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EE311

Introduction to Semiconductor
Devices

L-10: Doping

B. Mazhari
B M h i
Professor, Dept. of EE
p
IIT Kanpur

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N -type doping Bond Model

Si Si Si Si

Si Si Si Si

Si Si Si Si

Si As Si Si

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P-type Doping

Si Si Si Si

Si B Si Si

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Hydrogen atom
EO

-13.6eV
me q4
E
8h 2 o2
+

D
Donor atom
t iin Sili
Silicon L
Lattice
tti

EC
Si Si Si Si ED

q4 r 11.7
Si As
+
Si Si E
8h 2 o2 r2
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N-Type semiconductor: Band Model

EC EC
ED ED
T=0 T=300k
T 300k
EV EV

no ~ N D

Dopant As P Sb
EC - ED 54 44 39 k ~ 26meV
kT
(meV)

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Why do donor atoms ionize?

EC
1
ED f (E)
EF E EF
1 exp( )
kT
EV

N D 1016 cm 3 no N D 1016 cm 3

E EF N
no N C exp( C ) ; N C 2.8 1019 cm 3 EC E F kT ln( c ) 0.206eV
kT no

f ( Ec ) 3.57 104 f ( Ed ) 2.84 103 for Ed = 54meV

f ( Ed )
~8
f ( EC ) 42
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N D 1016 cm 3

EC
ED
EF

EV

f ( Ed )
~8
f ( EC )

number in Ed N D f ( Ed )
~ 2.8 103
number in EC N C f ( EC )

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1
f (E)
EC E EF
1 exp( )
ED kT
EF
1
f ( Ed )
EV 1 E EF
1 exp( d )
2 kT

f (E) E E
exp( F ) f (E) E E NF
1 f (E) kT exp( F )
1 f (E) kT NE

EC
f ( Ed ) EF E
ED exp( )2
1 f ( Ed ) kT

EV
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Donor Ionization 1
f ( Ed )
1 E EF
1 exp( d )
2 kT

1
ND N D (1 f ( Ed )) N D
E F Ed
1 2exp(
p( )
kT

E F Ed
2exp( )
N ND
D kT
ND E F Ed
1 2exp( )
kT

E F Ed
For 1 2exp( )
kT
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ND ND E F Ed
2exp(
2 ( )
ND kT


ND ND E F EC EC Ed
2exp( )
ND kT


EC E F ND ND n E Ed
no N C exp( ) 2 o exp( C )
kT ND NC kT

ND ND ND EC Ed
2 exp( ) 0.1
ND NC kT

NC EC Ed
ND exp( )
20 kT 46
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Donor Ionization
NC EC Ed
EC ND exp( )
ED 20 kT
EF

EV
Si: N C 2.8 1019 cm 3; EC Ed 54meV

For Si: N D 1.7 1017 cm 3

( EC Ed ) 26
T 300
N 20
ln( C )
ND

For N D 1 1016 cm 3 determine T at which donor


neutralization begins to occur? T 126 K
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Example-1
Sem. A : EC Ed 6meV S
Sem. B : EC Ed 40meV
V

For equal donor concentrations,


concentrations In which case will greater
ionization of donors take place

N CA 4 1017 cm 3; N CB 4 1019 cm 3

ND
NC EC Ed
ND exp( ) NC EC Ed
20 kT exp( )
20 kT

A : 1.6 1016 cm 3 4 3 1017 cm 3


B : 4.3
17 3
GaAs: N
B. Mazhari, IITK C 4.7 10 cm ; EC Ed 6meV 48
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Donor Ionization

NC EC Ed
ND exp( )
20 kT

Fix donor concentration and lower the temperature


NC N D E Ed
no exp( C )
2 2kT

1.0 1
0.8
no/ND
D

01
0.1

no/ND
0.6
0.01
0.4
0.2 1E-3
16 -3
0.0 ND = 10 cm ; ED = 54meV 1E-4
0 50
0 100 150
1 0 200 250
2 0 300 0 5 10 15 20 25 30
T (K) 1000/T
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