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The Time Machine

This article is about the novel by H.G. Wells. For other This work is an early example of the Dying Earth sub-
uses, see The Time Machine (disambiguation). genre. The portion of the novel that sees the Time
Traveller in a distant future where the sun is huge and
The Time Machine is a science ction novel by H. G. red also places The Time Machine within the realm of
Eschatology, i.e. the study of the end times, the end of
Wells, published in 1895. Wells is generally credited with
the popularisation of the concept of time travel by using a the world, and the ultimate destiny of mankind.
vehicle that allows an operator to travel purposefully and
selectively. The term time machine, coined by Wells,
is now universally used to refer to such a vehicle. 2 Plot
The Time Machine has since been adapted into two
feature lms of the same name, as well as two television The books protagonist is an English scientist and gen-
versions, and a large number of comic book adaptations. tleman inventor living in Richmond, Surrey in Victorian
It has also indirectly inspired many more works of ction England, and identied by a narrator simply as the Time
in many media. Traveller. The narrator recounts the Travellers lecture
to his weekly dinner guests that time is simply a fourth
dimension, and his demonstration of a tabletop model
machine for travelling through it. He reveals that he
1 History has built a machine capable of carrying a person through
time, and returns at dinner the following week to recount
Wells had considered the notion of time travel before, in a remarkable tale, becoming the new narrator.
a short story titled The Chronic Argonauts (1888). This In the new narrative, the Time Traveller tests his device
work, published in his college newspaper, was the foun- with a journey that takes him to A.D. 802,701, where
dation for The Time Machine. he meets the Eloi, a society of small, elegant, child-
Wells frequently stated that he had thought of using some like adults. They live in small communities within large
of this material in a series of articles in the Pall Mall and futuristic yet slowly deteriorating buildings, doing no
Gazette, until the publisher asked him if he could instead work and having a frugivorous diet. His eorts to com-
write a serial novel on the same theme. Wells readily municate with them are hampered by their lack of cu-
agreed and was paid 100 (equal to about 10,000 to- riosity or discipline, and he speculates that they are a
day) on its publication by Heinemann in 1895, which rst peaceful, common society, the result of humanity con-
published the story in serial form in the January to May quering nature with technology, and subsequently evolv-
numbers of The New Review (newly under the nominal ing to adapt to an environment in which strength and in-
editorship of W. E. Henley).[1] Henry Holt and Com- tellect are no longer advantageous to survival.
pany published the rst book edition (possibly prepared Returning to the site where he arrived, the Time Trav-
from a dierent manuscript)[2] on 7 May 1895; Heine- eller is shocked to nd his time machine missing, and
mann published an English edition on 29 May.[1] These eventually concludes that it has been dragged by some
two editions are dierent textually and are commonly re- unknown party into a nearby structure with heavy doors,
ferred to as the Holt text and Heinemann text, respec- locked from the inside, which resembles a Sphinx. Luck-
tively. Nearly all modern reprints reproduce the Heine- ily, he had removed the machines levers before leav-
mann text. ing it. Later in the dark, he is approached menacingly
The story reects Wellss own socialist political views, by the Morlocks, ape-like troglodytes who live in dark-
his view on life and abundance, and the contemporary ness underground and surface only at night. Within their
angst about industrial relations. It is also inuenced dwellings he discovers the machinery and industry that
by Ray Lankester's theories about social degeneration[3] makes the above-ground paradise possible. He alters his
and shares many elements with Edward Bulwer-Lytton's theory, speculating that the human race has evolved into
novel Vril, the Power of the Coming Race (1871).[4] Other two species: the leisured classes have become the ineec-
science ction works of the period, including Edward tual Eloi, and the downtrodden working classes have be-
Bellamy's novel Looking Backward: 2000-1887 (1888) come the brutish light-fearing Morlocks. Deducing that
and the later lm Metropolis (1927), dealt with similar the Morlocks have taken his time machine, he explores
themes. the Morlock tunnels, learning that due to a lack of any


other means of sustenance, they feed on the Eloi. His re- editor by lengthening the text with, among other things,
vised analysis is that their relationship is not one of lordsan illustration of the ultimate degeneracy of humanity.
and servants, but of livestock and ranchers. The Time There was a slight struggle, Wells later recalled, be-
Traveller theorizes that intelligence is the result of and re-
tween the writer and W. E. Henley who wanted, he said,
sponse to danger; with no real challenges facing the Eloi, to put a little 'writing' into the tale. But the writer was
they have lost the spirit, intelligence, and physical tness in reaction from that sort of thing, the Henley interpola-
of humanity at its peak. tions were cut out again, and he had his own way with his
Meanwhile, he saves an Eloi named Weena from drown- text. This portion[6]of the story was published elsewhere
as "The Grey Man". The deleted text was also published
ing as none of the other Eloi take any notice of her plight,
and they develop an innocently aectionate relationship by Forrest J Ackerman in an issue of the American edi-
tion of Perry Rhodan.
over the course of several days. He takes Weena with him
on an expedition to a distant structure that turns out to be The deleted text recounts an incident immediately af-
the remains of a museum, where he nds a fresh supply of ter the Travellers escape from the Morlocks. He nds
matches and fashions a crude weapon against Morlocks, himself in the distant future of an unrecognisable Earth,
whom he fears he must ght to get back his machine. He populated with furry, hopping herbivores resembling
plans to take Weena back to his own time. Because the kangaroos. He stuns or kills one with a rock, and upon
long and tiring journey back to Weenas home is too much closer examination realises they are probably the descen-
for them, they stop in the forest, and they are then over- dants of humans/Eloi/Morlocks. A gigantic, centipede-
come by Morlocks in the night, and Weena faints. The like arthropod approaches and the Traveller ees into the
Traveller escapes only when a small re he had left be- next day, nding that the creature has apparently eaten
hind them to distract the Morlocks catches up to them as the tiny humanoid. The Easton Press edition of the novel
a forest re; Weena is presumably lost in the re, as are restores this deleted segment.
the pursuing Morlocks.
The Morlocks open the Sphinx to use the time machine
as bait to ensnare the Traveller, not understanding that he 4 Scholarship
will use it to escape. He reattaches the levers before he
travels further ahead to roughly 30 million years from his Signicant scholarly commentary on The Time Machine
own time. There he sees some of the last living things on a began from the early 1960s, initially contained in vari-
dying Earth, menacing reddish crab-like creatures slowly ous broad studies of Wellss early novels (such as Bernard
wandering the blood-red beaches chasing enormous, huge Bergonzis The Early H.G. Wells: A Study of the Scientic
butteries in a world covered in simple lichenous vegeta- Romances) and studies of utopias/dystopias in science c-
tion. He continues to make short jumps through time, tion (such as Mark R. Hillegass The Future as Nightmare:
seeing Earths rotation gradually cease and the sun grow H.G. Wells and the Anti-Utopians). Much important crit-
larger, redder, and dimmer, and the world falling silent ical and textual work was done in the 1970s, including
and freezing as the last degenerate living things die out. the tracing of the very complex publication history of
Overwhelmed, he goes back to the machine and returns the text, its drafts and unpublished fragments. A fur-
to Victorian time, arriving at his laboratory in Richmond ther resurgence in scholarship came around the time of
(since he has travelled in time, not space) just three hours the novels centenary in 1995, and a major outcome of
after he originally left. Interrupting dinner, he relates his this was the 1995 conference and substantial anthology
adventures to his disbelieving visitors, producing as ev- of academic papers, which is collected in print as H.G.
idence the two strange white owers Weena had put in Wellss Perennial Time Machine: Selected Essays from the
his pocket. The original narrator takes over and relates Centenary Conference, The Time Machine: Past, Present,
that he returned to the Time Travellers house the next and Future (University of Georgia Press, 2001). This
day, nding him in nal preparations for another jour- publication then allowed the development of a study guide
ney. The Traveller promises to return in half an hour, book (meant for advanced academics at Masters and
however, three years later, there is no news of him, and PhD level), H.G. Wellss The Time Machine: A Reference
the narrator despairs of ever knowing what happened to Guide (Praeger, 2004). The scholarly journal The Well-
the Time Traveller. sian has published around twenty articles on The Time
Machine, and the new US academic journal devoted to
H.G. Wells, The Undying Fire has published three since
its inception in 2002.
3 Deleted text

A section from the eleventh chapter of the serial pub- 5 The Time Traveller
lished in New Review (May, 1895) was deleted from the
book. It was drafted at the suggestion of Wellss editor, Although the Time Travellers real name is never given in
William Ernest Henley, who wanted Wells to oblige your the original novel, other sources have named him.

One popular theory, encouraged by movies like The I.C.E. role-playing game supplement Time Rid-
Time After Time and certain episodes of the tele- ers suggests that the Time Travellers name is Ash-
vision show Lois and Clark: The New Adventures leigh Holmes. It suggests that the Time Traveller is
of Superman, is that the Time Traveller is meant to actually a woman who disguised herself as a man
be H. G. Wells himself. Indeed, in the George Pal during the male chauvinistic Victorian era. She is
movie adaptation of The Time Machine, his name said to be the sister of Sherlock Holmes.
is given as George, which was H. G. Wellss middle
name. Manufactured by H. George Wells can be
seen on the control panel of the time travel device
as the character hurls into the future, letting the au-
6 Adaptations
dience understand the character is Wells himself.
6.1 Radio and audio
H.G. Wells great-grandson, Simon Wells, made a
2002 remake where the Time Travellers name is 6.1.1 Escape radio broadcasts
Alexander Hartdegen.
The CBS radio anthology Escape adapted The Time Ma-
In The Time Ships, Stephen Baxter's sequel to The chine twice, in 1948 starring Je Corey, and again in
Time Machine, the Time Traveller encounters his 1950 starring John Dehner. In both episodes a script
younger self via time travel. His younger self reacts adapted by Irving Ravetch was used. The Time Traveller
with embarrassment to his older selfs knowledge of was named Dudley and was accompanied by his sceptical
his real names. friend Fowler as they travelled to the year 100,080.

I held up my hand; I had an inspiration.

No. I will useif you will permitMoses. 6.1.2 1994 Alien Voices audio drama
He took a deep pull on his brandy, and gazed at
me with genuine anger in his grey eyes. How In 1994 an audio drama was released on cassette and CD
do you know about that?" Mosesmy hated by Alien Voices, starring Leonard Nimoy as the Time
rst name, for which I had been endlessly tor- Traveller (named John in this adaptation) and John de
mented at schooland which I had kept a se- Lancie as David Filby. John de Lancies children, Owen
cret since leaving home![7] de Lancie and Keegan de Lancie, played the parts of the
Eloi. The drama is approximately two hours long and is
This is a reference to H.G. Wellss story "The Chronic more faithful to the story than several of the lm adapta-
Argonauts", the story which grew into The Time Machine, tions. Some changes are made to reect modern language
in which the inventor of the Time Machine is named Dr. and knowledge of science.
Moses Nebogipfel; the surname of Wellss rst inventor
graces another character in Baxters book (see above).
6.1.3 7th Voyage
Doc Savage: His Apocalyptic Life by Philip Jos
In 2000, Alan Young read The Time Machine for 7th
Farmer gives the Time Travellers name as Bruce
Voyage productions, Inc. 2015 to Celebrate the 120th
Clarke Wildman.
Anniversary of H.G. Wells The Time Machine animated
feature Alan Young.
The Rook comic book series gives the Time Trav-
ellers name as Adam Dane.
6.1.4 2009 BBC Radio 3 broadcast
In the Doctor Who comic strip story The Eternal
Present, the character of Theophilus Tolliver is im- Robert Glenister starred as the Time Traveller, with
plied to be the Time Traveller of Wellss novel. Also William Gaunt as H. G. Wells in a new 100-minute ra-
featured in Doctor Who is Wells, himself, appearing dio dramatisation by Philip Osment, directed by Jeremy
in the television serial Timelash. The events of this Mortimer as part of a BBC Radio Science Fiction season.
story are portrayed as having inspired Wells to write This was the rst adaptation of the novel for British radio.
The Time Machine. It was rst broadcast on 22 February 2009 on BBC Radio
3[8] and later published as a 2-CD BBC audio book.
The Hertford Manuscript by Richard Cowper names
the Time Traveller as Dr. Robert James Pensley, The other cast members were:
born to James and Martha Pensley in 1850 and dis-
appearing without trace on 18 June 1894, and who Donnla Hughes as Martha
was part of the same social and political circle as
Wells in particular, the Fabian Society. Gunnar Cauthery as Young H. G. Wells

Stephen Critchlow as Filby, friend of the young 6.2.3 1978 television lm

Main article: The Time Machine (1978 lm)
Chris Pavlo as Bennett, friend of the young Wells
Manjeet Mann as Mrs Watchett, the Travellers Sunn Classic Pictures produced a television lm version
housemaid of The Time Machine as a part of their "Classics Illus-
Jill Crado as Weena, one of the Eloi and the Trav- trated" series in 1978. It was a modernization of the
ellers partner Wells story, making the Time Traveller a 1970s scien-
tist working for a ctional US defence contractor, the
Robert Lonsdale, Inam Mirza and Dan Starkey as Mega Corporation. Dr. Neil Perry (John Beck), the
other characters Time Traveller, is described as one of Megas most re-
liable contributors by his senior co-worker Branly (Whit
The adaptation retained the nameless status of the Time Bissell, an alumnus of the 1960 adaptation). Perrys skill
Traveller and set it as a true story told to the young Wells is demonstrated by his rapid reprogramming of an o-
by the time traveller, which Wells then re-tells as an older course missile, averting a disaster that could destroy Los
man to the American journalist Martha whilst rewatch- Angeles. His reputation secures a grant of $20 million
ing on the roof of Broadcasting House during the Blitz. for his time machine project. Although nearing comple-
It also retained the deleted ending from the novel as a tion, the corporation wants Perry to put the project on
recorded message sent back to Wells from the future by hold so that he can head a military weapon development
the traveller using a prototype of his machine, with the project. Perry accelerates work on the time machine, per-
traveller escaping the anthropoid creatures to 30 million mitting him to test it before being forced to work on the
AD at the end of the universe before disappearing or dy- new project.
ing there.

6.2.4 2002 lm
6.2 Film adaptations
Main article: The Time Machine (2002 lm)
6.2.1 1949 BBC teleplay

The rst visual adaptation of the book was a live teleplay The 1960 lm was remade in 2002, starring Guy Pearce
broadcast from Alexandra Palace on 25 January 1949 by as the Time Traveller, a mechanical engineering profes-
the BBC, which starred Russell Napier as the Time Trav- sor named Alexander Hartdegen, Mark Addy as his col-
eller and Mary Donn as Weena. No recording of this live league David Filby, Sienna Guillory as Alexs ill-fated -
broadcast was made; the only record of the production is ance Emma, Phyllida Law as Mrs. Watchit, and Jeremy
the script and a few black and white still photographs. A Irons as the Uber-Morlock. Playing a quick cameo as a
reading of the script, however, suggests that this teleplay shopkeeper was Alan Young, who featured in the 1960
remained fairly faithful to the book. lm. (H.G. Wells himself can also be said to have a
cameo appearance, in the form of a photograph on the
wall of Alexs home, near the front door.)
6.2.2 1960 lm
The lm was directed by Wellss great-grandson Simon
Main article: The Time Machine (1960 lm) Wells, with an even more revised plot that incorporated
the ideas of paradoxes and changing the past. The place
is changed from Richmond, Surrey, to downtown New
In 1960, the novel was made into an American science
York City, where the Time Traveller moves forward in
ction lm, also known promotionally as H.G. Wellss The time to nd answers to his questions on 'Practical Appli-
Time Machine. The lm starred Rod Taylor, Alan Young cation of Time Travel;' rst in 2030 New York, to witness
and Yvette Mimieux. an orbital lunar catastrophe in 2037, before moving on to
The lm was produced and directed by George Pal, who 802,701 for the main plot. He later briey nds himself
also lmed a 1953 version of Wellss The War of the in 635,427,810 with toxic clouds and a world laid waste
Worlds. The lm won an Academy Award for time-lapse (presumably by the Morlocks) with devastation and Mor-
photographic eects showing the world changing rapidly. lock artifacts stretching out to the horizon.
Pal had always intended to make a sequel to his 1960 lm. It was met with generally mixed reviews and earned
In 1993, Rod Taylor hosted Time Machine: The Journey $56 million before VHS/DVD sales. The Time Ma-
Back reuniting him with Alan Young and Whit Bissell, chine used a design that was very reminiscent of the
featuring the only mini-sequel to Mr. Pals classic lm, one in the Pal lm, but was much larger and employed
written by the original screenwriter, David Duncan. In polished turned brass construction, along with rotating
the special were Academy Award Winners, Wah Chang quartz/glasses reminiscent of the light gathering prismatic
and Gene Warren. lenses common to lighthouses (In Wellss original book,
6.4 Comics 5

the Time Traveller mentioned his 'scientic papers on op- meets Weena, takes her to an ancient library, and con-
tics). Hartdegen becomes involved with a female Eloi fronts the Morlocks. The parallel story has Wishbones
named Mara, played by Samantha Mumba, who essen- owner, Joe, relying on a calculator to solve percentage
tially takes the place of Weena, from the earlier versions problems rather than his own intellect, recalling the mind-
of the story. In this lm, the Eloi have, as a tradition, set that created the lazy Eloi.
preserved a stone language that is identical to English.
The Morlocks are much more barbaric and agile, and the
Time Traveller has a direct impact on the plot. 6.3.5 Morlocks

The 2011 Syfy direct to TV lm, Morlocks, is extremely

6.3 Derivative works loosely based on The Time Machine. In this lm, a failed
scientist, Dr. James Radnor (David Hewlett), has in-
6.3.1 The Fantasy Film Worlds of George Pal vented a time portal that goes into the future. There, a
race of monsters known as Morlocks have destroyed hu-
manity. There are no Eloi in this lm, except that the
Main article: The Fantasy Film Worlds of George Pal
military time travel project is known as Project E.L.O.I.

This lm, produced and directed by Arnold Leibovit, is a

biopic of George Pal. It contains a number of lmed ele- 6.3.6 Warehouse 13
ments from Pals 1960 lm version of The Time Machine.
The Syfy Channel TV series follows the adventures of
government agents tasked with nding artifacts from
6.3.2 Time After Time (1979 lm) around the world which have special powers, often hav-
ing negative supernatural eects. They are stored in
In Time After Time, H.G. Wells invents a time machine Warehouse 13, which is the latest in a series of 'ware-
and shows it to some friends in a manner similar to the houses that have existed throughout history. Along
rst part of the novel. However, he does not know that with countless artifacts, the warehouse contains various
one of his friends is Jack The Ripper. The Ripper, eeing famous and infamous historical gures that have been
police, escapes to the future (1979), but without a key stored in a suspended form called 'bronzing'. This in-
which prevents the machine from returning home. When cludes H.G Wells who turns out to be a female named
it does return home, Wells follows him in order to protect Helena G. Wells. When she is 'unbronzed', it is then
the future (which he imagines to be a utopia) from The known that she had been an agent for Warehouse 12 dur-
Ripper. ing the 1800s. The character becomes a series regular
guest who assists the warehouse agents, but has occasion-
ally become an antagonist. The H.G. Wells Time Ma-
6.3.3 Sliders chine is also stored in the warehouse, but functions some-
what dierently than what is written in the original book.
In season 3 episode 16 The Last of Eden the Slid-
ers land on a world very reminiscent of the book The
Time Machine where there are two distinct species of 6.3.7 Futurama
humanoids, one group lives above ground while the others
live below and access to the sub surface is in the forbid- The seventh episode of the Seventh season of Futurama,
den zone. Shortly after arriving there is an earthquake titled The Late Philip J. Fry, features several allusions and
and Wade is sucked below the surface and when the oth- references to the novel although often departs from the
ers try to seek help from the locals to get her out they original plot.
are informed by a leader of the group that informs them
of the laws, do not dig the earth and do not go into
the forbidden zone. When Quinn nds a local willing to
6.4 Comics
help, they travel to the sub surface where they nd a group
Classics Illustrated was the rst to adapt The Time Ma-
of mutated people who were trapped beneath the surface
chine into a comic book format, issuing an American edi-
when the gineers set up a gimble type device to keep
tion in July 1956.
the surface elevated.
The Classics Illustrated version was published in French
by Classiques Illustres in Dec 1957, and Classics Illus-
6.3.4 Wishbone episode trated Strato Publications (Australian) in 1957, and Ku-
vitettuja Klassikkoja (a Finnish edition) in November
The Time Machine was featured in an episode of the PBS 1957. There were also Classics Illustrated Greek editions
childrens show Wishbone, entitled "Bark to the Future". in 1976, Swedish in 1987, German in 1992 and 2001, and
Wishbone plays the role of the Time Traveller, where he a Canadian reprint of the English edition in 2008.

time-paradoxes it might cause when the time ma-

chine was used to visit the past.This culminates in
Westminster Abbey being used as a butcher shop
of human beings by the Morlocks in the 20th cen-
tury, and a total disruption and collapse of the time
stream. There the hero and Merlin must nd and
destroy the Time Machine, to restore the time
stream and history. The 24,000-word German orig-
inal was translated into English by Eddy C. Bertin in
the 1940s and eventually published in paperback as
The Return of the Time Machine (1972, DAW).
The Hertford Manuscript by Richard Cowper, rst
published in 1976. It features a manuscript, which
reports the Time Travellers activities after the end
of the original story. According to this manuscript,
the Time Traveller disappeared, because his Time
Machine had been damaged by the Morlocks with-
out him knowing it. He only found out when it
stopped operating during his next attempted time
travel. He found himself on 27 August 1665, in
London during the outbreak of the Great Plague of
London. The rest of the novel is devoted to his ef-
forts to repair the Time Machine and leave this time
period before getting infected with the disease. He
also has an encounter with Robert Hooke. He even-
tually dies of the disease on 20 September 1665.
Classics Illustrated #133 The story gives a list of subsequent owners of the
manuscript until 1976. It also gives the name of
the Time Traveller as Robert James Pensley, born to
In 1976 Marvel Comics published a new version of The
James and Martha Pensley in 1850 and disappearing
Time Machine, as #2 in their Marvel Classics Comics se-
without trace on 18 June 1894.
ries, with art by Alex Nio. (This adaptation was origi-
nally published in 1973 by Pendulum Press as part of their The Space Machine by Christopher Priest, rst pub-
Pendulum Now Age Classics series; it was colorized and lished in 1976. Because of the movement of plan-
reprinted by Marvel in 1976.) From April 1990 Eternity ets, stars and galaxies, for a time machine to stay in
Comics published a three-issue mini-series adaptation of one spot on Earth as it travels through time, it must
The Time Machine, written by Bill Spangler and illus- also follow the Earths trajectory through space. In
trated by John Ross this was collected as a trade pa- Priests book, a travelling salesman damages a Time
perback graphic novel in 1991. Machine similar to the original, and arrives on Mars,
just before the start of the invasion described in The
War of the Worlds. H.G. Wells appears as a minor
7 Sequels by other authors character.
Morlock Night by K. W. Jeter, rst published in
Wellss novella has become one of the cornerstones of 1979. A steampunk fantasy novel in which the Mor-
science-ction literature. As a result, it has spawned locks, having studied the Travellers machine, dupli-
many ospring. Works expanding on Wellss story in- cate it and invade Victorian London.
Time Machine II by George Pal and Joe Morhaim,
La Belle Valence by Tho Varlet and Andr Blandin published in 1981. The Time Traveller, named
(1923) in which a squadron of World War I soldiers George, and the pregnant Weena try to return to his
nd the Time Machine and are transported back to time, but instead land in the London Blitz, dying
the Spanish town of Valencia in the 14th century. during a bombing raid. Their newborn son is res-
Translated by Brian Stableford as Timeslip Troopers cued by an American ambulance driver, and grows
(2012). up in the United States under the name Christopher
Jones. Sought out by the lookalike son of James
Die Rckkehr der Zeitmaschine (1946) by Egon Filby, Jones goes to England to collect his inheri-
Friedell was the rst direct sequel. It dwells heav- tance, leading ultimately to Georges journals, and
ily on the technical details of the machine and the the Time Machines original plans. He builds his

own machine with 1970s upgrades, and seeks his the Time Traveller nally settling down with Weena
parents in the future. Pal also worked on a detailed in the 33rd century. They have a few children, the
synopsis for a third sequel, which was partly lmed youngest of whom is the main character in the sec-
for a 1980s U.S. TV special on the making of Pals ond book.
lm version of The Time Machine, using the original
actors. This third sequel, the plot of which does not In 2006, Monsterwax Trading Cards combined The
seem to t with Pals second, opens with the Time Time Machine with two of Wellss other stories, The
Traveller enjoying a happy life with Weena, in a fu- Island of Dr. Moreau and The War of the Worlds.
ture world in which the Morlocks have died out. He The resulting 102 card trilogy, by Ricardo Garijo,
and his son return to save Filby in World War I. This was entitled The Art of H. G. Wells.[9] The con-
act changes the future, causing the nuclear war not to tinuing narrative links all three stories by way of
happen. He and his son are thus cut o from Weena an unnamed writer mentioned in Wellss rst story,
in the far future. The Time Traveller thus has to to the nephew of Ed Prendick (the narrator of Dr.
solve a dilemma allow his friend to die, and cause Moreau), and another unnamed writer (narrator) in
the later death of millions, or give up Weena forever. The War of the Worlds.
The Time Traveller and his machine appear in the
The Man Who Loved Morlocks (1981) and The
story Allan and the Sundered Veil by Alan Moore
Truth about Weena (1998) are two dierent sequels,
and Kevin O'Neill, which acts as a prequel to The
the former a novel and the latter a short story, by
League of Extraordinary Gentlemen, Volume One.
David J. Lake. Each of them concerns the Time
The Time Traveller shares an adventure with fellow
Travellers return to the future. In the former, he
literary icons Allan Quatermain, John Carter and
discovers that he cannot enter any period in time he
Randolph Carter.
has already visited, forcing him to travel into the fur-
ther future, where he nds love with a woman whose David Hadens novelette The Time Machine: A Se-
race evolved from Morlock stock. In the latter, he quel (2010) is a direct sequel, picking up where the
is accompanied by Wells, and succeeds in rescuing original nished. The Time Traveller goes back to
Weena and bringing her back to the 1890s, where rescue Weena, but nds the Eloi less simple than he
her political ideas cause a peaceful revolution. rst imagined, and time travel far more complicated.
The Time Ships, by Stephen Baxter, rst published Simon Baxters novel The British Empire: Psychic
in 1995. This sequel was ocially authorised by the Battalions Against The Morlocks (2010) imagines a
Wells estate to mark the centenary of the originals steampunk/cyberpunk future in which the British
publication. In its wide-ranging narrative, the Trav- Empire has remained the dominant world force, un-
ellers desire to return and rescue Weena is thwarted til the Morlocks arrive from the future.
by the fact that he has changed history (by telling
his tale to his friends, one of whom published the Hal Colebatch's Time-Machine Troopers (2011)
account). With a Morlock (in the new history, the (Acashic Publishers) is twice the length of the orig-
Morlocks are intelligent and cultured), he travels inal. In it the Time Traveller returns to the fu-
through the multiverse as increasingly complicated ture world about 18 years after the time he es-
timelines unravel around him, eventually meeting caped from the Morlocks, taking with him Robert
mankinds far future descendants, whose ambition is Baden-Powell, the real-world founder of the Boy
to travel back to the birth of the universe, and mod- Scout movement. They set out to teach the Eloi
ify the way the multiverse will unfold. This sequel self-reliance and self-defence against the Morlocks,
includes many nods to the prehistory of Wellss story but the morlocks capture them. H. G. Wells and
in the names of characters and chapters. Winston Churchill are also featured as characters.

The 2003 short story On the Surface by Robert J. Paul Schullerys The Time Travellers Tale: Chron-
Sawyer begins with this quote from the Wells orig- icle of a Morlock Captivity (2012) continues the
inal: I have suspected since that the Morlocks had story in the voice and manner of the original Wells
even partially taken it [the time machine] to pieces book. After many years absence, the Time Trav-
while trying in their dim way to grasp its purpose. eller returns and describes his further adventures.
In the Sawyer story, the Morlocks develop a eet of His attempts to mobilize the Eloi in their own de-
time machines and use them to conquer the same far fense against the Morlocks failed when he was cap-
future Wells depicted at the end of the original, by tured by the Morlocks. Much of the book is oc-
which time, because the sun has grown red and dim cupied with his deeply unsettling discoveries about
and thus no longer blinds them, they can reclaim the the Morlock/Eloi symbiosis, his gradual assimila-
surface of the world. tion into Morlock society, and his ultimately suc-
cessful attempt to discover the true cause of human-
Burt Libe wrote two sequels: Beyond the Time Ma- itys catastrophic transformation into two such tragic
chine (2005) and Tangles in Time (2005), telling of races.

Pablo Gmezs Ao 802701 (2014) continues the [2] UCR Acquires Rare Edition of The Time Machine"".
George Pal lm with the manner of the original UC Riverside. 9 February 2010. Retrieved 21 September
Wells book. The Time Traveller will help to cre- 2010.
ate a new Eloi world with many adventures but also [3] Man Of The Year Million. Retrieved
with problems. 2010-07-07.
The Great Illustrated Classics adaptation of Wells [4] The Coming Race
novel (published in 1992) faithfully abridges the
original, but adds one additional destination to the [5] Hammond, John R. H. G. Wellss The Time Machine: A
Time Travellers adventure. Before returning home Reference Guide (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004),
to his own time, the Time Traveller stops the ma- pg. 50.
chine three hundred years in the future, or approx- [6] Symon, Evan V. (January 14, 2013). 10 Deleted Chap-
imately the year 2200 AD. Upon his arrival, he is ters that Transformed Famous Books.
quickly drugged with a truth serum by a group of
men who meet him and is ushered into an interro- [7] Baxter, Stephen. The Time Ships (HarperPrism, 1995), p.
gation room. They are aware of the existence of 137.
time machines, which have long been outlawed. The [8] BBC Radio 3 website. Retrieved 2010-07-
Time Traveller nds a society that appears to be a 07.
technocracy. He learns that in the early 21st cen-
tury, the worlds natural resources had become com- [9] The Art of H.G.Wells (3 part) trading card series...the
pletely squandered, and the air was poisoned with end of the epic? The Time Machine, Island of Dr.
pollution. A group of four scientists formed the Moreau, War of the Worlds.
2008-01-01. Retrieved 2010-07-07.
World Science Governing Board to save the planet
from ecological devastation. Power was handed over
to them by all world governments, and they ushered
in an era of peace and longevity. Unfortunately, con- 10 External links
ict broke out one generation later when the children
of the Founding Four tried to seize power instead of
holding elections. The world split into two oppos-
ing forces, constantly at war. Suddenly, an alarm The Time Machine at Project Gutenberg
is sounded in the interrogation room: The opposing Selected Bibliography of Scholarship on H.G.
army has launching an attack. In the panic, one of Wellss The Time Machine"
the future men tries to steal the time machine, but
the Time Traveller is able to hit him over the head
with an iron bar he had used to fend o the Mor-
locks. The Time Traveller then returns to his own The Time Machine public domain audiobook
time. at LibriVox

8 See also
Time travel in ction
Soft science ction
Human extinction
List of time travel science ction
The Science Fiction Hall of Fame, Volume Two, an
anthology of the greatest science ction novels prior
to 1965, as judged by the Science Fiction Writers of

9 References
[1] Hammond, John R. (2004). H. G. Wellss The time ma-
chine: a reference guide. Greenwood Publishing Group.
ISBN 0-313-33007-7.

11 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses

11.1 Text
The Time Machine Source: Contributors: Damian Yerrick,
General Wesc, WojPob, Eloquence, Bryan Derksen, The Anome, Tarquin, Malcolm Farmer, Drj, Eclecticology, Matusz, Shii, Ellmist,
Heron, Fonzy, Mintguy, Bth, Olivier, Rickyrab, Edward, Kchishol1970, Booyabazooka, Sannse, TakuyaMurata, Paul A, Tregoweth, Aho-
erstemeier, KoyaanisQatsi, Emperor, Error, AugPi, Jod, Charles Matthews, Random832, Fuzheado, Itai, Val42, Shizhao, Dimadick,
Twang, Chuunen Baka, Korath, Postdlf, P0lyglut, Rfc1394, Timrollpickering, Davodd, Matty j, Wereon, Seth Ilys, GreatWhiteNorth-
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pafootsoldier, Spi666, Doczilla, Neddyseagoon, Naaman Brown, Sir Rhosis, Phantom.exe, Norm mit, Clarityend, George100, Vaughan
Pratt, Adam Keller, Markjoseph125, Havl, Freddie R. Aldous, ShelfSkewed, St Fan, Phatom87, Cydebot, Reywas92, Bellerophon5685,
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JL-Bot, ClueBot, LAX, Plastikspork, Vanjos72, Mabzilla, Waterfall117, Boneyard90, Jusdafax, GoldenGoose100, Simpsonlover2303,
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damom, GT5162, FrescoBot, Pepper, Whites only, StaticVision, Weetoddid, ZenerV, BenzolBot, Kandeerlej, Intelligentsium, Recado, ,
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Cuckookazoo, Whisky drinker, Woogee, Beyond My Ken, Slon02, DASHBot, EmausBot, John of Reading, WikitanvirBot, Jodon1971,
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