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Tel:d Date: 14/08/17
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Deep beam design - Kong's method

Calculation of reinforcement is in accordance with BS8110:1997 and 'Reinforced Concrete Designer's Handbook' by Reynolds
and Steedman

Beam details
Span between centre of supports L = 2m
Overall depth of beam h = 1.2 m
Breadth of beam b = 0.7 m
Nominal concrete cover to all bars C = 35 mm
n
Tolerance between minimum and nominal cover = 10 mm
c
Concrete cover to all bars cover = C +
n c
= 35+10
= 45 mm
Designated exposure condition - XC2
Chosen fire resistance period = 0.5 hours
Distance from centre of support
to face of support = 100 mm

Reinforcement details
Main bar diameter m = 16 mm
dia
Anticracking bar diameter l = 12 mm
dia

Material details
Normal concrete = 23.6 kN/m3
Material properties
Compressive strength class of concrete = C25/30
Characteristic strength of concrete = 30 N/mm2
Partial factor for concrete in flexure = 1.5
mcf
Partial factor for concrete in shear = 1.25
mcv
Concrete constant k1 = 0.7
Characteristic strength f = 500 N/mm2 (Main reinforcement)
y
Characteristic strength f = 500 N/mm2 (Anticrack reinforcement)
yl
Partial factor for Main reinforcement = 1.15
msl
Partial factor for Anticrack reinforcement = 1.15
msv
Reinforcement constant k2 = 225 (deformed bars)
Cylinder splitting tensile str. f = 2.74 N/mm2
t
Note: Characteristic strength of Anticrack reinforcement is 500 N/mm 2 only as per BS 8110-1 Amd.3.

Opening details
Depth of opening Dop = 0.3 m
Width of opening Wop = 0.3 m
Effective width of opening Wpe = 0.3 m
Distance from support face to nearer edge of opening
Ledge = 0.6 m
Distance from beam soffit to bottom of opening
Dbelop = 0.3 m

Loading details (factored)


Loadtype - UDL
Factored design load w = 0.3 kN/m
Factored self weight of beam Swt = 1.4*L*b*h*
= 1.4*2*0.7*1.2*23.6
= 55.51 kN
Equivalent point of application a1 = (L-2*(off/1000))/4
= (2-2*(100/1000))/4
= 0.45 m
Note: Effect of opening is not considered in self weight calculation.

Calculate design forces


Factored applied load F = w*L
= 0.3*2
= 0.6 kN
Design moment M = (F+Swt)*L/8
= (0.6+55.51)*2/8
= 15 kNm
Design shear force V = (F+Swt)/2
= (0.6+55.51)/2
= 29 kN

Calculate crack angle above and below opening


Ratios relating to position and size of opening
Distance from inner edge of opening to face of support
a1 = Ledge+Wpe
= 0.6+0.3
= 0.9 m
Slope of principal crack = a1/h
pcr
= 0.45/1.2
= 0.38
Slope to top of opening = Ledge/(Dbelop+Dop)
top
= 0.6/(0.3+0.3)
= 1
Slope to bottom of opening = a1/Dbelop
bot
= 0.9/0.3
= 3
Crack angle above opening = atan(h/a1)
U
= atan(1.2/0.45)
= 1.21 radians
Crack angle below opening =
L U
= 1.21 radians
= 69 degrees
Principal diagonal crack acts at 69 degrees to horizontal and doesn't intersect opening.

Determine main reinforcement


Calculated reinforcement area A = 1.55*M*103/(f *Dbelop)
sreq y
= 1.55*15*103/(500*0.3)
= 155 mm2
Minimum breadth of beam reqd. b = 0.65*V*103/(k1*(h-0.35*a1)*f *103)
min t
= 0.65*29*103/(0.7*(1.2-0.35*0.45)*2.74*103)
= 10 mm
Breadth of beam greater than minimum required (b > b ). Hence OK.
min
Calculated area of main reinforcement is less than minimum of 0.13 as specified in Table 3.25 of BS8110. Assign minimum
reinforcement.
Area of main reinforcement A = (Pmin/100)*b*h*106
sreq
= (0.13/100)*0.7*1.2*106
= 1092 mm2

Determine suitable bar arrangements


Provide 6 number of H 16 bars in 1 layer at 114 mm centres

Area provided A = N*PI*m 2/4


prov dia
= 6*3.14*(16)2/4
= 1207 mm2
Effective depth d = (h*1000-cover-l -0.5*m )
dia dia
= (1.2*1000-45-12-0.5*16)
= 1135 mm

Shear reinforcement
From Table 148 of 'Reinforced Concrete Designer's Handbook' using formulae C and D
Shear resistance of main bars V1 = Vx1 + Vx2
Vx1 = k1*(h-0.35*a1)*f *b*1000
t
= 0.7*(1.2-0.35*0.45)*2.74*0.7*1000
= 1400 kN
Vx2 = k2*A *d*(SIN( ))2/(h*1000*1000)
prov L
= 225*1207*1135*(SIN(1.21))2/(1.2*1000*1000)
= 225 kN
V1 = 1625 kN
Applied shear force is less than shear resistance, hence no shear reinforcement is needed.
Provide nominal reinforcement.

Anti-cracking Reinforcement
Equivalent maximum spacing sb = (l 2*f /500)
diayl
= ((12)2*500/500)
= 144 mm
Height through which side bars are to be provided measured up from bottom
hBars = 2/3*h*1000
= 2/3*1.2*1000
= 800 mm
Number of bars needed n = hBars/sb
Side
= 800/144
= 5.56
= 6
Spacing recalculated sb = 5*INT((hBars/n )/5)
Side
= 5*INT((800/6)/5)
= 130 mm
Adding end bars n = n +1
Side Side
= 6+1
= 7

As the overall beam depth exceeds 750 mm, 7 no. 12 mm horizontal high yield steel bars are to be provided at 130 mm
centres near each face over a height of 800 mm from the bottom of the section as per clauses 3.12.5.4 and 3.12.11.2.6. The
main tension reinforcement and any shear bars provided may be considered to contribute to this reinforcement.

Provide nominal vertical links through out the span.