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O LEVEL 2008 KOSOVO SBQ (OLD SYLLABUS)

1(a) Study Source A


Why do you think this photograph was put on the website? [5]

L1 Describes photograph [1m]

L2 Makes inference(s) without alluding to purpose [2-3m]


Award 2m for inferring the content, unsupported and 1 additional mark for supporting
details up to a maximum of 3m.
E.g. To show Serbs that the KFOR troops were ineffective in dealing with the Kosovo
Crisis / slow to take action against those who were responsible for burning down the
Serb houses.

L3 Infers purpose [3-4m] Purpose Word, Audience, Message, Impact/Outcome


Award 3m for inferring the purpose of the photograph and 1 additional mark for
supporting details up to a maximum of 4m.
E.g. The photograph was put on the website to incite / provoke Serbian anger towards
the KFOR soldiers for not taking firm / effective action against those who were
responsible for burning down the Serb houses.

L4 L3 + Infers impact on intended audience [5m]


E.g. L3 + The person who put up the photograph wants Serbs to take matters into their
own hands instead of depending on KFOR for protection.

1(b) Study Sources B and C


Do you think the Serb in Source C would agree with the claims of the KFOR
Commander in Source B? Explain your answer. [6]

NB: Award zero marks if student uses Compare & Contrast format
throughout.
L1
Use of content but no valid matching [1m]

E.g. The KFOR Commander says that KFOR has maintained a high level of
military operations in the area and that KFOR troops have worked hard and
successfully to detect, deter and prevent any illegal movement of weapons but
the Serb says flames of revenge continue to burn.

OR False Matching

E.g. The KFOR Commander says that they have greatly reduced incidents of
ethnic violence between the Serbs and the Albanians but Source C does not.

L2 Agree OR Disagree based on valid matching of source content [2-3m]

E.g. The KFOR Commander says that there have been some appalling
incidents of ethnic violence on both sides during KFORs time in Kosovo. The
Serb in Source C would have agreed with this because he mentions that outside
his town, the flames of revenge continue to burn, indicating that ethnic violence
was still taking place despite KFORs presence.
O LEVEL 2008 KOSOVO SBQ (OLD SYLLABUS)

OR

E.g. The KFOR Commander says that KFOR has been effective in stopping the
violence in Kosovo because of their high level of military operations in the area
and the success of their troops to detect, deter and prevent any illegal
movement of weapons. However, the Serb in Source C does not agree that
KFOR was that effective because once the bridge was re-opened in this town,
fears of ethnic violence surfaced again.

L3 Disagrees based on purpose of Source B i.e. The Serb could not have
agreed with the KFOR Commander as Source B is just trying to make the
Commander and his troops look good at the end of his service [4m]

E.g. He would disagree. He has described how bloodshed might occur after the
departure of the KFOR troops, so how can he agree with Source B when the
KFOR Commander is trying to make his soldiers and himself look good. He is
just trying to persuade people that KFOR was effective in dealing with the
Kosovo crisis.

L4 Agree AND Disagree based on valid matching of source content [5m]

L5 Agree based on valid matching of source content AND Disagree based on


purpose of Source D [6m]

(c) Study Source D.


Do you believe what this source says about NATOs involvement in Kosovo?
Explain your answer. [7]

L1 Believe / Dont believe based on Provenance [1]


E.g. I believe because it claims to be the official site of KFOR.
E.g. I do not believe it because as an official website, there may be biasness.

L2 Believe based on content [2-3m]


Award 2 marks for believe unsupported and 1 additional mark for evidence.
E.g. I believe what this source says about NATOs involvement in Kosovo because it
mentions that the peacekeeping force formed a year ago has been successful in dealing
with the Kosovo crisis. This can be seen from Source D which mentions that the death
toll is 30 times smaller. This shows that NATOs involvement brought positive benefits to
Kosovo.

L3 Supports Believe with cross reference [4m]


E.g. Supports (I believe): Source B Although there have been some appalling incidents
of ethnic violence on both sides during our time here, they have been greatly reduced.

L4 Do not Believe based on content [3-4m]


Award 3m for stating that NATOs involvement targeted the Serbs and 4m if the
candidate is able to explain why.
E.g. I do not believe what this source says about NATOs involvement in Kosovo
because the source stated that they only expelled and killed Serbs [3m] This is not
O LEVEL 2008 KOSOVO SBQ (OLD SYLLABUS)

becoming of a peacekeeping force to count killing as a success versus keeping the


peace between the two groups. [4m].

L5 Do not Believe challenged by cross-reference [5m]


E.g. Challenges (I do not believe): Source B Accept cross-references to content which
shows that KFOR is neutral KFOR does not support the activities of the ethnic
Albanian extremists / reduction in ethnic violence on both sides / deter violent groups
and extremists.

L6 Do not believe based on NATOs true purpose as a peacekeeping force [6-7m]


Award 6 marks if NATOs purpose is discussed without cross-referencing and 7m if
cross-referenced to background information
E.g. I do not believe what Source D says about NATOs involvement because Source D
claims to be the official site of KFOR and when it talks about its successes in
peacekeeping in Kosovo, it talks about violence against the Serbs. It claims to have
expelled, killed and kidnapped Serbs and destroyed Serbian churches and monasteries.
It also states that it plans to destroy all traces of the Serbian Christian culture in Kosovo.
The tone of the source is very negative towards the Serbs. As a peacekeeping force,
NATO / KFOR should be a neutral party. When cross-referencing to the background
information, KFORs task was to establish security in Kosovo and to act as neutral
peacekeepers between the two sides. Furthermore, KFORs role included disarming the
KLA, who committed war crimes against Serbs. Yet, this website seems to contradict
KFORs purpose and role in Kosovo.

1(d) Study Source E


Does this source prove that NATO was successful in dealing with the Kosovo
crisis? [7]

L1 Answer based on provenance [1m]

E.g. Yes, it is a picture from the official KFOR website.

OR

Answers based on typicality

E.g. No, it is only one picture and is not representative of NATOs success.

L2 Yes, supported by content [2-3m]

E.g. Yes, it proves because the photograph shows that people in Kosovo have
thanked the NATO forces by spray-painting NATO-Thank you! on a ticket
booth in the country [2m] and there doesnt seem to be any evidence of violence
in the photograph [3m]

No, supported by biasness [2m]

E.g. No, it does not prove that NATO was successful in dealing with the crisis
because it comes from the official KFOR website and so could be bias in
showing that KFOR was successful in Kosovo.
O LEVEL 2008 KOSOVO SBQ (OLD SYLLABUS)

L3 Yes checked by cross reference to other source [3m]

E.g. Yes, it proves that NATO was successful in dealing with the crisis because
the picture can be supported by Source B where the KFOR Commander
mentions that incidents of ethnic violence on both sides during our time here
have been greatly reduced.

L4 No, challenged by cross reference to other source(s) [4-5m]


Award 4 marks for 1 challenge and 5 marks for 2 challenges

E.g. Source A: KFOR was ineffective in maintaining peace in Kosovo because


they allowed Serb houses to be set ablaze by Albanians and were not quick
enough to take actions against the culprits.

E.g. Source C: Flames of revenge continued to burn despite KFORs presence


and in helping them live in security.

L5 L4 + Questions motive [6-7m]

E.g. No, it does not prove because the photograph is taken from the official
KFOR website and thus might have been put there to glorify NATOs role in
solving the conflict and to dispel negative publicity or opinion of NATOs
involvement and success in Kosovo.