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EXPERIMENT NO. 1
DETERMINATION OF DISCHARGE USING A VOLUMETRIC TANK

I. INTRODUCTION
Discharge or Flow rate is the volume of fluid flowing through a section at a
certain speed or may be defined as the mount of fluid passing through a
section per unit of time. This may be expressed as the following:

Weight flow rate, W=Q


Mass flow rate, M= Q
Volume flow rate, Q=Av

Where:
is the unit weight of the flowing fluid
is the density of the flowing fluid
A is the cross sectional area where the flowing fluid pass
V is the velocity of fluid

There are different description in a flowing fluid, it may flow steady, uniform,
continuous, laminar or turbulent. The flow is said to be steady when there is a
constant time for a certain discharge, otherwise it is unsteady. Uniform flow
defines the flow of fluid in which there is a constant cross sectional area and
velocity, otherwise it flows non-uniform; and said to be continuous if at any
point, discharge is constant. The stream may be determine if it is either
2

laminar or turbulent by determining the value of Reynolds number or . If


the value is less than 2100 it is said to be laminar otherwise it is turbulent.
If the stream is flowing continuously, continuity equation below may be
consider
= 1 1 = 2 2 =
The above equation is applicable for incompressible fluids. And for
compressible fluids consider the following equation.
= 1 1 1 = 2 2 2 =
= 1 1 1 = 2 2 2 =

II. OBJECTIVE
To be able to understand the concept of discharge using a faucet and a water
vessel that we encounter in our daily lives.

III. MATERIALS AND APPARATUS


5 Water Vessels (5L, 10L, 15L, 20L and 25L)
Timer

Figure 1Materials needed for the experiment Figure 2determining the time consume to
(timer, basin and source of flowing fluid). fill a 5L basin.
3

IV. PROCEDURE
1. Secure all the materials and apparatus needed which include five (5) water
vessels with a capacity of 5L, 10L, 15L, 20L and 25L and the timer.
2. Fill up the first vessel with water from the faucet.
3. Use the stopwatch to know the time that the vessel will be filled up.
4. Repeat procedure 2 and 3 for the rest of the vessel.
5. Compute for the discharge in each of the vessel.

V. DATA AND RESULT


TRIAL VOLUME (L) TIME (second) DISCHARGE (L/s)

VI. CONCLUSION
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
4

VII. RECOMMENDATION
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

VIII. EXERCISE PROBLEM


1. Compute for the discharge flowing from a faucet to a water vessel. The time to fill
the vessel is 60mins and the dimension of the vessel is 0.80m in height and 0.40m
in diameter.
2. Find the velocity of the water given hat the flow rate is 0.002cms and a cross-
sectional area of 0.02m.
3. How long will a rectangular tank b filled if the flow rate of water is 0.003cms
having a dimension of 5m x 4m x 2m?
5

EXPERIMENT NO. 2
DETERIMINATION OF DISCHARGE THRU A SIPHON

I. INTRODUCTION

Based from the previous experiment, discharge or flow can be measure by


different entity. It was defined as the volume of fluid flowing through a section at
a certain speed or the amount of fluid passing through a section per unit of time.

Siphon usually refers to wide variety of tube devices that used to


determine the flow of liquid. It is used to let the fluid flow from one vessel at a
higher elevation to another vessel at a lower elevation without the use of other
devices or machines like pumps. It works by applying suction pressure at one end
of the equipment. The liquid flows continually in the siphon because of reduced
pressure at the exit side. Gravity helps pulling down the liquid from the vessel
with higher elevation to the vessel placed in lower elevation. Because of gravity
and difference in pressure between the two ends of the tube, the instability of the
liquid happened.

II. OBJECTIVE

To determine the discharge of a fluid through a simple hydraulics device called


siphon.

III. MATERIALS AND APPARATUS


Timer
Siphon
Water Vessel
Measuring Rule
6

Figure 3 Siphon transferring liquid from Figure 4 Actual procedure of the experiment.
the basin placed at a higher elevation to the
basin placed at lower elevation.

IV. PROCEDURE
1. Secure all the materials and apparatus needed which include siphon, water vessel,
timer and measuring rule.
2. Prepare the set up by having the siphon be filled with water with one end being
hold at the opening right into the water vessel and the other side being submerged
in water from the tank.
3. Measure the head from the water surface from the tank down to the siphon's end
directed through the water vessel.
4. Simultaneously release the water into the siphon's end being hold and start the
timer.
5. Watch the timer and record the duration until the water vessel is filed.

6. Compute for the discharge coefficients by calculating the actual and theoretical
discharge considering the data obtained from the experiment.
7

V. DATA AND RESULT

TRIAL VOLUME (L) TIME (sec.) Q1 (L/s) Q2 (L/s) c


1
2
3
4
5

VI. CONCLUSION
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

VII. RECOMMENDATION
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
8

VIII. EXERCISE PROBLEM


Refer to the given figure. Find
1. Pressure at point 1.
2. Velocity at point 2.
3. Pressure at point 2.
9

EXPERIMENT NO. 3
VENTURI METER

I. INTRODUCTION

A Venturi meter is a device for determining the flow-rate of a fluid down a


pipe. It is a device consists of a converging tube that is connected to the main
pipe. From the figure shown, the minimum cross sectional area is called the
throat.

Like any other flow rate devices, weanalyse the venture meter from Ber-
noullis Equation and Continuity equation,in which the energy present at certain
points are analysed. See figure above. Suppose in point 1. The Energy consists of
kinetic energy and potential energy. Potential energy may be break down into ele-
10

vation and pressure head. Kinetic energy consists of velocity head. Point 2 has
same components, but they possess different magnitude. See equation below:

V is the velocity
P -pressure
Z-elevation
HL- head loss

Energy Grade Line (EGL) from the figure represents the transition of Po-
tential and Kinetic Energy while Hydraulic Grade Line (HGL) represents the tran-
sition of Potential Energy from one point to another.

There are coefficients considers for this kind of devices. Coefficients for
discharge and velocity, in which both of them may be obtain from the ratio of the
actual to its theoretical.

In this experiment, students were able to measure the differences in


pressure between the venturi inlet and neck, in order to determine the flow rate.
The apparatus used on this experiment consists of series of straight tube
manometers that are equally spaced. These manometers are used to determine the
hydraulic grade line of the fluid as it passes through it.

II. OBJECTIVE
To understand the concept of discharge, velocity and pressure head using a
venturi meter.
11

III. APPARATUS
Venturi meter
Hydraulic bench

Figure 5 Venturi Meter

IV. PROCEDURE
1. Secure all the materials and apparatus needed which includes the assembling
of the venturi meter and the hydraulics bench.
2. Switch on the hydraulic bench and set the flow of the water at a constant rate.
3. Designate the points on the venturi meter as points 1 and 2 respectively.
Ensure that point 2 has smaller diameter than the diameter at point 1. NOTE:
The diameter is found at the venturi meter.
4. Record the result of the pressure head readings.
5. Repeat the experiment for four (4) more trials using the same diameters.
6. Compute for Velocity 1 and 2 and the Discharge for all five (5) trials.
12

V. DATA AND RESULT

TRIAL PRESSURE HEAD VELOCITY DISCHARGE

h1 V1
1
h2 V2

h1 V1
2
h2 V2

h1 V1
3
h2 V2

h1 V1
4
h2 V2

h1 V1
5
h2 V2

VI. CONCLUSION
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
13

VII. RECCOMENDATION
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

VIII. EXERCISE PROBLEM

1. Compute for the discharge of a venturi meter and velocities. If its pressure head
1 is equal to 7 meters and pressure head 2 equals to 4 meters. The diameters are
20 mm and 50 mm respectively.
2. A 300mm pipe delivers 500 L / min of water through a venturi meter. A2 is 1/5
of A1. Compute the velocity in A2 and A1.if the h1 is 10m, compute for h2.
3.) Determine the discharge if the diameter is 50 mm and velocity is 4 m/s.
14

EXPERIMENT NO. 4
FLOW METER

I. INTRODUCTION

Flow meters are device used to measure the flow of liquid passing through
them. It may be a measurement of discharge in a fixed period of time. It may
measure how fast the flow can be or just simply the measurement of volumetric of
fluid passing with it. It may be used to measure flow of fluids in closed conduits
or in open conduits.

For this experiment students may attach manometer to the device to


quantify pressure in flowing fluid.

II. OBJECTIVE

To demonstrate the operation and characteristics of a flow meter channel.

III. APPARATUS

Flow Rate Meter Apparatus

Figure 6 Flow Meter Demonstration Rig


15

IV. PROCEDURE

1. Secure and set-up the flow rate meter apparatus.


2. Set a constant discharge (Q1) for every trial.
3. Record the height at the pressure head points A and B.
4. Calculate for the discharge (Q2) and velocity of the water.

V. DATA AND RESULT

TRIAL PRESSURE HEAD DISCHARGE


1 h1 Q1 .
h2 Q2
2 h1 Q1
h2 Q2
3 h1 Q1
h2 Q2
4 h1 Q1
h2 Q2
5 h1 Q1
h2 Q2

VI. CONCLUSION
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
16

VII. RECOMMENDATION
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

VIII. EXERCISE PROBLEM

1. Compute for the velocity of water through a 100mm diameter of a pipe with a
discharge of 8L/s.
2. A pipe system with a 800mm, 600mm, 400mm and 200mm has a flow rate of
0.28cms. Compute for the velocity in each pipe.
3. A water flowing from a 100m pipe gas a 500mm diameter in 10minutes. Compute
for the discharge.
17

EXPERIMENT NO. 5
HEADLOSS IN A PIPE SURCHARGE APPARATUS

I. INTRODUCTION

From the presentation of previous experiment, bernoullis principle was


already presented, in which analysis of energy in two different points were
obtained. This principle shows the equilibrium of energy from two different points
were ideal. In this situation, the total head or can graphically represented as the
Energy grade line (EGL) is considered straight. During the actual transition of
flow of fluid from one point to another, some energy was loss, and this is what we
called head loss.
Headlossis a measure of the reduction in the total head of the liquid as it
moves through a system. The total head is the sum of the elevation head, velocity
head and pressure head. Headloss is inevitable; it is always present in all
hydraulic applications. The head loss for fluid flow is directly proportional to the
length of the pipe, as flow rate increases the pressure will drop.

The HEAD is the vertical distance, height or energy of water above a point.

II. OBJECTIVE
To be able to understand headloss using pipe surcharge apparatus.
18

III. APPARATUS
Hydraulic bench
Pipe Surcharge apparatus
Measuring tape

Figure 7 Pipe Surcharge Apparatus

IV. PROCEDURE
1. Secure all the materials and apparatus needed which include hydraulic bench, pipe
surcharge, and measuring tape.
2. Measure the height of the tank.
3. Measurement the height of the water inside tank by getting the difference of the
height of the tank and the height from the top of the tank to the level of the water
surface.
4. Pull the lever on the pipe surcharge to stop the flow of water.

V. DATA AND RESULT


TRIAL H (ml) h (m) hl (m) Q (L/sec.)
1
2
3
4
5
19

VI. CONCLUSION
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

VII. RECOMMENDATION
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

VIII. EXERCISE PROBLEM


Solve for hl and Q.
1. H = 0.6m h = 0.485m
2. H = 0.55m h = 0.393m
3. H = 0.72m h = 0.563m
20

EXPERIMENT NO. 5
ORIFICE

I. INTRODUCTION

Orifice is an opening in a closed vessel usually in circular form, in which


fluid flows. Its main use is to measure the flow of water. Its shape is not limited
from being a circle in which in hydraulics, orifice with a circular shape is most
commonly used. Tubes or pipes can also be considered an orifice because of its
opening that we can use to determine the discharge of a fluid.

II. OBJECTIVE
To determine and describe the behaviour of fluids using an orifice.

III. APPARATUS
Orifice tank
Hydraulic bench
Measuring tape
Beaker
Extension wire

Figure 8 Set-up for Orifice experiment.


21

IV. PROCEDURE
1. Secure all the materials and apparatus needed which include 500ml beak-
er, steel tape, orifice and weir calibration apparatus.
2. Turn on the pump to allow the storage of water in the apparatus. Pump un-
til the height of water in the apparatus reaches at a certain level.
3. Determine the diameter of the orifice.
4. Measure the vertical and horizontal distance reached by the jet.
5. Get the discharge of the orifice by recording the time needed to fill up the
vessel at a certain volume.

V. DATA AND RESULT

TRIAL x (m) y (m) h (m) Cv C Cc


1
2
3
4
5

VI. CONCLUSION
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
22

VII. RECOMMENDATION
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

VIII. EXERCISE PROBLEM

1. An orifice is discharging under a head of 1.25 m of water. A pitot tube kept at its
center line at the vena contracta indicates a head of 1.20 m of water. Determine the
coefficient of velocity of the Orifice.
2. Compute for the head loss at an orifice (Cv =0.98) discharging under a head of
2.0m.
3. A cylindrical tank 1.5m in diameter and 3m high stands with its axis vertical. The
tank is full of water and has a 10cm diameter orifice (C = 0.60) located at the bottom.
Determine the time required to empty the tank of its contents through the orifice.
23

EXPERIMENT NO. 6
DETERMINATION OF DISCHARGE FLOW USING A CURRENT METER

I. INTRODUCTION

In an open channel one of the most common methods of measuring discharge


involves integration of the velocity distribution across the flow section using a
current meter. The current meter consists of an instrument with an impeller
mounted on a rod or cable. If a cable is used to suspend the meter in the flow there
must be streamlined weight at its lower end, below the current meter, of sufficient
magnitude to overcome the force of the stream, enabling the operator to place the
meter at any desired point in the vertical. Having taken sufficient point
measurements in a vertical to establish the average velocity, the operator moves to
a new vertical, by wading in small streams or by cable car or boat on large
streams.

Open-channel flow is an important area of fluid mechanics for civil


engineers. It describes the flow in rivers, man-made channels and partially-full
pipes, as well as the behaviour of hydraulic structures such as weirs, spillways and
sluices.

Analysis of open-channel flow is essential for the planning, design, and


operation of water-resource projects.

II. OBJECTIVES
To determine the computation of stream discharge based on current meter.
24

III. APPARATUS
Reservoir-Channel apparatus with no channel slope
Volumetric flow meter
Hook gage
Stopwatch
Current meter

Figure 9 Current meter Figure 10 Reservoir

IV. PROCEDURE
1. Turn on the apparatus.
2. Open the flow channel and adjust the flow until the stream achieves a
steady flow.
3. Measure the area of the flow channel.
4. Place the Current meter facing the streams current and record the data
gathered.
5. Compute the discharge by using the formula.
Q = AV
6. Change the area of the stream and repeat procedures 3-5 for the rest of the
trials.
25

V. DATA AND RESULT

TRIAL L (m) H (m) Q (cms)

VI. CONCLUSION
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

VII. RECOMMENDATION
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
26

VIII. EXERCISE PROBLEM


1. Given a rectangular channel of 10ft x 4ft, calculate for the hydraulic radius (R) if
the discharge is 10 ft3/s.
2. A rectangular channel having a width of 8m carries a discharge of 18m3/s.
Determine the normal depth if S = 1/107.
3. Determine the normal discharge for a 200mm inside diameter of a common clay
drainage tile running half-full it the slope drops 1/1000.
27

EXPERIMENT NO. 8
DISCHARGE USING A WEIR

I. INTRODUCTION
A control structure can be defined as a change in the cross-section of the flow
whereby the regime of the flow is modified. At such a section, a definite stage-
discharge relationship exists, enabling it to be used for the purpose of flow
measurement. At a control structure like a Weir or a measuring flume, etc, the
flow changes from subcritical to supercritical state. Thus, the flow passes through
a critical section and flow is independent of the tail-water conditions. In such a
case, the flow can be measured by a single depth measurement upstream of the
critical section.

II. OBJECTIVES
To determine the relationship between the depth of water flowing over the weir
and the discharge through it.

III. APPARATUS
Hydraulic Bench
Weir apparatus

Figure 10 Weir Apparatus


28

IV. PROCEDURE

1. Start with no weights on the hanger.


2. Close valve A.
3. Open valve B (ie. let the water out of the tank).
4. Start pump.
5. Open valve A so that water level rises to lower tip of weir.
6. Set hook gauge at this level.
7. Continue opening valve A until some head h is optioned.
8. To obtain the flow rate:
a. Close valve B (ie. close outlet of weigh tank).
b. The weighing beam will rise from the lower position to the upper stop.
c. At the instant that the beam is in the horizontal position start the timer.
Then immediately place the selected mass on the weigh hanger.
d. The beam will start to rise again. When the beams is in the horizontal
position stop the timer and record the time interval, the mass on the hanger
and the head of water passing through the V-notch.
e. Open valve B (ie. let water out of weigh tank).
9. Repeat step (7) to (8) for various values of h.

V. DATA AND RESULT

TRIAL AREA H Q (cms)


1
2
3
4
5
29

VI. CONCLUSION
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

VII. RECOMMENDATION
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

VIII. EXERCISE PROBLEM


1.The depth of flow over a rectangular broad-crested weir is measured to be
0.6 ft. What is the subcritical depth of flow upstream from the broad-crested
weir for this case if the weir has a height of 1.2 ft?

2.REFER TO PROBEM 1: What is the discharge in the channel if the channel


width is 2.5 ft?

3.
30

EXPERIMENT NO. 9
DISCHARGE USING AN OPEN CHANNEL CONSIDERING ITS SLOPE

I. INTRODUCTION
Dischargeis the volume rate ofwater flow, including any suspended solids,
dissolved chemical species and biologic material, which is transported through a
given cross-sectional area. The empirical, or also theoretical, relationship existing
between the water-surface stage and the simultaneous flow discharge in an open
channel is known as stage-discharge relation or rating curve, or also just rating.
These expressions are synonymous and they can be used interchangeably.

Normal Flow is defined as steady, uniform flow. Theoretically this only


possible for a prismatic channel. A prismatic flow channel is one whose sides are
parallel to an axis in the direction of flow. Normal flow means there are no change
in the depth or velocity along the length of the channel and no changes over time.

II. OBJECTIVES
To deepen one's understanding about open channels and its relevance in
determining the rate of flow of a fluid.

III. APPARATUS
Open channel Apparatus
Stopwatch
Any material that will float on water

Figure 11 Open Channel Apparatus


31

IV. PROCEDURE

1. Turn on the pump of the flow channel. Wait until the flow of water becomes steady.
2. Measure the cross sectional area and length of the stream.
3. Measure and record the slope of the flow channel.
4. Put your floating material in the open channel.
5. Record its time to reach the end of the open channel.
6. Compute for the discharge.

V. DATA AND RESULT

TRIAL AREA R (m) V (m/s) Q

VI. CONCLUSION
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
32

VII. RECOMMENDATION
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

VIII. EXERCISE PROBLEM

1.Calculate the velocity of flow for a 3.5m wide rectangular concrete channel on a 4%
slope. The water is flowing 1.3m deep.
2.A rectangular concrete channel 0.8m wide with n = 0.015, .06percent slope (S =
.0006), discharging 0.0043cms.
3.A trapezoidal channel with 2: l side slopes and a 2m bottom width, with n = 0.030,
0.2 percent slope (S = 0.002), discharging 3L/s.
33

EXPERIMENT NO. 10
DETERMINATION OF FRICTION FACTOR IN A FLOW CHANNEL

I. INTRODUCTION
Characteristics of flow over a smooth corrugated bed of an open channel can be

determined by using Mannings Formula;


1 2 1
V = nR 3S 2

Where:
V = velocity, m/s
n = roughness coefficient (friction factor)
R = hydraulic raudius, m
= Area of the stream / Wetted perimeter
S = slope

II. OBJECTIVES

To determine the friction factor of the pipe and its effect to water flow.

III. APPARATUS
Flow Channel
Level
Current Meter
Measuring Rule

Figure 12Flow Channel


34

IV. PROCEDURE
1. Turn on the pump of the flow channel. Wait until the flow of water becomes
steady.
2. Measure the cross sectional area and length of the stream.
3. Measure and record the slope of the flow channel.
4. Put your floating material in the open channel.
5. Record its time to reach the end of the open channel.
6. Compute for the discharge.
7. Compute for the friction factor.

V. DATA AND RESULT


Trial
1
2
3
4
5

VI. CONCLUSION
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

VII. RECOMMENDATION
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
35

_______________________________________________________________
VIII. EXERCISE PROBLEM

1. Solve for the discharge of rectangular channel with a dimension of 2m x 3m and a


velocity of 3m/s, n = 0.0012.
2. REFER TO PROBLEM 1: Solve for the Slope of the open channel.
3. A rectangular open channel with a dimension of 4m x 5m has flow rate of
0.005cms. Solve for the velocity.
36

EXPERIMENT NO. 11
DETERMINATION OF MINOR HEADLOSSCOEFFICIENT IN PIPES

I. INTRODUCTION
Frictional or energy headlosses in pipe bends and fittings are classified as
minor headlosses. Most of the minor headlosses are due to sudden contraction
(hc), sudden enlargement (he), pipe bends (hb) and due to subcontractions (hu)
such as gate and valves in a pipe network.

In this experiment, minor headlosses will be determined using a simulated


device called Energy losses in bends apparatus. The data to be gathered will relate
the flow rate, loss coefficients (k), velocity an pressure drop across each device
governed by the equation:

2
= 2g

II. OBJECTIVES
To demonstrate the energy losses and characteristics of fluid flow through bends
and fitttings.

III. APPARATUS
Hydraulic bench
Losses in bends apparatus
Stop watch
Tapping Clamp

Figure 13 Losses in bends apparatus


37

IV. PROCEDURE

1. Set up the Energy Losses in Bends Apparatus on the hydraulic bench. The bench
feed is connected to the inlet pipe and the outlet pipe runs into the volumetric tank.

2. Open the bend feed, gate and flow control valve to admit water into the apparatus.

3. Once the pipe network is filled with water, connect a short length of flexible
tubing and to the air connector close the flow control valve and carefully open the air
bleed screw until all tapping and manometer tubes are full of water. NOTE: In
operation, the levels in the manometer tubes can be adjusted by using the hand pump
attached to the air connector for raising, and the air bleed screw for lowering. The air
bleed screw opens and closes the air flow through the air valve, so when using the
hand pump, the bleed screw must be opened to retain the hand pump pressure in the
system the screw must be closed after pumping.

4. Open the flow control valve slightly, take readings of each manometer tube and
measure the flow of water. Record all the readings.

5. Adjust the control valve in stages, noting all readings as the procedure above for
each stage, until the valve is closed.

6. Now close the two tappings to the meter bend by means of a clamp.

7. Open the flow control valve fully and close the gate valve fittings. Record the
pressure gauge reading.

8. Open the gate valves in regular stages and list the pressure gauge reading and the
flow rate for each stage. Repeat this until the valve is fully closed.

9. Repeat the sequence until the valve is fully open.


38

V. DATA AND RESULT


Type of Pipe Line
Change of Area Bends
Tria Enlargemen Contractio
Long Short Elbow Mitre
l t n
h h h h
hL V K hL V K V K V K V K V K
L L L L
1
2
3
4
5

VI. CONCLUSION
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
VII. RECOMMENDATION
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
39

VIII. EXERCISE PROBLEM

1. Water is flowing in a pipe with a velocity of 2m/s then it suddenly experience


enlargement of pipe. What is its minor headloss? Ke = 0.91

2. Rachelle is about to design a water supply system in a certain barangay. The water
flowing from a certain pipe is subjected to a pipe contraction given that your discharge is
0.002cms with a pipe diameter of 0.025mm^2. Kc = 0.8

3. Harold is about to install a design or design a water supply system from the main
pipe to his newly built house. Given that the discharge of 0.001cms with a pipe diameter
of 0.0019mm. kc = 0.5. What is its headloss?
40

EXPERIMENT NO. 12
FORCE EXERTED BY A JET ON A FLAT PLATE

I. INTRODUCTION

Consider a jet of fluid striking a flat plate held perpendicularly to the path of
the jet. At point 1, a mass of fluid (M1) moves with an initial velocity (v1) and as
it strikes the plate at point 2 in a horizontal direction it becomes velocity (v2)
which is less than v1.

The theory is governed by the following equation.


Force exerted by the plate to the liquid
=
2 1
= ( )

2 1
Since M = PV, then; = ( )


But =

Therefore = (2 1 )

From Newtons third law of motion

Force exerted by the jet to the plate

F = -F

=

Where:
F = force (N)
P = density of fluid (kg/m3)
Q = quantity of fluid deflected by the plate (m3/s)

V1-V2 = initial and final velocities (m/s)


41

y = unit weight of fluid (kN/m)


g = 9.82m/s2

II. OBJECTIVES
To determine the force exerted on flat plate with normal mass placed on it.

III. APPARATUS
Nozzle
Hydraulic bench
Weights

Figure 14 Nozzle releasing a jet through a plate

IV. PROCEDURE
1. Measure thee nozzle diameter and place the flat plate target on the rod attached to
the weight pan.
2. Assemble the apparatus with the inlet pipe connected to the bench and the
apparatus in the open channel.
3. Level the base of the apparatus with the top plate loosely assembled.
4. Screw down the plate to datum on the spint level.
5. Adjust the level gauge to suit the datum on the weight pan.
6. Place a nominal mass on the weight pan and allow water to flow by operating the
control valve on the bench.
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7. The flow rate is adjusted until the weight pan is adjusted to level gauge. NOTE:
The weight pan should be oscillated to minimize the effect of friction.
8. Take note of the readings of volume and time to find the flow rate.
9. Record the mass on the weight pan.

V. DATA AND RESULT

Trial Q (L/s) Time (s) W (kg) h F (kN)


1
2
3
4
5

VI. CONCLUSION
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VII. RECOMMENDATION
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VIII. EXERCISE PROBLEM

1. A jet of water 900mm in diameter strikes against a plate at right angles What is
the force exerted by the jet on the stationary plate when the discharges is 0.356cms.
2. Compute for the weight of the plate. Q = 50L/s and d = 100mm
3. A nozzle of 75mm in diameter delivers a stream of water at a velocity of 50m/s
perpendicular to a fixed plate. Compute the force on the plate.