0 Stimmen dafür0 Stimmen dagegen

2 Aufrufe13 SeitenChoosing a Line Size

Sep 16, 2017

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT oder online auf Scribd lesen

Choosing a Line Size

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

2 Aufrufe

Choosing a Line Size

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future
- The Day the World Came to Town: 9/11 in Gander, Newfoundland
- Seveneves: A Novel
- The Right Stuff
- Hidden Figures: The American Dream and the Untold Story of the Black Women Mathematicians Who Helped Win the Space Race
- Hidden Figures Young Readers' Edition
- Hidden Figures Young Readers' Edition
- Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the Leap...And Others Don't
- The Path Between the Seas: The Creation of the Panama Canal, 1870-1914
- The Wright Brothers
- The Wright Brothers
- The Last Second
- Fault Lines
- The Power of Discipline: 7 Ways it Can Change Your Life
- Furniture Makeovers: Simple Techniques for Transforming Furniture with Paint, Stains, Paper, Stencils, and More
- Woolbuddies: 20 Irresistibly Simple Needle Felting Projects
- State of Fear
- State of Fear
- Autonomous: A Novel

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 13

thickness 7

7.1 Choosing a line size

7.1.1 General considerations

The fluid flow equations presented in Chapter 6 enable the engineer to initiate the

design of a piping or pipeline system, where the pressure drop available governs

the selection of the pipe size. When choosing a line size, it is necessary to evaluate

both pressure drop and flow velocity for expected maximum and minimum flow rates

anticipated during the life of the facility. It is usually advisable to add surge factors to

the expected flow rates to ensure there is sufficient pressure available to force the fluid

through the piping system. Surges can be a function of line length and elevation

changes. Table 7.1, based on data originally included in API RP 14E, presents some

typical surge factors that may be used if more definite information is not available.

The line diameter must be large enough so that the available pressure is sufficient

to drive the fluid through the line from point 1 to point 2. Therefore, its important

the operating pressures at the various points of the facility must be known. In most

cases, the pressure drop is not the governing criterion in production facility piping

system design since most of the pressure drop occurs across control valves. The pres-

sure drop in the line is relatively small compared with the pressure available in the

system.

Consideration should also be given to maximum and minimum velocities. The line

should be sized such that the maximum velocity of the fluid does not cause erosion,

excess noise, or water hammer. The line should be sized such that the minimum veloc-

ity of the fluid prevents surging and keeps the line swept clear of entrained solids and

liquids.

Fluid erosion occurs when liquid droplets impact the pipe wall with enough force to

erode either the base metal itself or the products of corrosion, that is, erosion corro-

sion. As the fluid velocity increases, the tendency for erosion to occur also increases.

The following equation can be used where no specific information as to the erosive/

corrosive properties of the fluid is available:

Field units:

Ce

Ve 1:22 1

(7.1a)

2

Surface Production Operations. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-85617-808-2.00007-9

Copyright 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

472 Surface Production Operations

Service Surge factor (%)

Facility handling primary production from wells not located adjacent 30

to the facility

Facility handling primary production from wells not located adjacent 40

to the facility where there are large elevation changes

Facility handling gas-lifted production 50

SI units:

Ce

Ve 1

(7.1b)

2

where

Ve erosional flow velocity (ft./s (m3/s)),

density of liquid (lb/ft.3 (kg/m3)),

Ce empirical constant, dimensionless.

Various values have been used and proposed for C. Equation 7.1 was first published

in API RP 14E in the mid-1980s, and a value of 100 was recommended for continuous

service and 125 for noncontinuous service. Analysis of field data indicates that con-

stants higher than 100 can be used if corrosion is controlled. With the increase in high

pressure and high flow rate wells, the equation produced very conservative results.

Therefore, Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) was commissioned by the American

Petroleum Institute (API) and the former Minerals Management Service (MMS) to

evaluate the validity of Equation 7.1.

The conclusions of the SwRI study resulted in the revision of API RP 14E in 1990. API

RP 14E revision included the following wording: Industry experience to

date indicates that for solids-free fluids, values of C 100 for continuous service

and C 125 for intermittent service are conservative. For solids-free fluids where

corrosion is not anticipated or when corrosion is controlled by inhibition or by

employing corrosion-resistant alloys, values of C 150-200 may be used for contin-

uous service; values up to 250 have been used successfully for intermittent service. If

solids production is anticipated, fluid velocities should be significantly reduced. Dif-

ferent values of C may be used where specific application studies have shown them to

be appropriate.

Choosing a line size and wall thickness 473

Where solids and/or corrosive contaminants are present or where C values higher

than 100 for continuous service are used, periodic surveys to assess pipe wall thickness

should be considered. The design of any piping system where solids are anticipated

should consider the installation of sand probes, cushion flow tees, and a minimum

of three feet of straight piping downstream of choke outlets.

Erosion of the pipe material itself can occur if solids are present in the fluid. There is

no minimum velocity below, in which this erosion will not occur. One equation pro-

posed to evaluate the erosion of metal is

Field units:

2

12KW Vp

vol (7.2a)

gPh

SI units:

2

3 KW Vp

vol 9:806 10 (7.2b)

gPh

where

vol volume of metal eroded (in.3 (mm3)),

Vp particle velocity (ft./s (m/s)),

Ph penetration hardness of the material (psi (kPa)),

a value between 0.5 and 1.0 depending upon the impingement angle of the particle,

K erosive wear coefficient, dimensionless,

W total weight of impinging solid particles (lbs (kg)),

g acceleration of gravity (32.2 ft./s2 (9.81 m/s2)).

The form of this equation indicates that there is no threshold below which erosion does

not occur. Instead, erosion can occur even at small velocities, and the amount of ero-

sion increases with the square of the velocity. It can be seen from Equation 7.2 that the

velocity for a given erosion rate is a function of 1/W. Since the percent of solids

impinging on any surface is inversely proportional to the density of the fluid, the ero-

sional velocity can be expected to be proportional to the fluid density. This is contrary

to the form of Equation 7.1. Thus, it is not correct to use Equation 7.1 with low C

value when solids are present.

The rate of erosion depends on both the concentration of solids in the flow stream

and the way in which these particles impinge on the wall. At an ell, one would expect

centrifugal force to cause a high percentage of the particles to impinge on the wall in a

concentrated area. It can be shown that with a solids concentration of 10 lbs/month

(4.5 kg/month) in the flow stream, the velocity for a 10 miles/year (0.25 mm/year)

erosion rate in an ell can be as low as 5 ft./s (1.5 m/s). At higher concentrations, the

erosional velocity would be even lower. For this reason, where sand production is

474 Surface Production Operations

Outlet

Bull plug or

weld cap

Inlet

Weight loss (g)

40 / 60 franc sand (dry)

Flow velocity 100 ft. / s

Weight loss, g = W

Sand flow, lb = S

W = 0.140 S

W = 0.138 S

W = 0.073 S

W = 0.061 S

Source: API OSAPR Project 2.

plished with very long-radius fabricated bends or target tees. Figure 7.1 illustrates a

target tee and Figure 7.2 shows the greater life that can be expected by the use of a target

tee in lieu of a long-radius ell. Where sand production is expected, piping should be

inspected periodically for loss of wall thickness at the outside of all direction changes.

When sizing a liquid line, the two factors that have the greatest effect are the pressure

drop in the pipe and the velocity of the fluid.

Choosing a line size and wall thickness 475

When determining the pressure drop, it is necessary to take into account the equivalent

lengths of valves and fittings, as well as elevation changes. If a throttling dump valve

is in the line, the pressure drop in the line should be limited to less than 70% of the total

available at twice the average flow. Pressure drop normally doesnt govern in single-

phase liquid lines within a surface production facility.

7.1.3.2 Velocity

7.1.3.2.1 Maximum velocity

Maximum velocity: The maximum velocity is used in sizing liquid lines and depends

on service conditions, pipe materials, and economics. For example, API RP14E rec-

ommends that the maximum velocity not exceed 15 ft./s (4.5 m/s). Most companies

specify the following maximum velocities:

l

Cement-lined pipe: 8-10 ft./s (2.4-3.0 m/s)

l

Fiberglass pipe: 12-15 ft./s (3.7-4.5 m/s)

l

Where erosion corrosion is a problem: 10-15 ft./s (3.0-4.5 m/s)

Even lower maximum velocities may be used for cement-lined pipe, where erosion

corrosion is anticipated, or in water injection lines.

Minimum velocity: The minimum velocity used in sizing liquid lines usually is based

on maintaining a velocity sufficient to keep solid particles from depositing in the line.

If sand is transported in a line, it is deposited on the bottom until an equilibrium flow

velocity over the bed is reached. At this point, sand grains are being eroded from the

bed at the same rate as they are being deposited. If the flow rate is increased, the bed

will be eroded until a new equilibrium velocity is reached and the bed is once again

stabilized. If the flow rate is decreased, sand is deposited until a new equilibrium

velocity is established. In most practical cases, a velocity of 3-4 ft./s (0.9-1.2 m/s)

is sufficient to keep from building a sufficiently high bed to affect pressure drop cal-

culations. Thus, a minimum velocity of 3 ft./s (0.9 m/s) is normally recommended.

Figure 7.3 can be used to determine the liquid velocity in various pipe sizes. Liquid

velocity can be determined from the following:

Field units:

Q1

V 0:012 (7.3a)

d2

SI units:

Q1

V 353:68 (7.3b)

d2

476 Surface Production Operations

)

4

61

Maximum

0.

=

(ID

Liquid flow velocity, ft. / s

7)

95

0.

)

8

=

27

)

(ID

23 )

)

1.

2.

= .125

)

)

)

50

6

=

(ID 39

0

3

1.

(ID

82

90

(ID = 2

9

=

3.

1.

2.

)

5

(ID

=

=

06

(ID

(ID

(ID

6.

)

1

=

98

(ID

)

7.

Minimum

.0

25 8 )

(ID

10

)

(ID = 1 .93

0

=

50 )

11

(ID

.2 0

3.

)

=

17 25

(ID

= 5.

1

(ID

(ID =

Liquid flow rate, barrels fluid per day

Figure 7.3 Liquid flow velocity as a function of liquid flow rate for different pipe sizes.

(Courtesy of API RP 14E)

where

V average velocity (ft./s (m/s)),

Ql liquid flow rate (BPD (m3/h)),

d pipe inside diameter (in. (mm)).

Derivation of Equation 7.3a (field units):

Converting velocity into oil field units,

Q

V

A

and

d 2

A

4144

5:61

Q QL

243600

substituting

Q1

V 0:012 (7.3a)

d2

Choosing a line size and wall thickness 477

where

V fluid velocity (ft./s),

QL liquid flow rate (BPD),

Q liquid flow rate (ft.3/s),

A pipe cross-sectional area (ft.2),

d pipe inside diameter (in.).

As with liquid line sizing, the two factors that have a pronounced effect on gas line size

are the pressure drop and the velocity of the gas. The pressure drop in gas lines is typ-

ically low in gas-producing facilities because the piping segment lengths are short.

The pressure drop has a more significant impact upon longer segments such as

gas-gathering pipelines, transmission pipelines, or relief or vent piping.

The pressure drop is usually the governing factor in long gas-gathering and transmis-

sion systems or in relief/vent piping. The pressure drop also may be important where it

necessitates increased compressor horsepower. In a typical production facility, the gas

lines are short and the pressure drop does not govern sizing. In some facilities, the

pressure lost due to friction must be recovered by recompressing the gas. In such cases,

it is possible to strike an economic balance between the cost of a larger pipe to min-

imize the pressure drop and the cost of additional compression. Figure 7.4 is an

approximation that attempts to strike this balance by showing acceptable pressure

drop versus operating pressure. In most production facility lines, Figure 7.4 has little

significance since the bulk of the pressure loss is due to a pressure control valve, and

the size and operating pressure of the compressor are not affected by the incremental

pressure drop in the line. Equation 7.4 and Figure 7.4 can be used to use a pipe diam-

eter directly. Equation 7.4 is given as

Field units:

1260STfQ2g

d5 (7.4a)

PP=100ft:

SI units:

STfQ2g

d 5 8:186 105 (7.4b)

PP=100ft:

where

d pipe inside diameter (in. (mm)),

S specific gravity of gas relative to air,

478 Surface Production Operations

(Courtesy of Paragon Engineering Service)

T temperature (R (K)),

fm Moody friction factor, dimensionless,

Qg gas flow rate (MMSCFD (m3/h)),

P pressure (psia (kPa)),

P/100 ft. desired pressure drop per 100 ft. (psi (kPa)).

7.1.4.2 Velocity

7.1.4.2.1 Maximum velocity

Maximum velocity: The gas velocity should be kept below 60-80 ft./s (18-24 m/s)

so as to minimize noise and to allow for corrosion inhibition. In systems with CO2

present in amounts as low as 1-2%, many operators limit the velocity to less than

30-50 ft./s (9-15 m/s). Field experience indicates that it is difficult to inhibit to inhibit

CO2 corrosion at higher velocities.

Minimum velocity: A minimum velocity of 10-15 ft./s (3-4.5 ft./s) is recommended to

minimize liquid settling out in low spots.

Choosing a line size and wall thickness 479

Erosional velocity: Although the erosional criteria were derived for two-phase flow, it

should be verified that these criteria are still met as the liquid flow rate approaches

zero. Erosional velocity due to small amounts of liquid in the gas can be calculated

from Equation 7.5:

Field units:

1

TZ 2

Ve 0:6 Ce (7.5a)

SP

SI units:

1

TZ 2

Ve 0:644 Ce (7.5b)

SP

where

Ve erosional velocity (ft./s (m/s)),

Ce empirical constant, dimensionless,

T temperature (R (K)),

S specific gravity of gas relative to air,

P pressure (psi (kPa)),

Z gas compressibility factor.

For most instances, with pressures less than 1000-2000 psi (7000-14,000 kPa), the

erosional velocity will be greater than 60 ft./s (18 m/s), and thus, the erosional criteria

will not govern. At high pressures, it may be necessary to check for erosional velocity

before sizing lines for 60 ft./s (18 m/s) maximum velocity.

Gas velocity can be determined from Equation 7.6:

Field units:

Qg TZ

Ve 60 (7.6a)

d2 P

SI units:

Qg TZ

Vg 122:7 (7.6b)

d2 P

where

Qg gas flow rate (MMSCFD (std m3/h)),

T temperature (R (K)),

d pipe inside diameter (in. (mm)),

P pressure (psia (kPa)),

Vg gas velocity (ft./s (m/s)),

Z gas compressibility factor.

480 Surface Production Operations

Converting velocity into oil field units,

Q

V

A

and

d 2

A

4144

1 106 SCF day h 14:7 TZ

Q Qg

MMSCF 24h 3600s P 520

substituting

60Qg TZ

V (7.6a)

d2 P

where

Qg gas flow rate (MMSCFD),

Q gas flow rate (ft.3/s),

A pipe cross-sectional area (ft.2),

V gas velocity (ft./s),

Z gas compressibility factor, dimensionless,

P pressure (psia),

T temperature (R),

d pipe inside diameter (in.).

Flow lines from wells, production manifolds, and two-phase gas/liquid pipelines are

sized as two-phase lines. Gas outlets from separators or other process equipment contain

small amounts of liquids but are not considered two-phase lines. Liquid outlets from sep-

arators or other process equipment are usually considered single-phase liquid lines, even

though gas evolves due to both the pressure decrease across a liquid control valve and the

pressure loss in the line. The amount of gas evolved in liquid outlet lines rarely will be

sufficient to affect a pressure loss calculation based on an assumption of liquid flow.

A relatively large pressure drop is needed to evolve enough gas to affect this calculation.

Since most two-phase lines operate at high pressure within the facility, pressure drop

usually is not a governing criterion in selecting a diameter. However, pressure drop

may have to be considered in some long lines from wells and in most two-phase

gas/liquid pipelines.

Choosing a line size and wall thickness 481

7.1.5.2 Velocity

7.1.5.2.1 Minimum velocity

Minimum velocity: A minimum velocity of 10-15 ft./s (3-4.5 m/s) is recommended so

as to keep liquids moving in the line and to minimize slugging of separator or other

process equipment. This is very important in long lines with elevation changes.

Maximum velocity: The maximum velocity is equal to 60 ft./s (18 m/s) for noise and

30-50 ft./s (9-15 m/s) if it is necessary to inhibit for CO2 corrosion or the erosional

velocity, whichever is least.

Erosional velocity: In two-phase flow, it is impossible that liquid droplets in the flow

stream will impact on the wall of the pipe causing erosion of the products of erosion.

This is called erosion corrosion. Erosion of the pipe wall itself could occur if solid

particles, particularly sand, are entrained in the flow stream. The following guidelines

from API RP 14E should be used to protect against erosion corrosion. Erosional veloc-

ity usually governs the sizing of two-phase flow lines. The general erosional velocity

is expressed as

Field units:

Ce

Ve 1

(7.7a)

m 2

SI units:

Ce

Ve 1:22 1

(7.7b)

m 2

where

Ve erosional flow velocity (ft./s (m/s)),

C empirical constant, dimensionless,

m mixture density (lb/ft.3 (kg/m3)).

It can be shown that the minimum cross-sectional area of pipe for a maximum allow-

able velocity can be expressed as

Field units:

2 3

ZRT

9:35 +

6 21:25P7

a4 5Q1 (7.8a)

1000Vmax

482 Surface Production Operations

SI units:

2 3

ZRT

9:35 + 3:24

6 P 7

a 29:694 5Q1 (7.8b)

Vmax

where

a minimum required cross-sectional area (in.2 (mm2)),

Ql liquid flow rate (BPD (m3/h)),

Vmax maximum allowable velocity (ft./s (m/s)),

Z gas compressibility factor,

R gas/liquid ratio (std ft.3/bbl (std m3/m3)),

P pressure (psi (kPa)),

T temperature (oR (K)).

Equation 7.8 can be rearranged and solved for pipe inside diameter:

Field units:

2 312

ZRT

6 11:9 + 16:7P Q1 7

6 7

d6 7 (7.9a)

4 1000Vmax 5

SI units:

2 312

ZRT

6 11:9 + 4:13 Q1 7

6 16:7P 7

d 5:4486 7 (7.9b)

4 Vmax 5

Figure 7.5 is a chart developed to minimize the calculation procedure. One must be

careful when using this chart as it is based on the assumptions listed in the chart. It is

better to use Equations 7.7 and 7.9 directly as follows:

(1) Determine m.

(2) Determine the erosional velocity, Ve, from Equation 7.7.

(3) For the design, use the smaller of Ve or that velocity required by the noise or CO2 inhibition

criteria.

(4) Determine the minimum ID from Equation 7.9.

(5) Check pressure drop, if applicable, to make certain there is enough driving force available.

Derivation of Equations 7.8a and 7.9a (field units)

From previous derivations,

Q a

A and A

V 144

and

Qg TZ

Q 6:49 105 QL + 0:327

P

Choosing a line size and wall thickness 483

Gas/liquid ratio, ft.3/ barrel

for continuous two-phase flow

Based on Vo=100/

e v f

l m d f

t lb/ft3.

t

s g

s g

f s

c

Figure 7.5 Gas/liquid ratio as a function of pipe cross-sectional area for different operating

pressures.

1 106 Qg

R

QL

substituting

5 RTZQL

6:49 10 QL + 0:327

106

A

V

Substituting and factoring out QL, then multiply top and bottom by 1000:

2 3

ZRT

9:35 +

6 21:25P7

a4 5Q1 (7.8a)

1000Vmax

2 32

1

ZRT

6 11:9 + Q1 7

6 16:7P 7

6

d6 7 (7.9a)

7

4 1000Vmax 5

- L5 Viscosity CorrelationsHochgeladen von13670319
- Lecture 3 (IPR and TPR)Hochgeladen vonppppp
- Calcule Valve Relif VentinHochgeladen vonjowar
- Water OlympicsHochgeladen vonChristine De San Jose
- 10-PropertiesOfMatterHochgeladen vonPartha Bhattacharjee
- Pressure on GasesHochgeladen vonPutri Citra Dewi
- Comparision Analysis of Contrast Restoration of Weather Degraded Images using Histogram and MSRCR algorithmHochgeladen vonijcsis
- Production notesHochgeladen vonAbbas Atashdehghan
- 12713860403Hochgeladen vonah_mok2001
- CGE666 Chapter 3 WK 4 5Hochgeladen vonShalihan Mustafa
- p1118Hochgeladen vonSirius Dagaroth
- HobsHochgeladen vonJoyce Silva Pasajol
- 9.Pertemuan 6. GasesHochgeladen vonMUHAMMAD HEFFIQRI RIADY
- How is pressure measured.pptHochgeladen vonJeryl Adrienne Louise Ty
- API 5LHochgeladen vonKaty Flores Orihuela
- A94 Gasket-Sert PSPHochgeladen vonZachary Ng
- Line List - 5608D-19-PP-005-REV-2Hochgeladen vonSaidulu Anthati
- Chemistry-Gases.docxHochgeladen vonStevenzel Estella
- Radial_Shaft_Seal.pdfHochgeladen vonpieter.vanderwalt7550
- 01560 Environmental ProtectionHochgeladen vonsethu1091
- Doe Fundamentals Handbook Thermodynamics Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Volume 3 of 3Hochgeladen vonKonthon Heamaturin
- 73278254-Chapter-TWOHochgeladen vonMehdi Beyraktar
- PACKER R 3 CatalogHochgeladen vonunduh
- Kebijakan Mengelola DAS Demi Masa DepanHochgeladen vonMustikaRFaizzah
- Designation: E2041 − 08´1Hochgeladen vonLupita Ramirez
- Verificacion HP-6 Alta Presion - 50 MMscfdHochgeladen vonJ José B Velasquez
- Hydraulic Brain TeasersHochgeladen vonabhijitmukh
- Hydrocarbon Miscible Flood Field Facility DesignHochgeladen vonFernanda RuPe
- Pr Driven Slip FlowHochgeladen vonHari Mohan Kushwaha
- Tips, Tricks and Traps of Material Balance CalculationsHochgeladen vonyeralh

- 7309_FULLTEXTHochgeladen vonWilder Ganoza
- Afe Oly Xiii 2 Pn 184dHochgeladen vonWilder Ganoza
- pc_5_2014_bahadori_251Hochgeladen vonWilder Ganoza
- 40684Hochgeladen vonWilder Ganoza
- JPSR10135Hochgeladen vonJupni Mulyana
- BOvsEOS-SPE63087Hochgeladen vonWilder Ganoza
- Spe 154803Hochgeladen vonWilder Ganoza
- SP EjercicioHochgeladen vonWilder Ganoza
- 00000096Hochgeladen vonJavi Pedraza
- 34 Example Carioca EV 1 Ft Plot (2)Hochgeladen vonWilder Ganoza
- Composite-Log-1.pdfHochgeladen vonWilder Ganoza
- Fraccionamiento y AbsorciónHochgeladen vonWilder Ganoza
- Signals n PanelsHochgeladen vonWilly Putra
- Integral Values for the Poettmann Method for Determining Static BHPHochgeladen vonWilder Ganoza

- LT 1725.pdfHochgeladen vontallraj
- File-1486756928Hochgeladen vontiger_lxf
- The Pros Cons of Genetic EngineeringHochgeladen vonAlpin Novianus
- BlenderHochgeladen vonAbdul Rauf Mengal
- Introduction to C++ by Dk Mamonai 09CE37Hochgeladen vonDarya Memon
- Nuclear PhysicsHochgeladen vonSonu Anand Raj
- copy of rubric shom art exploration shoe drawingHochgeladen vonapi-201056542
- Parameters in Resistance Welding.pdfHochgeladen vonAnonymous dXwsDDFS6V
- G. M. Swallowe Auth., G. M. Swallowe Eds. Mechanical Properties and Testing of Polymers an a–Z ReferenceHochgeladen vonNguyễn Ngọc Phước Vương
- 2024-T3 ASM Material Data Sheet.pdfHochgeladen vonAnonymous mq0U43UsP
- Analog Clock History LatestHochgeladen vonMusa Haroon
- Industrial Automation Using SCADAHochgeladen vonHarshith Ramesh Anchan
- 180518283Hochgeladen vonAbhiroop Das
- 17MEB474Hochgeladen vonQuazi Warish Ahmad
- EEE 3210 Final Project ReportHochgeladen vonDerrick Tham
- Chap5 Gas Reticulation SystemHochgeladen vonNorafiqah Ismail
- wiring elect.pdfHochgeladen vonشمسخلفالسحاب
- SABIC Innovative Plastics-Metal Replacement PresentationHochgeladen vonriplast
- TDC and TC_1Hochgeladen vonShalini
- e01 Handbook IntroductionHochgeladen vonAlexander Quebra Madeira Nemchinov
- An 2582Hochgeladen vonWheberth Damascena Dias
- ges-ntuHochgeladen vonsargent9914
- Stage Gate Project ManagemenHochgeladen vonAldrin
- Rattandeep Ahuja_Portfolio 2017Hochgeladen vonRattandeep Ahuja
- Chuong4_Ghep Kenh SoHochgeladen vonThượng Trần Văn
- Computerized Library System for Kin Yang Academy2Hochgeladen vonKart Fronda
- Project List_updated PLHochgeladen vonSshifalii Oberoii
- computer maintenace proposal cost.pdfHochgeladen vonjimoh
- Dystopian Novel AnalysisHochgeladen vonNicole Marie Alexandrite
- Heat Transfer Through the Lagged PipeHochgeladen vonDhananjay Kadam

## Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.

Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.

Jederzeit kündbar.