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NETWORKING 101

NETWORK TERMINOLOGY
NETWORKING, WIRELESS AND RF
RFP NETWORK TERMINOLOGY

CONTENTS
NETWORK TERMINOLOGY................................................................................................................... 1
General ................................................................................................................................................... 3
Wireless Fundamentals ........................................................................................................................... 5
OSI Model of Networking ........................................................................................................................ 7
Radio Frequency ..................................................................................................................................... 8
Miscellaneous ....................................................................................................................................... 10

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RFP NETWORK TERMINOLOGY

General
802.1x
IEEE standard for port-based network access control, typically used to secure communication
between authenticated and authorized devices over the wireless (or wired) network
Bandwidth
what you can use to transfer data over the network
Broadcast (transfer)
sends data to every other host on the network
Client
requests services (Client OS would be Windows 8, Server OS would be Windows Server 2012)
Data Center
central area that contains central computers, servers, storage, and networking. A Dat a Center
Network interconnects all data center resources together
Data Transfer Rate
Or Data Rate, how fast data can be transferred (Gbps, Mbps, Kbps) . Basic rates must be
supported by all access points and clients. Supported rates are optional for clie nts.
Default Gateway
the central or master IP address (e.g. the address of the AP or Router)
Device
Refers to either a laptop (client device or Endpoint), or a switch or appliance (network device). A
wired device can be a desktop computer or laptop/gam ing console connecting via Ethernet. A
wireless device can be a mobile phone, tablet, laptop/gaming console that connects wirelessly.
Ethernet
IEEE standard 802.3, that defines how information is sent and received between network adapters,
hubs, switches, and other devices. 802.3u is 100Mbps, 802.3ab is Gigabit Ethernet
Frames
a data packet within Layer 2 of the OSI model a sequence of bits containing a detectable beginning
and end of a packet in a stream of bits
GRE
Or Generic Routing Encapsulation, is a tunneling protocol that can encapsulate a wide variety of
network layer protocols inside virtual point-to-point links over an Internet Protocol network
IP Address
Internet Protocol - a series of numbers that uniquely identifies a client device, based on the default
gateway (e.g. 192.168.1.1 192.168.1 is the Network ID, and the ending 1 is the Host ID)
IPv6
RFP NETWORK TERMINOLOGY

is an Internet Layer protocol for packet-switched inter networking and provides end-to-end data-
gram transmission across multiple IP networks. IPv6 supports 2128 addresses, alleviating IPv4
address exhaustion. It also simplifies aspects of address assignment and network renumbering
LAN - Local Area Network
group of wired devices (PCs, switches, routers) in a ge ographic area/building
Layer 2 Switch
Hardware device that uses MAC addresses/physical addressing to determine paths for data;
forward frames
Layer 3 Switch
Hardware device that uses IP addresses to determine paths for data; forwards packets
Link Aggregation Control Protocol
Provides a method to control the bundling of several physical ports together to form a sin gle logical
channel. LACP allows a network device to negotiate an automatic bundling of links by sending
LACP packets to the peer (directly connected device that also implements LACP )
MAC Address
a series of numbers and letters that uniquely identifies a client device
Media
what devices talk on (cabling, wireless, etc)
Mesh
Point-to-Point, everything connected to everything else no central device. For instance, meshing
1 AP to another AP if a physical port is not available for deployment
NAT
Network Address Translation is a method of remapping one IP address space into another by
modifying network address information in IP datagram packet headers while they are in transit
across a router. SRC is an attribute that specifies the URL of an external script file . Destination
NAT is the translation of the destination IP address of a packet, and is used to redirect traffic
destined to a virtual host (identified by the original dest IP address) to the actual host (identified by
the translated dest IP address).
Networks
used to share information, communicate, organize data
Network adapter
Also known as NIC Network Interface Card - Hardware device that enables you to send and
receive from your computer (ethernet port or WLAN chipset)
Packet
a formatted unit of data carried by the network. Contains control information like addresses, as well
as user data

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Peer
client or server that performs an action
PoE
Power over Ethernet allows Ethernet cables to serve concurrently as a power source for a device
such as a VoIP phone or AP. 802.3af is standard PoE, 802.3at is PoE+
Port Channel
(sometimes referred to as a LAG or Ether-Channel) is a bundle of multiple physical interfaces that
form a single logical interface. You can use port-channels to provide additional bandwidth or link
redundancy between two switches. Port-channels are either defined statically or dynamically using
Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP).
RJ45
most common type of network adapter connection (ethernet cable)
Router
used to connect multiple devices together, and communicate between two networks (home and
internet or WAN)
Servers
Fulfills services; more powerful computers that provide centralized services (File, Print, Database,
Network controller, Messaging/Email, Web)
Spanning Tree Protocol (802.1D)
A network protocol that ensures a loop-free topology for any bridged Ethernet local area network.
The basic function of STP is to prevent bridge loops and ensuing broadcast radiation. Spanning
tree also allows a network design to include spare (redundant) li nks to provide automatic backup
paths if an active link fails, without the danger of bridge loops, or the need for manual
enabling/disabling of these backup links.
Subnet
a part of a larger network such as the internet; such as all machinese at one geographic location,
one building, or on the same LAN
Switch
Also known as Wired Access Points similar to hub (but smarter), but identifies the intended
recipient of data - based on MAC address or with Aruba, a user role
Transport Protocol
basic set of rules or standards
Unicast (transfer)
sends data to a specific host
VLAN

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or Virtual LAN is a group of hosts (end devices) either plugged into various wired ports or
connected to a wireless SSID (e.g. Port 1, Port 2, Port 3 could be one VLAN, and Port 4 could be
another)
VPN
Virtual Private Network, typically through a software client, remotely connects an endpoint device
to central network resources sitting at corporate. It extends a private network across a public
network. PPTP, or Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol is a method for implementing VPNs. L2TP, or
Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol is an extension of PPTP to enable VPNs and is often implemented
alongside IPsec for security
IPSec
Or Internet Protocol Security, is a protocol suite for securing IP communications by authenticating
and exrypting each IP packet. It also includes protocols for establishing mutual authentication
between agents. IPSec protects data flows between hosts, networks, or networks-to-hosts. SSL
and TLS operate in the higher layers, designed into an application itself.
VRRP
Is a non-proprietary redundancy protocol designed to increase the availability of default gateway
servicing hosts on the same subnet. It advertises a virtual router as the default gateway, wherein
two or more physical routers can seamlessly backup each other in case of failover
QoS
Refers to the ability to sustain a given service level at or above the minimum performance by the
applcaitons running on the network. It is used to prioritize and assure bandwidth for video and
voice streams, specific applications while also ensuring lower priority traffic flows are suc cessfully
received and sent. COS, or Class of Service is a way of managing traffic in a network by grouping
similar types of traffic, like email, video, voice, together to prioritize them, TOS, or Type of Service,
is a field in the IPv4 header used to specify priority and request a route through service. DSCP, or
Differentiated Services code point is a mechanism for traffic management.
Wireless Fundamentals
Wireless Access Points
also known as Access Point (AP) acts as the connecting device for wireless networks
WLAN
or Wireless Network, same as the LAN, but groups wireless devices together (Phone, APs,
Controllers)
802.11a/b/g/n
802.11 wireless standards superceded by 802.11ac.
802.11ac
Current generation standard supporting gigabit speeds (in the 5GHz band only). Wave 1 brought
gigabit speeds, while Wave 2 boosts speeds further with MU -MIMO technology
802.11h

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Uses two processes, DFS and TPC to resolve 802.11a interference issues with military radar
systems and medical devices. DFS, or Dynamic Frequency Selection enables the AP to detect and
avoid radar and satellite systems by switching channels. TPC, or Transmit Power Control
dynamically regulates power levels to a strong enough signal to minimize interference risk
802.11r
Specifies fast BSS transitions between APs (roaming).
802.11s
Defines how wireless devices can create a WLAN mesh network (mesh)
Basic Service Set (BSS)
The environment whereby devices connect to a single access point
Basic Service Area (BSA)
The area of coverage of a single access point
Basic Service Set Identifier (BSSID)
The MAC address of a single access point
Service Set Identifier (SSID)
The name used to identify one wireless network (1 AP) from another (AP). Ex: GetOffMyLAN
Extended Service Set Identifier (ESSID)
Similar to SSID, the name used to identify one wireless network composed of multiple APs
Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS)
Known as an Ad-hoc network, or P2P network that connects devices together without an AP
Roaming
A client device that moves from one APs BSA to another APs BSA on the same network is
roaming. This typically happens when the signal is too weak on the first AP, however Aruba
introduces patented ClientMatch technology to prevent devices from sticking to a weaker
performing AP.
Wireless Bridge
A device or method that connects two LAN segments together. Typically used to span buildings,
and used in place of physical cabling or leasing private lines.
Wi-Fi Alliance
Organization that ensures interoperability between products
Dynamic Rate Selection
Allows wireless devices to adapt to transmission speeds based on the conditions of the connection.
If a client device moves away from an AP, speeds can decrease, or if moves closer, increase.
Channel Bonding
Process whereby two channels are combined for increased throughput.

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RFP NETWORK TERMINOLOGY

MIMO
Multiple In Multiple Out introduced in 802.11n. Allows transmission through multiple antennas on
one access point, increasing throughput and more efficient reception.
SISO
Single Input Single Output, whereby one antenna is used for transmitting or receiving at a time
OFDM
Technology that boosts data rate for specific 802.11 standards
MU-MIMO
Multi-User Multiple In Multiple Out introduced in 802.11ac Wave 2. Builds on MIMO by allowing
simultaneous transmission of multiple signals through individual antennas.
2.4Ghz
A frequency band divided up into 14 different channels for 802.11b/g/n WLAN use. Only three of
these channels are non-overlapping, meaning there is a higher chance of interference than 5GHz,
however 2.4Ghz can extend farther than 5GHz. Regulatory domains restrict use of certain channels
in the US, IL, JP, ROW
5Ghz
A frequency band divided up into 23 non-overlapping channels (42 total) for 802.11a/n/ac WLAN
use. 5Ghz bands are less congested than the 2.4Ghz band, however have less range of signal.
Regulatory domains restrict use of certain channels in the US, IL, JP, ROW
WMM (Wi-Fi Multimedia)

Support for multimedia content over Wi-Fi networks enabling Wi-Fi networks to prioritize traffic
generated by different applications using Quality of Service (QoS) mechanisms. WMM certifies
products which implement technology defined in the WMM Technical Specification.
WMM-Admission Control
Enhanced bandwidth management tools to optimize the delivery of voice and other traffic in Wi-Fi
networks. WMM-Admission Control certifies products which implement technology defined in the
WMM Technical Specification.

OSI Model of Networking

OSI
Open Systems Interconnection is divided into 7 layers and is used to define how data
communications occur between devices
Layer 1
Physical Layer (Bits) Physical network media and signal methods
Layer 2

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Data Link Layer (Frame) Provides error-free transfer of data frames


Layer 3
Network Layer (Packet) - Manages data routing and creating sub networks
Layer 4
Transport Layer (Segment) Manages message fragmentation and reassembly
Layer 5
Session Layer (Data) Establishes a communication session between devices
Layer 6
Presentation Layer (Data) Translates data into a common format
Layer 7
Application Layer (Data) Enables users and applications to access network services

Radio Frequency
RF or Radio Frequency
Describes the use of wireless communication. Measured as a rate of oscillation between 3kH z to
300GHz. For Wi-Fi, the most commonly used frequencies are 2.4GHz and 5GHz.
RF Interference or Noise,
A disturbance in the frequency that affects or disrupts signal quality. Sources of RF noise include
transmitters, toaster ovens, microwaves, metallic objects/walls, TVs, and other electronics
Antennas
A rod, wire, or other device 4 or 5 inches long used to transmit RF signals. Typically used for
indoor APs with RP-SMA connectors or outdoor APs with N-Type connectors
Omnidirectional antennas
Antennas that radiate signal horizontally in all directions. Typically covered in rubber or plastic.
Directional antenna
Focus the RF signal similar to how a flashlight focuses light. They can be focused in different ways,
based on low, medium, or high gain.
Low Gain Antenna
Provides general coverage horizontally and vertically. Antenna coverage will be indicated by
degrees of coverage.
High Gain Antenna
Provides more focused coverage. If an antenna provides more horizontal coverage, then it
provides less vertical coverage
Transmit Antenna

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Or Tx antenna, Receives carrier signal from the transmitter, and radiates or directs RF waves away
from the antenna
Receive Antenna
Or Rx antenna, takes the RF waves and directs an AC signal to the receiver
Transmitter/Receiver
A Transmitter creates the RF signal (AP or client radio) and generates an alternating current
signal. A Receiver receives a carrier signal from the antenna and translates the modulated signal
into binary to be processed
Isotropic Radiator
An ideal point source that radiates energy in all directions equally
Intentional Radiator
A device that is designed to generate and emit RF energy, ex: transmitter, cable, connector, but
not antenna
EIRP
Or Equivalent Isotropically Radiated Power, represents the highest RF signal that is transmitted
from the antenna in the direction of maximum gain
Lightning Arrestor
A device attached directly to the Tx/Rx output port to prevent damage from lightning strikes
Amplitude
The signals power or strength measured in milliwatts. It is the length of a wave
Wavelength
The measure of one wave to the next wave
Frequency
The number of times the signal oscillates in one second (Hz)
Polarization
The horizontal or vertical orientation of a wave
Wave propagation
Waves will get broader and weaker the further away from the source
Free Space Path Loss (FSPL)
The loss in signal strength resulting from a line-of-sight path through free space (air)
6dB rule
A 6dB increase/decrease will double/halve the distance the RF signal travels
Absorption
Denser materials absorb more signals

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Reflection
Occurs off any object (walls, ground, bodies of water)
Scattering
Occurs when a signal bounces off a rough or uneven surface
Refraction
Bending of a wave as it moves through water vapor, or changes in air press ure or temperature
Diffraction
Bending of a wave as it moves around an object (two hallways)
Multipath
Occurs when two or more RF signals arrive at the receiving antenna at the same time, potentially
causing weaker signals at the receiver
Phase (in Phase)
When multiple signals have the same peaks and valleys
Phase (Out of Phase)
When multiple signals have different peaks and valleys
Amplification (Gain)
When signal power is increased at the antenna or transmitter
Attenuation (Loss)
When signal power diminishes due to natural, intentional, or unintentional interference.

Miscellaneous
Data
unit of information
Node
end devices on the network
Standards
sets of rules that ensure hardware and software released by different companies are compatible
(ISO, ANSI, IEEE are such standards organizations)
Network Topology
defines the physical connections or layout of hosts (devices) on a network (bus, ring, star, mesh,
tree)
Hub
the simplest network device (dumb) that will send all data to all device s on the network

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RFP NETWORK TERMINOLOGY

Network Documentation
helps describe, define, and explain the physical and logical method for connecting devices, like a
visual planner
Serial Data Transfer
transfer of one bit at a time, like a one lane highway
Centralized Computing
computing and processing is done at a central location/mainframe system
Distributed Computing
each device has the ability to process information, but may request information from other devices
Terminal
a keyboard and monitor that links to a centralized c omputer/mainframe
Peer-to-Peer Network
distributes applications or data between computers
Wi-Fi Direct
Allows Wi-Fi client devices that connect directly without use of an access point, to enable
applications such as printing, content sharing, and display. Wi-Fi Direct certifies products which
implement technology defined in the Wi-Fi Peer-to-Peer Technical Specification. Application
Service Platform and optional services are defined in the Wi-Fi Peer-to-Peer Services Technical
Specification.
Protected Management Frames
Wi-Fi CERTIFIED WPA2 with Protected Management Frames extends WPA2 protection to unicast
and multicast management action frames, which is playing an increasing role in advanced Wi -Fi
applications
IBSS with Wi-Fi Protected Setup
Enables ad-hoc connections between devices to complete tasks such as file printing or sharing.
Designed to ease setup of connection for devices with limited user interface. IBSS with Wi -Fi
Protected Setup certifies products which implement technology defined in the IBSS with Wi-Fi
Protected Setup Specification.
Passpoint
Enables SIM and non-SIM mobile devices to discover, select and connect to Wi-Fi networks
without user intervention. Passpoint devices see behind the SSID (network name) to select a
network based on ownership, services and performance characteristics. Wi -Fi network connections
use an enhanced set of industry-standard WPA2 security protections; compatibility with legacy
devices can be retained through deployment of multiple SSIDs. Passpoint certifies products which
implement technology defined in the Wi-Fi Alliance Hotspot 2.0 Technical Specification. The
technology behind Passpoint is foundational to Wi-Fi roaming and has been specified by both
Wireless Broadband Alliance and the GSMA Terminal Steering Group.

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Wi-Fi Protected Setup


Facilitates easy set-up of security features using a Personal Identification Number (PIN) or
other defined methods within the Wi-Fi device. Wi-Fi Protected Setup certifies products which
implement technology defined in the Wi-Fi Simple Configuration Technical Specification.
TDLS (Tunneled Direct Link Setup)
Allows network-connected devices to create a secure, direct link to transfer data more efficiently
WMM-Power Save
Power savings for multimedia content over Wi-Fi networks - helps conserve battery life while using
voice and multimedia applications by managing the time th e device spends in sleep mode
CWG-RF
Developed with CTIA, this is a test program developed for converged devices with both Wi -Fi and
cellular technology. The testing provides detailed information about the performance of the Wi -Fi
radio in a converged handset, as well as how the cellular and Wi-Fi radios interact with one
another. Although this test program is not an element of Wi-Fi certification, completion of the
testing is mandatory for Wi-Fi enabled handsets seeking CTIA certification.

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Thank You for
Considering Aruba

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www.arubanetworks.com
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Wireless Workspace Is Open For Business are all Marks of Aruba Networks, Inc. in the United States and certain other countries. The preceding list may not
necessarily be complete and the absence of any mark from this list does not mean that it is not an Aruba Networks, Inc. mark. All rights reserved. Aruba Networks,
Inc. reserves the right to change, modify, transfer, or otherwise revise this publication and the product specifications without notice. While Aruba Networks, Inc.
uses commercially reasonable efforts to ensure the accuracy of the specifications contained in this document, Aruba Networks, Inc. will assume no responsibility
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