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09/01/2015 :::Bernoulli'sEquation::

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BernoulliEquation

Itiscustomarytoexpresstheenergycontainedinafluidintermsofthepotentialenergycontainedinanequivalentheightor"head"
ofacolumnofthefluid.Usingthisconvention,Bernoulli'stheorembreaksdownthetotalenergyatapointintermsof:

1.Theheadduetoitselevationaboveanarbitrarydatumofzeropotentialenergy.
2.Apressureheadduetothepotentialenergycontainedinthepressureinthefluidatthatpoint.
3.Avelocityheadduetothekineticenergycontainedwithinthefluid

Assumingthatnoenergyisaddedtothefluidbyapumporcompressor,andthatthefluidisnotperformingworkasinasteam
turbine,thelawofconservationofenergyrequiresthattheenergyatpoint"2"inthepipingsystemdownstreamofpoint"1"must
equaltheenergyatpoint"1"minustheenergylosstofrictionandchangeinelevation.Thus,Bernoulli'stheoremmaybewritten:

Or

where:
Z=elevationhead,ft
P=pressure,psi
p=density,lb/ft3
V=velocity,ft/sec
g=gravitationconstant
HL=frictionheadloss,ft

Darcy'sEquation

Thisequation,whichisalsosometimescalledtheWeisbachequationortheDarcyWeisbachequation,statesthatthefrictionhead
lossbetweentwopointsinacompletelyfilled,circularcrosssectionpipeisproportionaltothevelocityheadandthelengthofpipe
andinverselyproportionaltothepipediameter.Thiscanbewritten:

where:
L=lengthofpipe,ft
D=pipediameter,ft
f=factorofproportionality

Equations1and2canbeusedtocalculatethepressureatanypointinapipingsystemifthepressure,flowvelocity,pipediameter,
andelevationareknownatanyotherpoint.Conversely,ifthepressure,pipediameter,andelevationsareknownattwopoints,the
flowvelocitycanbecalculated.
Inmostproductionfacilitypipingsystemstheheaddifferencesduetoelevationandvelocitychangesbetweentwopointscanbe
neglected.InthiscaseEquation2canbereducedto:

whereP=lossinpressurebetweenpoints1and2,inpsi





2011

http://www.araboilnaturalgas.com/articles/others/articles_oth_2.htm 1/1