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Jession L. Diwangan 5.

This side band is then heterodyned in the

balanced mixer stage with 12 MHz frequency
BS ECE-4 produced by crystal oscillator or synthesizer
COM 01 depends upon the requirements of our
transmission. So in mixer stage, the frequency
Filter Method of the crystal oscillator or synthesizer is added
to SSB signal. The output frequency thus being
raised to the value desired for transmission.

6. Then this band is amplified in driver and

power amplifier stages and then fed to the
aerial for the transmission.


1. It allows better management of the

Process frequency spectrum. More transmission
can fit into a given frequency range than
1. A crystal controlled master oscillator
would be possible with double side
produces a stable carrier frequency fc (say 100
band DSB signals.
KHz) 2. All of the transmitted power is message
2. This carrier frequency is then fed to the power none is dissipate as carrier
balanced modulator through a buffer amplifier power.
3. The noise content of a signal is an
which isolates these two stages.
exponential function of the bandwidth:
3. The audio signal from the modulating the noise will decrease by 3dB when the
amplifier modulates the carrier in the balanced bandwidth is reduced by half.
modulator. Audio frequency range is 300 to Therefore, single side band SSB signals
2800 Hz. The carrier is also suppressed in this have less noise contamination than DSB
stage but allows only to pass the both side double side band.
bands. (USB & LSB).
4. A band pass filter (BPF) allows only a single
1. The cost of a single side band SSB
band either USB or LSB to pass through it. It
receiver is higher than the double side
depends on our requirements. Let we want to
band DSB counterpart is a ratio of about
pass the USB then LSB will be suppressed. In
this case. fc = 100 KHz
2. The average radio user wants only to
Audio range = 300 - 2800 Hz USB frequency flip a power switch and dial a station.
range = fc + 300 to fc + 2800 = 100000 + 300 to Single side band SSB receivers require
100000 + 2800 = 100300 to 102800 Hz So this several precise frequency control
band of frequency will be passed on through settings to minimize distortion and may
the USB filter section. require continual readjustment during
the use of the system.
Phase Shift Method V c sin 2 f c t )( V m sin 2 f m t ) =
1/2[Cos(2 f c - 2 f m )t - Cos(2
The phasing method of SSB generation uses a
f c + 2 f m )t] Note that these are
phase shift technique that causes one of the
side bands to be canceled out. A block diagram the sum and difference frequencies or
of a phasing type SSB generator is shown in fig. the upper and lower side bands. It is
important to remember that a cosine
wave is simply a sine wave shifted by 90
A cosine wave has exactly the
same shape as a sine wave, but it occurs
90 The 90 phase shifters
create cosine waves of the carrier and
signal which are multiplied in balanced
modulator to ( V c sin 2 f c t )(
V m sin 2 f m t ) . Another common
trigonometric identity translates this to
Process ( V c sin 2 f c t )( V m sin 2 f m t )

1. It uses two balanced modulators = 1/2[Cos(2 f c - 2 f m )t -

instead of one. The balanced Cos(2 f c + 2 f m )t] Now if you
modulators effectively eliminate the add these two expressions together the
carrier. The carrier oscillator is applied sum frequencies cancel while the
directly to the upper balanced difference frequencies add producing
modulator along with the audio only the lower side band: Cos(2 f c -
modulating signal. Then both the carrier 2 f m )t.
and modulating signal are shifted in
phase by 90 and applied to the
second, lower, balanced modulator. The
two balanced modulator output are
then added together algebraically. The
phase shifting action causes one side
band to be canceled out when the two
balanced modulator outputs are
2. The carrier signal is V c sin 2 f c t
the modulating signal is
V m sin 2 f m t . Balanced modulator
produces the product of these two
signals. ( V c sin 2 f c t )(
V m sin 2 f m t ) Applying a
trigonometric identity. (