. The later Voltigeur and Tirailleur regiments ure the weight of its projectile, which was just under 4
had as little a ten days' basic training, and were described by pounds, so for this game we will call it a "4-pdr."
Caffarelli (one of Napoleon's ADCs) as "the weake t and most
sickly" con cripts he had ever een. Apparently they hadn't
even completed battalion-level training, much less brigade or
divi ional maneuvers .
The dragoons and cha seurs in (or returning from) Spain
would by this point be Veteran . The new regiments raised in
1813 would be Conscripts or Trained.

Corps reserve artillery units will almo t always be 12-pdr foot
batteries, although some 8-pdrs (the "medium" artillery of
the early Empire, used for divisional batteries) served as
corp reserve batteries in Spain.
Horse batteries in the early war period were usually 4-
pdrs, with orne captured Austrian 3-pdrs mixed in. By 1810
most horse batteries had standardized with 6-pdr batteries,
although the lighter guns remained in ervice in Spain.
Appendix III: Unit Ratings e
Forgotten Army I: The Ottoman Turks Prussia
The uTerrible Turk" was past his plime when a young General
Bonaparte landed In Egypt in 1798. As the 18th century closed, the
Infan try, pre-1812 Morale SK
empire surrered an elghteenyear period or terrible weather and crop
Guard Elite o
railures. This heightened tensions as the state was wracked with Inter
Grenadiers Elite o
J agers Elite
nal connlct and reeional revolts. The essentially reudal nature or the
Fu iliers Trained
empire's regions Invited this problem, and lert the government In
Mu keteers Trained
Istanbul weak and poor. By the Napoleonic era, the new 28year-old
Sultan, Sellm III, was committed to rerorm.
When brigaded, Musketeers were usually given several
There are many myths about the Ottomans In this peliod. For
companies of rifle-armed schiitzen (literally: "marksmen") as -
example, many people think that the Turks rought as a "horde," and
skirmishers. Depending upon the number of them present,
that Selim was trying to Instill Europeanstyle training In order to
improve the firepower and discipline or his troops. In ract, the
SK could be either 0 or 1.
Turkish method or war was completely dirrerent rrom that or the
Europeans (which makes it very hard to assign game morale-ratings.)
Infantry, 1812+ Morale SK
Guards Guard 2
Where the Europeans prized lock-step discipline and order, the Turks
Grenadiers Elite
prererred soldiers to act as individuals. The Turks retained their older
Jagers Veteran 2
slower-filing muskets not because the empire was decrepit and back:
First 12 Line Regiments Veteran 2
wards, but because these weapons were more accurate, and Ottoman
Reserve Regiments Trained
soldiers always aimed their shots Individually, rather than filing in
Landwehr Regiments varies lor 0
unalmed volleys, like Europeans. The Turks did not use bayonets
because they believed that they discouraged a man rrom learning to
Some Landwehr regiments were quite good. The Silesian
fight as an Individual with a proper handto-hand weapon like a sword
landwehr, and those units which by late 1813 had become
or an axe. Small wonder they were excellent skirmishers.
experienced, would be rated - [rained." The other Landwehr
Why then did Selim raise the Nizaml Jedld, his uNew Army,"
of the 1813-14 period, and much of the 1815 Landwehr would
even when he had to levy an unpopular new sales tax to pay ror It?
be "Conscripts." The hastily-raised home militia units, and
He wanted a rorce directly answerable to him, and the Janlssalies no
the 1815 Landwehr from Saxony or the Rhineland areas (such
longer fit the bill. By this point In their long history, the Janlssalies
as Westphalia) would be "Raw." If a Landwehr unit has any
were no lon&er an elite, and no longer very obedient to the monarch.
Jagers attached, give it a SKI rating. If not, then SKo.
Each Janissary reefment had evolved Its own traditions, Its own
recruitment system, and Its own sense or how and when to make war.
Cavalry, pre-1812 Morale CavType
Sellm wanted an army he could use twelve months out or the year.
Uhlans ("Towarczys") Veteran Light
(Another popular myth Is the notion that the Nlzaml Jedld perished
Cuirassiers Elite Heavy
when Sellm was assassinated In 1807; In ract most or It was sarely out
Guard Cavalry Guard Heavy
or the capital, In the field armies, and continued service through the
next two Sultanates.) The Nlzaml Jedld was uEuropean style" In the
Cavalry, 1812+ Morale CavType
sense that It was recruited by conscription and directly served the
Landwehr Cavalry Con cripts Light
central iOvernment (and had taken some dlill elements trom the
Uhlans Veterans Light
Russian system), but It was still undeniably an Ottoman rorce.
Dragoons Trained Light
War&ame traditions would have you field an Ottoman army as
Hussars Elite Light
a hu&e body or cavalry, a horde or irregular Inrantry, and a small core
Cuirassiers Elite Heavy
or uregulars." This, too, Is mostly fiction and misunderstanding. The
Ottoman cavalry was In Sleep decline by this time, and Ottoman
armies were mostly on root. The regular cavalry "Slpahls" rarely lOOk
In 1813-15 there was at least one Guard unit oj each oj the
the field with more than 3,000 men, and like the Irregular horsemen
above cavalry types, except Landwehr cavalry. For Guard
who supplemented them, their Job was mainly reconnaissance.
units oj that type, increase the morale by one level; Guard
Ottoman cavalry was not really up to the task or charefn& European
Uhlans would become Elite, Jor example. Consider the
inrantry. Selim made a &reat error! to Increase the sIze and errective-
"Garde du Corps" to be Guard Cuirassiers.
ness or the Suvalileli heavy cavalry, and although It theoretically
numbered nearly 30,000 men, It never fielded more than 10,000.
Prussian heavy ("reserve") batteries consi ted of 12-pdrs,
Only In Mameluke Egypt was there a great host or battie-cavalry.
while the "line" batteries and horse batteries used 6-pdrs.
For all this, the Turks could still be rormldable. They were orten
After 1807 the Prussian artillery was always desperately
reckless and brave, &ood at sle&ecrart, and &enerally adept at dlg&in&-
under-equipped, and used whatever it could get, but they
In. They lost more orten than they won against the Russians and
were the only nation to mass howitzers into concentrated bat-
Austrians, but we orten ror&et that by this time the Ottomans were
teries, in addition to a igning a section of howitzers to each
broke, were fighting two powerful European empires and racing Asian
"normal" battery, the way most nations did. See M3.0 for the
enemies trom Persia to North Arrlca, as well. In 1812 the Turks
made peace with Russia, light as Napoleon crossed the Nlemen.
rules for Prussian howitzer batteries. At least two massed
howitzer batteries are known to have seen action.
e Appendix III: Unit Ratings

Russia Sweden
Infantry Morale SK Infantry Morale SK
Foot Guards Elite
Guard Grenadiers (pre-1812) Elite 0
Grenadiers Veteran
Guard Jagers (pre-1812) Elite
Jligers Trained
Guard units (1812+) Guard 1
Other infantry regiments Trained or Con cript
Grenadiers Elite 0
Fu i1iers (pre-1812) Veteran 0
Musketeers (pre-1812) Trained 0
Cavalry Morale CavType
Line infantry (1812+) Veteran or Trained 1
Life Guards Elite lIeavy
Jagers (pre-1812) Veteran 0
Cuira iers, Carabiniers Veteran lleavy
Jagers (1812+) Veteran
lIu ars Trained Light
Opolochenie Raw
Dragoon , Mounted Jager Conscript Light
Cavalry Morale CavType
Dragoons Veteran Light
Uhlans Veteran Light Forgotten Anny II: The Swedes
Hu ars Elite Light A century before Napoleon, the Swedes were one of the major pow
Chasseurs (from 1813+) Veteran Light ers - If not che malor power - of northern Europe. Defeat aeainst
Cuira iers Elite Heavy RussIa was followed by a century of atrophy In political and military
Guard Cuirassiers, Horse Guards Guard Heavy spheres. A Finnish revolt In 1788 led to another RussIan war, In
Guard Uhlans, lIus ars, Dragoon Guard Light whIch the Swedish military and government were singing different
Cossacks Raw Light (SK2) runes. Distrust erew and morale arnong the officers fell. There were
open conspiracies and talk of revolt by the eenerals. 8y the time of
Artillery: the French revolution, Sweden was clinging to a few Baltic harbors
Throughout this period the Russian artillery retained the 12 like Stettln and Stralsund, and trying to avoid tangiing with the big
gun (4 of which were their unique "unicorn" howitzers) powers. In 1808, however, another war with Russia began, and
organization. Guard batteries might be smaller, with propor- Sweden lost all of Finland. By this time the Swedish royal family had
tionately more howitzers. Ilorse batteries consisted of 6-pdrs. run out of sane male heirs and Sweden's nobility and eenerals were
Foot batteries were designated "light" (6-pdrs), or "heavy" scouting for a crown prince. They selected Marshal 8ernadone,
(12-pdrs.) Napoleon's old friend who had become persona non gnu in the
Grande Amree. GIven the inability of the king, 8ernadone as Crown
Prince became the effective ruler of the country by 18 10.
8ernadotte has not fared well with historians. He was a rather
Spain lacy commander and a fairly unpleasant and seifaggrandizing person,
even by the standards of the French Marshalate. Nonetheless, from
Infantry Moral e SK the moment he took the throne, he was bent on improving Sweden's
Guards Veteran 1 place in the world. He buried the hatchet with Russia, cut a deal with
Grenadiers Veteran o the British, and prepared to loin the allies. His real aim was to attack
Light infantry Conscript 1 Napoleon's ally, Denmark, and thus reeain for Sweden the dominant
Line regiments Raw or Con cript 1 roie in Scandinavia.
Foreign regiments Trained o There Is no aereement on the quality of the Swedish anny duro
British-trained line, 1812+ Trained ing the NapoleoniC wars. Bernadone kept them out of action most of
Militia units Raw the time, using instead the Prussians and Russi ns under his command
in the allied "Anny of the North." this might have meant that the
Cavalry Morale CavType Swedes were unreliable troops, or it might have meant that he was
Guard Cavalry Veteran Light simply being careful with their lives. Swedish cavalry, apparently, was
lIu ars, Lancers, Dragoons Conscripts Light in poor shape, Sweden having few good horses. A British liaison offi
Militia Cavalry Raw Light cer In 1813 commented that the Swedish Guards looked solid
enough, but that the line infantry was poorly equipped and "neither
Artillery: the old troops nor new levies were steady under anns." Swedish
There was really no Spanish artillery "corps." Lacking a cen- artillery was antiquated and heavy: uthe carriages and everything
tral administration during the war (due, among other things, relating to equipment were very far behind those of the present day,
to French occupation of 7596 of the country), there could be and those in other annies. "
no standardization. Batteries varied widely in size and com- After the victory at Leipzig, in which the Swedes played a very
position. Later, British-trained and equipped units would minor part, 8ernadotte tumed his anendon to northern Europe, con-
have British-made 6-pdrs. Shortages of horses meant that quering Norway and solidifying his dynasty, which stili holds the
Spanish guns were often pulled into battle by mules, oxen, or Swedish throne to this day.
cattle. Good luck!
Appendix III: Unit Ratings e
The Minor States Denmark

This section tries to give a general - certainly not com- Infantry Morale
prehensive - index of the infantry and cavalry types Guards Elite
Leib regiments,
fielded in large numbers by the minor states in the
light troop and other "elites n Veteran
Napoleonic Wars. You might not see your favorite unit Line infantry, pre-1813 Trained
in this list (Hey! Where's the Westphalian Guard Jager Line infantry, 1813+ Con cript
Dragoon Rifle Tirailleur-Voltigeur Grenadier
Company?!) When creating your own scenarios, just
use common sense and keep the big picture in mind. Cavalry Morale Ca v Type
For artillery of the minor states, pay attention to the Light Dragoons and Dragoon Conscript Light
size of the guns, and whether they were foot or horse. lIu ars Veteran Light
Heavy cavalry Trained Ileavy

The Small German States and the

Confederation of the Rhine (Kingdom of) Holland
Infantry Morale SK and Dutch-Belgian Forces
Baden infantry, to 1807 Trained 1
Baden infantry, after 1808 Veteran or Elite 2
Cleves-Berg infantry Veteran Infantry Morale SK
Confederation regts. '4-7 Conscript 1
Guard units (not Imperial Guard) Elite
l ie ian Guard or Leib regiments Elite 2
Light infantry regiments Trained
Other Ilessian regiments Veteran Line infantry Conscript
assau infantry Trained
Wiirzburg infantry Trained Dutch-Belgian Line, 1815 Conscript o
Dutch-Belgian Light, 1815 Con cript 1
Dutch-Belgian Militia, 1815 Raw o
Cavalry Morale Cav Type
Baden lIu sars and Dragoons Elite Light
Cleve - Berg Chev-legers, Lancer Elite Light Cavalry Morale Cav Type
lie ian Chevaux-Iegers Elite Light Dutch caualry was absorbed into uFrench n regiments.
assau Chevaux-Iegers Veteran Light
Wiirzburg Dragoons Veteran Light Dutch-Belgian
or lIanoverian Light Cavalry Con cripts Light
Dutch-Belgian Carabiniers Trained Heavy
Infantry Morale SK Naples
Guard Grenadiers Elite 2
Light infantry to 1812 Veteran 2
Line infantry to 1812 Trained Infantry Morale SK
All non-Guard infantry after 1812 Conscript Guard regiments and "Velite n Veteran
Legere regiments Conscript
Line regiments Raw or Conscript o
Cavalry Morale Ca Type
All cavalry Veteran Light Although organized and theoretically trained to skirmish,
one wouldn't dare allow Neapolitan soldiers to get thatfar
out of sight of their officers and expect them ever to come

Cavalry Morale CavType

Gd. Velites and Guards of Iionor Elite Light
Lancers Trained Light
Chasseurs Conscript Light
e Appendix III: Unit Ratings

Northern Italy Grand Duchy of Warsaw and Other

Polish Troops
I n fan try Morale SK
Guard regiments Elite 2 Infantry Morale SK
Guard 'Conscripts' and Marines Veteran 2 Line infantry, 1808+ Veteran 2
Leggera, pre-1813 Veteran 2 (Early recruits, 1807) Con cript 1
Line regiments, pre-1813 Veteran 2 Vistula Legion Elite 2
Leggera, 1813-14 Trained 2 Other Polish units
Line regiments, 1813-14 Trained or Conscript in French or Italian ervice Veteran 2

Cavalry Morale Cav Type

Ca val ry Morale Cav Type Uhlans (lancers) Veteran or Elite Light
Guard cavalry regiments Elite or Guard Heavy Vistula Legion Uhlans Elite Light
Dragoons Elite Light Hu ars, Chasseurs Veteran Light
Chasseurs, pre-1813 Veteran Light Cuira iers Elite Ileavy
Chasseur , 1813-14 Trained Light

Portugal Westphalia
Infantry Morale SK Infantry Morale SK
All regiments before 1808 Con cript 0 Guard Grenadiers Elite 1
Line battalions, 1808-11 Trained Guard light infantry Veteran 2
Line battalions, 1812+ Veteran 1 All other line infantry Con cript
Cazadores, 1808-11 Trained 2 Other light infantry Trained 2
Cazadores, 1812+ Veteran 2
Ordenanza (Militia) Raw 2 Cavalry Morale Cav Type
Hussars, pre-1812 Con cript Light
Cavalry Morale Cav Type Cheveaux-Iegers, pre-1813 Trained Light
All Cavalry Trained Light Hussars and Chevauxlegers, 1812+ Trained Light
Heavy cavalry, pre-1813 Elite Heavy
Heavy cavalry, 1813+ Veteran Heavy

Note that these ratings cover the pre-1807 Saxons allied to
Prussia, the 1808-13 Saxons allied to France, and then the
1813-14 Saxon "legions" which joined the allied war effort Wiirttemberg
after Leipzig. For the 1815 Saxons and Saxon duchies
absorbed into the Prussian service altogether, see the section Infantry Morale SK
on Prussia. Leib Guard Elite 2
Light infantry and Jagers Elite 2
Infantry Morale SK Line regiments, through 1813 Veteran
Guard Grenadiers Veteran Infantry in allied service, 1813-14 Trained
Light infantry Trained
Line regiments, pre-1808 Trained
Line regiments, 1808-13 Conscript Cavalry Morale CavType
Infantry in allied service, 1813-14 Conscript All cavalry, through 1812 Veteran Light
All cavalry, 1813+ Trained Light

Cavalry Morale CavType

Hussars and Chevaux-Ieger Elite Light
Cuira iers Elite Heavy
Guard cavalry Elite Heavy
Eclaireur: Grande Armee ata Glance CIt
B1.0 The Sequence of Play
I. Pre-game prep a ration Thing to do with CPs:
A. Detennine ratings for officers and units.
B. Detennine weather conditions and effects. G3.0 Give a command to a
C. Detennine basic length of the game. sub-commander
ll. Ea ch Turn:
A. Weather Variation (skip this on the first turn)
D4.0 Modify the initiative
B. Command Phase roll
1. Any lightly wounded officers might return to their duties
2 . Both players roll for command points (CPs)
H16.1 Move the commander's
3. Roll to detennine initiative for the first pulse base
c. Pulses:
1. Simultaneous skirmishing
G5.31 Create a detachment,
2. Simultaneous artillery fire
deploy a general or
3. First Side Phasing ADC
a) Control Segment: Issue commands and/ or take control tests
b) Movement Segment: Move units M6.o Move an engineer
c) Combat Segment: Resolve combats stand
4. Second Side Phasing: repeat segments a-b-c, as above.
5. Remove suppre ion from artillery units L3.1 Modify an army
6. Roll to determine initiative for next pul e, and return to C. Or, if morale roll
the tum ends, go to D.
D. Simultaneous Rally Segment: K6.o Modify the rally factor
1. Attempt to recover lost SPs
of a unit within range
2. Attempt to rally broken units
of the commander
lli. Anothe r Turn ?
A. Check army morale, if needed.
B. ...or, if the day of battle ends, proceed to Victory Assessment.

Weather Basic Maximum

Condition Length # Visibility Modifie r to
Sunny 4 24"
Normal 3 20" +6" on a Vantage Point
Overcast 2 16" -6" in Fog
Precipitating 1 12"

The Command Table

Die Roll
Napoleonic Army 1 2 3 4 5 6
Traditional Army 1 2 3 4 5 6
Great 40 45 50 55 6.0 65 70
Good 30 35 40 45 50 55 6.0
Average 30 30 35 35 40 45 50
Poor 30 30 30 35 35 40 45
_ Eclaireur: Grande Armee at a Glance
E. Skirmishing (simultaneously) F. Artillery Fire (simultaneously)
Who can SK-attack? Russian Cos acks and any Roll one die per SP of artillery firing.
infantry unit with an SK higher than zero. Nobody, if Targets? Designate the enemy target, then all guns
it's raining or snowing. mu t fire at once on that target. Then choose another
Range? Off the frontal perspective, 4" ifSK1; 6" if target.
SK2. Bonu die: if target is Vulnerable (F6.o)
Targets? Any infantry or artillery unit, unless enemy French Old Guard may add one to rolls.
cavalry is within 2" of either attacker or target.
To Resolve: Saving Throws Against Artillery Fire:
Each side rolls one die, plus SK value. Defender gets +1 2 oft Cover
for MX brigade, +2 in a town. If the target's roll is 4 Hard Cover
greater or equal, then the attacker fails. If the attack- 2 Target is artillery or engineer
er's roll is greater, then: 1 Different elevation
If the target is artillery: the attacker's roll must be 3 Ground is Mud
at least double the target's. If so, the target is sup- 2 Ground is Soft
pres ed.
If the target is infantry: the attacker's roll mu t be "Final Shot": Against an attacker to the front:
greater than the target's. Target loses ISP. Hits infantry on 4-6 and cavalry on 5-6. No saving
throw , no modifiers.

F6.o The Artillery Chart

Gun Size To Hit # / Range
Heavy (9-12 lbs) 2-6 6" 4-6 10" 5-6 16"
Medium (6-8 lbs) 3-6 4" 5-6 12"
Light (3-4 lbs) 3-6 3" 6 9"

The Control Segment (see page 22) G4.21 Force Status

Roll Status
A sub-commander who does not receive a command must s6 Inactive Modifier
take a Control Te t. Ifhe passes, his Force is under +3 Aggressive
7-9 Adjust
control. If he fails, then determine whether or not he can -1 Visible enemies only
see the enemy. If No, then his Force is Inactive this 10+ Attack!
cav & arty.
pulse. If Yes, then roll two dice to determine his Force -2 Cautious
Status. (see table on the right.)

Slow Inbntry: Austria, Prussia before ISII, Russia, Spain, Portugal before IS09, German minor states before IS09.
Fm Inbntty: France, Britain (and British minor allies), Ottomans, Prussia after lSI I, and all others not yet mentioned.

H2.0: Movement Allowances H31: The Terrain Table

Type Base Move Plus Cost of
Foot Artillery and Fast Infantry 6 1 die Type Rough Obstacle
Slow Infantry 4 1 die Infantry 2-3 1-2
Light Cavalry 10 1 die Cavalry 3-4 2-3
Hor e Artillery and Heavy Cavalry 8 1 die Artillery 3-4 3-4
Officers (3CPs to move the commander) 18 - Officers 1-2 1-2
Eclaireur: Grande Armee at a Glance CD
H6.5 Changing Direction
H12.2 How Units React When Attacked
Any unit may do 0 as a function of movement Infantry does not react, other than to turn to face the
Ch a nge Fa ce: Artillery will take a Final Shot (F7.0) if the enemy
Artillery or Cavalry: once, free, at the beginning of a pulse. attacked its front. Then if it is not attached, it will try to
Infantry: once, at beginning of pulse, for fou r movement E scape (HI2.31). If attached, it will fight as part of the
points in clear terrain, or all movement points in rough infantry to which it is attached.
terrain or in mud. Cavalry may Evade (H12.23) attacking infantry, if it
Retro/Flank Move: Cavalry may attempt to evade attacking cavalry. (HI2.2I)
Artillery: flank move or retrograde is free
Infantry and Cavalry: double co t to move.

Up to 45 degrees, forward only, free. Infantry may move to
H12.3 1: Artillery Escape
Defender Infantry Hvy Cav. LtCav.
Ft. Artillery 3 2
HI2.23 Cavalry Evades Hs. Artillery 2
4 3
Each side rolls one die, with defender's roll modified: Modifiers to Die Roll:
-1 if defender is heavy and attacker is light. +1 in Mud, Snow, or Rain
+1 if defender i light cavalry and attacker is heavy. +1 Artillery in rough terrain
+ 2 if defender is Cossack, against any attacker -1 Artillery behind an obstacle ( uch as a wall or ditch)
(It is possible, with enough modifiers in certain circum-
If the Attacker's roll is greater, then the defending cavalry
stances, to be unable to escape.)
loses ISP, and a combat will be fought here.
If the Defender's roll i less than or equal to the attack-
er's, then the defending cavalry Evades: roll for its move-
ment allowance, as normal, and then moves half that num- HI7.1 Units Outside the Radius of
ber of inches as directly away from the attacker as possible. their Sub-Commander
* May not Skirmish attack
* May not fire (if artillery), except "Final Shot"
H14.0 The 6" Rule * Lo e one pip on combat dice
* May not recover lost SPs
Once within 6" of the enemy, a unit may only * Mu t attempt to move back in.
move directly towards or away from the clo est
enemy unit.
If starting a move within 6" and rolling for move-
ment, a roll of "1" means that the unit will not J5.0 Officer Casualty
close with the enemy. A roll of "6" means that it * Within 1" of a unit that was successfully SK-
must try to attack the nearest enemy to its front. attacked.
* When he used his (V) to influence a combat.
* When an enemy unit moves through him.
* When within 1" of a unit that Breaks.
G6.o "Attached" Officers
Roll two dice. A normal officer has fallen on a roll of
(An officer may do one of each of these per pulse)
11+ (an officer with the (V)alor bonus falls on a roll
of 10+.) If the officer has fallen, roll another d6:
* Re-roll a movement die for a unit within 3"
* Re-roll a terrain table die for a unit within 3" 1-2 Lightly Wounded
* If he has a (V)alor bonus, he may give a Bonus 3-4 Badly Wounded
die to one friendly unit in combat. (This exposes 5-6 Killed in Action
him to an officer casualty check (J5.0)).
_ Eclaireur: Grande Armee at a Glance
14.0 Procedure for Combat
" Square up attacker's base.
" No more than one attacker per defender's base side. No more 14.4 Saving Throws in Combat
than two attackers, total.
1 Infantry or artillery on higher elevation
" Bonus die for a MX brigade (14.2), or for a (V) officer.
2 Cavalry saving vs. infantry in the rain
" Both sides roll dice, trying to score Hits.
2 Heavy cavalry saving vs. hits scored by
" Infantry and cavalry normally hit on 4-6. Artillery hit only on 6.
light cavalry
Subtract one pip from each die for:
2 Protected by Soft Cover.
-1 Vulnerable
4 Protected by Hard Cover.
-1 Flanked
-1 vs. Combined Arms
-1 Outside radius of sub-commander Save Number i never greater than 5.
-1 Infantry attacking cavalry

Regardless of multiple modifiers, ixes are always hits.

14.6 Resolve Combat K2.0 The Rally Factor

" Side which scored most hits wins; defender wins ties. But a side
which broke always loses. .. one die plu
pecial rules apply to infantry defending in Squares (14.621)
" A victorious defender holds the ground. The attacker Falls Back (or 6 Guard
routs). Elite
" A victorious attacker takes the defender's ground, while the defend- Veteran
er Falls Back (or routs). 4
3 Trained
The Fall-Back distance is 3" plus the difference in SP los. (J1.0) 2 Con cript
1 Raw

-2 for each circled "R" marked on

the unit's roster, showing a previ-
1.:3.0 Army Morale ous rally.
The army morale check roll is: +? for CPs pent by the army com-
mander for this unit's rally factor
2 Dice
+ Turn Number
+ Units lost beyond Break Point
- CP committed (L3.1) Ks.o SP Recovery Table
If the result of this roll totals 14 or les , the
army bas pa ed its morale check. Proceed to
the next turn, if there is one. If the result was 15 or None 0-6 0-4 0-3 0-2 0-1
more, the army's morale ba collapsed.
One 7+ 5-7 4-6 3-5 2-4
Two 8+ 7-8 6-7 5-6
Three 9+ 8-9 7-8
Four 10+ 9 -10
Fi e 11+
Chits for Grande Armee. (Photocopy, dry-mount to cardboard, and cut out.)

CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP Inactive Inactive
CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP Inactive Inactive
CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP Inactive Inactive
CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP Inactive Inactive
CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP Inactive Inactive
CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP Adjust Adjust
CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP Adjust Adjust
CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP Adjust Adjust
CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP Adjust Adjust
CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP Attack! Attack!
CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP Attack! Attack!
CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP Attack! Attack!
CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP Attack! Attack!
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.calivcrb .c m
Grande AM1lee Charts and Tables
Each Turn: Weather Visibility
A. Weathe r Variation (skip this on thejirst turn) Sunny 24"
B. Comma nd Phase Normal 20"
1. Any lightly wounded officers might return to their duties Ove rcast 16"
2. Both players roll for command points (CPs) Precipita ting 12"
3. Roll to determine initiative for the first pulse
c. Pulses:
1. Simultaneou kirmishing
2. Simultaneous artillery fire
3. First Side Phasing
a) Control Segment: I ue command and/or take control te ts Force Status
b) Movement Segment: Move units
c) Combat Segment: Resolve combats
Roll Status
s6 Inactive Modifier
4. Second Side Phasing: repeat segments a-b-c, as above. +3 Aggressive
5. Remove suppression from artillery units 7-9 Adjust -1 Visible enemies
6. Roll initiative for next pul e, return to C. Or, if turn ends, go to D. 10+ Attack! only cav & arty.
D. imultaneou Rally Segme nt: -2 Cautious
1. Attempt to recover 10 t SPs
2. Attempt to rally broken units
Anothe r Turn?

The Artillery Chart

Gun Size To Hit # / Range
Heavy (9-12 Ibs) 2-6 6" 4-6 10" 5-6 16"
Medium (6 -Blbs) 3-6 4" 5-6 12"
Light (3-4 Ibs) 3-6 3" 6 9"

Saving Throws Again t Artillery Fire:

2 Soft Cover
Movement Allowances 4 Hard Cover
2 Target is artillery or engineer
Type Base Move Plu
Different elevation
Foot Artillery and Fast Infantry 6 1 die 3 Ground is Mud
Slow Infantry 4 1 die 2 Ground is Soft
Light Cavalry 10 1 die
Final Shot": Against an attacker to the
Horse Artillery and Heavy Cavalry 8 1 die front: Hits infantry on 4-6 and cavalry on 5-
Officer.s (3CPs to move the commander) 18 6. No saving throws.

Command Table
The Terrain Table
Cost of
Type Rough Obstacle
Infantry 2-3 1-2 Great 40 45 50 55 6.0 65 70
Cavalry 3-4 2-3 Good 30 35 40 45 50 55 6.0
Artillery 3-4 3-4 Average 30 30 35 35 40 45 50
Officers 1-2 1-2 Poor 30 30 30 35 35 40 45

Grande Armee is a registered trademark for the game of the great battles of the Napoleonic Wars in miniature. Copyright 2002. all Rights Reserved.
Grande AMltee Charts and Tables
Cavalry Evades Artillery Escape
Each side rolls one die, with defender's roll modified: Attacker
-1 if defender is heavy and attacker is light. Defender Infantry HvyCav. LtCav.
+1 if defender is light cavalry and attacker is heavy. Ft. Artillery 3 2 1
+2 if defender i Co ack, against any attacker Hs. Artillery 4 3 2
Modifiers to Die Roll:
+ 1 in Mud, Snow, or Rain

..Combat Die Modifiers

Bonus die for a MX brigade (14 .2), or for a (V) officer.
Infantry and cavalry normally hit on 4-6. Artillery hit
+ 1 Artillery in rough terrain
-1 Artillery behind an obstacle (such as a wall or ditch)

only on 6. Subtract one pip from each die for :

-1 Vulnerable "Attached" Officers
-1 Flanked (An officer may do one of each of these per pulse)
-1 vs. Combined Arms
-1 Outside radiu of ub-commander Re-roll a movement die for a unit within 3"
-1 Infantry attaf!king cavalry Re-roll a terrain table die for a unit within 3"
If he has a (V)alor bonus, he may give a Bonus
die to. one friendly unit in combat. (Thi expo e
him to an officer casualty check (J5.0)).

Saving Throws in Co~bat

1 Infantry or artillery on higher elevation Officer Casualty
2 Cavalry saving vs. infantry in the rain Within 1" of a unit that was uccessfully SK-
2 Heavy cavalry aving vs. hits cored by attacked.
light cavalry When he u ed his (V) to influence a combat.
2 Protected by Soft Cover. When an enemy unit moves through him.
4 Protected by Hard Cover. When within 1" of a unit that Breaks.
Roll two dice. A normal officer has fallen on a roll of
Save Number i never greater than 5. 11+(an officer with the (V)alor bonus falls on a roll
of 10+.) If the officer has fallen, roll another d6:
1-2 Lightly Wounded
3-4 Badly Wounded
5-6 Killed in Action
The Rally Factor
... one die plus:
6 Guard
5 Elite SP Recovery Table
4 Veteran
3 Trained
2 Con cript
1 Raw None 0-6 0-4 0-3 0-2 0-1
One 7+ 5-'7 4-6 3-5 2-4
-2 for each circled "R" marked on
Two 8+ 7-8 6-7 5-6
the unit's roster, showing a previ-
ous rally. Three 9+ 8-9 7-8
+? for CPs spent by the army com- Four 10+ 9-10
mander for this unit' rally factor Five 11+

Grande Annee is a registered trademark for the game of the great battles of the Napoleonic Wars In miniature. Copyright 2002. all Rights Reserved .
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No time scale: Games have variable number of turn , each turn ha a variable length, and the
total length of the game i unpredictable.
No figure cale: Any ize figure will work, any number of figures can be mounted on the ba es,
and no re-ba ing i required if you already have a different system.
Weather is a crucial factor in all your deci ions, not an optional add-on at the end. What can you
ee? What i the condition of the ground? Can you really fight thi battle the way you want to?
Variable Movement: You only know roughly how fast your unit will move each turn. And once
your units get in cIo e with the enemy, they may not do a you plea e.
No Written Order : U ing the Command Point (CP) chit, you make deci ion about the control
of your force. Tho e which aren't controlled might not behave a you wi h.
No Morale Checks: The ' trength' of unit waxe and wane, ba ed on your deci ion , their
morale, and forces beyond your control.
Army Morale and Pur uit: Con erve your cavalry for a pur uit or to cover your retreat. In mo t
games there' "no tomorrow," but in Grande Armee you have to make deci ions about whether or
not to ri k committing your re erve . You might win the day, but the enemy get away becau e of his
cavalry creen, or darkne , or bad weather, or ....
Four r eady-to-play scenarios , complete with hi torical background and optional "what-if ":
Friedland, Aspern-E ling, Fuentes de Onoro, and Waterloo.
Do-it-Your elf cenario de ign in tructions enable you to create Gmnde Armee battle
hi torical orders of battle or even other game .