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Module 1: Leadership and Management

Module 1.2: Difference Between Management and

Leadership and management are two different concepts in business. The
nursing field is no different, as individuals in this career field need both
leadership and management skills to complete their tasks and activities.
Leadership often involves setting a vision, communicating goals and
objectives to other individuals, providing knowledge for tasks and
handling conflicts between workers. Management is the organization
and coordination of resources according to company policy.
Management vs. Leadership
A clear distinction between management and leadership may nevertheless
prove useful. This would allow for a reciprocal relationship between
leadership and management, implying that an effective manager should
possess leadership skills, and an effective leader should demonstrate
management skills.
Management Skills Encompass Structure:
Analytical thinking is a management skill. Managers are good at
thinking through and solving tough problems as well as giving direction
to those persons whom they manage. Managers use order and structure
in the tasks they are given. They make sure work gets done daily.
Another skill managers have is the ability to be in control of people and
situations. Managers are able to organize people and get them to
accomplish their given tasks. A person can be trained to be a manager.
Leaders inspire others.
Leadership skills are more behavioral. Unlike management skills,
leadership skills are based off of approach rather than taught actions.
Leaders are experimenters and visionaries. They are more flexible than
managers in their approach to situations.
Instead of just directing people, leaders inspire and motivate others to
want to finish task. Leaders use intuition to solve issues. Leaders also set
examples to help develop people's skills.
Management and Leadership:Working Together
Management and leadership skills should be used together. The
differences between the two skills help make a person more well
Leadership skills encompass doing what is right, while management
skills focus on doing things right.
Being able as a manager to find problems and as a leader to deliver
solutions is a more successful approach to completing tasks.
Definition: Management
Management is the coordination of all resources through the process of
Planning, Organizing, Directing and Controlling in order to attain stated
Henry L. Sisk
Definition: Management
The Economist consider Management as a resource like Land, Labour,
Capital and Organization.
The Bureaucrats consider it as an authority
The Sociologists consider managers as a part of the class elite class
Peter Drucker Defines Management as a Multi purpose organ that
manager a business, Manager Mangers and Managers workers and
Concepts of Management
The terms management has been interrupted in several ways as below.
Management as an Activity: It is an activity like playing, studying,
teaching etc. It is an art of getting things done through the effort of
Management as a Process: It is include the process of Planning,
Organizing, Staffing, and Directing and Controlling functions. As a
process the management includes social process, integrated process,
continuous process and interactive process.
Concepts of Leadership
It is the process of influencing others toward goal achievement.
It is the process of persuasion and by example in which an individual
induces a group to take action that is in accord with the leaders
purposes or the shared purposes of all.
At its core, leadership is about relationships with other people.
Professionalism is an essential characteristic of nurse leaders.
Leadership is critical to successful organizational outcomes.
Changes in nursing leadership have been underscored on creating safe
environments for patients.
Concepts of Leadership
Leadership involves much knowledge and disciplined practice.
Gardner (1986) believes that 90% of leadership can be taught.
When nurses graduate they are not ready to assume a leadership role.
They require opportunities for self-discovery to understand their
strengths and for skill building.
Framework for Nursing Leadership requires a conceptualization of the
various functions, roles, and responsibilities of the nurse manager or
Warren Bennis Further Explicated a Dichotomy Between
Managers and Leaders
He drew twelve distinctions between the two groups.
Managers administers, leaders innovate.
Managers ask how and when, leaders ask what and why?
Managers focus on system, leaders focus on people.
Managers do things right, leaders do the right things.
Managers maintain, leaders develop.
Managers rely on control, leaders inspire trust.
Warren Bennis Further Explicated a Dichotomy Between
Managers and Leaders
Managers maintain, leaders develop
Managers rely on control, leaders inspire trust
Managers have a short-term perspective, leaders have a longer-term
Managers accept the status-quo, leaders challenge the status-quo.
Managers have an eye on the bottom line, leaders have an eye on the
Managers imitate, leaders originate
Managers emulate the classic good soldier, leaders are their own person
Managers copy, leaders show originality
In General
Manager Characteristics Leader Characteristics
Administers Innovates
A copy An original
Maintains Develops
Focuses on systems and structures Focuses on people
Relies on control Inspires trust
Short range view Long range perspective
Asks how and when Asks what and why
Eye on bottom line Eye on horizon
Imitates Originates
Accepts the status quo Challenges the status quo
Classic good soldiers Own person
Does things right Does the right thing
Managers are administrators. They have a day-to-day job to get done, and
often must do so within a set framework involving deadlines and budgets.
Managers often work hard to maintain the status quo, while leaders
investigate and look for better ways to do the same work or even better
work. Leaders are innovators. They question the status quo, knowing there
is always a better way, according to the Practice of Leadership. From above
slides, we can able to distinguish between Management and Leadership.
Marriner-Tomey A (1993) Transformational Leadership in Nursing.
London: Mosby.
Adair J (2003) Effective Leadership. National College for
School Leadership, Briefing paper.

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