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# RANGANATHAN POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE

## 22032 FLUID MECHANICS AND FLUID POWER

PREPARED BY
RAJESH KANNAN A
LECTURER/MECHANICAL
22032 FLUID MECHANICS AND FLUID POWER III SEM/II YEAR

## Fluids having high viscosity flow slowly.

(Ex) Crude oil, Honey

## 7. Write the formula to find intensity of pressure.

P=WH
UNIT 1
1. Define density of fluid. 8. State applications of Pascals Law.
The mass per unit volume of a fluid is called density. It is
1. Hydraulic press
denoted by Greek symbol (rho)
Density (p) = Mass / volume = M/V = Kg/ m3 2. Hydraulic jack
2. Which fluid is called Newtonian fluid? 3. Hydraulic brake
They follow the Newtons law of viscosity. i.e., In Newtonian
4. Hydraulic lift
fluids, shear stress is proportional to the rate of shear strain
5. Hydraulic crane.
(Ex) Water, Oil, Air, etc
9. Define absolute pressure.
3. What is the value of specific weight of water?
WW = 9.81KN/m3 The actual pressure measured above complete vacuum is
4. What is the unit of surface tension? called absolute pressure.
The unit of surface tension is N/m Absolute pressure = atmospheric pressure + Gauge
5. Give an example for real fluid. pressure
Air, Water 10. How does the pressure is measured?
6. Define viscosity. 1. Manometer
It is the property by which fluids offers resistance to flow. 2. Mechanical gauges
Fluids having low viscosity flow fast. 11. Which instrument is used to measure atmospheric
pressure?
(Ex) Water

## One marks& Answers PREPARED BY: RAJESH KANNAN A, LECT/MECH Page 2

22032 FLUID MECHANICS AND FLUID POWER III SEM/II YEAR

## Barometer 1. It is used for very accurate pressure measurement

12. What is the use of simple manometer? 2. It is used for measuring the pressure of other instrument.
It measures the pressure at a point in a pipe carrying liquid.
19. What is piezometer?
13. Which instrument is used to measure the lower
Piezometer tube is used to measure low pressure.
differential pressure?
Manometer
20. What is adhesion?
14. What are the advantages of micro manometer?
Adhesion is defined as the molecular attraction between the
Micro Manometer is used to measure the low pressure.
two different molecules of different substance such as liquid
15. What are the difference between manometer and molecules and solid molecules.
mechanical gauges? 21. Define Fluid Mechanics.
1. Manometer measures low pressure It is the branch of science which deals with the behaviour of
2. Mechanical gauges measure high pressure. fluids at rest and motion.
22. Define dynamic viscosity.
16. Convert the vacuum pressure 24.52 KN/m2 into meter of
It is the shear stress required to produce a unit rate of shear
water. strain in a fluid. It is denoted by and unit is N-S/m2.
Vacuum pressure = 24.52 KN/m2 23. What is surface tension?

= 24.52 x 103 N / m2 It is the tensile force acting on the free surface of a liquid. It

= 24.52 x 103 / 9810 is due to cohesion at the free surfaces. It is denoted by and its

## = 2.4995 Meter of water unit is N/m.

17. What is the relation between pressure and pressure 26. What is the use of dead weight pressure gauge?

## h = P/W 27. Define ideal fluid.

18. List any two advantages of dead weight pressure gauge. A fluid having density only as a property is called Ideal fluid.

## One marks& Answers PREPARED BY: RAJESH KANNAN A, LECT/MECH Page 3

22032 FLUID MECHANICS AND FLUID POWER III SEM/II YEAR

## 28. Define specific weight.

It is defined as the weight per unit volume
Specific weight (w) = weight (w)/volume (v)
Its unit is kN/m3.

## 29. Define relative density.

Relative density, or specific gravity is the ratio of the density
(mass of a unit volume) of a substance to the density of a
given reference material. Specific gravity usually means
relative density with respect to water. The term "relative
density" is often preferred in modern scientific usage. 32. Difference between vaccum gauge and pressure gauge.
30. Define capillary. If the pressure to be measured is above the atmospheric
It is the ability of a liquid to flow in narrow spaces without pressure, then it is called Gauge pressure. It is called
the assistance of, and in opposition to, external forces like
positive pressure. Ex: Boiler steam pressure.
gravity.
31. Define pressure head. If the pressure to be measured is below the atmospheric
Pressure head is a term used in fluid mechanics to represent pressure, then it is called Vaccum pressure. It is called
the internal energy of a fluid due to the pressure exerted on negative pressure. Ex: Suction of a pump.
its container. It may also be called static pressure head or 33. What is the use of inclined tube micro manometer?
simply static head.
The fluid level in manometer will rise through an inclined
line rather than vertical line. So whenever there is slight
variation in pressure the manometer (inclined) will be able
read it. The pressure drop is given by

P=h*density*g*sin (angle).

## One marks& Answers PREPARED BY: RAJESH KANNAN A, LECT/MECH Page 4

22032 FLUID MECHANICS AND FLUID POWER III SEM/II YEAR

UNIT - 2 constant at all sections. The total head is the sum of datum,

1. Name the types of liquid flow where the liquid particles kinetic and pressure heads.

are crossed in their path. 7. Name the energy which is possessed by motion of fluid
particle.
In turbulent flow, particles do not have a definite path and
Kinetic Energy.
moves in an irregular way. The individual path of each
8. Write any two application of Bernoullis theorem.
particles cross with each other and eddies are formed and
high energy loss occurs in the flow. i) Pitot tube
ii) Venturi meter

## 2. Define steady flow of fluid. iii) Orifice meter

In these flow properties of fluid such as pressure, velocity, 9. How does the river flow velocity measure?
density, temperature, viscosity etc.., at any particles do not By using Pitot tube.
change with respect to time.
10. Name the liquid coming out from the nozzle.
3. Define energy.
Jet
Energy is defined as the capacity to do work.
11. Write the formula to find actual discharge of
4. Name the flow line which curve traced by single fluid
venturimeter.
particle.
Actual discharge Qact=c2gh (a1a2/a12-a22)
Path line
5. Write the formula for total energy of fluid flow. 12. What is a laminar flow?
Total energy=W (Z+p/w+V2/2G) A laminar flow is one in which fluid particles move in layers.
6. State Bernoullis theorem. 13. What is the major loss in flow through pipe?
Bernoullis theorem states that, In an ideal, incompressible, Loss of head due to friction is the major loss.
steady and continuous flow, the total head of flowing fluid is 14. List any two difference of orifice and venturi meter.

## One marks& Answers PREPARED BY: RAJESH KANNAN A, LECT/MECH Page 5

22032 FLUID MECHANICS AND FLUID POWER III SEM/II YEAR

Sl no. Venturi meter Orifice meter 21. Write the condition for small orifice.
H>5d.
1 Cd is high Cd is less 22. Write the formula for finding Cv by experimental
2 method.
Requires more space Less space
Cv=X2/4yH.
3 It is costly It is cheaper 23. List out the minor losses?
Loss of head due to sudden enlargement in pipe
Sudden contraction in pipe
15. What is value of datum head when the pipe is horizontal
position? Bends in pipe.
Z=0 24. What did Froude conclude his experiment?
16. Define the term coefficient of discharge. Froude, a scientist, conducted a number of experiments
Co-efficient of discharge= Actual discharge to determine the fluid friction.
Theoretical discharge 25. Define hydraulic gradient line.
On account of the loss of head due to friction, the
17. What is an orifice?
pressure head will decrease gradually from section to section
An opening in a vessel, through which the liquid flow out, along the pipe in the direction of flow.
is known as orifice. 26. What is hydraulic mean depth?
18. Name the section where the area of jet is minimum. Hydraulic mean depth= Cross section area/ Wetted
At the vena-contracta. perimeter.
19. Define the term actual velocity. M= a/.d = /4d2/.d = d/4
The measured velocity is called actual velocity. 27. Write the formula for head loss due to friction.
20. What is the relation between hydraulic coefficients? 1. Hf=FL/2GD [v] based on velocity
Cd= Cc X Cv. 2. Hf =flv2/12d2[Q based on discharge]

## One marks& Answers PREPARED BY: RAJESH KANNAN A, LECT/MECH Page 6

22032 FLUID MECHANICS AND FLUID POWER III SEM/II YEAR

28. How will you find the velocity of flow using Chezy It is defined as the ration between the area of the jet at vena
constant? contracta and area at the orifice.
Chezy formula v=cmi
Cc = Area at vena-contracta
29. Write the loss of head due to sudden enlargement.
Area at the orifice
H1= [V1-V2]2/2g
36. Define path line.
30. Write the condition for maximum transmission through
The path followed by a fluid particle in motion is called a
pipe.
path line. It shows the direction of fluid flow.
Power transmitted P =w.a.v [H-4flv2/2gd]
37. Define wetted perimeter.
31. What is the efficiency of maximum power transmission?
It is the surface, which is in contact with water.
Efficiency =H- (hf/H) 100
Wetted perimeter = .d
32. What is the formula for power transmission through
pipe? 38. Define the hydraulic mean radius.
Power transmission =w.a.v [H-4flv2/2gd] It is the ratio of the area of flow and the wetted perimeter.

33. Write the loss of head due to sudden contraction. Hydraulic mean radius = area of flow (a)
Wetted perimeter (p)
Loss of head due to contraction =0.375v2/2g
34. Write the assumptions made in Bernoullis theorem. 39. What is coefficient of velocity?
It is the ratio between the actual velocity of the jet and the
Flow is steady.
theoretical velocity of the jet.
Flow is continuous.
40. Write the equation of continuity of fluid flow.
Flow is ideal.
a1v1 = a2v2 = a3v3 = constant
35. Define coefficient of contraction.

UNIT 3

## One marks& Answers PREPARED BY: RAJESH KANNAN A, LECT/MECH Page 7

22032 FLUID MECHANICS AND FLUID POWER III SEM/II YEAR

1. Define the term impact of jet. 8. Write any two difference of Kaplan turbine and Francis
A jet of water issuing from nozzle has a velocity and hence turbine.
it possesses Kinetic energy. If this jet strikes a plate, it will
Francis turbine Kaplan turbine
exert an impact force on the plate. This force is called It is radially inward flow
It is axial flow turbine
dynamic force. It is called impact of jet. turbine
2. Write down the expression for the force exerted by a jet Medium height turbine Low height turbine

## on a fixed vertical plate in the direction at the jet.

9. Name the type of turbine where both pressure and kinetic
Force exerted, FX = av2 energy of water converted into mechanical energy.
Reaction turbine
10. What is the function of draft tube?
3. State the application of impact of jet.
1. It decreases the pressure at the runner exit less than
1. Pelton turbine
atmospheric pressure and there by increases the working
2. Jet pump
head.
4. What is the energy conversion in turbines? 2. The turbine can be installed above the tail race and hence
Hydraulic energy is converted in to mechanical energy. the turbine can be inspected and repaired properly.
5. Write the example for impulse turbine. 3. As the working head increases, efficiency of the turbine
Pelton wheel will increase.
6. Name the turbine where the water enters radially and 11. Name the device which is used to relive the excess
leaves the runner axially. pressure in penstock.
Francis turbine. Surge tank
12. What are the different types of surge tank?
7. What is the range of low head turbines?
Simple surge tank
Below 30m.

## One marks& Answers PREPARED BY: RAJESH KANNAN A, LECT/MECH Page 8

22032 FLUID MECHANICS AND FLUID POWER III SEM/II YEAR

## Restricted orifice type 19. Define the term mechanical efficiency.

Differential surge tank Mechanical efficiency = Work done by the impeller
13. List out different types of pumps. X 100
Work done by the motor
Centrifugal pump and
20. Write the formula for finding manometer head in
Reciprocating pump. centrifugal pump.
14. What is the name of chamber used to surround the
Hmano = Hs + Hfs + Hd + Hfd + V2 / 2g
impeller?
21. What is cavitation?
Casing If the absolute pressure of water pump falls below 2.6 m
of water abs (vapour pressure), water begins to boil.
Bubbles are formed. These bubbles move along with water.
22. What is slip?
15. What is priming?
Slip = Theoretical discharge actual discharge
Removal of air present in the casing, impeller and suction
pipe, by filling in the pump with liquid is known as priming. 23. Write down the formula to find actual discharge of
16. Name the different type of casing. double acting reciprocating pump.
Volute casing Qt = 2ALN
24. What is the function of air vessel?
Vortex casing
On suction side
Diffuser or turbine casing 1. Separation is prevented
17. Write any one advantage of multi stage pump. 2. Speed of pump is increased
Head per stage is less hence leakage losses are avoided 3. Frictional loss in suction pipe is placed
25. Write down the formula to find the percentage of slip.
speed is not high.
Percentage of slip = Qt - Qa / Qt x 100
18. What is unit used in pump to prevent (or) filter the
26. What is the formula to find power required to drive the
foreign material?
reciprocating pump?
Strainer

## One marks& Answers PREPARED BY: RAJESH KANNAN A, LECT/MECH Page 9

22032 FLUID MECHANICS AND FLUID POWER III SEM/II YEAR

Power = WALN (Hs + Hd) Watts, (Single acting pump) Air vessel is a cast iron chamber having an opening at the
27. Where is centrifugal pump suitable? bottom through which water flows into or out of the
Centrifugal pump is suitable in large discharge and small chamber. Air vessels are fitted to the suction and delivery
heads. pipes, very close o the cylinder.
28. Why impellers are connected in series in a multi stage
centrifugal pump? UNIT- 4
To produce high head, impellers are connected in series. 1. What is pneumatic system?
Pneumatic system uses air as fluid medium. It uses
pressurized air to transmit and air to control power. Air is
safe low cost and readily available fluid.
29. Define negative slip.
The difference between the actual discharge and theoretical 2. List out important elements of pneumatic system.
discharge is called negative slip. Compressors
30. Name any two reaction turbines. Valves
Francis Turbine Filters
Kaplan turbine Regulators
31. State the function of surge tank. Lubricators
To maintain a constant speed of the turbine by regulating Actuators
the flow of water and to store the rejected water when load Sensors
on turbine decreases. Relays
3. What is the function of regulator?
32. Define Air vessel.

## One marks& Answers PREPARED BY: RAJESH KANNAN A, LECT/MECH Page 10

22032 FLUID MECHANICS AND FLUID POWER III SEM/II YEAR

The main function of the pressure regulator is to maintain In metering in circuit the flow control valve is located in
and supply a constant pressure to the system irrespective the pressure line leading to the pneumatic cylinder.
supply from the reservoir. 10. What is metering out circuit?
4. What is direction valve? In metering out circuit the flow control valve is located in
A direction control valve is used to change the direction of the return stroke side of the pneumatic circuit.
air flow as and when required by the system for the 11. Draw the ISO standard symbol for filter.
reciprocating motion of machine tool devices.
5. What is meant by 3/2 DCV?
3 Holes 2 position direction control valve.
12. Draw the ISO standard symbol for check valve.
6. What type of DCV is used in double acting cylinder?
4/2 DCV

## 7. What is the function of check valve?

13. Draw the ISO standard symbol for air compressor.
It is used to allow the air in only one direction and reverse
flow is not at all possible.
8. What is the function of quick exhaust valve?
A quick exhaust valve is primarily used with spring return
single acting pneumatic cylinder to exhaust quickly from the 14. What is meant by pilot operated DCV?
cylinder during return stroke.
The control valves operate like standard check valves, but
9. What is meant by metering in circuit? can permit reverse flow when required. They are called
pilot-to-open check valves because they are normally

## One marks& Answers PREPARED BY: RAJESH KANNAN A, LECT/MECH Page 11

22032 FLUID MECHANICS AND FLUID POWER III SEM/II YEAR

closed but can be opened for reverse flow by a signal 19. Draw the ISO symbol for 5/2 DCV.
from an external pilot supply.

## 15. Write some of the merits of pneumatic system.

Less maintenance
Less pollution
Air can be used in high ambient temperatures
It is less expensive than hydraulic systems 20. What is the application of throttle valve?
It is used where precise adjustment of flow is necessary
16. What is the use of lubrication in pneumatic system? and where small rate of flow is needed.
Adequate lubrication allows smooth continuous operation 21. What is the use of filter?
of equipment, with only mild wear, and without excessive To prevent the entry of water droplets, impurities present in
stresses or seizures at bearings. When lubrication breaks the incoming air, filter is used.
down, metal or other components can rub destructively 22. What are the types of speed control circuits?
over each other, causing destructive damage, heat, and Meter-in circuit.
failure. Meter-out circuit.
Bleed-off circuit.
17. What is cracking pressure of valve? 23. What are the types of pressure control valves?

It is the minimum upstream pressure at which the valve will Pressure relief valve
operate. Pressure reducing valve
18. Draw the ISO symbol for FRL unit. 24. List some of the applications of the pneumatic system.
Robotic power drives.
For material handling operations.
For process control in textile industry.

## One marks& Answers PREPARED BY: RAJESH KANNAN A, LECT/MECH Page 12

22032 FLUID MECHANICS AND FLUID POWER III SEM/II YEAR

## UNIT 5 6. Define De emulsibility.

1. What is hydraulic system? The capacity of oil to separate rapidly and completely from

The system which transmits power from one place to water is known as De emulsibility. So the oil must have the
another place by using pressurized oil or water is called property to resist mixing of oil with water and avoid
hydraulic system.
foaming.
2. Where are hydraulic systems preferred?
Hydraulic system is preferred in heavy load applications 7. What is flash point?
where high pressures are required. It is the lower temperature at which momentary flash occurs
3. What are the elements of hydraulic system? when the flame is introduced.
1. Pump 8. What is fire point?
2. Reservoir The lowest temperature at which the oil vapour burns
3. Control valve continuously when a flame is introduced is known as fire
4. Actuator
point.
4. What are the properties of hydraulic fluid?
1. Viscosity
2. Viscosity Index
3. Lubricity
4. De emulsibility 9. What is cloud point?
5. Oxidation stability The lowest temperature at which the oil crystallizes into wax
6. Rust prevention is known as cloud point. When the temperature is very low
7. Flash and fire point
waxes are formed.
5. What is viscosity index?
10. What is the function of accumulator?
The rate of change of viscosity with temperature is called
To act as a pressure regulator for starting and stopping of
viscosity index. If the changes in viscosity of oil are very
pumps.
small to a particular change in temperature, then that oil is
said to have high viscosity index.

## One marks& Answers PREPARED BY: RAJESH KANNAN A, LECT/MECH Page 13

22032 FLUID MECHANICS AND FLUID POWER III SEM/II YEAR

## To use as fluid compensator to make up the leakages of

fluid when the pump is switched off.
To act as a shock absorber for providing cushioning effect
in the hydraulic circuit.
16. Draw the BIS symbol for accumulator
11. What is the function of hydraulic pump?
A hydraulic pump is a device to pressurize the hydraulic
fluid and to transfer it to the system to do work. Pump
converts mechanical energy to hydraulic energy.
12. What is the use of pressure intensifier?
17. Name the three types of hydraulic accumulators.
A pressure intensifier works in the basis of Pascals law. This
Weight loaded type
device converts low pressure liquid into high pressure
liquid. Spring loaded type

## Hydraulic press When the operation of two cylinders is required to be

Hydraulic jack. performed in sequence, the sequence valve is used.

14. Draw the BIS symbol for relief valve. 19. Where are hydraulic systems preferred?

## Hydraulic systems are preferred in heavy load applications

where high pressures are required.

## 20. What is a positive displacement pump?

15. Draw the BIS symbol for sequence valve. In this pump outlet flow is independent of system pressure.

## One marks& Answers PREPARED BY: RAJESH KANNAN A, LECT/MECH Page 14

22032 FLUID MECHANICS AND FLUID POWER III SEM/II YEAR

21. When are four way valves used in hydraulic circuit? A hydraulic motor is a mechanical actuator that converts

They are used to operate double acting cylinder. hydraulic pressure and flow into torque and angular
displacement (rotation). The hydraulic motor is the rotary
22. List out mostly used types of seals.
counterpart of the hydraulic cylinder.
Static seals gaskets, o-rings
27. What is meant by 4/3 DCV?
Dynamic seals U rings, cup seals
23. Distinguish between strainer and Filter? A directional control valve with four ways, four ports, and
Filter removes micro size impurities whereas strainer three positions.
removes macro size impurities. 28. State the service properties of hydraulic fluid.
24. What are the three important things that are controlled Viscosity for film maintenance
in a hydraulic system?
Low temperature fluidity
In a hydraulic system, the pressure, direction and volume of Thermal and oxidative stability
flow are controlled. Hydrolytic stability / water tolerance
Cleanliness and filterability
De-emulsibility
25. When an intensifier is used in hydraulic circuit?
Anti wear characteristics
It is used when a great force is required for relatively short
Corrosion control
distance.
29. Define meter-in in hydraulic circuit.
26. Define hydraulic motor.

## One marks& Answers PREPARED BY: RAJESH KANNAN A, LECT/MECH Page 15

22032 FLUID MECHANICS AND FLUID POWER III SEM/II YEAR

## Meter-in is a method by which a flow control valve is

placed in a hydraulic circuit in such a manner that there is
a restriction in the amount of fluid flowing to the actuator.

pump)