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Lithium Battery

Best Practices Guide


First Edition, July 2013

IATA Lithium Batteries Best Practices Guide Edition 1


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Contents
Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................... 5
Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6
Chapter 1 - Awareness ....................................................................................................................................... 7
Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ 7
Investigation Reports.......................................................................................................................................... 7
Chapter 2 - Training ............................................................................................................................................ 9
The IATA Dangerous Goods Training Task Force (DGTTF) ........................................................................... 9
Dangerous Goods & Safety ................................................................................................................................ 9
Dangerous Goods Regulations (DGR) ............................................................................................................... 9
IATA Accredited Training Schools (ATS) ...................................................................................................... 10
Chapter 3 - Regulatory Oversight ................................................................................................................... 11
Annex 18 .......................................................................................................................................................... 11
ICAO Dangerous Goods Panel (DGP) ............................................................................................................. 11
IATA Dangerous Goods Board (DGB) ............................................................................................................ 11
Lithium Battery Regulatory Update ................................................................................................................. 12
ICAO Decision Temporarily Restricts Carriage of Lithium Ion Aircraft Batteries as Cargo on Passenger
Aircraft ............................................................................................................................................................. 13
Significant Changes and Amendments to the 54th Edition (2013) Of DGR ................................................... 13
FAA Alert 10017 .............................................................................................................................................. 13
Revision to ICAO Technical Instructions and IATA DGR for 2013 .............................................................. 14
PRBA stance .................................................................................................................................................... 14
Investigative Hearing: Boeing 787 Battery: April 23-24, 2013 ....................................................................... 15
Advisory notices issued on subject of LI batteries: ......................................................................................... 15
Chapter 4 - Technology .................................................................................................................................... 16
US DOT Flammability Assessment ................................................................................................................. 16
Boeing Fire Protection: Cargo Compartments: ................................................................................................ 16
Fire Containment Covers ................................................................................................................................. 16
Flight Safety Foundation .................................................................................................................................. 17
Chapter 5 - Supply Chain Management ........................................................................................................ 18
Mail .................................................................................................................................................................. 18
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Potential Cargo Screening ................................................................................................................................ 18
Passenger notification ...................................................................................................................................... 19
Checked baggage.............................................................................................................................................. 19
Guidance on Handling Dangerous Goods Incidents and Lithium Battery Fires in the Passenger Cabin ........ 19
Carriage by Passengers and Crew .................................................................................................................... 20
Lithium Battery Fires in Passenger Cabin........................................................................................................ 20
Electronic Cigarettes ........................................................................................................................................ 20
Post-Incident Offloading Procedures: Lithium Battery Fire in Passenger Cabin ............................................ 21
Lithium Battery Fires in the Flight Deck ......................................................................................................... 21
OEM Information ............................................................................................................................................. 22
International Aircraft Systems Fire Protection Working Group ....................................................................... 23
Royal Aeronautical Society.............................................................................................................................. 24
References and further information ................................................................................................................ 25

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Copyright Information

DISCLAIMER: The information contained in this publication is subject to constant review in the
light of changing government requirements and regulations. No subscriber or other reader should act
on the basis of any such information without referring to applicable laws and regulations and/or
without taking appropriate professional advice. Although every effort has been made to ensure
accuracy, the International Air Transport Association shall not be held responsible for any loss or
damage caused by errors, omissions, misprints or misinterpretation of the contents hereof.
Furthermore, the International Air Transport Association expressly disclaims any and all liability to
any person or entity, whether a purchaser of this publication or not, in respect of anything done or
omitted, and the consequences of anything done or omitted, by any such person or entity in reliance
on the contents of this publication.

International Air Transport Association. All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be
reproduced, recast, reformatted or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical,
including photocopying, recording or any information storage and retrieval system, without the prior
written permission from: Senior Vice President, Safety and Flight Operations (SFO).

2012 International Air Transport Association. All rights reserved.

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Foreword
During a meeting in 2012, the IATA Operations Committee (OPC) tasked the IATA Safety and Cargo
departments to develop a Lithium Battery Best Practices Guide to reduce the risks associated with the carriage
of Lithium (LI) batteries. This IATA LI Battery Best Practices Guide has five pillars with guidance and best
practices embedded in each pillar, as follows:

1. Awareness
2. Training
3. Regulatory oversight
4. Technology
5. Supply chain management

This is intended to be a living document, which will be updated as new material becomes available. There
will be updates from research in the industry, new mitigations from member airlines, best practices formulated
at workshops and seminars (hosted by IATA and others) and developing regulations and legislation. IATA
IDFS Cargo and SO&I Safety departments monitor the industry with regard to LI batteries and welcome
comments and suggestions for additional material from all stakeholders.

Comments, feedback, suggestions and requests for inclusion of new subject matter may be submitted to:
LI@IATA.org

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Scope
This guide is designed to outline mitigations to the risks associated with the carriage of LI batteries in
passenger and crew baggage and the transport of LI batteries as cargo on passenger and cargo aircraft. It is
designed to engage with all sections of the supply chain.

This guide will be updated continually to reflect feedback from industry and regulators and as new information
becomes available.

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Chapter 1 - Awareness
Introduction
IATA requirements for the transport of dangerous goods, including dangerous goods in passenger and crew
baggage, are actively managed through the IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations (DGR),
http://www.iata.org/publications/dgr/Pages/index.aspx
The DGR is recognized as the guide for shippers, forwarders, ground handling agents and carriers, ensuring the
safe shipment of dangerous goods by air.
IATA Cargo has developed a lithium battery guidance document. This guidance is updated annually to reflect
changes in regulatory requirements. The 2013 edition of the lithium battery guidance document is available at:
www.iata.org/lithiumbatteries
To assist shippers in understanding the detailed requirements for the preparation of lithium batteries consigned
as cargo, IATA Cargo developed a best-practice guide for shippers titled Guidelines for Shipping Lithium
Batteries by Air. The 2013 edition of this booklet is available at:
http://www.iata.org/publications/dgr/Pages/other-dgr-products.aspx
Awareness of the regulatory requirements for the transport of LI batteries across all parts of the supply chain is
a key component in achieving regulatory compliance and mitigating risk. Over the last two years IATA Cargo
has conducted 2-day lithium battery workshops in China and the United States with further workshops planned
during 2013. The primary target audience for these workshops has been manufacturers of lithium batteries and
equipment containing lithium batteries.
Additionally IATA Cargo has participated at other industry events with presentations on lithium battery
regulatory requirements, including a workshop in January 2013 organized Air Cargo Netherlands / Dutch
Shippers Council. There were also specific sessions on lithium batteries at the World Cargo Symposium in
Doha in March 2013, the Operations Conference in Vienna in April 2013 and the IGHC Ground Handling
Conference in Vancouver in May 2013.
Existing data for lithium batteries incidents indicates that the shipments involved in cargo and mail fires were
not prepared in compliance with the regulatory requirements. However, industry incident data is fragmented.
More detailed analysis of these incidents may provide information on potential causes and risk mitigation
strategies.
The ICAO Dangerous Goods Panel (DGP) has recognized that there needs to be inspection, surveillance and
oversight in the broader supply chain to ensure the safe transport of dangerous goods by air. Consequently the
DGP adopted a revision to Annex 18 to clarify that a States oversight responsibility extends to all entities in
the supply chain.

Investigation Reports
The UAE GCAA has now released the final report of the accident investigation into the crash of the UPS B74F
at Dubai in September 2010.
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The report is very comprehensive with a large number of findings and safety recommendations. The majority
of the recommendations are directed to FAA and EASA and relate to Class E cargo compartment fire
protection, ULD fire protection, aircraft systems and flight crew related improvements. The recommendations
start on page 197 of the report. The full report may be found here:
http://www.gcaa.gov.ae/en/pages/newsdetails.aspx?NewsID=368

Inflight Cargo Fire United Parcel Service Company Flight 1307, McDonnell Douglas DC-8-71F, N748UP,
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, February 7, 2006
http://www.ntsb.gov/doclib/reports/2007/AAR0707.pdf

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Chapter 2 - Training
Through its Dangerous Goods Regulations (DGR) and a comprehensive and effective training program, IATA
ensures that shippers, forwarders, and carriers have the tools and resources to ship dangerous goods safely.
IATA DG training programs are managed through Dangerous Goods Training Task Force (DGTTF).
More information may be found here:
http://www.iata.org/whatwedo/workgroups/Pages/dgttf.aspx
The successful application of the Dangerous Goods Regulations greatly depends on a full understanding of the
risks involved and a detailed understanding of the regulations. This can only be achieved by comprehensive
training programs. The training must be aligned with the scope of the applicable staff duties. Sub-Section 1.5
of the IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations contains this information.

The IATA Dangerous Goods Training Task Force (DGTTF)


The primary objectives of the DGTTF include:
Developing dangerous goods training standards to support member airlines in maintaining the
highest safety standards
Developing and reviewing the IATA Dangerous Goods Training Program to ensure that the
program is current and fully aligned to the IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations (DGR)
Maintaining the content of the IATA Guidelines for Instructors of Dangerous Goods Courses and
other training aids to assist instructors in the development and implementation of professional
training standards
Reviewing and updating qualification standards for instructors conducting dangerous goods training

More information may be found here:

http://www.iata.org/whatwedo/workgroups/Pages/dgttf.aspx

Dangerous Goods & Safety


The IATA 'Dangerous Goods Center of Expertise' strives to lead industry efforts to ensure the safe handling of
dangerous goods in air transport, by providing a broad array of technical knowledge, products, services and
training solutions tailored to meet industry needs. Ensuring that undeclared dangerous goods do not get on
board an aircraft is one of many key objectives of IATA's dangerous goods program.
More information may be found here:
http://www.iata.org/whatwedo/cargo/dgr/Pages/index.aspx

Dangerous Goods Regulations (DGR)


Information is key to any safety program, and certainly for dangerous goods in air transport. Through
its Dangerous Goods Regulations (DGR), IATA ensures that shippers, forwarders, and carriers have the tools
and resources to ship dangerous goods safely. The 54th edition of the Dangerous Goods Regulations came into
force on 1 January 2013.
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More information may be found here:
http://www.iata.org/publications/dgr/Pages/index.aspx
For more information on dangerous goods, you can visit the following links:

International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO): http://www.icao.int/Pages/default.aspx


UN Committee of Experts: http://www.unece.org/trans/danger/danger.html
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA): http://www.iaea.org/
DG Advisory Council: http://www.dgac.org/
World Nuclear Transport Institute: http://www.wnti.co.uk/
US Office of Hazardous Materials Safety: http://phmsa.dot.gov/hazmat

The IATA DGR helps industry prepare and document dangerous shipments. Recognized by the worlds
airlines for over 50 years, the DGR is the most complete, up-to-date, and user-friendly reference in the
industry. Here is a link to the products available on the IATA web site:
http://www.iata.org/publications/dgr/Pages/index.aspx

IATA Accredited Training Schools (ATS)


IATA training partners are independent organizations authorized by IATA to deliver training programs
locally. The Accredited Training Schools are authorized to deliver specialized technical and management
training courses, such as:
Dangerous Goods Regulations - Initial
Dangerous Goods Regulations - Recurrent
Dangerous Goods Regulations - Awareness
Infectious Substances Regulations
Radioactive Materials
These courses are available in Arabic, English, French, Mandarin and Spanish.
For more information on courses and training material, please visit:
http://www.iata.org/training/subject-areas/Pages/cargo.aspx

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Chapter 3 - Regulatory Oversight
Annex 18
Annex 18 deals with the "Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air". In general it sets down broad principles
but also requires that dangerous goods are carried in accordance with the Technical Instructions for the Safe
Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air (the Technical Instructions). States are required by Annex 18 to have
inspection and enforcement procedures to ensure that dangerous goods are being carried in compliance with
the requirements.

Dangerous goods are carried regularly and routinely by air all over the world. To ensure they do not put an
aircraft and its occupants at risk, there are international standards which each State (under the provisions of the
Chicago Convention) are required to introduce into national legislation. This system ensures governmental
control over the carriage of dangerous goods by air and gives world-wide harmonization of safety standards.

More information may be found here:

http://www.icao.int/safety/DangerousGoods/Pages/annex-18.aspx

ICAO Dangerous Goods Panel (DGP)


ICAO has primary responsibility for the development of the regulatory requirements for air transport of LI
batteries and other types of dangerous goods. This responsibility rests with the ICAO Dangerous Goods Panel
(DGP), which manages the content of the ICAO Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous
Goods by Air (Technical Instructions). The ICAO Technical Instructions is the legal reference document used
by the regulatory authorities, with respect to the transport of dangerous goods by air.

More information may be found here:


http://www.icao.int/safety/DangerousGoods/Pages/DGP.aspx

IATA Dangerous Goods Board (DGB)


The objectives of the DGB include:

Participating in the development of recommendations for amendments to the ICAO Technical Instructions
Document and ensuring their implementation into the IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations (DGR)
Providing a forum allowing member airlines to exchange and develop information specific to the transport
of dangerous goods contained in company material
Implementing a strategy for effective dangerous goods training standards worldwide for operators, ground
handling agents (GHA) and freight forwarders
Promoting an open dialogue with civil aviation authorities and the shipping industry throughout the world,
to ensure safe and compliant operations
Developing checklists and other tools to be used in establishing "proof of compliance" checks for
dangerous goods safety standards

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The DGB is tasked by the IATA Cargo Services Conference (CSC) with the development of the DGR to
ensure that the DGR content is aligned with the provisions of the ICAO Technical Instructions. In addition the
DGB approves the adoption of additional operational considerations based on formal submissions by member
airlines.

The DGB continues to have lithium battery safety as a standing work item. The provisions in the DGR with
respect to lithium batteries include some additional operational considerations based on DGB input. The DGR
requirements are enforced by the airlines at the point of cargo acceptance and are widely adopted by the entire
supply chain as the field guide for the transport of dangerous goods by air.

More information may be found here:


http://www.iata.org/whatwedo/cargo/dgr/Pages/index.aspx

Further information on dangerous goods may be found here:

International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)


http://www.icao.int/Pages/default.aspx

UN Committee of Experts
http://www.unece.org/trans/danger/danger.html

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)


http://www.iaea.org/

DG Advisory Council
http://www.dgac.org/

World Nuclear Transport Institute


http://www.wnti.co.uk/

US Office of Hazardous Materials Safety


http://phmsa.dot.gov/hazmat

Lithium Battery Regulatory Update


The ICAO Dangerous Goods Panel (DGP) held a special dedicated working group during 2012, focused on
lithium batteries. Specifically, papers were presented to consider how to address details of bulk shipments of
lithium batteries prepared under Section II of Packing Instructions 965 and 968 appearing on the written
information to the pilot-in-command.

In drafting the new text, the DGP has tried to balance the needs of the various stakeholders: shippers,
operators, and regulators, without imposing undue requirements on any single party. The entire lithium battery
supply chain will need to be in accord for these changes to work effectively. This means considerable
collaboration between all stakeholders.

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The ICAO Dangerous Goods Panel also identified that these changes alone will not necessarily reduce
incidents involving lithium batteries.

In order to significantly improve safety, IATA advocates enhanced outreach by regulatory authorities and
industry to manufacturers and shippers of lithium batteries and lithium battery powered equipment. This will
ensure that all parties are aware of the regulations applicable to the testing and transport of lithium batteries.
Regulatory authorities should also undertake more surveillance of shippers and, where necessary, appropriate
enforcement action.

The full report and a summary of the major changes can be found on ICAOs website:

http://www.icao.int/safety/DangerousGoods/Pages/Working-Group-of-the-Whole-on-Lithium-Batteries.aspx

http://www.faa.gov/other_visit/aviation_industry/airline_operators/airline_safety/safo/all_safos/media/2010/S
AFO10017.pdf

All requirements contained in the ICAO Technical Instructions are incorporated into the IATA DGR. In
addition, the DGR contains specific airline operational requirements. The provisions of the DGR are actively
applied by IATA member airlines.

ICAO Decision Temporarily Restricts Carriage of Lithium Ion Aircraft Batteries as


Cargo on Passenger Aircraft
http://www.icao.int/Newsroom/News%20Doc%202013/COM.3.13.EN.pdf

Significant Changes and Amendments to the 54th Edition (2013) Of DGR


The 54th edition of the IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations incorporates all amendments made by the
Dangerous Goods Board and includes changes to the 20132014 edition of the ICAO Technical Instructions.
These changes were incorporated into the 54th edition of the IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations and became
effective on 1 January 2013.

More information may be found here:

http://www.iata.org/whatwedo/cargo/dgr/Documents/DGR54-Significant-Changes.pdf

FAA Alert 10017


The FAA made four recommendations in its Safety Alert SAFO 10017. It said that airlines should:
1) Request customers to identify bulk shipments of currently excepted lithium batteries by information on
airway bills and other documents provided by shippers offering shipment of lithium batteries.
2) Where feasible and appropriate, stow bulk shipments of lithium batteries in Class C cargo compartments, or
in other locations where fire suppression is available.
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3) Evaluate training, stowage and communication protocols with respect to the transportation of lithium
batteries in the event of an unrelated fire.
4) Pay special attention to ensuring careful handling and compliance with existing regulations covering the air
transportation of Class 9 hazardous materials, including lithium batteries.

More information may be found at:


http://www.faa.gov/other_visit/aviation_industry/airline_operators/airline_safety/safo/all_safos/media/2010/S
AFO10017.pdf

Revision to ICAO Technical Instructions and IATA DGR for 2013


The above document is based on the provisions set out in the 2013-2014 Edition of the ICAO Technical
Instruction for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air and the 54th Edition of the IATA
Dangerous Goods Regulations (DGR).

The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for complying with provisions applicable to the
transport by air of lithium batteries as set out in the DGR. Specifically the document provides information
on:

Definitions;
Classification (including classification flowcharts);
Transport Conditions
Exceptions;
Special Provisions;
Packaging provisions for lithium batteries;
Prohibitions;
Passenger Provisions; and
Frequently Asked Questions

More information may be found here:

http://www.iata.org/whatwedo/cargo/dgr/Documents/Lithium-Battery-Guidance-2013-V1.1.pdf

PRBA stance
PRBA Urges PHMSA to Align U.S. Air Transport Rules for Lithium Batteries with Stricter International
Standards:

http://www.prba.org/general/prba-urges-phmsa-to-align-u-s-air-transport-rules-for-lithium-batteries-with-
stricter-international-standards-669/

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Investigative Hearing: Boeing 787 Battery: April 23-24, 2013
http://www.capitolconnection.net/capcon/ntsb/ntsb.htm

DOT/FAA/AR-06/38 Flammability Assessment of Bulk-Packed, Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Cells in


Transport Category Aircraft:
www.fire.tc.faa.gov/pdf/06-38.pdf

DOT/FAA/AR-04/26Flammability Assessment of Bulk-Packed, Non-rechargeable Lithium Primary


Batteries in Transport Category Aircraft:
www.fire.tc.faa.gov/pdf/04-26.pdf

DOT/FAA/AR-09/55 Flammability Assessment of Lithium-Ion and Lithium-Ion Polymer Battery Cells


Designed for Aircraft Power Usage
http://www.fire.tc.faa.gov/pdf/09-55.pdf

Advisory notices issued on subject of LI batteries:


17 July 2012
Hong Kong S.A.R. - Safe Transport of Lithium Batteries by Air (Hong Kong Dangerous Goods Advisory
Circular DGAC 2/2012)

3 July 2012
Hong Kong Dangerous Goods Advisory Circular DGAC 3/2012

8 February 2008
United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority, Dangerous Goods Office

12 February 2008
U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Aviation Administration Office of Security and
Hazardous Materials

17 April, 2008
International Federation of Air Line Pilots Associations (IFALPA)

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Chapter 4 - Technology
Recent cargo fires on freighter aircraft have highlighted the vulnerability of the main deck cargo compartment
to fires. As a result there are a number of different new technologies being pursued in the industry. These
include:

Methods to address improved fire detection and fire suppression for a main deck cargo compartment
(Class E cargo compartment)
Consideration on the use of fire containment covers (FCC) for cargo pallets
Consideration of fire suppression systems for installation in aircraft containers

More information may be found at the following links:

US DOT Flammability Assessment


U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Aviation Administration Flammability Assessment of Lithium-Ion
and Lithium-Ion Polymer Battery Cells Designed for Aircraft Power Usage (DOT/FAA/AR-09/55):
http://www.fire.tc.faa.gov/pdf/09-55.pdf

Boeing Fire Protection: Cargo Compartments:


http://www.boeing.com/commercial/aeromagazine/articles/2011_q2/3/

Fire Containment Covers


The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) are developing a specification for a fire containment cover (FCC)
for shipping pallets on aircraft to contain a fire for extended over water operation of up to 4 hours. Further
information here:
http://www.sae.org/works/documentHome.do?comtID=TEAAGE2A&docID=AS6453&inputPage=wIpSdOcD
eTaIlS

In addition, further information on this subject may be found at the following links:

ISO/FDIS 14186: Air cargo -- Fire containment covers -- Design, performance and testing requirements:
http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=54485

FAA Aircraft Materials Fire Test Handbook:


http://www.fire.tc.faa.gov/handbook.stm

UPS Pioneers Aviation Safety, Implements New Fire-Resistant Shipping Containers


Industry-Leading Devices Able to Contain Intense Fires for More Than Four Hours

http://www.pressroom.ups.com/Press+Releases/Current+Press+Releases/UPS+Pioneers+Aviation+Safety%2C
+Implements+New+Fire-Resistant+Shipping+Containers

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Flight Safety Foundation
Flight Safety Foundation article on cargo safety:
http://www.flightsafety.org/asw/nov06/asw_nov06_p28-33.pdf?dl=1

Flight Safety Foundation article on cargo fire suppression systems:


http://flightsafety.org/asw/nov09/asw_nov09_p39-43.pdf?dl=1

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Chapter 5 - Supply Chain Management
Management of the supply chain is spread across many regulatory arenas. However, LI battery shipment risk
management requires that products delivered to operators meet all regulatory requirements. Therefore,
regulatory compliance needs to be embedded at all levels of the supply chain.

Mail
In addition to changes to the regulations applicable to lithium batteries in cargo, the ICAO DGP agreed to a
request by the Universal Postal Union (UPU) to allow Designated Postal Operators (DPO) to accept in air mail
packages containing small lithium batteries installed in equipment to expand on the very limited items of
dangerous goods permitted in international air mail. The DGP agreed to the UPU request subject to:
1. The addition of specific dangerous goods training provisions for employees of DPOs responsible for the
acceptance of mail and employees handling mail intended for air transport. The DPO dangerous goods
training programs are subject to review and approval by the civil aviation authority (CAA) of the
applicable State.
2. DPOs developing and implementing procedures for controlling the introduction of dangerous goods in
the mail. These procedures are also subject to review and approval by the CAA where the mail is
accepted.
3. DPOs wishing to permit the acceptance of packages containing small lithium batteries installed in
equipment must receive specific approval from their local National Aviation Authority.
To address the safety issues associated with dangerous goods in air mail, the IATA Air Mail Panel (AMP)
considers the specific requirements for acceptance and transport of air mail. The AMP also meets with the
UPU and nominated DPO at the IATA/UPU Contact Committee to address specific items of concern.

IATA continually works with the UPU and the ICAO DGP on the development of dangerous goods training
material for DPO employees. In addition, IATA works with the Universal Postal Union (UPU) to enhance
awareness of the DPO on the risks associated with LI batteries in international air mail shipments, including
the development of standardized training materials for DPO employees.

Potential Cargo Screening


At the request of the ICAO Secretary-General, the Chairmen of the ICAO AvSec and the Chair of the
Dangerous Goods Panels have been requested to form a joint task force to look at areas of mutual interest.
The initial focus of the work is to consider the provisions for high consequence dangerous goods, which are
dangerous goods that have the potential for misuse in a terrorist event and which may, as a result, produce
serious consequences. There is a need to determine how best to incorporate the existing provisions for high
consequence dangerous goods into the AVSEC cargo screening requirements.
There is also an opportunity to consider how existing or future security provisions could be enhanced to
address the potential safety considerations to aid in the detection of undeclared dangerous goods in cargo
and/or mail. This will require careful consideration by the task force to ensure that there is no adverse
impact on security objectives and outcomes.

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IATA Cargo was represented on the joint task force through the ICAO DGP. The initial meeting of the joint
taskforce was held in March 2013 with report to the AvSecP and DGP meetings in April 2013.
More information on this panel may be found here:
http://www.icao.int/safety/DangerousGoods/Working%20Group%20of%20the%20Whole%2013/DGPWG.13.WP.06
5.6.Rev.en.pdf

Passenger notification
To address the requirements for spare lithium batteries carried by passengers in carry-on baggage, some
specific recommendations have been included in the DGR to alert airlines of the need to remind passengers
that items of carry-on baggage cannot be accommodated in the passenger cabin.
There are specific requirements in the DGR that airline booking and check-in websites must include provision
of information on dangerous goods which a passenger is forbidden to have in checked or carry-on baggage.
The website must require that the booking or check-in process cannot be completed until the passenger has
acknowledged that they have understood the restrictions on dangerous goods.
To address LI batteries in passenger baggage, IATA Cargo has developed a lithium battery passenger
pamphlet. This pamphlet is available for download and use at:
www.iata.org/lithiumbatteries

Checked baggage
Interesting information on cabin baggage from Cathay Pacific:
http://www.cathaypacific.com/cpa/en_INTL/faq/baggage/lithium-batteries
http://www.cathaypacific.com/cpa/en_INTL/helpingyoutravel/batteries#I

Travel advisory:
http://www.cathaypacific.com/cpa/en_INTL/helpingyoutravel/traveladvisories?refID=fd7f216711249310VgnVCM1000
000ad21c39____

Guidance on Handling Dangerous Goods Incidents and Lithium Battery Fires in


the Passenger Cabin
Lithium batteries are classified as dangerous goods and are regulated for transport by air. For air transport, the
provisions of the UN Model Regulations are incorporated into the Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport
of Dangerous Goods by Air published by ICAO. IATA publishes the Dangerous Goods Regulations (DGR),
which incorporate all of the provisions of the ICAO Technical Instructions (ICAO TIs) together with
additional operational requirements developed by the IATA Dangerous Goods Board.

More information on this can be found here:

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http://www.iata.org/whatwedo/safety/Documents/Guidance-on-Handling-Dangerous-Goods-Incidents-and-Lithium-
Battery-Fires-in-the-Passenger-Cabin.pdf

Carriage by Passengers and Crew


There is widespread usage of lithium batteries in consumer electronic devices such as laptop computers, mobile
phones, portable electronic tablets, readers and games. The provisions in the IATA DGR permit crew members
and passengers to carry lithium battery powered equipment in checked or carry-on baggage. Crew members
and passengers are also permitted to carry spare lithium batteries for such devices. Spare lithium batteries must
be in carry-on baggage and packaged in a way that protects the battery contacts from shorting

More information on this can be found here:

http://www.iata.org/whatwedo/safety/Documents/Guidance-on-Handling-Dangerous-Goods-Incidents-and-Lithium-
Battery-Fires-in-the-Passenger-Cabin.pdf

Lithium Battery Fires in Passenger Cabin


Airlines should have documented procedures in their operations manuals or in other appropriate company
documentation available to flight crew, cabin crew and ground staff. These should include procedures for
lithium battery events in the cabin (including overhead lockers), flight deck (EFB and crew personal electronic
items) and main deck cargo (if applicable).

More information may be found here:

http://www.iata.org/whatwedo/safety/Documents/Guidance-on-Handling-Dangerous-Goods-Incidents-and-Lithium-
Battery-Fires-in-the-Passenger-Cabin.pdf

In case of a fire involving a portable electronic device in which a passenger or crew member sustains a burn, it
should be treated as a chemical burn. For more information please consult the IATA Medical Manual at the
following link:

www.iata.org/health

The following video by the US Federal Aviation Administration: Extinguishing In-Flight Laptop Computer
Fires may be considered for viewing during cabin crew training. It demonstrates a laptop battery fire and
resulting thermal runaway. Another video to consider for viewing during cabin crew training is Cabin Crew
Fire Fighting Training Video. Both are available for viewing at the following link:

http://www.fire.tc.faa.gov/2007Conference/session_details.asp?sessionID=26

Electronic Cigarettes

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An electronic cigarette is a smoking simulation and/or cessation device that mimics smoking. It is considered
an electronic device as most electronic cigarettes are powered by lithium batteries. Electronic simulated
smoking materials include: electronic cigarettes, electronic cigars and electronic pipes.

More information may be found here:

http://www.iata.org/whatwedo/safety/Documents/Guidance-on-Handling-Dangerous-Goods-Incidents-and-
Lithium-Battery-Fires-in-the-Passenger-Cabin.pdf

Post-Incident Offloading Procedures: Lithium Battery Fire in Passenger Cabin


It is recommended that an air operator have post-incident offloading procedures. A portable electronic device
or lithium battery that has been involved in a fire or smoke event is not permitted in either passenger baggage
or in cargo unless the lithium battery(ies) have been removed from the device. Where the lithium battery(ies)
cannot be removed from the device then the portable electronic device is forbidden in air transport. In
accordance with Special Provision A154 of in the IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations, a lithium battery that
has been damaged or that have the potential of producing a dangerous evolution of heat, fire or short circuit or
is leaking, is forbidden for air transport in passenger baggage and in cargo.

Damaged lithium batteries may only be shipped as cargo under an exemption. An exemption is required from
the State of origin, State of destination, State of transit (as applicable) State of the operator, as well as the
States of over-flight. The device may be required to be classified as waste and additional regulations could
apply which would restrict international transport. In addition, it is recommended that the local Civil Aviation
Authority (CAA) is must be advised of the incident as they might like to retrieve the article for investigation
purposes. The Airport Operator may already have procedures in place for the disposal of dangerous goods.
Note: Batteries should never be incinerated.

More information may be found here:

http://www.iata.org/whatwedo/safety/Pages/cabin-safety.aspx

Lithium Battery Fires in the Flight Deck


This is a very difficult area to legislate or advise on, as there are several factors that may adversely affect
firefighting in the flight deck. As is advised in the link above on cabin fires, the most effective method is to
douse the LI battery fire with water. However, if water is used in any quantity in the flight deck, there is a
danger of water ingress into essential equipment.

There are numerous pieces of equipment in the flight deck that are powered by LI batteries. For example, LI
battery powered Electronic Flight Bag and emergency torches. In addition to this, the crew may have a number
of personal electronic devices. In the event of one of these pieces of equipment failing and causing a fire, there
are concerns surrounding the moving of the device to the cabin before it has been cooled with liquid. Some
aviation bodies recommend against doing this, due to concerns that it subjects crew to additional risk and the
likelihood of injury. The view is that while recognizing the reluctance to introduce liquid into the flight deck, a
fire is a greater emergency in a scenario involving a LI battery in the flight deck.
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It may be that there is sufficient redundancy in aircraft systems to cope with loss of equipment due to liquid
spillage. Furthermore, critical electronics under the flight deck floor are shielded from leaking liquids.
However, if the LI battery fire is not cooled with water (or other suitable liquid), the fire will continue to
propagate. In addition, cabin crew (or indeed, flight crew) may be severely injured if trying to move a burning
LI battery without first dousing the flames and cooling it with water.

There appears to be a lack of legislation or procedures from aircraft manufacturers and legislative bodies and
this is probably due to the fact that this is an emerging threat. In the absence of other guidance, it is strongly
recommended that carriers develop their own set of protocols for dealing with a LI battery fire in the flight
deck. If the proposed procedure entails introducing water into the flight deck, it is advisable to consult with the
aircraft manufacturer. As all flight decks are equipped differently, these procedures should be designed to deal
with the threat in the most efficacious manner, pertinent to the layout of the flight deck and type of equipment
installed and carried.

OEM Information
The following Boeing Commercial Airplanes Aviation Policy Brief becomes effective January 1, 2014

Air Transport of Lithium Batteries


The Boeing Company supports and advocates for global harmonized requirements related to the air transport of
batteries. Boeing supports overall efforts to develop effective protective packaging materials for dangerous
goods packages with shipping containers or fire containment covers to facilitate the safe shipment of lithium
batteries as cargo. Boeing fully supports the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) guidance from
the Dangerous Goods Panel (DGP) on carriage of Lithium batteries.

In January 2010, the US Department of Transportation (DOT) issued a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM)
to update the existing 2009 rules on the air transport of lithium batteries. At the conclusion of the public
comment period DOT elected to follow existing ICAO guidance on the transport of lithium batteries.
Subsequently, Congress adopted amendment HR 658 to the FAA reauthorization bill, which requires that U.S.
regulations conform to ICAO standards with the exception that the existing DOT prohibition of lithium metal
batteries as cargo on passenger airplanes remains in effect. HR 658 was enacted on February 14, of 2012 as
part of the FAA Modernization & Reform Act.

More information may be found here:

http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/112/hr658

On January 1, 2013, changes to ICAOs rules associated with transporting lithium batteries by air came into
effect. These changes, intended to further enhance safe carriage, include required training for shippers;
compliance checks prior to loading and stowage of lithium batteries aboard airplanes; and pilot notification of
the presence, location, and quantity of most lithium battery shipments aboard the airplanes. Regulators are also
provided a more comprehensive framework for training, oversight and enforcement.

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More information may be found here:

http://www.icao.int/safety/DangerousGoods/Pages/Working-Group-of-the-Whole-on-Lithium-Batteries.aspx

Additionally, ICAO Electronic Bulletin 2011/7 approved by the Dangerous Goods Panel (DGP) has
emphasized more stringent packaging standards for Lithium batteries; requires enhanced hazard
communication on the presence of Lithium batteries in shipments, including CAUTION! on the shipping
label. It is now forbidden to transport by air damaged or defective lithium batteries. Reporting of all incidents
involving transport of lithium batteries to the appropriate national civil aviation authority is also required.
There is also a reminder to all member states to engage with the airline industry to promote this bulletin and
safety awareness.

On February 13, 2013, ICAO issued a fast track amendment to the technical instructions to rescind permission
allowing lithium ion airplane batteries up to 35kg to be shipped on passenger airplanes This amendment will
restrict air transport of lithium ion airplane batteries to cargo-only airplanes. The technical instructions which
had become effective on January 1, 2013 allowed airline operators the flexibility to transport lithium ion
airplane batteries on either passenger or cargo-only airplanes.

The US DOT published an NPRM on August 15, 2012 to formally harmonize the Hazardous Materials
Regulations (HMR) with the changes made to the ICAO Technical Instructions. The final rule is now adopted
with voluntary compliance beginning January 1, 2013 and required compliance of all US Airlines to begin
January 1, 2014.

In 2012 Boeing issued a Multi-Operator Message MOM-MOM-12-0356-01B (dated 22 May 2012) to share
regulatory and guidance information for lithium battery cargo transport.

More information can be found here:

http://www.fire.tc.faa.gov/pdf/systems/Nov12Meeting/Boeing-1112-LithiumBatteryCargoAwareness.pdf

International Aircraft Systems Fire Protection Working Group


The link below brings you to the FAA Fire Protection Working Group website. The International Aircraft
System Fire Protection Working Group was established as the International Halon Replacement Working
Group in October 1993. This working group meets twice per year. One meeting is held in Atlantic City, New
Jersey, area and one meeting is held at a host organization at another location. This group originally developed
minimum performance standards and test methodologies for non halon aircraft fire suppression agents/systems
in cargo compartments, engine nacelles, hand held extinguishers, and lavatory trash receptacles. The groups
focus has been expanded to include all system fire protection R&D for aircraft.

More information can be found here:

http://www.fire.tc.faa.gov/systems.asp

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Royal Aeronautical Society
Royal Aeronautical Society Study on Smoke, Fire and Fumes in Transport Aircraft: Past History, Current Risk
And Recommended Mitigations:
http://flightsafety.org/files/RAESSFF.pdf

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References and further information
CASA

Portable Electronic Devices containing Lithium Metal or Lithium Ion Cells or Batteries
http://www.casa.gov.au/scripts/nc.dll?WCMS:STANDARD::pc=PC_100484
Passengers warned of lithium battery safety risk
http://www.casa.gov.au/scripts/nc.dll?WCMS:STANDARD::pc=PC_100547
Dangerous goods that may be carried by passengers and crew
http://www.casa.gov.au/scripts/nc.dll?WCMS:STANDARD::pc=PC_90372

Dangerous Goods Lithium poster


http://www.casa.gov.au/wcmswr/_assets/main/dg/luggage/lithium_battery_poster.pdf
FAA

Safety Alert For Operators (SAFO) 10017 Risks in Transporting Lithium Batteries in Cargo by Aircraft
http://www.faa.gov/other_visit/aviation_industry/airline_operators/airline_safety/safo/all_safos/media/2010/SAF
O10017.pdf
Safety Alert for Operators (SAFO) 09013 - Fighting Fires Caused By Lithium Type Batteries in Portable
Electronic Devices
http://www.faa.gov/other_visit/aviation_industry/airline_operators/airline_safety/safo/all_safos/media/2009/SAF
O09013.pdf
BATTERIES & BATTERY-POWERED DEVICES Aviation Incidents Involving Smoke, Fire, Extreme Heat or
Explosion
http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/ash/ash_programs/hazmat/aircarrier_info/media/Batte
ry_incident_chart.pdf
The following information expands upon SAFO 09013
http://www.faa.gov/other_visit/aviation_industry/airline_operators/airline_safety/safo/all_safos/media/2009/SAF
O09013SUP.pdf

IATA

http://www.iata.org/whatwedo/cargo/dgr/Pages/index.aspx
http://www.iata.org/publications/tracker/may-2012/Pages/lithium-battery.aspx
http://www.iata.org/training/subject-areas/Pages/cargo.aspx
Guidance on Handling Dangerous Goods Incidents and Lithium Battery Fires in the Passenger Cabin
www.iata.org/cabin-safety
ICAO

International Civil Aviation Organizations (ICAO) Emergency Response Guidance for Aircraft Incidents
Involving Dangerous Goods (Doc 9481 AN/926)
http://www.icao.int/safety/DangerousGoods/Working%20Group%20of%20the%20Whole%20on%20Li
thium%20Batteries201/DGPWGLB.1.WP.015.en.pdf
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http://www.icao.int/Search/pages/Results.aspx?k=lithium%20battery

Skybrary

Lithium-Ion Aircraft Batteries as a Smoke/Fire Risk


http://www.skybrary.aero/index.php/Lithium-
Ion_Aircraft_Batteries_as_a_Smoke/Fire_Risk?utm_source=SKYbrary&utm_campaign=747bfc81a5-
SKYbrary_Highlight_07_02_2013&utm_medium=email

Transport Canada

Service Difficulty Alert - PROCEDURES FOR FIGHTING FIRES CAUSED BY LITHIUM TYPE
BATTERIES IN PORTABLE ELECTRONIC DEVICES
http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/civilaviation/certification/continuing-alert-2009-06-698.htm

UK CAA
FOD201030 (30/2010) THE CARRIAGE OF LITHIUM BATTERIES AS CARGO
http://www.caa.co.uk/docs/33/FOD201030.pdf

Miscellaneous
IATA information on lithium batteries
http://www.iata.org/publications/tracker/may-2012/Pages/lithium-battery.aspx

IATA training
http://www.iata.org/training/subject-areas/Pages/cargo.aspx

ICAO Dangerous Goods Panel


http://www.icao.int/safety/DangerousGoods/Working%20Group%20of%20the%20Whole%2011/DGPWG.2011.IP.002.
5.en.pdf

ICAO guidance material


http://www.icao.int/safety/DangerousGoods/Documents/Guidance%20Material/ICAOLithiumBatteryGuidance.pdf

FAA Hazardous Materials Program


http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/ash/ash_programs/hazmat/aircarrier_info/media/Battery_incid
ent_chart.pdf

ICAO web site


http://www.icao.int/Pages/default.aspx

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United Nations Economic Commission for Europe dangerous goods
http://www.unece.org/trans/danger/danger.html

International Atomic Energy Agency


http://www.iaea.org/

Dangerous Goods Advisory Council


http://www.dgac.org/

World Nuclear Transport Industry


http://www.wnti.co.uk/

Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration


http://www.phmsa.dot.gov/portal/site/PHMSA/menuitem.ebdc7a8a7e39f2e55cf2031050248a0c/?vgnextoid=70fa3dd389
2fb310VgnVCM1000001ecb7898RCRD&vgnextchannel=8fd9f08df5f3f010VgnVCM1000008355a8c0RCRD&vgnextf
mt=print

ICAO DGP Working Group Of The Whole On Lithium Batteries


http://www.icao.int/safety/DangerousGoods/Working%20Group%20of%20the%20Whole%20on%20Lithium%20Batteri
es201/DGPWGLB.1.WP.015.en.pdf

IATA Cargo Department web page


http://www.iata.org/whatwedo/cargo/dgr/Pages/index.aspx

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