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THEORY OF MACHINES

CHAPTER 4

Kinematics of Mechanisms Learning Outcome

LO1

Analyze the kinematics of practical mechanisms

(cognitive - analyzing, level 4)

Kinematics of Mechanisms

 4.1 Introduction to Mechanisms and Kinematics 4.2 Velocity Analysis of Mechanisms 4.3 Acceleration Analysis of Mechanisms

1.1 Introduction to Mechanisms and

Kinematics

Machines are devices used to alter, transmit, and direct forces to accomplish a specific objective.

E.g. A chain saw is a machine that directs forces to the chain with the objective of cutting wood.

Mechanism is the mechanical part of a machine that has

the function of transferring motion and forces from a power source to an output.

E.g. For a chain saw, the mechanism takes power from

a small engine and delivers it to the cutting edge of the

chain. EME2056 THEORY OF MACHINES

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1.1 Introduction to Mechanisms and

Kinematics

A mechanism can be an assemblage of rigid parts that are arranged and connected so that they produce the desired

motion of the machine.

E.g. The mechanism of an hydraulic

platform is the part that takes the

power from the cylinder and drives

the raising and lowering of the platform. Mechanism analysis of the machine is required to ensure

that the motion of a machine will exhibit the desired motion.

Kinematics

Kinematics deals with the way things move. It is a study of the geometry of motion, which involves determination of:

position

displacement

rotation

speed

velocity

acceleration

Kinematics

Consider the hydraulic platform. Design questions relevant to kinematics analysis:

  What is the significance of the length of the legs that support the platform?  Is it necessary for the support legs to cross and be connected at their mid span, or is it better to arrange them so that they cross closer to the platform?  How far must the cylinder extend to raise the platform 10 cm?  How fast the platform will raise if the cylinder is

extended at the rate of 0.3 m/s?

……

Kinematics

Consider the hydraulic platform. Dynamic force analysis provide another set of important design questions:

What is the capacity (maximum force) required of the hydraulic cylinder?

Is the platform free of any tendency to tip over?

What

is

cross-sectional

size

of

legs

and

material

required of the support legs so that they don’t fail?

……

Mechanism Terminology

A linkage is a mechanism where all parts are connected together to form a closed chain.

One part is designated the frame because it serves as the frame of reference for the motion of all other parts. The frame is typically a part that exhibits no motion.

Links are individual parts of a mechanism. They are assumed to be completely rigid and are connected with other links to transmit motion and forces from the input link (driver) to the output link (follower).

In real application, a true rigid body does not exist,

therefore mechanism links that are designed to have minimal deformation can be considered as rigid body.

Mechanism Terminology

A simple link is a rigid body that

contains only two joints. A crank is a

simple link that is able to complete a

full rotation about a fixed centre. A rocker is a simple link that oscillates through an angle, reversing its

direction at certain intervals.

A complex link is a rigid body that contains more than two joints. A rocker arm is a complex link,

containing three joints, that is pivoted

near its centre.  Mechanism Terminology

A joint is a movable connection

motion between the links. The two

primary joints, called full joints, are the revolute and sliding joint.

The revolute joint is also called a pin

or hinge joint and it allows pure

rotation between the two links that it connects.

The sliding joint is also called a piston or prism joint. It allows linear sliding between the links that it connects.   Mechanism Terminology

Cam joint and gear joint are called higher-order joint or

half-joint. They allow both rotation and sliding between the

two connected links or meshed gears.  Mechanism Terminology

A point of interest is a point on a link where the motion is of special interest. Once kinematic analysis is performed, the

displacement, velocity and accelerations of that point are EME2056 THEORY OF MACHINES

determined.

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Mechanism Terminology

An actuator is the component that drives the mechanism.

Common actuators include motors (electric and hydraulic),

engines, cylinders (hydraulic and pneumatic) and

solenoids.

A hydraulic or pneumatic cylinder typically contains a rod

and piston assembly that slides in a cylinder (sliding joint).

Both ends of the unit usually has provisions for pin joints.

The kinematic representation of the unit: Example 1

Identify all the connections used in the slider crank mechanism of a

vertical compressor.

 1. Bearings (revolute joint) connect the casing (frame) and crank. 2. The crank pin (revolute joint) connects the crank and the connecting rod. 3. The connecting rod and crosshead are joined at the wrist pin (revolute joint). 4. The piston and cylinder (frame)

constitute a sliding connection (sliding joint). 4
3
1
2

Kinematic Diagrams

In analyzing the motion of

is difficult to

visualize the movement of the components in a full

assembly drawing.

a machine, it

It is easier to represent the parts in skeleton form (kinematic diagram) so that only the dimensions that influence the motion of the mechanism are shown.

A kinematic diagram should be 16

drawn according to scale.

For convenient reference, the links are numbered, starting with the frame as link number 1 . To avoid

confusion, the joints are lettered. EME2056 THEORY OF MACHINES

Kinematic Diagrams

Simple link with point of interest

Typical form

Kinematic representation Kinematic Diagrams

Pin joint

Slider joint

Typical form

Kinematic representation  Kinematic Diagrams

Cam joint

Gear joint

Typical form

Kinematic representation Example 2

Figure shows a shear that is used to cut and trim electronic circuit board laminates. Draw its kinematic diagram. Example 2

1. Identify the Frame

Decide which part to be designated as the frame. In some cases, its

selection is obvious as the frame is attached to the ground. In this

problem, the large base is chosen as the frame. The motion of all other links is determined relative to the base. The base is numbered as link 1. Careful observation reveals three other moving parts:

3. Identify the Joints

Pin joints are used to connect these three different parts. These joints are lettered A, B and C. In addition, the cutter slides up and down, along the base. This sliding joint is lettered D.

Example 2

4. Identify Any Points of Interest

Finally, the motion of the end of the handle is desired. This is designated

as point of interest X.

5. Draw the Kinematic Diagram

The kinematic diagram is given:  Example 3

Figure shows a pair of

its

vice

grip.

Draw

kinematic diagram.

1. Identify the Frame No parts are attached to the ground. Therefore, the selection of the frame

is rather arbitrary. The top handle is designated as the frame. The motion of all other links is determined relative to the top handle. The top handle is numbered as link 1.

Careful observation reveals three other moving parts:

Link 2: Bottom handle Link 3: Bottom jaw Link 4: Bar that connects the top and bottom handle

Example 3

3. Identify the Joints

Four pin joints are used to connect

these different parts. These joints are

lettered A, B, C and D. 4. Identify Any Points of Interest

The motion of the end of the bottom jaw is desired, designated as points of interest X. The motion of the end of the lower handle is also desired, designated as point of interest Y.

5.

Draw the Kinematic Diagram The kinematic diagram is given:

Mobility

An important property in mechanism

analysis is the number of degrees of

freedom (DOF) of the mechanism.

It is defined as the number of independent inputs required to precisely position all links of the mechanism with respect to the ground.

DOF also gives the information regarding the number of actuators (input) needed to drive the mechanism to produce a desired motion.

The number of DOF of a mechanism is also called the mobility and is given by the symbol F.  Mobility

It is possible to determine the mobility of a mechanism

directly from the number of links and the number of joints

Consider a system of n unconnected links in a plane. Each link will have 3 DOF, two translations and one rotation. One link must be chosen as a frame, therefore its 3 DOF

will be removed. Thus there are 3n-3 = 3( n-1) DOF before

any joints are connected.

If the links are connected by jp of primary joints and jh of higher-order joints, each primary joint will remove 2 DOF from the system and each higher-order joint will remove 1 DOF from the system because primary joint has 1 DOF and higher-order joint has 2 DOF.

Mobility

Therefore the remaining DOF of the mechanism is:

F = 3( n - 1) - 2 j p - j h

n = number of links jp = primary joints (pin or sliding joints) jh = higher order joints (cam or gear joints)

This equation is called Gruebler's Equation. It is used to calculate DOF of a planar mechanism.

Mechanism with 1 DOF is called constrained mechanisms.

Most mechanisms used in machines are constrained. EME2056 THEORY OF MACHINES

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Mobility

Mechanism with 1 DOF is called constrained mechanisms. Most common.

Mechanisms with zero DOF are called locked mechanisms. These mechanisms are unable to move and thus form a

structure.

Mechanisms with more than 1 DOF are

called unconstrained mechanism. Need

more than one actuator to operate. F=1 F=0 F=2

Mobility Example 4

Figure shows a toggle clamp. Draw a

kinematic diagram, using the clamping

surface and the handle as points of interest. Also determine the degrees of freedom for the clamp.

1. Identify the Frame The component that is bolted to the table is designated as the frame. The

motion of all other links is determined relative to this frame. The frame is

Careful observation reveals three other moving parts:

Link 3: Arm that serves as the clamping surface

Link 4: Bar that connects the clamping arm and handle

Example 4

3. Identify the Joints

Four pin joints are used to connect these different

parts. These joints are lettered A, B, C and D. 4. Identify Any Points of Interest

The motion of the clamping surface is desired, designated as point of interest X.

The motion of the end of the handle is also desired, designated as point

of interest Y.

5. Draw the Kinematic Diagram

The kinematic diagram is given: Example 4

6. Calculate Mobility

It is seen that there are four links, n = 4 There are also four pin joints, jp = 4 There are no higher-order joints, jh = 0 F = 3(n-1) 2jp jh = 3(4-1) 2(4) 0 = 1

With one degree of freedom, the clamp mechanism is constrained.

Moving only one link (the handle) precisely positions all other links in the clamp.

Example 5

Figure shows a device that can be used to

shear material. Draw a kinematic diagram,

using the end of the handle and the cutting edge as points of interest. Also, compute the degrees of freedom for the shear press.

1. Identify the Frame The base is bolted to a working surface and can be designated as the

frame. The motion of all other links is determined relative to this frame.

The frame is numbered as link 1.

Careful observation reveals two other moving parts:

Example 5

3. Identify the Joints

One pin connects the cutting lever to the frame (joint A).

A second pin connect the gear/handle to the cutting

lever (joint B). The gear/handle is also connected to the frame with a gear joint (joint C).

4. Identify Any Points of Interest

The motion of the handle end is desired, designated as

point of interest X. The motion of the cutting surfaces is also desired, designated as point of interest Y.

5. Draw the Kinematic Diagram

The kinematic diagram is given:  Example 5

6. Calculate Mobility

It is seen that there are three links, n = 3 There are also two pin joints, jp = 2 There is one gear joint, jh = 1

F = 3(n-1) 2jp jh = 3(3-1) 2(2) 1 = 1 With one degree of freedom, the shear press mechanism is constrained.

Moving only one link (the handle) precisely positions all other links and brings the cutting edge onto the work piece.

Special Case of Mobility Equation

Coincident Joints

Some mechanisms have three links that are all connected at a common pin joint. Physically, one pin may be used to connect all three links. However, by definition, a pin joint connects only two links. Thus, in analysis this commonly pinned configuration must be modeled as two separate joints.

One joint will connect the first and second links. The second

joint will then connect the second and third links.  Two rotating and one sliding link

Special Case of Mobility Equation

Exception due to link sizes or shapes

Mobility equation does not account for link sizes or shapes; it can give

misleading. Consider a structure with five links and six pin joints . The

mobility equation, F=3( n-1)-2jp-jh = 3(5-1)-2(6)=0, predicts 0 DOF as expected for a structure.

However, if all pivoted links have the same size, and the distance between the joints on the frame and coupler are identical, this mechanism

would be able to move with 1 DOF as contrary to predicted value.

There are other examples of mechanisms that violate the Gruebler equation because of unique geometry. Thus, a designer must be aware that the mobility equation can, at times, lead to inconsistencies. Example 8

Figure shows a mechanical press.

Draw a kinematic diagram, using the

end of the handle as a point of interest. Also compute the degrees of freedom.

1. Identify the Frame The bottom base for the mechanical press sits on a workbench and remains stationary during operation. Therefore this bottom base is designated as the frame. The motion of all other links is determined relative to this frame. The frame is numbered as link 1.

Example 8 C
B
4
2
3
E,F
A
6
5
D
arms
G
1
arms

Careful observation reveals six other moving parts:

Link 3: Arm that connects the handle to the other arms

3. Identify the Joints

Joint A connects the handle to the base.

Joint B connects link 3 to the handle.

Joint C connects link 4 to the base. Joint D connects link 6 to the press head.

A single pin connects link 3, 4 and 6 together at a common point, this must be modelled as two separate joints (Joints E and F).

Sliding joint G connects the press head with the base.

Example 8

4. Identify Any Points of Interest

The motion of the end of the handle is

desired, designated as point of interest X.

5. Draw the Kinematic Diagram

The kinematic diagram is given: C
B
4
2
3
E,F
A
6
5
D
G
1 Example 8

6. Calculate Mobility

 It is seen that there are six links, six pin joints and one slider joint. n = 6; jp = 6 pins + 1 slider = 7; jh = 0 F = 3(n-1) – 2jp – jh = 3(6-1) – 2(7) – 0 = 1

With one degree of freedom, the mechanical press mechanism is

constrained. Moving only one link (the handle) precisely positions all other

links in the press, sliding the press head onto the work piece.

The Four-Bar Mechanism

The simplest and most common linkage is the four-bar

as the frame, and connected by four pin joints.

The mechanism for an automobile window wiper system is an example of 4-bar linkage. EME2056 THEORY OF MACHINES

n = 4; jp = 4; jh = 0 F = 3(n-1) - 2jp - jh = 3(4-1) -2(4) - 0 = 1

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The Four-Bar Mechanism

Since the mechanism has 1 DOF, it is fully operated with one driver (DC electric motor).

In mechanism, the pivoted link that is connected to the

driver or power source is called the crank or input link.

The pivoted link that is attached to the frame is designated as output link, follower, rocker or lever.

The link that connects the crank and the lever is called

connecting rod or coupler.

Depending on the arrangement and the lengths of the

links, a four-bar mechanism can be classified as double

crank, crank-rocker, double rocker, change point

mechanism or triple rocker mechanism.

Four-Bar Mechanism

1. Double Crank

The double crank has the shortest link of the 4 bar

mechanism configured as the fixed link or frame. When one

of the pivoted links rotates continuously, the other pivoted link also rotates continuously. Thus, the two pivoted links are both able to rotate through a full revolution. Usually the shorter Four-Bar Mechanism

2. Crank-Rocker For a crank-rocker mechanism, the shortest link of the

mechanism is a driver. When this shortest link continuously

rotates, the output link oscillates between limits. E.g. windshield wiper. Four-Bar Mechanism

3. Double Rocker

configured as the frame. Neither link connected to the frame

is able to complete a full revolution. Thus both input and output links are constrained to oscillate or rock between limits. Four-Bar Mechanism

4. Change Point Mechanism

A change point mechanism can be positioned such that all

the links become collinear. The most familiar type of change

point mechanism is a parallelogram linkage. The frame and coupler are the same length, and the two pivoting links are the same length. Four-Bar Mechanism

5. Triple Rocker

None of the links in triple rocker are able to complete a full

revolution. All three moving links rock. Slider-Crank Mechanism

Another mechanism that is commonly encountered is a slider-crank. This mechanism also consists of combination of

four links with one being designated as the frame. However, it

is connected by 3 pin joints and one sliding joint. An example of this mechanism is manual water pump.

n = 4; jp = 3 pins + 1 sliding; jh = 0 F = 3(n-1) - 2jp - jh = 3(4-1) -2(4) - 0 = 1  Slider-Crank Mechanism

Since the mechanism has 1 DOF, it is fully operated with one driver.

In general, the pivoted link connected to the frame and

activated by driver is called crank.

This link is not always capable of completing a full revolution.

The link that translates is called the slider. This is

represented by piston/rod of the pump.

The coupler or connecting rod couples the motion of the crank to the slider.

Homework

Draw a kinematic diagram of the mechanism. Specify the

number of links and the number of joints and calculate the

mobility for the mechanism. (a) Lift platform

(Solution next slide) (b) Backhoe

END OF SUB-CHAPTER EME2056 THEORY OF MACHINES

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