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Environmental Assessment Report (DRAFT)

Project Number: 37113


March 2011

Bangladesh: Power System Efficiency Improvement


Project

Prepared by the Ministry of Power, Energy and Mineral Resources for the Asian Development
Bank (ADB).

The environmental assessment report is a document of the borrower. The views expressed herein do not
necessarily represent those of ADBs Board of Directors, Management, or staff, and may be preliminary in
nature.
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

ADB - Asian Development Bank


AGC - automatic generation control
APSCL - Ashuganj Power Station Company Ltd
BAN - Bangladesh
BELI - Bangladesh Efficient Lighting Initiative
BERC - Bangladesh Energy Regulatory Commission
BIDS - Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies
BIWTA - Bangladesh Inland Water Transport Authority
BNBC - Bangladesh National Building Code
BOT - build-operate-transfer
BPDB - Bangladesh Power Development Board
BSTI - Bangladesh Standards and Testing Institution
CAPE - convective available potential energy
CCPP - combined-cycle power plant
CDM - clean development mechanism
CFL - compact fluorescent lamp
CNG - compressed natural gas
CTG - Chittagong
DESA - Dhaka Electric Supply Authority
DESCO - Dhaka Electric Supply Company Limited
DoE - Department of Environment
DPDC - Dhaka Power Distribution Company
EA - Executing Agency
EAC Energy Audit Cell
ECR - Environment Conservation Rules
EGCB - Electricity Generation Company of Bangladesh
EIA - environmental impact assessment
EIA & MP environmental impact assessment & monitoring plan
EMP - environmental management plan
EMRD - Energy and Mineral Resource Division
EPC - Engineering Procurement Construction Contractor
ETP - effluent treatment plant
FGD - focus group discussion
FY - Financial Year
GAP - Gender Action Plan
GIS - geographical information systems
GOB - Government of Bangladesh
GWh - gigawatt hours
HRSA - heat recovery steam generators
HSE - health, safety, and environment
ICA - institutional capacity assessment (World Bank)
IDCOL - Infrastructure Development Company Ltd
IEE - initial environmental examination
IMR - infant mortality rate
IPDP - indigenous peoples development plan
IPP - independent power producer
IRR - internal rate of return
JICA - Japan International Cooperation Agency
kV - kilovolts

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kWh - kilowatt hours
LARP - land acquisition and resettlement plan
LNG - liquefied natural gas
LTSF - Long-Term Strategy Framework
MEPS - minimum energy performance standards
MMR - maternal mortality rate
MPEMR - Ministry of Power, Energy and Mineral Resources
MW - megawatt
NGO - non-government organisation
NEMAP - National Environmental Management Action Plan
NPV - net present value
NWPGC - North West Power Generation Company
NOx - oxides of nitrogen
O&M - operations and maintenance
PBS - Palli Biddut Samities (rural electric cooperatives)
PCR - project completion report
Petrobangla - Bangladesh Oil, Gas & Mineral Corporation
PGCB - Power Grid Company of Bangladesh
PIC - project implementation consultant
PPER - project performance evaluation report
PPTA - project preparation technical assistance
PSA - production-sharing agreement
PSOD - Private Sector Operations Division
PSRB - power sector reforms in Bangladesh
PV - photovoltaic
RAPSS - remote area power systems
REA - rapid environmental assessment
REB - Rural Electrification Board
ROM - rehabilitate-operate-maintain
ROO - rehabilitate-own-operate
RoW - right-of-way
RPGCL - Rupantarita Prakritik Gas Company Limited
SCADA - supervisory control and data acquisition
SEDA - Sustainable Energy Development Authority
SPP - small power plants
SU - standard unit
SOx - oxides of sulphur
SPM - suspended particulate matter
TOR - terms of reference
TA - technical assistance
TGTDCL - Titas Gas Transmission and Distribution Company Limited
TOU - time of use
U5MR - children under 5 years of age mortality rate
WWTP - wastewater treatment plant

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ....................................................................................................... 1

1.0 Introduction ................................................................................................................... 1


2.0 Description of the Project .............................................................................................. 2
3.0 Description of the Environment ..................................................................................... 2
4.0 Anticipated Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Measures ........................................ 4
5.0 Analysis of Alternatives ................................................................................................. 7
6.0 Information Disclosure, Consultation, and Participation ................................................ 7
7.0 Grievance Redress Mechanism .................................................................................... 9
8.0 Environmental Management Plan ................................................................................. 9
9.0 Conclusion and Recommendation .............................................................................. 10
10.0 Structure of the Report ................................................................................................ 11

B. POLICY, LEGAL, AND ADMINISTRATIVE FRAMEWORK ....................................... 12

B.1 Environment-related of ADB Policies in Bangladesh ................................................... 12


B.2 The Bangladesh EIA Process ..................................................................................... 15
B.3 List of International Treaties and Conventions Signed by Bangladesh ........................ 16
B.4 The Environmental Requirements of ADB ................................................................... 19

C. DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT ............................................................................ 21

C.1 Project Type................................................................................................................ 21


C.2 Project Details 450 MW Ashuganj Combined-Cycle Power Plant ............................. 22

D. DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT .................................................................. 37

D.1 General ....................................................................................................................... 37


D.2 Project Influence Area ................................................................................................. 37
D.3 Physical Environment ................................................................................................. 39
D.4 Ecological Baseline ..................................................................................................... 46
D.5 Socioeconomic Environment ....................................................................................... 50

E. ANTICIPATED ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND MITIGATION MEASURES ........ 56

E.1 Environmental Impacts Identification ........................................................................... 56


E.2 Evaluation and Mitigation of Impacts ........................................................................... 57

F. ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES ................................................................................ 65

F.1 Do Nothing or Without Project Alternative ................................................................... 65


F.2 Type of Fuel ................................................................................................................ 65
F.3 Alternative Sites .......................................................................................................... 66
F.4 Power Plant Configuration .......................................................................................... 67

G. INFORMATION DISCLOSURE, CONSULTATION, AND PARTICIPATION .............. 68

G.1 Overview of Public Consultation Process .................................................................... 68

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G.2 Information Dissemination Process ............................................................................. 68
G.3 Key Stakeholder`s View .............................................................................................. 69
G.4 Details of Consultation Meeting and Discussion .......................................................... 69

H. GRIEVANCE REDRESS MECHANISM ...................................................................... 75

I. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN ............................................................... 76

I.1 Objective ..................................................................................................................... 76


I.2 Mitigation Measures .................................................................................................... 76
I.3 Specific Management Plan ......................................................................................... 84
I.4 Institutional Arrangement and Environmental Monitoring Plan .................................... 91

J. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION .............................................................. 102

K. PART B PROJECT COMPONENTS - INITIAL ENVIRONMENTAL EXAMINATION 103

I. Kaptai 5 MW Solar Power Subproject ....................................................................... 121


II. Hatiya 2 MW Solar PV-Wind Hybrid System ............................................................. 123
III. 1000-km Solar PV and LED System of Streetlighting for Cities ................................. 143

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LIST OF TABLES

A. 450 MW Ashuganj Combined-Cycle Power Plant

Table B.1 Environment-Realted Laws in Bangladesh 14


Table B.2 List of International Treaties and Conventions Signed by Bangladesh 18
Table C.1 Water Abstraction for Cooling Purpose within the APSCL Complex 30
Table C.2 Composition of Natural Gas 33
Table C.3 Project Cost Estimates 38
Table D.1 Maximum and Minimum Flow at the Meghna River (m3/s) 45
Table D.2 Water Quality Data for Meghna River 45
Table D.3 Water Quality of the Meghna River - Surface Water Quality Test Report 46
Table D.4 Ambient Air Quality Test Report 48
Table D.5 Ambient Noise Quality Analysis 49
Table D.6 Ambient Noise Quality Standards 49
Table D.7 Fish Species in the Meghna River and in Ponds 52
Table D.8 Population and demographic characteristics surrounding the
project area (Zila, Upazilas and Paurashavas) 54
Table D.9 Population and Demographic Characteristics surrounding
the Project Area Unions of Ashuganj and Bhairab Upazila 55
Table D.10 Population and Demographic Characteristics surrounding
the Project Area Pourashava Unions of Bhairab Upazila 55
Table D.11 Population of the Project Upazila 55
Table D.12 Type of Religion of the Sample households Bhairab Upazila 56
Table D.13 Land Holdings and Ownership of Land at Ashuganj Upazila 56
Table D.14 Cooking Fuel 58
Table D.15 Rate of Literacy for Male and Female 58
Table D.16 Electricity Facility 58
Table E.1 Ground level NOx Concentration at Various Distances from the Plant 63
Table E.2 Standard Values for Noise (DOE, 1997) 64
Table F.1 Comparison of Different Alternatives 68
Table F.2 Comparative Study of Four Sites 69
Table G.1 Lists of Participants during FDG and KII 73
Table I.1 Environmental Management Plan 80
Table I.2 Types and Sources of Domestic Wastes 89
Table I.3 Institutional Roles and Responsibilities 97
Table I.4 Monitoring Activities during Project Cycle 99
Table I.5 The Schedule of Environmental Monitoring Reports 101
TableI.6 Environmental Monitoring and Mitigation Cost Per Month 103

B. 5 MW Kaptai Solar PV

Table 3.1 Salient features of solar PV site 113


Table 4.1 Estimated Electricity Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction 118
Table 5.1 Environmental Management Plan and Monitoring Program 119

C. 2 MW Hatiya Solar-Wind Hybrid System

Table 2.1 Hatiya Electricity Supply 129


Table 2.2 Connections and Potential Electricity Connections 129

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Table 3.1 Salient features of solar PV wind hybrid site 132
Table 3.2 Meteorological data for Hatiya, 2009 133
Table 3.3 Chronology of Major Cyclones and Storm Surges that occurred Primarily
in Noakhali Coast 134
Table 3.4 Monthly extreme tidal level at Meghna River near Noakhali Coast in 2007 135
Table 3.5 Groundwater quality of tube well near the Project area 135
Table 3.6 Fish species around Hatiya Island of the Bay of Bengal 136
Table 5.1 Environmental Management Plan and Monitoring Program 141

D. 1000 km Solar and LED System of Streetlighting for Cities

Table 2.1 Tentative allocations of solar PV LED street lighting project 148
Table 2.2 Categories of Road and Lighting Requirement 151
Table 2.3 Panel and Battery Sizes 152
Table 2.4 Solar PV LED lamp technical parameters 152
Table 2.5 Estimated solar PV LED costs per luminaire size 153
Table 3.1 Population Status of Savar Upazila and Dhamsona Union, Dhaka 154
Table 3.2 Occupational Status of Dhaka City Corporation 154
Table 3.3 Population Status of Chittagong City Corporation 156
Table 3.4 Occupational Status of Chittagong City Corporation 156
Table 3.5 Population Status of Sylhet City Corporation 157
Table 3.6 Occupational Status of Sylhet City Corporation 158
Table 3.7 Population Status of Rajshahi City Corporation 159
Table 3.8 Occupational Status of Rajshahi City Corporation 160
Table 3.9 Population Status of Barishal City Corporation 161
Table 3.10 Occupational Status of Barisal City Corporation 161
Table 3.11 Population Status of Khulna City Corporation 162
Table 3.12 Occupational Status of Khulna City Corporation 163
Table 4.1 Estimated Electricity Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction 165
Table 5.1 Environmental Management Plan and Monitoring Program 165

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LIST OF FIGURES

A. 450 MW Ashuganj Combined-Cycle Power Plant

Figure B.1 Steps for Obtaining the Environmental Clearance Certificate for
Red Category Projects 17
Figure C.1 Location of Project Components 23
Figure C.2 Ashuganj Power Station Complex 24
Figure C.3 Features of the proposed 450 MW CCPP area 25
Figure C.4 Layout of the proposed 450 MW CCPP at Ashuganj Power Complex 26
Figure C.5 Process Flow Diagram of 450 MW CCPP 29
Figure C.6 Proposed Transmission Route 35
Figure D.1 Project Influence Area Map covering 500 m 40
Figure D.2 Project Influence Area Map covering 5 km 41
Figure D.3 Seismic Zones of Bangladesh (BNBC 1993) 44
Figure D.4 Location of Sampling Station 47
Figure D.5 Protected and Proposed Protected areas locations in Bangladesh 53
Figure I.1 Waste Management Flow Diagram for the EPC Contractor 89
Figure I.2 Conceptual Drawing for the Separation of Spillage 93
Figure I.3 Organizational chart for APSCL 95
Figure I.4 Proposed EMU 97

B. Kaptai 5 MW Solar PV

Figure 2.1 Global Horizontal Solar Irradiation Map 106


Figure 2.2 Global Horizontal Solar Irradiation Chart for Kaptai 107
Figure 2.3 Kaptai proposed site and 11KV evacuation line 108
Figure 2.4 Site for proposed Solar Plant 109
Figure 2.5 Typical solar generation diagram 110
Figure 2.6 Module orientation and shed parameters 111
Figure 2.7 Proposed layout of PV solar panels 112
Figure 2.8 Photo of general land use for the site showing grass and tree cover 115

C. 2 MW Hatiya Solar-Wind Hybrid System

Figure 2.1 Global Horizontal Solar Irradiation Map 124


Figure 2.2 Map showing the sites in relation to Hatiya Island 125
Figure 2.3 Hatiya proposed solar PV and wind farm 126
Figure 2.4 Site for proposed Solar Plant 127
Figure 2.5 Site for proposed 1 MW wind power site 128
Figure 2.6 Module Orientation and Shed Parameters 130
Figure 2.7 Location of Burirchar Union 138

D. 1000 km Solar PV and LED System of Streetlighting for Cities

Figure 2.1 Location of the Six City Corporations 147


Figure 2.2 Solar PV LED solar street light system 149
Figure 2.3 Lighting area and pole height relationship of typical LED street lamp 150
Figure 2.4 Monthly Solar Irradiation for Dhaka 151

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LIST OF ANNEXES

Annex 1 Meteorological Data, 1948-2008


Annex 2 Minutes of Focus Group Discussion
Annex 3 Questionnaire and Checklist for Focus Group Discussion

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Bangladesh aims to develop the indigenous energy resources which play a vital role in the
socio-economic development of the country. The Government has declared its vision for the
power sector as load shedding-free beyond 2010 and to make electricity available for all by
2020. To fulfill this vision, additional 9000 MW should be generated within the next 5 years
under the short-, medium-, and long-term plan. By 2013, the Government plans to increase
power generation to about 7000 MW.

Another strategic element in realizing its vision is the use of alternative energy sources. The
present power generation from renewable energy sources is estimated at about 20 MW.
Based on the approved renewable energy policy, 5 percent of the total generation would be
added by 2015 and 10 percent by 2020. Recognizing the need, the Asian Development
Bank (ADB) provided a Project Preparatory Technical Assistance to the Government in 2009
to assist in planning for an increased power supply capacity and to improve efficiency in the
power sector.1 As part of this technical assistance from ADB, the priority Project identified
consists of Part A Generation Efficiency Improvement and Part B Increased Renewable
Energy Use

Part A involves the replacement of old steam and gas turbine power plants with a total
capacity of 274 MW at the Ashuganj Power Station Complex by a more efficient 450 MW
combined-cycle power plant using natural gas as fuel. The 450 MW combined-cycle power
plant will be located at the existing Ashuganj Power Station Complex. Part B consists of 5
MW Kaptai solar photovoltaic (PV), off-grid installation of a 2 MW Hatiya solar-wind hybrid
system, and street lighting of about 1,000 km in the cities of Dhaka, Chittagong, Sylhet,
Borishal, Rajshahi, and Khulna using solar PV and light-emitting diode (LED) system.

According to ADBs Safeguard Policy Statement (SPS) June 2009, Part A is Environment
Category A requiring an environmental impact assessment (EIA) while components of Part B
are considered as Environment Category B requiring an initial environmental examination
(IEE) This project categorization is based on anticipated environmental impacts. Given that
the sites of the Project components are not contiguous, this integrated environmental
assessment report was prepared covering an EIA for Part A and IEEs for Part B project
components.

In May 2009, an EIA was prepared by the Ashuganj Power Station Company Ltd. (APSCL)
for the 450 MW Ashuganj Combined-Cycled Power Plant and was approved by the
Department of Environment of Bangladesh on 5 May 2010. However, to comply with ADBs
requirements, the government-approved EIA for the 450 MW Ashuganj Combined-Cycle
Power Plant was revised following the outline given in Annex to Appendix 1 of the SPS June
2009 while the IEE was based on Appendix 3 of the ADBs 2003 Environmental Assessment
Guidelines. Aside from these guidelines, relevant environmental regulations of Bangladesh
such as Environment Conservation Rules (ECR) 1997 and the Environment Conservation
Act of 1995 were referred to in the preparation of the EIA and the IEE.

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The Project Preparatory Technical Assistance for this project is TA 7242-BAN: Power System Efficiency
Improvement approved on February 20, 2009.

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2.0 DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT

Briefly, the Project consists of the following components:

Part A: Generation Efficiency Improvement

i. Replacement of old steam and gas turbine power plants with a total capacity of 260
MW at Ashuganj Power Station Complex with an efficient combined-cycle power
plant of 450 MW capacity

Part B: Increased Renewable Energy Use

i. Installation of a 5MW solar PV based grid-connected power generation plant at


Kaptai Hydropower Plant site
ii. Installation of an off-grid wind-solar hybrid system with diesel generator in Hatiya
Island (1 MW solar PV, 1 MW wind energy, and 5.5 MW existing diesel generator)
iii. Installation and retrofitting of about 1,000 km of street lighting based on solar PV
and LED-based technology in six cities across the country

3.0 DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT

3.1 450 MW Ashuganj Combined-Cycle Power Plant

The project will be constructed and operated within the existing Ashuganj Power Station
Complex (APSC) located on the left bank of the Meghna River. APSC is one of the largest
power complexes in Bangladesh with a total installed capacity of 724 MW. Currently, it
consists of a combined power cycle plant (146 MW) and 5 steam power generating plants
(578 MW). The site is zoned as an industrial belt along the Meghna River.

Given the existing land use, there is no natural forest but some homestead vegetation such
as Am (Mangifera indica), Kanthal (Artocarpus heterophyllus), Jam (Syzygium cumini), etc.,
and some roadside vegetation. No record of wild animals and endangered species are found
in the area.

Ambient air quality sampling conducted in November 2009 at the proposed site showed that
it meets the standards for PM2.5, PM10, suspended particulate matter (SPM), SO2 and NO2
set by DoE for industrial area while noise levels ranged from 48.11 dB(A) to 51.37 dB(A),
also within the limits of 75 dB(A) prescribed for industrial area. CO2 emission for the existing
power plant units at APSC is 0.669 kg/kWh recorded in January 2011. The installed
capacity at APSC is 724 MW but due to age of the units, it was de-rated to 678 MW. Water
quality measurements in July 2009 at Meghna River also showed that it is within the
standards prescribed in ECR 1997 of DoE.

3.2 5 MW Kaptai Solar PV

The site is owned by the Bangladesh Power Development Board (BPDB) which is within the
existing Karnafuli Hydropower Plant operated by BPDB. The land is approximately 7- 8
hectares and is just 500 meters to the south and below the main Karnafuli dam retention
wall. The site was used during the dam construction for the Karnafuli Hydropower Plant in
1962 and since then the land has remained unused and is overgrown with vegetation
including some bushes and trees.

Kaptai is in Rangamati District which is a well forested part of the country. About 78% of the
District land is covered by tropical-evergreen mixed forest. Kaptai National Park is about 7

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km away and Shita pahar Reserve Forest is about 10 km away of the project area. There is
no indication of any vulnerable, threatened or endangered wildlife in the vicinity of the project
area.

The rainy season in the project site extends from June through November with an annual
rainfall ranging from 2,200 mm to 3,600 mm. Maximum temperature is 33oC in July while the
minimum is 13oC in December. Maximum wind velocity is at 96 km/hr.

Similarly, the land for the 2-km 11kV transmission line required to link the power generated
by the solar PV to the national grid is all within BPDB ownership and control. A total of 849
hectares are owned by BPDB, which includes the site for the project, thus, there are no
issues of resettlement or loss of private land.

3.3 2 MW Hatiya Solar-Wind Hybrid System

Hatiya project will be located in two new sites, 4-km apart with a total land area of about 3.5
hectares. The power generation from solar and wind sources is linked to a diesel back-up
generator (existing) which will be upgraded along with the distribution network on the island.

The proposed site for the solar PV is located in Rehani Village under the Surza Mukhi
Muouza of Burirchar Union and about 4 km east of the site will be for the wind power. The
site is flat and no major preparations are needed. The two sites selected are agricultural
land and both require acquisition from private landholders. Soil type is alluvial and
compacted during the dry season. Climate is sub-tropical monsoon with an annual rainfall of
4,005 mm and a relative humidity of 90% during the rainy season. The minimum
temperature is 14oC while the maximum temperature is 33oC. Good wind speed at 4 m/s to
7 m/s are available during the summer season.

Hatiya has a population of 450,000 and 80,000 households. The major source of income
comes from agriculture and fishing with some business and industrial activities related to
agriculture.

There is no indication of any vulnerable, threatened or endangered wildlife in the vicinity of the
project area. No local marine turtle breeding ground are present on the beaches to the east
of the wind power site. The nearest protected area (Nijum Dwip) is about 50 km away from
the project sites and there are no forested areas close to the project sites.

The solar and wind sites will be connected to the distribution system in Hatiya town through
the existing power lines such as the 4 km new transmission line which will follow an existing
road.

3.4 1000-km Solar PV and LED Streetlighting for Cities

It is estimated that Bangladesh has 4,744 kms of streets with various quality of street lighting
in the six main city corporations: Dhaka, Khulna, Chittagong, Sylhet, Rajshahi, and Barishal.
The streetlighting component will replace the existing conventional street lighting along 1000
kms of streets in the 6 city corporations with more efficient light emitting diode (LED lamps.
This will be done in combination with the installation of solar power panels on individual
lighting poles; solar power will then replace the existing requirement for connections to town
power. It is calculated that 33,000 individual lamps will be required to achieve the project
goal of covering 1000 km of city streets. The project will supply new LED lamps, a solar
power units, new poles and a storage batteries.

This project will be implemented on land owned by Government inside existing rights of way
and there are no issues of resettlement, loss of productive land and encroachment on any

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environmental sensitive receptors.

4.0 ANTICIPATED ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND MITIGATION MEASURES

4.1 450 MW Ashuganj Combined-Cycle Power Plant

4.1.1 Construction Phase

About one hundred trees will be removed during construction. As soon as the construction
material is stabilized, a tree planting program and landscaping will be instituted and five
trees will be replaced for every tree removed based on the norms of the Department of
Environment.

Transportation and storage of materials can be a source of airborne pollution and surface
water contamination. Measures will be taken to ensure all vehicles are properly maintained.
Any haul or construction roads will be kept clean and will be sprayed for dust suppression
during dry conditions. Similarly, any stock piles of fine materials will be properly covered and
stored away from Meghna River or any temporary pond that will used for construction
purposes. Equipment maintenance and refueling will be carried out at designated controlled
areas.

There will be no significant impact on the existing road network in the general project area.
Major transportation of plant and construction material will be by the Meghna River with
unloading of materials by crane owned by APSCL and at the jetty which is within the existing
Ashuganj Power Station Complex (APSC).

All slopes will be protected and suitable erosion protection measures will be employed to
reduce any impact from runoff during the monsoon rainy season. Attention will be paid to
ensure that wet cement and concrete are not allowed to enter the Meghna River. Any hot
mix plant and concrete batching plant will be located away from adjoining residences and the
Meghna River bodies and will employ dust control measures, as required by the
Environmental Conservation Regulations of Bangladesh.

Any construction camp required for the project will have properly designed toilets with septic
tank and solid waste disposal facilities; sites for these purposes will be away from the
Meghna River. All solid waste from the construction site will be disposed of in accordance
with environmental regulations.

Increase in ambient noise levels will be mitigated by ensuring equipment maintenance and
enclosure of all diesel generator sets; workers will be provided with ear protection, if and
when needed. The general health and safety of workers will be safeguarded with the
provision of medical and health facilities on-site, the provision of personal protection
equipment (hard hats, ear plugs, masks as required). There will be an emergency response
system and workers and supervisors will receive training.

4.1.2 Operation Phase

The main impacts during operation are emissions, noise, and potential change in ambient
temperature at the Meghna River due to cooling water discharge from the combined-cycle
power plant.

The 450 MW combined-cycle power plant (CCPP) will replace the existing old units of 146
MW CCPP and the 2 x 64 MW steam power plant (or a total of 274 MW). According to the
Atlanta Feasibility Study for the 450 MW Ashuganj CCPP conducted in 2009, the new units
will consume significantly less gas than the existing old power plants to be replaced.

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Therefore, pollutants such as NOx, CO & CO2 per kWh generated will be also reduced
accordingly. Assuming an operation of 90% efficiency, the new 450 MW CCPP will use
62.21 million standard cubic feet per day (MMSCFD) of natural gas. The existing old units
that will be replaced use natural gas at about 70.66 MMSCFD. Based on this gas
consumption, there will be a reduction of 0.00499 MMSCF per MWh (or 46.42%) with
consequent equivalent reduction in emissions.

A dry low NOx (DLN) burner with premix burning system will be used to restrict the
combustion temperature at 1,317oC that will minimize the formation of NOx (normally formed
starting at a combustion temperature of 1600oC). Use of natural gas as fuel will not
generate sulfur oxides (SOx) and suspended particulate matter (SPM).

Based on the APSC records in January 2011, the CO2 emissions at APSC is 0.669 kg per
kWh. The contribution of the new CCPP units to CO2 was estimated to be 0.371 kg per kWh
based on a gas turbine output of 296 MW (field condition) with a gas consumption of 2.894
million cubic feet (MMCF) per hour. The steam turbine for the combined-cycle will have an
output of 154 MW but no fuel will be used.

The combined-cycle power plant configuration of one gas turbine, one heat recovery steam
generator, and one steam turbine (1:1:1) will reduce the generation of noise and vibration
during operation.

Currently, the existing power plant units (a total of 724 MW) at the Ashuganj Power Station
Complex (APSC) abstract water from the Meghna River at a rate of 39 m3/sec for cooling
purposes. The new CCPP units will require about 6.4 m3/sec for its cooling water system
also to be abstracted from the Meghna River. When the new CCPP units are commissioned,
five power plant units (or 274 MW) will stop its operation resulting to a reduction of cooling
water requirements to about 6.78 m3/sec. Thus, compared to the existing cooling water
requirements, the operation of the new CCPP units will improve efficiency and will result to
an overall reduction of cooling water requirements at a rate of 0.4 m 3/sec (or 1.03%
reduction).

The cooling water system of the existing power plant units at APSC use once-through
cooling (OTC) where the spent warm water is discharged to a receiving body of water (in this
case the Meghna River) or a temporary pond. Cooling water prior to discharge is estimated
to have a maximum temperature of 7oC above ambient. Thermal discharge from the cooling
water system of all the existing units at APSC is about 39 m3/sec. When the new CCPP
units will start its operation, the old power plant units consisting of 274 MW will stop its
operation, thus, thermal discharges to Meghna River will be 38.6 m3/sec or a reduction of 0.4
m3/sec.

The existing cooling water discharge system at APSC consists of a retaining pond to
temporarily hold the hot water and an open discharge channel of about 2 km prior to
discharge at the Meghna River. The discharge channel is designed in such a way that
adequate turbulence and mixing are generated for maximum heat dispersion prior to release
at Meghna River. About 80% of the cooling water discharges is retained to a holding pond
before release to local farmers for irrigation purposes during the dry season.

Actual measurements of cooling water discharges in five sampling stations at and around
APSC conducted on February 20-26, 2011 (sampling time from 12:30PM to 2:00PM)
showed an average of 31oC prior to discharge outside the boundary of APSC. At the time of
sampling, the river water intake from Meghna River has an average temperature of 24.6oC.
The thermal discharges from APSC meet the limits set by DoE.

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During the operation phase, the existing combined-cycle power plant (146 MW)
commissioned in the early 80s and two units of steam power plant units (ST1 and ST2 or a
total of 128 MW) which started operating in 1970 will be shut down. There is no plan yet for
abandonment and/or decommissioning of the units. In the event decommissioning is
pursued as the best economic strategy, APSCL will prepare an Abandonment Plan and
required environmental clearances will be obtained from regulatory agencies prior to any
decommissioning works.

4.2 5 MW Kaptai Solar PV

Environmental impacts will be few. Construction activity will only create minor and
manageable environmental disturbance such as water quality and noise impacts. The PV
poly-crystalline modules to be used in the project are emissions-free once they are
manufactured and have no emission impacts during operations. Arrangements will be made
with manufacturers to take back panels either at the end of the project or as they are
replaced and find suitable recycling or disposal options and arrangements during operations.

Kaptai solar PV will add 5 MW of power to the national grid system contributing to improved
and more regular supply of power to the country as a whole. Project benefits also include
savings from non-use of other fossil fuels. The reduction in CO2 emissions is estimated at
5,460 tons per year for a power generation equivalent to 7,413 MWh.

There will also be benefits in terms of local employment during the construction phase and
during the operation phase; more staff will be employed for maintenance and cleaning of
equipment. The project has been explained to local villagers and representatives and they
are generally in support of the project.

4.3 2 MW Hatiya Solar-Wind Hybrid System

During the installation of the hybrid system, any loss of trees and loss of private land
required for power poles or site development will be compensated for and other
environmental impacts will be mitigated through the environmental management plan. There
will be tree planting program by BPDB at the sites.

Similar to the Kaptai solar PV, Hatiya will also use PV poly-crystalline modules which are
emissions-free once they are manufactured and have no emission impacts during
operations. Arrangements can be made with the manufacturers to take back panels either at
the end of the project or as they are replaced and to find suitable recycling or disposal
arrangements for panels, turbine parts and any batteries used during operations. The wind
turbines will be designed to have minimal noise impacts. Estimated CO2 emission reduction
is about 1,900 tons per year for the power generated by the solar PV-wind hybrid system
equivalent to 3,040 MWh.

The project will bring about reliable power supply to Hatiya Island. Project benefits will
include savings by not using other conventional fossil fuel. There will be reduction in
emissions from less use of diesel fuel. There will also be benefits in terms of local
employment for construction and during the operations phase when approximately 25-30
new staff will be needed for operation of the plant and for site maintenance and cleaning of
equipment.

4.4 1000-km Solar PV and LED Streetlighting for Cities

Erection of lighting poles will involve site preparation, foundation installation and fixtures
assembly and these activities are likely to have minor environmental impacts. There will also
be a need to remove and dispose of existing lighting infrastructure. There is likely to be a

6
local small increase in traffic and noise, dust, and sediment. There will be short term
disruption of vehicle and pedestrian traffic and verges and street landscaping. There will be
some impact from noise and if existing light poles and associated infrastructure such as
wiring are removed. These construction type impacts are manageable with proper planning
and mitigation measures suggested in the project Environmental Management Plan.

During operations there will also be few additional environmental impacts. The project takes
place along well established urban streets all having existing street lighting. LED lamps are
more efficient and long lived than conventional lighting and solar panels have lives of up to
25 years with little maintenance requirements. The project will assist in the reducing the use
of fossil fuel to provide electricity. Assuming that the existing streetlight system is using 150
Watt (W) high pressure sodium vapor lamps2, replacing the same with 15 W LED solar PV
system at 33,000 units (for the entire 1,000 km), the CO2 emission reduction per year is
estimated at 18,100 tons. This reduction represents 24,571.8 MWh of electricity saved from
conventional power source.

5.0 ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES

A do nothing or without project alternative was considered for the Ashuganj Combined-
Cycle Power Plant. This option would place further strains on Bangladeshs current energy
supply deficiencies. With this option, the Ashuganj Power Station Complex (APSC) would
continue to run using old inefficient plant, which breaks down regularly and is, therefore, not
an acceptable alternative.

Four site locations within the APSC were assessed in the northeast and southwest
extremities of the land owned by APSCL. The criteria used are distance from the fuel supply
and cooling tower, grid access, road access, land availability, and jetty and cargo access.
The APSC site has an available and allocated supply of gas in an area where gas supplies
are not plentiful. The site is also close to existing power plant infrastructure including power
transmission lines. Developing a site, when it is available, close to existing power
infrastructure is, therefore, seen as a major factor in site selection.

Three fuel types (gas, oil and coal) were considered from the standpoint of environmental
impacts. In the case of Bangladesh, the natural gas has virtually no sulphur content, and
supply and allocation are currently available at the APSC site.

Alternative power plant configurations were considered for the Ashuganj CCPP. This
includes a 1:1:1 (1GT+1HRSG+1ST) and 2:2:1 configurations were examined, but it was
determined that the land area at APSC could only accommodate the 1:1:1 configuration.

6.0 INFORMATION DISCLOSURE, CONSULTATION AND PARTICIPATION

6.1 450 MW Ashuganj Combined-Cycle Power Plant

Various public consultations were held with focus group discussions and key informant
interviews to explain and obtain feedback from local communities. Consultation with the key
stakeholders was held at Upazila Conference Hall on August 11, 2009. At union level, five
Focus Group Meetings were held in the project site. These are Ashuganj, Araishida,
Durgapur of Ashuganj Upazila, and Bhirab Pourashava and Simulkandi of Bhairab Upazila.

In the meetings, all classes of stakeholders including businessmen, farmers, schoolteachers,


religious leaders, NGO and public representatives as well as Members and Chairman of the

2
Baseline technology

7
Union Council were present. Generally local people expressed support for immediate
implementation of the project, during the consultations as they saw the project as generally
being of benefit to local communities. During the survey period, school teachers, village
leaders and Members and Chairman of the local bodies and others were consulted in groups
and individually with particular importance to female headed households. Some of the
concerns/issues raised during consultations are as follows:

Project affected people appeal for employment opportunities during construction


Compensation to affected persons for any unforeseen loss due to the project
Community and religious sites are to be protected if acquisition of land is needed
Provide training and employment opportunity to local unemployed youth, as far as
practicable
As part of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), provide scholarship to poor
students at constructing school, college and vocational institute, health centre in the
Upazila
Sound and vibration should be contained under accepted level by installing good and
of best quality equipment
Height of the chimney should be 50 meter.
Temperature should be at minimum level during discharging water from cooling
system.
Fish breeding and the flora and fauna of the area should be saved.

6.2 5 MW Kaptai Solar PV

A consultation meeting was held on January 22, 2011 with local government
representatives, local elite, businessmen, farmers and local workers. Major issues discussed
were as follows:

Problems faced by present electricity supply system


Prospects of establishment and operations of solar system
Affordability for supporting solar electricity
Merits and demerits of solar system

6.2.2 Summary of consultation

The community people were fully in favor of establishment of this solar plant and they are
ready to support its implementation in all respect. The people recognized that solar will be an
environmentally friendly source of power and they saw the following benefits of additional
and reliable power supply to:

support the 35% of local households and business enterprises which are not
supplied with power at present
support the establishment and operation of new industrial and commercial
enterprises
contribute in generation of local based employment and income opportunities
develop market network and improve access to markets
improve access to health services
improve access to education and skilled development training

The people also said that they are ready and willing to pay the additional charges for
electricity consumption for commercial and industrial use.

8
6.3 2 MW Hatiya Solar-Wind Hybrid System

6.3.1 Consultation Meeting

A consultation meeting was held on January 26, 2011 with local government
representatives, businessmen, fishermen, farmers, teachers, and local workers. Major
issues discussed by the group were constraints faced by the community as a result of poor
power supply and community services. Local development is adversely affected, the people
feel vulnerable because of the lack of social infrastructure and public utility services.

Community opinions in regard to the proposed solar and wind plant establishment were as
follows:

The community as a whole agreed to the establishment and operation of the solar
and wind plant at the identified site
The people are ready to provide full support to assist the implementation of the
proposed plant
The land owners and community people were ready to surrender their land for the
project implementation
The people believe that the new system will provide them with electricity that will
improve their socio-economic development
The people are ready to pay for the electricity service
They think that the plant will be environmentally friendly.

6.4 1000- km Solar PV and LED Streetlighting

Initial consultations were done by BPDB to the City Councils about the proposed
streetilighting using clean energy by installing solar poles and replacement of existing bulbs
with more energy-efficient LED bulbs. Once the specific locations within each city have
been identified, another consultation will be conducted by BPDB among stakeholders such
as business owners, residents, and the City Councils. As this component will bring about
beneficial impacts to the residents and the environment, full support is expected from the
local people and the City Councils.

7.0 GRIEVANCE REDRESS MECHANISM

A complaint redress committee will be established to address any kind of environmental and
social complaint arising from the residents both within and outside the Ashuganj Power
Station Complex including workers during the construction and operation phase. The
committee will include members from APSCL, the owner's engineers and also the EPC
contractor. A complaint box will be specifically made available at the Project Directors Site
Office to allow for complaints to be lodged.

For Kaptai solar PV, and the Hatiya solar-wind hybrid system, BPDB will monitor the
performance of contractors and will deal with any complaints during project implementation.

8.0 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN

8.1 450 MW Ashuganj Combined-Cycle Power Plant

At the time of construction, the Contractor(s) will implement the mitigation measures
identified in the EIA, while regular monitoring will be conducted by APSCL to ensure
compliance by Contractor(s) with applicable provisions of the environmental management
plan (EMP). The APSCL will increase its environmental management capacity and will use
consultants as necessary to assist the preparation of contractual documents such as bidding

9
documents which will clearly identify environmental responsibilities and prescribe penalties
for non-compliance.

8.2 5 MW Kaptai Solar PV

BPDB will employ an environmental engineer who will be responsible to the Manager,
Karnafuli Hydropower plant for implementation of the measures in the EMP. Issues of
health, safety and environment will be incorporated in the BPDB system which is in place for
the existing hydropower operation. Construction contracts will incorporate requirements for
the EPC contractors who will be responsible for implementing the mitigation measures in the
EMP and monitored by BPDB.

8.3 2 MW Hatiya Solar-Wind Hybrid System

BPDB currently operates the existing small diesel power plant with as small staff but will set
up a separate management structure to run the new hybrid system with three engineers and
four support staff. Environmental environment training will be provided. Environmental
performance of the EPC contractors will be monitored by the BPDB Senior Engineer.

8.4 1000-km Solar PV and LED Streetlighting for Cities

The six city corporations will follow the Guidelines indicated in the environmental
management and monitoring plan and will ensure there is proper supervision of the safety
and environmental impacts and recommended mitigation measures. BPDB will be
responsible for supervising the six City Councils and any contracts with EPC contractors will
include obligations to comply with the EMP and Monitoring Program which will be included in
contracts.

9.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

9.1 450 MW Ashuganj Combined-Cycle Power Plant

The 450 MW Ashuganj Combined-Cycle Power Plant will be constructed within the existing
Ashuganj Power Station Complex for which the land has been set aside in the past. Only a
small amount of agricultural land is lost for the transmission route and affected persons will
be compensated as recommended in the Resettlement Plan for the Project. There is no
need to move people and there are no sites of historic, cultural or biodiversity interest in the
area. The EIA identifies various potential impacts and recommends appropriate mitigation
measures together with a management and monitoring program. Potential negative
environmental impacts identified during construction are temporary in nature and can be
managed through good engineering measures and design. Replacement of the existing old
units of 146MW CCPP and the 2x64 MW steam units by this new project will result to
reduced emissions due to efficient fuel use.

With the mitigation and environmental management plan proposed in this EIA, the
environmental impacts identified can be mitigated and managed. The Project will result in
significant economic beneficial impacts to people and businesses in the Ashuganj area.

9.2 5 MW Kaptai Solar PV

The project site has been a vacant land since the construction of the main Kaptai dam in
1962. There is no loss of livelihood or resettlement problems arising from the implementation
of the project. The site is not located in a sensitive ecosystem, and has no historical and
cultural value.

10
Only minor and transient environmental disturbances will be experienced at the project site
during construction and operation, and they will be minimized through implementation of the
EMP attached to this IEE. It is recommended that this IEE is adequate to justify the
environmental and social feasibility of the Project. There is no need for further analysis and
the environmental assessment of the Project is considered complete.

BPDB will meet its environmental and occupational health commitments, committed to the
implementation of the EMP, and will employ an Environment Manager to oversee the project
construction and implementation.

9.3 2 MW Hatiya Solar-Wind Hybrid System

The project sites for the solar and wind power plant are on flat agricultural land; the diesel
site is on existing land owned by BPDB. Some private land will be lost as a result of the
project but no single land owner loses more than 10% of his farm land and the people
affected will be compensated for loss of land and crops. The site is not located in a sensitive
ecosystem, and has no historical and cultural value.

The nature of project and the clean nature of solar power and wind power generation mean
that there will be few significant lasting environmental and social impacts. Minor and
transient environmental disturbances will be experienced at the project site during
construction and operation, and they will be minimized through implementation of the EMP.
The people in the area are eager for the project which they see as a means of more secure
power supply and associated benefits for business and work opportunities. BPDB is
committed to its environmental and social responsibility and discharges this responsibility in
adherence to principles of good corporate governance.

9.4 1000-km Solar PV and LED Streetlighting for Cities

This project will replace the existing conventional street lighting (and install new, as needed)
along 1,000 kms of streets within the six City corporations with a more efficient LED lamps.
This will be done in combination with the installation of solar power panels on individual
lighting poles and 33,000 units will be required to achieve the project goal.

The identified environmental impacts can be mitigated by good engineering design,


monitoring, clear roles and responsibilities of implementing agencies and contractors,
allocation of budget for mitigation measures and monitoring activities, and continuing public
consultation during project implementation.

10.0 STRUCTURE OF THE REPORT

Section B discusses the policy, legal, and administrative framework; Section C provides the
overall description of the project components and the details of the 450 MW Ashuganj
Combined-Cycle Power Plant (CCPP); Section D to Section J relate to 450 MW Ashuganj
CCPP, and Section K presents the IEEs of Part B project components.

11
B. POLICY, LEGAL, AND ADMINISTRATIVE FRAMEWORK

B.1 Environment-related policies in Bangladesh

The Government of Bangladesh (GoB) has developed a policy framework that requires
environmental issues to be incorporated into economic development planning. The key
policies are the National Environmental Policy of 1992, the National Environmental
Management Action Plan (NEMAP) of 1995, and the National Conservation Strategy of 1992

National Environmental Policy, 1992

The Bangladesh National Environmental Policy was approved in May 1992. It sets out the
basic framework for environmental action together with a set of broad sector guidelines. Key
elements of the Policy are:

Maintenance of the ecological balance and overall progress and development of the
country through protection and improvement of the environment;
Protection of the countrys assets, properties and resources against natural disasters;
Identification and regulation of all types of activities that pollute and degrade the
environment;
Ensuring sustainable development and utilization of all natural resources; and
Promoting active association with all environment-related international initiatives.

The Environmental Policy requires the following specific actions with respect to the
Industrial sector:

To phase-in corrective measures in polluting industries;


To conduct Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) for all new public and private
industrial developments;
To ban, or find environmentally sound alternatives for, the production of goods that
cause environmental pollution; and
To minimize waste and ensure sustainable use of resources by industry.

Under the National Environmental Policy, the Department of Environment is directed to


review and approve all Environmental Impact Assessments.

National Environmental Management Action Plan, 1995

The National Environmental Management Action Plan (NEMAP) is a wide-ranging and multi-
faceted plan, which builds on and extends the statements set out in the National
Environmental Policy. NEMAP was developed to address issues and management
requirements during the period 1995 to 2005, and set out the framework within which the
recommendations of the National Conservation Strategy are to be implemented.

NEMAP has following broad objectives:

Identification of key environmental issues affecting Bangladesh;


Identification of actions necessary to halt or reduce the rate of environmental
degradation;
Improvement of the natural environment;
Conservation of habitats and bio-diversity;
Promotion of sustainable development; and,
Improvement of the quality of life of the people.

12
National Conservation Strategy, 1992

The National Conservation Strategy provides recommendations for sustainable development


in the industrial sector as follows:

All industries shall be subject to EIA and adoption of pollution prevention/control


technologies shall be enforced;
Hazardous or toxic materials/wastes shall not be imported as raw materials for
industry;
Import of appropriate and environmentally-sound technology shall be ensured; and
Dependence on imported technology and machinery should gradually be reduced in
favour of sustainable local skills and resources.

Table B.1 Environment Related Laws and Regulation

Responsible Agency-
Act/Rule/Law/Ordinance Key Features-Potential Applicability
Ministry/Authority
Declaration of Ecologically Critical
Areas;
Obtaining Environmental Clearance
Certificate;
Regulation with respect to vehicles
emitting smoke harmful for the
environment;
Regulation of development activities
from environmental perspective;
The Environment Conservation Department of
Act, 1995 and subsequent Environment, Ministry of Promulgation of standards for quality
amendments in 2000 and 2002 Environment and Forest of air, water, noise, and soils for
different areas and for different
purposes;
Promulgation of acceptable limits for
discharging and emitting waste;
Formulation of environmental
guidelines relating to control and
mitigation of environmental pollution,
conservation and improvement of
environment
Declaration of Ecologically Critical
Area;
Requirement of Environmental
Clearance Certificate for various
categories of projects;
Requirement for IEE/EIA according to
Environment Conservation Rules, Department of the appropriate category of the
1997 and subsequent Environment, Ministry of project;
amendments in 2002 and 2003 Environment and Forest Renewal of the environmental
clearance certificate within 30 days
after the expiry;
Provides standards for quality of air,
water & sound and acceptable limits
for emission/discharges from vehicles
and other sources
GOB has given highest priority to
environment pollution and passed
Environment Court Act, 2000 and Judiciary and Ministry of
Environment Court Act, 2000 for
subsequent amendments 2002 Environment & Forest
completing environment related legal
proceedings effectively
The Vehicle Act, 1927; The Motor
Bangladesh Road Exhaust emission; Vehicular air and
Vehicles Ordinance, 1983;The
Transport Authority (BRTA) noise; Road safety
Bengal Motor Vehicle Rules, 1940
The Brick Burning (Control ) Act, Control of brick burning requires a
Ministry of Environment &
1989; The Brick Burning (Control) license from the MoEF; Restricts brick
Forest
Amendment Act, 1992 burning with fuel wood

13
Responsible Agency-
Act/Rule/Law/Ordinance Key Features-Potential Applicability
Ministry/Authority
The Removal of Wrecks and
Bangladesh Water Removal of Wrecks and Obstructions in
Obstructions in inland Navigable
Transport Authority inland Navigable Waterways
Water Ways Rules 1973
Ministry of Local
Water Supply and Sanitation Act, Government, Rural Management and Control of water
1996 Development and supply and sanitation in urban areas.
Cooperatives
Management of ground water resources;
The Ground Water Management Tube well shall not be installed in any
Upazila Parishad
Ordinance 1985 place without the license granted by
Upazila Parishad
The Forest Act, 1927 and
Ministry of Environment and Reserve Forests; Protective Forests;
subsequent amendments in 1982
Forest Village Forests
and 1989
The Private Forests Ordinance Regional Forest Officer, C Conservation of private forests and for the
Act, 1959 Forest Department afforestation on wastelands
Ministry of Environment and
Bangladesh Wild Life Forest Preservation of Wildlife Sanctuaries,
(Preservation) Act, 1974 Bangladesh Wild Life parks, reserves
Advisory Board
The Protection and Conservation
Protection and Conservation of fish in
of Fish Act 1950 and subsequent Ministry of Fishery
Government owned water bodies
amendments in 1982
According to this Act, the character of
water bodies i.e. rivers, canals, tanks, or
Rajdhani Unnayan floodplains identified as water bodies in
Natural Water Bodies Protection Kartipakkha/Town the master plans or in the master plans
Act 2000 Development formulated under the laws establishing
Authority/Municipalities municipalities in division and district
towns shall not be changed without
approval of concerned ministry.
An Act to consolidate the laws relating to
embankment and drainage and to make
better provision for the construction,
The Embankment and Drainage Ministry of Water maintenance, management, removal and
Act 1952 Resources and FCD control of embankments and water
courses for the better drainage of lands
and for their protection from floods,
erosion and other damage by water.
Governs preservation of the national
cultural heritage, protects and controls
ancient monuments, regulates antiquities
as well as the maintenance,
Antiquities Act 1968 Ministry of Cultural Affairs
conservation and restoration of protected
sites and monuments, controls planning,
exploration and excavation of
archaeological sites.
An Act to provide for the prevention of
The Building Construction Act haphazard construction of building and
1952 and subsequent Ministry of Works excavation of tanks which are likely to
amendments interfere with the planning of certain
areas in Bangladesh
The Land Acquisition Act, 1894
and The Acquisition and
Requisition of Immovable Current GOB Act & guidelines, relating to
Revenue Department
Property Ordinance 1982 and Acquisition of and
subsequent amendments in 1994,
1995 and 2004
This Act pertains to the occupational
rights and safety of factory workers and
The Factories Act, 1965
Ministry of Labour the provision of a comfortable work
Bangladesh Labour Law 2006
environment and reasonable working
conditions.
Source: Different Laws and Regulations of GoB

14
The primary institution for environmental management in Bangladesh is the Department of
Environment (DOE), under the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MEF). The DOE is the
authority with the mandate to regulate and enforce environmental management, and the
setting and enforcement of environmental regulations. The Department was created in 1989
to ensure sustainable development and to conserve and manage the environment of
Bangladesh. The principal activities of the DOE are:

Defining EIA procedures and issuing environmental clearance permits - the latter
being legal requirements before proposed projects can proceed to implementation;
Providing advice or taking direct action to prevent degradation of the environment;
Pollution control, including the monitoring of effluent sources and ensuring mitigation
of environmental pollution;
Setting the Water Quality Standard (WQS) for particular uses of water and for
discharges to water bodies; and
Declaring Ecologically Critical Areas (ECAs) where the ecosystem has been
degraded to a critical state.

In keeping with its role with respect to EIA and environmental clearance permits, and its
mandate with respect to environment degradation and pollution, the DoE is the reviewing
agency for EIA report.

B.2 The Bangladesh EIA Process

Section 12 of the Environmental Conservation Act stipulates "No industrial unit or project
shall be established or undertaken without obtaining environmental clearance from The
Director General of the DOE in the manner prescribed by the Environmental Conservation
Rules (ECR) 1997. The DOE, which is a statutory body under the Environment
Conservation Act, is responsible for review and evaluation of IEEs and EIAs prepared for
projects in Bangladesh.

The proposed 450 MW CCPP falls under the Red category (described under item 64,
Schedule 1, page 3122 of ECR-97), which means that Environmental Clearance must be
obtained in two steps:

(1) Obtain Site Clearance based on the Application along with necessary papers, including
the IEE, which will contain the scope of work of the proposed EIA; and,

(2) Obtain Environmental Clearance by submitting the Application along with EIA and time
schedule for implementing any recommended mitigation measures including design and
necessary papers, and after obtaining approval of the EIA Report. The DOE is required to
respond within sixty (60) working days to issue or refuse the Site Clearance (from the date of
receiving the Application), sixty (60) working days to approve or reject the EIA, and thirty
(30) working days to issue or refuse to grant the Environmental Clearance. The process for
obtaining the Environmental Clearance Certificate (ECC) for Red Category project is outlined
in Figure B.1.

15
Source: Guide to the Environmental Conservation Act 1995 and Rules 1997, Prepared by Bangladesh
Centre for Advanced Studies, 1999

Figure B.1 Steps for Obtaining the Environmental Clearance Certificate for Red
Category Projects

B.3 List of International Treaties and Conventions Signed by Bangladesh

List of environment related international conventions, protocols, treaties signed/ratified or


accessed by Bangladesh are given in Table B.2.

16
Table B.2 List of International Treaties and Conventions Signed by Bangladesh

17
18
Source: EIA, BAN: Padma Multipurpose Bridge Project, July 2010

B.4 The Environmental Requirements of ADB

According to ADB Safeguard Policy Statement (2009) and Operational Manual F1 (2010),
the Proposed 450 MW power plant is classified as category A and therefore an EIA is
required for the subproject. The process of determining a projects environment category is
to prepare a Rapid Environmental Assessment (REA). REA requires the completion of the
environmental categorization form prior to the project initiation. REA uses sector-specific
screening checklist, taking into account the type, size, and location of the proposed project;
sensitivity and vulnerability of environmental resources in project area; and the potential for
the project to cause significant adverse environmental impacts. A project is classified as one
of the four environmental categories (A, B, C, or FI) based on the most environmentally
sensitive component. Categories are as follows:

Category A: A proposed project is classified as category A if it is likely to have significant


adverse environmental impacts that are irreversible, diverse, or unprecedented. These
impacts may affect an area larger than the sites or facilities subject to physical works. An
EIA, including an environmental management plan (EMP), is required.

Category B: A proposed project is classified as category B if its potential adverse


environmental impacts are less adverse than those of category A projects. These impacts
are site-specific, few if any of them are irreversible, and in most cases mitigation measures
can be designed more readily than for category A projects. An initial environmental
examination (IEE), including an EMP, is required.

Category C: A proposed project is classified as category C if it is likely to have minimal or no


adverse environmental impacts. An EIA or IEE is not required, although environmental
implications need to be reviewed.

Category FI: A proposed project is classified as category FI if it involves the investment of


ADB funds to, or through, a financial intermediary.

For Category A projects, the EIA (including EMP), is reviewed by ADBs Operations
Department and the executing agency. Depending on the scope of public consultation
activities, additional comments would be sought from the project affected people and other
stakeholders. All comments are to be incorporated into the final documents. The APSCL and
DOE make a final review of the EIA report. The APSCL then officially submits the reports to
ADB for submission to the Board of Directors. When the borrower/client submits the EIA, the

19
operations department reviews them to confirm that (i) relevant information on potential
project impacts and mitigation measures, including information from the EIA, has been made
available, in a timely manner and before project appraisal, in an accessible place, and in a
form and language(s) understandable to project-affected people and other stakeholders; and
(ii) information disclosure requirements during project implementation are appropriately
specified.

The operations department ensures that the draft EIA report is posted on ADBs website at
least 120 days before Board consideration.

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C. DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT

C.1 Project Type

Broadly, the project consists of the following components:

Part A: Generation Efficiency Improvement

ii. Replacement of old steam and gas turbine power plants with a total capacity of 260
MW at Ashuganj Power Station Complex with an efficient combined-cycle power
plant of 450 MW capacity

Part B: Increased Renewable Energy Use

iv. Installation of a 5MW solar photovoltaic (PV) based grid-connected power generation
plant at Kaptai Hydropower Plant site
v. Installation of an off-grid wind-solar hybrid system with diesel generator in Hatiya
Island (1 MW solar PV, 1 MW wind energy, and 5.5 MW diesel)
vi. Installation and retrofitting of about 1,000 km of street lighting based on solar PV and
light emitting diode (LED)-based technology in six cities across the country

The following section describes the project details of Part A, construction of a 450 MW
combined-cycle power plant at the Ashuganj Power Station Complex. Project details of Part
B will be described in the IEE of each subcomponent. Figure C.1 presents the location of
Project components.

21
Ashuganj 450 MW
CCPP

1000 km Solar
PV LED street Kaptai 5
lighting6 City MW Solar
Corporations PV
Borishal
Chittagong
Dhaka Khulna
Rajshahi
Sylhet
Hatiya 2 MW solar wind hybrid

Figure C.1 Location of Project Components

C.2 Project Details 450 MW Ashuganj Combined-Cycle Power Plant

C.2.1 Background

The Ashuganj Power Station is one of largest power complexes in Bangladesh with total
installed capacity of 724 MW. It consists of a combined power cycle plant (146 MW) and 5
units steam power generating plants (578 MW).

Two gas turbines (units 1 and 2) are already 40 years old while all other units are more than
20 years old. Partly due to ageing and lack of maintenance the stations available capacity
amounts only to 593 MW (80 MW from the combined cycle and 513 MW from steam
turbines).

22
The proposed project involves retirement of the existing combined cycle power plant
comprising of GT1, GT2 and ST (2 x 56 MW and 1 x 34 MW), ST 1 (64 MW) and ST 2 (64
MW) with replacement by 450 MW CCPP with suitable power generation technology and
size.

The proposed 450MW Combined Cycle Power Plant will be located within the premises of
APSCL at the bank of the Meghna River. It is necessary to note that, the Combined Cycle
Power Plant will be installed on APSCLs vacant land. It is intended that gas turbine unit(s)
will be fired continuously on natural gas.

C.2.2 Site and Surroundings

The proposed power plant is located on the south bank of Meghna River within the APSCL
complex (Figure C.2).

Figure C.2 Ashuganj Power Station Complex

The Ashuganj Power Station Complex is located about 75 km Northeast of Dhaka City on
the left bank of Meghna River across Bhairab Bazar and connected by motor/railways to
Dhaka and Chittagong. There also exists good waterways connection from Ashuganj site to
the seaports of Chittagong and Mongla and then overseas. Access to power grid is very
easy as large 230 KV and 132 KV substations exist already. Ashuganj is also the hub of the
gas transmission system where all the sources meet.

The total land owned by APSCL consists of 311 acres. A considerable amount of the land
has already been utilized and occupied by existing power plant facilities and pertinent
installation with most facilities in the centre of the site. The only site large enough to

23
accommodate the proposed 450MW CCPP plant with a 1:1:1 configuration is the 82,670 m2
in the south west of the APSCL complex. A birds eye view of the power plant site with
surroundings may be seen in Figure C.3

Figure C.3 Features of the proposed 450 MW CCPP area

C.2.3 Layout of the Proposed 450 MW CCPP

The layout plan of a 450MW CCPP in the configuration of 1:1:1 is indicated in Figure C.4.
The detailed layout was worked out on the assumption that cooling water will be taken from
a new intake with a new pumping station to be installed by the west side of the existing
intake structure of unit-5. About 1km of 2.5m diameter CW pipe line will be needed to be
installed up to the proposed site. A cooling water (CW) discharge pond will be constructed
near the ST unit and be connected to the existing old discharge channel. Titas gas RMS for
APSCL will be extended, and a new 10" diameter 600 m long pipe line and other supply
facilities will be installed.

A new 8-bay 230kV switching station along with a 4-circuit 230kV about 1.2km long
overhead line for turning in and out of the existing Ashuganj-Ghorasal line will required for
evacuation of power to the 230kV national grid, and a complete new water treatment plant
for which the required water will be taken from the CW pipe line. A new warehouse and a
control room building will be required for the plant. A channel shall be constructed to retain
the diversion of irrigation water as before. Reconstruction of some APSCL residential
buildings to replace the existing structures at the site will be constructed as decided by
APSCL.

Space will be required for an alternative fuel oil supply tank at plant site and oil pipeline with
other facilities including rehabilitation of the existing oil tanks which will be retained. The

24
auxiliary power for starting of the proposed 450MW CCPP will be supplied from a 230/6.6kV
25MVA station transformer and a 15.75/6.6kV auxiliary transformer connected to the GT unit
will supply the running auxiliary power.

Source: Feasibility Study prepared by APSCL, January 2010

Figure C.4 Layout of the proposed 450 MW CCPP at Ashuganj Power Complex

C.2.4 Life Cycle Overview

The life cycle identifies the major issues of concern which are likely to evolve over the life of
a project. The major issues and concerns throughout the life cycle of the proposed power
plant are construction, operation and maintenance including decommissioning. These issues
have been considered during the EIA study. The key activities to be completed and facilities
to be constructed and operated for the life time of the proposed project are described below.

C.2.4.1 Construction Phase

The EPC contractor and their sub-contractors will construct the power station and adhere to
the World Banks (WB) Environmental, Health, and Safety (EHS) Guidelines 2007 since ADB
has no environmental standards together with the relevant GOB regulations as well as the
EPC contractor's Safety, Health and Environmental Policy and Procedures Manual.

25
During construction phase large number of labourers will be employed. EPC contractor
where appropriate, and will provide project site housing and support facilities. The EPC
contractor shall supply the drinking water facility and dispense to workers consistent with
GOB drinking water quality standards (Annex-I). Toilets with septic tank facilities will be
provided to workers.

C.2.4.2 Operation and Maintenance Phase

The major concern during operation phase and related mitigations are described below.

Natural gas shall be used as a primary fuel for the proposed Ashuganj 450 MW CCPP.
Since there is no sulphur in the natural gas proposed to be supplied for the above project by
Titas Gas, emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO2) will be nil and the necessity for flue gas
treatment shall not be required.

The emission of NOx can be controlled by following methods:

Dry Low NOx Burners


Water or Steam Injection
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)

The new gas turbine unit will employ either water injection system or dry low-NOx burner to
reduce NOx emission. The emission of carbon monoxide (CO) can be controlled by using
appropriate combustion control and proper maintenance of the gas turbine unit. Moreover,
using CCGT technology produces only two-third of emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) per
kWh produced as compared to a simple cycle.

The minimum recorded discharge at Meghna River (Station No- 273, Bhairab Bazar, about
1km away from the proposed power plant) is 2,050 m3/sec3. The feasibility report for
proposed 450 MW CCPP indicated that the plant will use approximately 6.4 m3/sec for once
through cooling. The total water withdrawal by the existing and new plants amount to 50
m3/sec, which is only 3% of the total flow of water in the extreme lean supply period.
Sufficient river water flow will still be available to sustain the natural environment and for
aquatic ecology.

During operation and maintenance stage, EPC contractor shall collect waste lubricating and
hydraulic oils and delivered to a licensed contractor who has facilities to treat waste oils and
is permitted to recycle the treated oil for other purposes.

During plant operation and maintenance phase the EPC contractor shall maintain waste
management, all gaseous emission, effluent discharges and noise emission with limit as
prescribed in GOB guidelines (ECR-1997) and WB General EHS Guidelines 2007.

C.2.4.3 Decommissioning

The power plant is likely to continue longer time than its design life. If the proposed power
plant is constructed and operated by EPC contractor during contract period following GoB,
WB guidelines, and as per recommendation of EIA, there should not be significant
environmental liabilities that will require remediation during decommissioning. However,
APSCL will take all environmental management responsibility after the end of contract period
of EPC contractor appointed for the proposed project.

3
BWDB

26
C.2.5 Power Plant Components

General components of the proposed Ashuganj 450 MW CCPP project to be constructed


include the following:

In Site Facilities

Plant facility comprising of 1 gas turbine, 1 heat recovery steam generator (HRSG)
set, 1 steam turbine, generator, transformer and ancillary facilities.
Water treatment plant
Wastewater treatment plant
Cooling Water Pond
Circulating Pump House
Switch room
Emergency generator and transformers
600 m gas pipeline
132 kV switching station to be added in the existing switchyard area

Offsite Facility

About 1.2 km of 132 kV transmission line to connect power generated to the national
grid

Civil Structures

Demolish several residential buildings and rebuilt them at a suitable location


Store building
Control building
Administrative building
Fire protection tank, water tank and septic tank
Construction of internal road
Drainage
Security fencing and gate house

27
Figure C.5 Process Flow Diagram of 450 MW CCPP

Brief description of some of the major components and their main requirements are
described below:

Combined Cycle Power Plant

Combined steam-gas cycle has some advantages:

Energy generation is cleani.e., its the most acceptable technology from an


environmental/ecological standpoint.
High efficiency factor, more than 50%.
Minimal land requirement
Minimal water requirements
Fast operations. The station starts and shuts downs quickly, so it is possible to
operate the facility both for base and peak load
Facility construction time is short; accordingly, less time is required to repay the
investment
High level of automation and smaller number of staff required.

A state of the art micro computer based distributed control system will be applied for smooth
and optimum operation of the high technology gas turbine, heat recovery boiler and the
steam turbine.

The variable pressure operation of the steam turbine unit is to be employed so as to afford
flexible operation and improve the turbine efficiency at partial load.

28
C.2.5.1 Gas turbine unit

The type of gas turbine which will be selected for the proposed project shall be identified as
being suitable for the project and will meet National and WB emission standards described in
Environmental, Health and Safety guidelines for Thermal Power Plant-2008. In addition, the
turbine supplier shall have the capacity of offering a long-term spare parts and services
agreement for their turbines.

C.2.5.2 Steam turbine unit

The Project will include steam turbine generator units. The steam turbines will be capable of
operating in both fixed and sliding-pressure modes and in a modified sliding-pressure mode.
During normal operation; the steam turbine operates without throttling the main steam flow
(sliding-pressure mode).

C.2.5.3 Cooling water system

The cooling water system of the proposed CCPP is once-through cooling with water taken
from the Meghna River at the rate of 6.4 m3/sec.4 At present during the EIA study, an
attempt is made to assess the water requirements of all the power plants operated within the
APSCL complex and estimated their total consumption water against the flow of Meghna
River at APSCL complex area. The analysis is as follows:

Water Abstraction and Related Calculations

The hydrological data of the Meghna River from 1985 to 2008 were collected from the
Surface Water Processing Branch of the Bangladesh Water Development Board (BPDB).

River water discharges recorded from 1998 to 2006 show that a minimum discharge of 2,050
m3/sec occurred in November 1998 and a maximum discharge of 16,558 m3/sec occurred in
August 2002. Availability of water is considered adequate for once-trough cooling of the
steam turbine. The calculated water abstraction from the river by the existing operational
plants recorded as follows (Table C.1).

Table C.1 Water abstraction for cooling purpose within the APSCL Complex

Existing Operational Plants Amount of water for cooling


SI No.
within APSCL complex purpose
3 3
1 2x64 MW steam turbine 5.67 m /sec (2.83 m /sec each)
3 3
2 3x150 MW steam turbine 31.62 m /sec (10.54 m /sec each)
3
3 2x56 MW, 1x34 MW gas turbine 1.11 m /sec (now operating 66 MW)
3
4 Proposed 450 MW CCPP 6.4 m /sec
3
Sub Total 44.8 m /sec
3
Grand Total 50 m /sec
Source: Manager, APSCL and EIA Report, March 2010

Out of total river water flow 2050 m3/sec in extreme lean period, approximately 50 m3/sec will
be used by APSC (calculation shown above) and 2,000 m3/sec is left as natural flow in the
river for other uses in surrounding areas. In this calculation, only 3% of total river water flow
is being abstracted for cooling purposes.

To supply this amount of cooling water a separate intake structure with intake channel and a
pump house will be constructed in west side of the existing intake structure of Unit 5. Two

4
Final EIA Report prepared by Atlanta Enterprise Ltd. March 2010

29
100% capacity cooling water (CW) pumps will be installed in the pump house. A 2.5 m-
diameter CW pipeline will be required to supply 6.4m3 of river water to the proposed 450MW
CCPP site. Also, a discharge system such as a pond shall be constructed near the steam
turbine unit connecting through 2x1.75 m-diameter pipe and then connected to the existing
discharge channel to Meghna River.

C.2.5.4 Water Treatment System

A separate water treatment facility will be constructed for the proposed 450 MW CCPP. The
facility for treatment of feed water will consist of, but not be limited to, the following systems
and equipment: (i) raw-water pumps, (ii) raw water tanks (iii) clarifier (v) demineralization
lines, (vi) feed water pumps.

Clarifier

Raw water which is supplied from the river will be pumped into the clarification system and
primary setting and aeration. Before entering into the clarifier tank, treatment chemicals such
as lime, alum and coagulant aid will be added to the water as necessary to aid filtration of
the suspensions and to partially reduce water hardness.

Demineralization

Demineralized water storage tanks and a distribution system will be installed as part of the
water treatment system. An appropriate anion exchanger will also be incorporated into the
design of the water treatment system to increase resistance to organic fouling, enabling the
generation of the appropriate water quality.

C.2.5.5 Wastewater Treatment System (Treatment and Discharge of


Wastewater)

A separate wastewater treatment system will be built for the proposed 450 MW CCPP. All
the wastewater generated by the proposed power plant will be treated in the wastewater
treatment plant (WWTP). The WWTP will be designed based on the recent available
environmental friendly technology. One of the options for the WWTP technology may be
Electric Contaminant Removal (ECR) technology. WWTP discharges must comply with GOB
and WB standards. The sewage pond will be protected against overheating. Sewage effluent
quality will be monitored against GOB and WB standards.

Sludge management

The solid sludge generated will be stored temporarily (within project site) and will be reused
in an environmental friendly manner following WB and GOB guidelines.

C.2.5.6 Generators and Systems for Power Output

C.2.5.6.1 Generators Facilities

The Project is expected to be based on one gas turbine generator, one steam turbine
generator having subsequent transformer facilities with sufficient backup system. The control
of gas and steam turbine generators and plant electrical systems are performed by the
automation system of the plant via its digital control system (DCS) i.e., the man-machine
interface is through the monitors and keyboards of the DCS in the control room of the plant.
The 230 kV, transmission line switchgears (compatible with the proposed system) each have
separate control systems with monitors in the control room. These control systems are linked
to the DCS for information exchange. The daily control of the electrical system during normal

30
operation concern mainly generator plants operations, like synchronizing and adjusting the
reactive output and voltage.

C.2.5.7 Automation and Control System

C.2.5.7.1 Level of Automation

The plant operations will be automated as follows: (i) the main DCS; (ii) safety related
system; (iii) separate control systems (if necessary) for gas turbines, steam turbines, water
treatment facilities, etc. using programmable logic controllers; (iv) control room devices for
man machine interfaces; and (v) site instrumentation and data acquisition.

The cabinets containing the control systems will be placed in a room in the control building.
Electronic cabinets dedicated to signal acquisition (remote input/output) cabinets) could be
installed at field. For all the equipment not installed in air conditioned environment,
provisions will be made for an adequate protection degree (IP 55 minimum or compatible).

The design of the automation system will generally comply with IEC standards. The
measurement units employed will correspond to the international system of units.

C.2.5.7.2 Main Control Room

All of the normal control and monitoring tasks (starting, stopping, normal operation, and load
variation) of the Project will be performed from operator terminals in the main control room.
In addition, separate local control rooms may be built to control and monitor certain sub
processes.

The lighting of the control room will be designed to avoid or minimize optical disturbances, in
particular on the monitors. Similar care will be paid to minimizing the effects of other
potential disturbances (temperature extremes, moisture, noise, etc.).

C.2.5.8 Fuel System

Fuel for the gas turbine unit of the proposed combined cycle power plant is natural gas
which is indigenously available in Bangladesh. The total lifetime requirement of gas is
estimated to be about 438.13 billion standard cubic feet (BSCF) at 70% plant factor. The
quality of natural gas and recommended liquid fuel for gas turbine are as shown below:

Table C.2 Composition of Natural Gas

% Mole % Wt

Methane 96.464 90.882


Ethane 1.914 3.380
Propane 0.254 0.657
i-Butane 0.262 0.894
n-Butane 0.100 0.340
i-Pentane 0.030 0.127
n-Pentane 0.013 0.053
Hexane 0.040 0.200
Heptane+ 0.342 2.407
Nitrogen 0.477 0.785
CO2 0.106 0.274
Total 100 100

31
Ashuganj Power Station has been producing electricity since 1970 with the 2 x 64 MW
steam power plants based on indigenous natural gas. Two oil tanks were constructed with
10,000 tonne capacity each, but never used for the power station. All the subsequent plants
also were based on natural gas fuel.

The present total consumption of older units of 146 MW CCPP and 2 x 64 MW units together
is about 70.66 MMSCFD. The proposed 450 MW combined cycle power plant operating at
an average loading up to 90% will require about 62.21 MMSCFD. Therefore, replacement of
old inefficient units with a total 274 MW by the new CCPP units will use fuel more efficiently.

The existing Titas gas RMS situated in Ashuganj Power Station Complex is receiving gas
supply at a pressure of 1000 psi (present pressure is 700 800psi) through a 10 inch
diameter pipe from the valve station. In the Titas RMS, the gas pressure is regulated and
three different pipe lines are in use to supply gas to the power station complex. The 450 MW
(3150) receives gas at a pressure of 500 psi (present pressure 470psi) through a 10 inch
diameter pipe, the 128 MW (264) receives gas at a pressure of 65 psi through a 16 inch
diameter pipe and the 90 MW CCPP (56 MW GT1 + 34 MW ST) and the 2nd unit of GT
56MW receives gas at a pressure of 500 psi (present pressure 330 psi) through an 8 inch
diameter pipe.

The existing Titas Gas RMS for APSCL will be extended and a new 10 inch diameter about
600 m long gas pipe line shall be installed along with gas supply system for GT unit at
proposed 450 MW CCPP Site.

C.2.5.9 Compressed Air System

Compression ratio has been envisaged to be between 17 and 20 compatible with the
required mass flow and pressure. The compressed air system will supply compressed air for
tools, instruments, and combustion process. All compressed air will be filtered and dried. If
the main compressor fails or if the system pressure drops to a certain point, alarms on the
DCS will go off and the standby compressor will automatically start. Any single failure in
compressed air system will not disturb the operation of the system because of back up
measures.

C.2.5.10 Safety System

The Project will be designed to preserve all parts and minimize the risk of corrosion. There
will be provisions for the preservation of the Plant for a short term standby and for a long
term standby will be arranged.

The HRSG, the main condensate line, the feed water tank, and the feed water lines will be
filled with water with chemical additives to keep the required pH-value. Circulation of the
water will be arranged with auxiliary pipelines and feed water pumps. Steam lines will be
dried or preserved with nitrogen or as per design of the process.

Facilities for air circulation with dehumidified air will be provided for the steam turbine
cylinders and heat exchangers. When ending the preservation phase of the above
mentioned parts, the water used will be transferable to the neutralization basin as per design
of the proposed machine.

C.2.5.11 Transportation

There is a permanent exiting jetty at the river bank inside the APSC provided with crane of
capacity 200 ton plus 50 ton auxiliary. This crane requires major rehabilitation. After
rehabilitation of the crane and with the help of some other cranes of appropriate capacity,

32
any larger unit can be unloaded. Internal roads in the complex will be improved and material
to construct the plant can be moved to the new site. In case the larger pieces of equipment
are required, a jetty immediately down the stream will be used. This jetty is currently under
construction by BIWTA immediately downstream of the existing complex.

C.2.5.12 Evacuation of Power from the Proposed 450 MW CC Power Plant

The proposed power plant will be connected to the 230kV National Grid System.

An 8 (eight) bay 230kV switchyard with conventional outdoor type equipment was proposed
at the 450 MW combined cycle plant site. This would have two bays for GT and ST unit
transformers, one bay for station transformer, one for bus coupler and four bays for outgoing
feeders. One 4-circuit 1.2 km 230kV overhead line will be constructed for In and Out of the
existing Ashuganj-Ghorasal line. The probable route of the transmission line is shown in
Figure 2.4. Thus, the 230kV switching station at the proposed power plant will remain
connected to the existing APSCL 230kV switchyard through the part of Ashuganj-Ghorasal
line near the substation and to the Ghorasal substation through the rest part of the line.

A new 132kV switching station is proposed to be built at the south side of the existing 132kV
switchyard along with a 33kV switching station to replace the existing 33kV substation at
proposed 450 MW CCPP site.

The transmission route has been divided into three different symmetrical towers which are
as follows:

a) Existing Angle Tower at 115 comprising the area in and around the Araishida Mouza
of Araishida union.
b) Middle Tower (3 Straight towers) comprising the areas of the mouzas viz Arishida
(Arishida union), Jatrapur and Sonarampur Mouza (Ashuganj Sadar union) etc.
c) Dead end or Terminal Tower comprising the areas of Sonarampur Mouza

33
Proposed Transmission
Route

Source: APSCL, February 20, 2011

Figure C.6 Proposed Transmission Route

The area within the transmission route is sole agricultural in nature with a few scattered
settlements. Agricultural production reflects Boro land. Most of the agricultural lands are
double cropped and the main crop is paddy and mustard. Besides a considerable amount of
land in and around the route are covered by trees and bushes.

34
Photograph showing the pond that will be crossed by Photograph showing agricultural land that will be
the proposed 1.2 km transmission line along the crossed by the transmission route at Jatrapur and
opposite side of the proposed 450 MW Power plant Arishida Mouza
boundary on Dhaka-Sylhet Road

Photograph showing vegetation (trees) which will be crossed by the transmission route at Sonarampur Mouza

C.2.5.13 Ancillary Services

Site Development

There are some ponds at the proposed site. Contour of the area varies from 2.4m to 7.8m.
The area will be filled up by dredge filling and level shall be brought to the existing power
station level which is about 8 m above PWD level. Earth filling of about 300,000m 3 will be
required. Average filling height will be about 4m.Sand is dredged in the Meghna River
directly adjoining the site with the use of a slurry pipeline. The slurry is pumped to the area
allowing the water to seep back into ground water. This method avoids transport by vehicle
and any particular matter emissions.

Demolition Work

Proposed 450MW CCPP shall be constructed at Site-4. The space required by different
installations of the new 450MW CCPP will cause the demolition of several residential
buildings and structures within APSC. Some of these civil structures will be required to be
rebuilt. One three storied residential building, one two storied residential building, two semi
pacca buildings and some other civil structures will be demolished. APSCL authority shall
decide and arrange suitable locations for the reconstruction of these structures.

35
Civil, Structural and Building Works

The civil, structural, and building works will include the complete engineering and
construction of all foundations, structures, and installation services needed to ensure the
satisfactory operation of the Project. The work will comply with GOB national building code
and BS (British standard) codes, or relevant civil construction code.

All parts of the Project that needs to be enclosed will meet the requirements of the local
planning authority. Special attention will be paid to ensure that the facilities are functional
and of pleasant appearance. Building housing will be adequately proportioned to facilitate
the installation, operation, maintenance, and replacement of the plant. The buildings and
structures will be designed to have a minimum working life of 25 years before significant
repair or replacement of the main or secondary structural elements is necessary.

The design will take into account the climatic and seismic conditions of the site which could
normally be considered applicable during the minimum working life of the Project.

C.2.6 Manpower

The organization of the proposed power plant shall comprise of four departments: operation,
maintenance, administration, and finance and accounts. The Maintenance Department will
have mechanical, electrical, civil, and instrumentation.

It is estimated that a workforce of 92 people will be required for the new project for operation
and maintenance. Approximately all the manpower shall be required for implementation of
the project. Most of the maintenance and operation staff will be made available from the
existing APSCL. New recruits shall be thoroughly trained and existing manpower re-
deployed shall undergo conversion training to be suitable for the new plant and technology.

C.2.7 Project Costs

The project base cost is estimated to be around 29,198 million Taka. Including contingencies
and financial charges during construction, the total project cost amounts to 34,522.2 million
Taka of US$485.2 M (see Table C.3). The cost of land, since it is owned by the Ashuganj
Power Station Company Ltd, is not included in the analysis.

Operation and maintenance costs used in the analysis are the following:

Fixed: Taka 182/kW


Variable: Taka 0.064/kWh

The gas price used in the study is Taka 79.9 per thousand SCF.

C.2.8 Project Implementation Schedule

Project implementation schedule is based on realistic assumptions. It is estimated that a


period of 48 months will be needed to complete the project, counting from the date of
issuance of EOI document for short-listing of project consultants. It is shown that
commissioning of the GT will take 18 months and that of the steam turbine will take 24
months from the date of award of the Turnkey Contract.

36
Table C.3 Project Cost Estimates

Source: PPTA Consultant, February 2011

37
D. DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT

Section D presents the existing environment for Part A component, the 450 MW Ashuganj
Combined-Cycle Power Plant. The description of the existing environment for Part B
components : (i) 5 MW Kaptai Solar PV, (ii) 2 MW Hatiya Solar-Wind Hybrid System, and (iii)
1000 km Solar PV and LED street lighting is given in Section K, the IEE of each component.

D.1 General

The primary objective of the study of existing environmental parameters is to provide an


environmental baseline against which potential impacts from the construction and operation
phases of the proposed 450 MW CCPP can be compared. Baseline data includes an
inventory of physical, ecological and socio-economic parameters. Covering these aspects,
data has been compiled for:

Land Environment (topography, geology, seismology and soils);


Water Environment (water resources, water quality);
Air Environment (meteorology, air quality);
Noise Environment (noise levels);
Ecological Environment
Socio-economic Environment

Baseline data for the study area were collected using the following methods:

Gathered data from previous EIA report prepared by Atlanta (January 2010) for
important environmental components such as water, air , noise
Primary data collection on cooling water temperature
Operating data on CO2 emission and stack
Preparation of maps

D.2 Project Influence Area

For the purpose of the EIA study, the Project Influence Area (impact zone) of the proposed
450 MW CCPP was determined as a radius of 1 km from the existing APSCL compound
walls. However, socioeconomic information has been taken from both upstream and
downstream areas of Meghna River and for this purpose the survey area was defined as
roughly a 5 km radius around the proposed Ashuganj combined cycle power plant project
site.

The project area is an industrial site beside and adjacent to the Dhaka Sylhet highway and
located on the eastern bank of the Meghna River. Economically, the area is very active. The
Meghna River is the main navigation route connecting Dhaka with north eastern region of
the country via Bhairab and Ashuganj river ports. Different types of commodities including
quarry materials, cement, fertilizer and paddy, etc are transported and many cargo vessels
use the river.

The project is located in Sonaram Mouza of Ashuganj upazila with the western part of the
site being under Bhairab Upazila of Kisoreganj District while eastern part falls under
Ashuganj Upazla of B.Baria District. The Bangladesh UK Friendship Bridge on the Dhaka
Sylhet Highway crosses the Meghna River at the project site. The project site is to the north
west of the highway. Parallel and to the SW of the Friendship Road Bridge is the main
Bhairab Rail Bridge and within 1-km from the project site, Ashuganj Fertilizer factory is
located. Ashuganj rail station is situated on the east bank close to a Silo, while on the
western bank Bhairab rail station is located.

38
There are various industrial sites in the area and on both banks there are residential areas.
During the monsoon, the low lying paddy field is submerged by flood waters. Boro crop is
the main crop in the dry season. Figure D.1 and D.2 shows project influence area map
covering 1 km and 5 km radius from the proposed 450 MW CCPP site.

Figure D.1 Project Influence Area Map covering 500 m

Figure D.2 Project Influence Area Map covering 5 km

39
D.3 Physical Environment

Information was gathered on the existing physical environment including meteorology,


geology, topography, soils, hydrology and drainage, surface water quality, air quality and
noise levels. The following sub-sections elaborate the findings in this regard

D.3.1 Topography

The proposed power plant is located on the south bank of Meghna River within the APSCL
Complex. The site is in the Meghna flood plain and is susceptible to flooding. The general
project area is a vast, low-lying alluvial plain, sloping gently to the south and south-west. A
depression extends northeast from the Dhaka area following the Meghna floodplain and
broadening out in the Sylhet depression. Within this area, elevations are less than 6m above
mean sea level.

D.3.2 Land Use

The site is located in the industrial belt along the Meghna River. Commercial shops,
restaurants on Dhaka-Sylhet highway are situated north-east of Meghna Bridge. The area on
the north-west side of the APSCL is mainly used as river landing site for paddy business,
stone, sand bricks and breaking yard.

The land use pattern in the area is of mixed type having industrial, commercial and
residential uses. Erratic development of housing and industries, imprudent alignment of
roads and commercial places and some pockets of good agricultural land are common
features of the existing topography surrounding the project area.

The present status of the project area can be visualized from recent photographs below.

D.3.3 Geology and Soils

Geology of Bangladesh is generally dominated by poorly consolidated sediments deposit


over the past 10,000 to 15,000 years (Holocene age). The geology of the study area
consists of Quaternary deltaic sediments, which have been strongly influenced by tectonic
movements on deep-seated faults. The area lies on a tectonic block, which has been uplifted
relative to the surrounding areas. The soil profile of the study area consists of about 12m
thick clay deposit followed by sand, clay and progressively coarser sand as depth increases.

40
In terms of crop production, the soils of Bangladesh can be categorized into three main
classes; floodplain, terrace and hill soils. Soils are mainly grey loamy on the ridges and gray
to dark gray clayey in the basins. Gray sands to loamy sands with compact silty topsoils
occupy areas of the old Brahmaputra Char. floodplain or alluvial soils. In adjoining southern
part soil mainly comprises sandy barns and sandy clay barns and tends to be gray to dark
gray in poorly-drained basins and brown on higher and better drained land.

D.3.4 Climate

The climate of the region is dominated by the influence of the Himalayan mountain ranges
and the monsoonal systems in the Bay of Bengal. The climate is sub-tropical with summer,
monsoon and winter seasons. Rainfall is monsoonal, inter-monsoonal or cyclonic in origin.

The maximum annual rainfalls in the area as recorded was 4127mm in the year 1952 and
minimum yearly rainfall is 1439 mm in year 1989 with peak rainfalls occurring in July and
August (see Annex 1).

Furthermore, from mid November to February is the coolest and driest period; April to May is
the hottest period with periodic heavy thunderstorms: June to mid September is the most
rainy and humid period and mid September to early November is a transitional period with
decreasing rainfall, often with association of thunder but with relatively high temperature and
humidity (see Annex 1).

D.3.5 Temperature

In general, cool seasons coincide with the period of lowest rainfall. Temperature data for the
last fifty years is given in Annex 1 which shows the monthly average maximum and minimum
temperature at Comilla from 1948-2008. During this period, monthly maximum average
temperature of 36OC was observed in April 1960 and a monthly average minimum
temperature was 9.8OC in January 1962. The monthly maximum temperature was 41.8oC in
April 1960 and the minimum was 6oC in January 1993 and January 1995.

D.3.6 Wind Speed and Direction

Wind speed and direction from 1948 to 2008 collected by the Meteorological Department is
attached as Annex 1. The data indicate that the maximum wind speed recorded are 80 and
96 knots in March and June 1979, respectively followed by 88 knots in April 1954 and 80
knots in June 1980. The prevailing wind direction is South and South-east in most part of the
year.

D.3.7 Natural Hazards

D.3.7.1 Introduction

Bangladesh can be regarded as being susceptible to natural calamities. This is due to its
unique combination of physiographic, morphological and other natural features, which have
lead to direct loss of life and physical property on a massive scale. Natural calamities
experienced include floods, cyclones and storm surges, and earthquakes.

Flooding

Flooding is common phenomenon in Bangladesh. Every year certain areas of Bangladesh


are subject to flooding. The major cause of flood is monsoon rainfall runoff from upstream
catchments. More than 90 percent of runoff is from outside Bangladesh.

41
It has been observed that, despite being adjacent to the river, that the land used by the
existing Ashuganj Power Plant and its electrical distribution system have never been
inundated by flood water. The project buildings will be located at the same approximate
elevation as the existing electrical distribution system.

Cyclones

Bangladesh is also cyclone prone. The country experiences, at times, catastrophic cyclones
that cause loss of life and property. However, cyclones usually decay rapidly after coming
into contact with land and such losses are largely confined to coastal regions. The project
area is far from the coastal belt, the likely impact of cyclones is relatively small and it should
not be necessary to implement specific contingencies for such an event.

Earthquakes

According to BNBC (1993), Bangladesh has three seismic zones with severe, moderate and
low seismic activity. The Project area falls in Zone II (0.15) i.e. medium intensity seismic
zone. No major earthquake has been reported in the project area in recent years or recent
past. The project area falls into Zone-II. As a result, the land buildings and land based
structures for this project should be designed to withstand maximum lateral load of 25% of
gravity load. The seismic zones of Bangladesh are depicted in Figure D.3.

Ashuganjourashava

Figure D.3 Seismic Zones of Bangladesh (BNBC 1993)

D.3.8 Water Resources

D.3.8.1 Surface Water Resources in and around the Project

The nearby surface water source of the proposed site for the power plant is the Meghna
River. Upstream of the site, the Upper Meghna meets the Old Brahmaputra river meets at

42
Bhairab Bazar and downstream it then joins the river Padma near Chandpur. This is a
meandering river with braided characteristics. It flows along the western part of the
Brahmanbaria District boundary and exercises significant influence on the drainage of the
Brahmanbaria District. There is a notable change in flow characteristic of the Meghna River
between wet and dry seasons and with lower flows and levels in the river tidal influence
becomes more pronounced in the dry season. During the monsoon, the Meghna River
dominates flood extent in the District. It is apparent that Meghna River is the primary source
of prolonged monsoon flooding in Brahmanbaria District. There is tidal discharge, water level
measurement station (Station No 273 at Bhairab Bazar) which is upstream, about 1 km
north-west of the proposed power plant site.

D.3.8.2 Water Flow of the Meghna Rivers

The flow of Meghna River at the Ashuganj plant site is little affected by tides. The maximum
discharge of 16558m3/sec was measured on September 9, 2002 while the minimum
discharge of 2050m3/sec was recorded on June 10, 1998. The water data collected from
BWDB for the period from 1998 to 2006 is attached in Table D.1. It is to be mentioned that
following figures (maximum and minimum flow) was obtained from previous EIA Report
prepared by Atlanta. Data after 2006 was not available during the preparation of revised EIA.

Table D.1 Maximum and Minimum Flow at the Meghna River (m3/s)

Year Maximum Minimum


1998 14669 2050
2000 12109 3197
2001 11630 3135
2002 16558 4448
2003 13229 2938
2004 10571 3742
2005 10786 3658
2006 9463 4230
Source: BWDB

D.3.8.3 River Water Quality at and around the project

Surface water quality of the main river of the proposed project area appears to be relatively
good and people of the area use the water of the Meghna River for domestic as well as for
bathing purpose.

Two major centers of economic activities are located on the Meghna River:
Ashuganj/Bhairab Bazar and Chandpur. Ashuganj/Bhairab bazar has a few major industrial
units along with other smaller ones. Ashuganj Fertilizer Complex is situated about 2km
downstream of Ashuganj Power Station.

The Fertilizer Factory has no adverse environmental effect on Ashuganj Power Station. The
river receives effluent from major industrial units as well as domestic and commercial wastes
from Ashuganj, Bhairab Bazar, and other smaller economic/commercial centres and from the
rural area, located on its banks. There is run off from agricultural fields containing pesticide
and chemical fertilizer residues which drain to the river and this is a particularly problem as
the greater Comilla region is extremely well advanced in improved farming methods. River
transport activities including launches, engine boats, barges etc. also add some pollution
loads into the river.

43
Table D.2 Water Quality Data for Meghna River
5
Parameter Concentration Standard
EC ( S/cm) 166 1200
pH 7.1 6-9
Chloride, mg/l 5.0 600
T-Alkanity, mg/l 40
DO, mg/l 6.5 4.8-8
BOD5, mg/l 3.2 50

Water quality data for the following parameters (see Table D.3) were analyzed in July 2009
by Atlanta during the preparation of EIA (Location of sampling is not mentioned in the
report): The results are within the Bangladesh standards. The river monitoring data available
with the DoE also indicates that the Meghna River River still appears to be relatively
unpolluted (see Table D.2).

Table D.3 Water Quality of the Meghna River - Surface Water Quality Test Report

Sl. Parameter Concentration Ambient Surface Industrial Effluent Quality


6
No. present Water Quality Standards
Standards
0
01 BOD5 at 20 C 3.1 mg/I 2 or less 50 mg/I
02 DO 6.6 mg/I 6 or above 4.5-8.0 mg/I
03 SS 32 mg/I 150 mg/ I
04 COD 10 mg/I 200 mg/I
05 Nitrogen as 8.0 mg/I 10.0 mg/I
nitrate
06 Chloride 3.0 mg/I 600 mg/I
07 TDS 62 mg/I 2100 mg/I
08 Conductivity 132 S/cm 1200 S/cm
09 Manganese total 0.13 mg/I 5 mg/I
10 Sulfate 0.2 mg/I -
11 Iron I 0.1 mg/I 2 mg/
12 Silica 32 mg/I -
13 Oil & grease 3.5 mg/I 10 mg/ I
14 PH 6.8 mg/I 6.0-9.0
15 Phosphate 0.5 mg/I -
0 0
16 Temperature 30 C 40 C
17 Turbidity 65 JTU -
Source: Atlanta Enterprise Limited Survey, 16 July 2009

Ambient Water Temperature

Measurement of temperature at Meghna River was conducted from February 20-26, 2011.
Temperature was also measured at the discharge channel for cooling water coming from
APSCL operations. Time of measurements was done from 12:30 PM to 2:00 PM,
considered to be the time of the day with the highest ambient temperature.

Six sampling stations were identified (Figure D.4). Results show that the average
temperature of Meghna River at the three intake channels of the power complex is 24.6oC
while the temperature at the discharge point (outside of APSCL boundary limit) along
Meghna River is 24.1oC (Station 6). The average temperature at Discharge Channels 1, 2
and 3 is 29.5oC. At Discharge Channel 4, the average temperature is 36.7oC at the

5
Industrial Effluent Quality, ECR 1997
6
Bangladesh Guidelines- Official Gazette August 28, 1997 (Environment Conservation Rules-1997)

44
discharge point within the APSC premises (Station 4) while the average temperature from
the same channel at Meghna River (Station 5) is 29.3oC. The length of Discharge Channel 4
from discharge point to Meghna River is 100 m. These measurements suggest that the
reduction in temperature of cooling water discharges from the source to Meghna River at a
distance of 100 m is 7.4oC. DoE limit is 40oC during summer and 45oC during winter for
discharge to inland surface water (Schedule 10, Rule 13 Environment Conservation Rules
1997, p3132-3134 of the Bangladesh Gazette of 28 August 1997).

Figure D.4 Location of Sampling Station

D.3.8.4 Ground Water

Groundwater aquifers in Bangladesh are constantly recharged by the major river systems
and by infiltration of rainwater. Groundwater is usually available within 5 m below ground
surface. This level fluctuates seasonally but approaches close to the surface over in most
part of the country in July to September. At Ashuganj, the groundwater level is lowered to
approximately 6 m below ground surface during the dry season, with levels returning to their
normal position before the end of the monsoon. This fall in ground levels is an entirely
natural process that arises because of the hydrological link with the river.

The groundwater present in the project area is at three distinct levels:

An upper silty clay cover of less than 20m thicknesses, along the borders of the
NCR. The maximum thickness ranges from 50 to 100 m.
A middle composite aquifer of fine to very fine sands, varying in thickness from 30 to
60m along the border of the NCR. In the centre of the region, the aquifer is less than
10m thick. Although it is a good aquifer, its irrigation development potential is poor,
because its sands are too fine for slotted well screens and for providing high
discharge rate. However, it is used as a source of supply for HTWs and MOSTIS.
The lowest and main aquifer consists of medium, medium-to-fine or medium-to-
coarse sand with layers of clay and silt extending to 30-60m. The coarser-grained

45
structure of this aquifer is suitable for large-scale groundwater development with
screened wells. Most tube wells within the main aquifer are less than 150 m deep.

Local ground water represents a stable source of water for various activities including
irrigation (both shallow and deep tube wells), domestic purposes (hand pumps) and
industrial applications (deep tube wells). Apart from for cooling purpose, the possibility of
using ground water abstracted from boreholes may be considered for plant use7.

Currently, APSCL use ground water from shallow hand tubewell (60m)8 for drinking purpose
as emergency supply

D.3.9 Air Quality

D.3.9.1 Introduction

DoE air quality standards prescribe pollutant levels that cannot be legally exceeded during a
specific time period in a geographical area. The emissions of air pollutants must be
controlled so that the ground level concentrations (GLCs) for these pollutants do not exceed
the ambient air quality.

D.3.9.2 Local Air Quality

Aside from the power plant units within APSC, there are also facilities such as school, a
mosque, a cricket field, and several buildings used as housing for staff and a guest house.
There is only one main entrance to the complex and security is provided by a Security Unit
whose staff are also housed in one of the buildings within the complex. There is also a jetty
to serve transport need of APSC operations.

The local area may be classified as a mixed industrial area. Ambient air quality,
measurements carried out at the project site on November 16, 2009 showed that PM2.5,
PM10, SPM, SO2 and NO2 concentrations are way below the prescribed limit of DoE. The
weather at the time of sampling was sunny. The analysis report is furnished below in the
Table D.4 presents the results of analysis.

The existing old units that will be replaced use natural gas at about 70.66 million standard
cubic feet per day (MMSCFD). Assuming an operation of 90% efficiency, the new 450 MW
CCPP will use about 62.21 (MMSCFD) of natural gas. Based on this gas consumption,
there will be a reduction of 0.00499 MMSCF per MWh (or 46.42%) with consequent
equivalent reduction in emissions.

Table D.4 Ambient Air Quality Test Report

Location: Proposed Ashuganj 450MW Combined Cycle Power Plant Project, Ashuganj
Sample Location Ambient air pollution concentration in micro gram/cubic meter
PM2.5 PM10 SPM SO2 NOx
Propose project area 51 89 187 31.44 41.17
Average time for 480 480 480 480 480
sampling (minute)
DoE(Bangladesh) 65 150 200 80 100
standard for Industries
area
Analysis Method Gravimetric Gravimetric Gravimetric West- Jacob and
Geake Hochhelser

7
EIA Report by Atlanta, March 2010
8
Discussion with APSCL, March 2011

46
Source: Atlanta Field Survey, 16 November 2009
Note:
1. PM2.5 Particulate matter less than 2.5 microns
2. PM10 Particulate matter whose size is 10 microns or less
3. SPM Suspended Particulate Matter
4. NOx Oxides of Nitrogen
5. SO2 Sulphur Dioxide

The following CO2 emission data collected from the APSC Plant log book (January 2011) is
as follows:

Total Generation 234, 239, 320 (kW/h)


Total gas consumption 73, 838,487 (SCM)
CO2 emission 0.669 kg/kWh
Total CO2 emission 156,659,257 kg

D.3.9.3 Noise

Existing ambient noise levels in the vicinity of the proposed power plant were monitored by
Atlanta Enterprises using a noise level meter on 16 July 2009 (see Table D.5). Sample
locations were selected based on factors such as: sensitivity to noise and proximity to the
project site. The data includes the noise due to all the existing plants.

Table D.5 Ambient Noise Quality Analysis

Result, dB(A) Bangladesh


9
Sl. Location Site condition Daytime Standard at
daytime, dB(A)
01 Project west-north Proposed project 48.11 75
corner
02 Project north-east Proposed project 49.39 75
corner
03 Project south-east Proposed project 50.44 75
corner
04 Project west-south Proposed project 51.37 75
corner
Source: Field Survey 16th Nov 2009 Atlanta Enterprises

The data indicates that the existing noise levels in proposed area (industrial zone) are within
the range of Bangladesh Environmental Quality Standard as well as WB General EHS
Guidelines 2007 for industrial zone (see Table D.6).

Table D.6 Ambient Noise Quality Standards

Location WB General EHS Bangladesh


Guidelines Guidelines
dB(A) dB(A)
Day1 Night1 Day2 Night2
Silent - - 50 40
Residential 55 45 55 45
Commercial 70 70 70 60
Industrial 70 70 75 70

9
Sound Pollution (Control) Rules, 2006

47
Source: Sound Pollution (Control) Rules-2006, Bangladesh, EHS Guidelines for General
Environmental Guidelines, April 2007, WBG

1. WBG day is 07:00- 22:00, WBG Night is 22:00-07:00


2. GOB day is 06:00-21:00; GOB Night is 21:00-06:00

D.4 Ecological Baseline

The ecological component generally refers to flora and fauna, their present status,
description and habitats. The status of the flora and fauna of the study area (both terrestrial
and aquatic environments) was determined by:

Reconnaissance survey of project area and surrounding area


Interviews and discussion with local informants
Review of IUCN-Bangladesh Red Data Book relevant to the area, and
Through different secondary sources.

D.4.1 Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

D.4.1.1 Terrestrial Flora

There is no natural forest at the project site as industrial and commercial establishments
dominate the area. There is no forestland in this area; and plant community consists of low
bushes and herbaceous vegetation as well as other flora.

Homestead Vegetation

Homestead vegetation has a positive effect on improvement in soil moisture through shading
and mulching process. Trees growing at homesteads also ensure easy access to the fuel
wood, fodder and other products. Thus, it reduces the pressure on forestlands.

A large number of multipurpose trees (fruit, timber, fodder, medicine) are grown in the
general project area. The most common among them are Am (Mangifera indica), Kanthal
(Artocarpus heterophyllus), Lebu- (Citrus sp.), Kola (Musa sp.) Korai- (Albizia procera), Jam
(Syzygium cumini), Kul- (Zizyphus sp.).

Roadside Vegetation

Most of the 10-15 families of the plant species are present in the study area. These are:
Gramineae, Leguminosae, Moraceae, Myrtaceae, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rutaceae,
Solanaceae, Labiatae, Rubiaceae, Malvaceae, Compositae, etc. The most common
roadside plantation trees are Sisso-(Dalbergia sissoo), Mahogany-(Sweitonia mahagoni),
Katanote-(Amaranthus spinosus), Apang-(Achyranthus aspera), Chorekanta-(Chrysopogon
aciculatus), Jagadumur-(Ficus glomoreta), Swetadrun-(Leacus lavendulifolia), Tulsi
(Ocimum sanctum), Titbegun-(Solanum indicum), Benna-(Veteveria zizanioides), Bot-(Ficus
benghalensis) etc.

D.4.1.2 Terrestrial Fauna

A number of species were observed within the project area including many common birds
typical of the open countryside such as the roller (Coracais benghalensis), bee eaters
(Meliops supercilious and Meliops orientals), crow, parakeet, birds of prey, shalik, sparrow.
Other bird species were observed specifically at the site included the pariiah kite (Milvus
migrans), the house crow (Corves spenders) and the Brahmani kite. All of these species are
typical inhabitants of urban fringe and are considered common on both a local and regional
level. A few waders were seen feeding in areas of standing water adjacent to the site. These

48
included little egret and black wing stilt, both of which are extremely common in the deltaic
regions of Bangladesh.

The project site habitat has also a variety of reptile, mammals and invertebrate species.
Some reptiles were recorded during the base line survey including common skink (Mabuya
carinata), the garden lizard (Calotes versicolor), smooth water snake Enhydris, and wall
gecko gekko gecko. All of these are common within the study area. Anecdotal evidence
suggests that cobra occur in the study area but not at site. As the site is inundated for much
of the area, it is a particularly suitable habitat for amphibians, however none were observed
during the site survey.

The common lizards found within the project area comprise the common skink (Mabuya
carinata). Among other species that once were common but now are only occasionally seen
are the monitor lizards (Varanus bengalensis and V. flavescens). These species prefer a
habitat with or near water.

No wild mammal species were observed during the Atlanta survey of the site. Mammals
typical of cultivated rural habitats of this type around the power plant include the Indian fox
(Lepis migrocollis), and rodent species such as brown and black rat. Indian gerbil and sand-
colour rat. Other species, in particular the more endangered species are almost certainly
absent due to the lack of suitable natural habitat and pressure of human activity.

No records of wild animals and endangered species are found in the project area. Aquatic
and water-dependent birds have been severely affected by habitat alteration. Wetland
degradation has left virtually no sheltered place for waterfowl to roost or nest. Herons,
egrets, bitterns and ducks have been severely affected by habitat alteration. This is due to
the urban encroachment and agriculture development and untreated discharge of industrial
effluents

The general lack of natural habitats makes it highly unlikely that any endangered fauna is
present in the area

D.4.1.3 Aquatic Flora

Wetland flora plays a vital role for biodiversity conservation. The wetland habitat is
characterized by anaerobic conditions, which inhabits normal plant growth. The project area
supports two types of wetland e.g., (a) Permanent wetland and (b) Seasonal wetland. The
permanent wetland includes rivers and perennial water bodies. The permanent wetland
provides refuge and shelter for the most of the aquatic flora. The seasonal wetland in the
area is exploited as the cultivated land.

Kalmilata (Ipomoea reprans), Shapla (Nymphaea lotus), Helencha (Altemathera


philoxeroides) and Kuchuripana (Eihhcormia crassipes) are the main aquatic flora in the
project area.

D.4.1.4 Aquatic Fauna

The main aquatic fauna in this area are different types of fishes. A few ponds that remain
almost dry in the summer season in this area are used for natural cultivation of seasonal
fresh water fish. The fresh water fishes are carp (Rui, Katal, Mrigel, Ghania, Kalibaus etc.).
The stretch of the Meghna River provides a habitat for a wide variety of fishes and shellfish
species, which include carp, catfish (Boal, Pangas, Shilong, Bacha etc.) and live fish (Koi,
Singh, Magur etc.). Tortoise, Frogs, Water Snakes etc. are other aquatic found in the Beels
around the project area. Table D.7 presents available fish species in the Meghna river. and
in the Beel areas.

49
A large number of aquatic fauna was observed in the project area. Many are totally
dependent on wetlands (bils aeels, river, ponds) and some species are partially dependent
on wetlands. There are little available aquatic habitats for aquatic species as. wetlands are
intensively exploited and the habitat is highly disturbed. Despite this, some species have
adapted to the altered environment, and others have even flourished.

Among the amphibians the skipper frog (Rana cyanophyctis) is common, being found in
most of the wetland habitats; it has been the most successful in adapting to the altered
environment. The common roof turtle (Kachuga tecta) and the flat-shelled spotted turtle
(Lissemys punctata) are the most common of the reptiles. These freshwater turtle species
face problems of migration during summer when water levels are inadequate.

Common aquatic snakes include the checkered keelbaek (Xenochrophis piscator) and the
smooth water snake (Enhydris enhydris). The freshwater dolphin (Platanista gangetica) is
seen very rarely in the Meghna during the monsoon season.

Table D.7 Fish Species in the Meghna River and in Ponds

Local Name Scientific Name


Jat puti Puntius sophore
Boal Wallago attn
Chital Macrognathus aculeatus
Shol Chpisoma garna
Ghawra Lepidocephalus guntca
Bata Labeo bata
Raik Cirrhinns reba
Tit puti Puntius ticto
Mola Amblypharngodon mola
Kakila Xenentodon cancila
Pabda Ompok pabda
Tengra Mystus tengra
Ayre Mystus aor
Baila Glosso GOB ins giuris
Kajuli Aila coila
Kachki Corica soborna
Chanda Chanda ramma
Lal chanda Chanda ranga
Foli Notopterns
notopternsnotoptrns chital
Tara Baim Mastacembelus panchus
Gochi baim Mastacembleus armatus
Shal baim Chanda puncttus
Taki Channa striatus

D.4.1.5 Forests and Protected Areas

Overall, the Protected Area of Bangladesh covers an area of 243,435 hectare which
accounts for 16% of the total area managed by the Forest Department and almost 2% of
total area of Bangladesh. It includes 8 National Parks, 7 Wildlife Sanctuaries, 1 Game
Reserve and 5 other conservation sites. (Figure D.5) These five conservation sites are
National Botanical Garden, Dhaka, Baldha Garden, Dhaka, Madhabkunda Eco-Park,
Moulavibazar, Sitakunda Botanical Garden and Eco-Park, Chittagong and Dulahazara Safari
Parks & Coxs Bazar. No forest is located near the project influence area. There is also no
designated forest or protected areas located within 50 km of the project boundary.

50
Figure D.5 Protected and Proposed Protected areas locations in Bangladesh

D.5 Socioeconomic Environment

The project area designated for the construction of 450MW CCPP is a part of Ashuganj
Upazila under Brahmanbaria district and a part of Bhairab upazila under Kisoreganj district.
This section discusses socio economic condition of the project area. Both primary and
secondary sources data are utilized for understanding socio economic condition at the
project area.

51
D.5.1 Population and Demography

Population and demographic characteristics of the Zila, 4 Upazilas and 1 Paurashavas


(Bhairab) in the study area are presented in Table D.8 and D.9. Population density per/sq.
km. varies significantly among the different Pourashavas, Upazilas and Zila/districts.
Population and demographic profiles of the relevant Unions and Upazilas are indicated in
Tables D.8 and Table D.9 and Table D.10, respectively.

Table D.8 Population and demographic characteristics surrounding the project


area (Zila, Upazilas and Paurashavas)

Population B.Baria B.baria Sarail Ashuganj Kishoreg Bhairab


Characteristics District Sadar Upazila Upazila anj Upazila
Upazila District
Total Area (Sq. 1927.11 440.55 227.22 67.59 2731.21 139.2
km.)
Total Household 429390 109369 48822 26,709 534770 46634
Total Population 239825 625484 271101 -145,828 2594954 247166
- Male 4 318579 136240 -74,191 1320117 125621
- Female 120555 306905 134861 -71,637 1274837 121545
2
119270
2
Household Size 5.3
-Rural 5.58 5.7 5.5 5.5 4.9 5.3
-Urban 5.59 5.7 5.6 5.5 4.8 5.3
5.52 5.7 5.3 5.3 5.0
Literacy Rate %
(7 years+)
-Male 39.46 44.3 32.9 46.2 38.3 40.7
-Female 42.26 46.2 36.2 47.7 41.3 44.8
36.69 42.4 29.7 42.7 35.1 36.6
Sex Ratio 101 104 101 104 104 103
Total Mouza/ 1024 320 76 30 953 32
Mohallah 97 34 - - 147 26
Total Village 1331 375 140 38 1794 84
Total Union 98 21 9 7 105 6
Total Upazila 8 1 1 1 13 1
Pourashava 4 1 - - 4 1
Paura Ward 39 12 - - 39 12
Source: Population Census 2001, Community series, Zila:B.Baria and Kishoreganj, BBS, August, 2006

Table D.9 Population and Demographic Characteristics surrounding the Project


Area Unions of Ashuganj and Bhairab Upazila

Ashuganj Upazla

Sl Population *Ashuganj *Araisidha Charchartala *Dakshin Lalpur Pacchim Sharifpur


Characteristics Panisar Talshahar
(Durgapur)
1 Total Area (Acres) 2799 1469 1572 3038 1818 2813 3193

2 Total Household 5958 2701 4092 4550 2817 3155 3436

3 Total Population 30282 15482 23555 26831 14201 17954 17523


-Male 16054 7740 12500 13691 7069 8971 8166
-Female 14228 7742 11055 13140 7132 8983 9357

52
Ashuganj Upazla

Sl Population *Ashuganj *Araisidha Charchartala *Dakshin Lalpur Pacchim Sharifpur


Characteristics Panisar Talshahar
(Durgapur)
4 Total Household 5548 2690 3990 4519 2803 3117 3423
5 Household Size 5.46 5.76 5.90 5.94 5.07 5.76 5.12
6 Literacy Rate % 50.06 47.18 56.35 45.64 35.45 38.25
(7 years +) 41.99
Source: Population Census 2001, Community series, Zila: B.Baria, BBS, January, 2007 and National Series, Volume
2, UnioStatics, March 2007

Table D.10 Population and Demographic Characteristics Surrounding the Project


Area Pourashava Unions of Bhairab Upazilas

Sl Population Bhairab Upazila


. Characteristics *Bhairab Aganaga Gazaria Kalika Sadekpur *Shimul- Shibpur
Pourashava r prashad kandi
1 Total Area ( in 3784 6331 4737 3241 5903 2866 1669
acres.)
2 Total Household 17692 4872 4510 5246 5594 4721 3999
3 Total Population -93254 -27306 ---26906 -29914 -25567 -21091
- Male -48764 -13964 -23128 -13435 -14674 -12973 -10400
- Female -44490 -13342 -11411 -13471 -15240 -12594 -10691
-11717
6 Literacy Rate % (7 53.57 23.54 32.85-32.23 33.75 37.14 35.26
years +)
Source: Population Census 2001, Community series, Kishoreganj, BBS, February, 2007

Population

As per the Census of 2001, population and other relevant information are as follows (Table
D.11).

Table D.11 Population of the Project Upazila

Upazila Area Total Populatio Male Female Literacy7 Populatio


(km2) Househol n (No) (No) (No) + (%) n 18+
d (No) (No)
Ashuga 67.59 26709 1,45.828 74,191 71,637 46.2 72,332
nj
Bhairab 139.3 46,634 2,47,166 1,25,62 1,21,54 40.7 1,24,941
2 1 5

Table D.11 shows that in the Ashuganj population, there are 103.5 males for every 100
females and this is similar to ratios in the rural areas. The Sex Ratio (2001, BBS) in the
Dhaka district is 109.5 and in the urban area as a whole it reaches 121.9 male for a 100
females.

Family Size: average household size (Census, 2001) is 4.9 in Kishoreganj District and 5.6 in
Bramanbaria District. Household size in Ashuganj is 5.5 and in Bhairab it is 5.3. This
compares with figures of 5.52 and 5.39 in the urban and rural areas, respectively. Density of
population of Brahmanbaria district is 1,244 per sq km.

53
D.5.2 Findings of Socio-Economic Survey

Following findings have been obtained from the socio economic survey. Data is mainly from
secondary sources but some data have been collected from FGD meeting and KII based on
PRA and RRA method. The secondary sources are Union Parishad, Upazila Parishad and
BBS. And some records are collected from concerned key stakeholders viz associations and
public representatives.

D.5.2.1 Religion

Religious feature of the manpower are presented in Table D.12. The community is
predominantly Muslim.

Table D.12 Type of Religion of the sample households Bhairab Upazila

Upazila Total H.H Muslim Hindu Buddists Christian Trbal Others


Ashugnj 26709 25,599 1088 11 1 1 10
Bhairab 46,634 44,448 2,173 4 1 1 8
Source:BBS, community series, Kisoreganj and B.Baria census 2001

In Ashuganj, 95.84% are Muslim and rest are mainly Hindu communities. In Bhairab Upazila,
95.31% are Muslims.

D.5.2.2 Land Ownership and Homestead Land

In the study area, more than 30% of the households do not own any land. A majority of the
people in the area are involved in professions other than agriculture (Table D.13). With
urbanization and rapid development, the price of the land is increasing rapidly.

Table D.13 Land Holdings and Ownership of Land at Ashuganj Upazila

Ashuganj Bhairab Upazila


Agricultural Land in (%) of Total (%) of Total
decimal
0 30 30
1-50 40 15
51-100 10 20
101-150 10 20
151-250 5 5
251-500 5 10
Total 100 100
Note a decimal is equivalent to 40.46 m or approximately 1/100 acre.
Source: Upazila Statistical Department, Ashuganj and Field survey

D.5.2.3 Housing Pattern and Ownership

The area is a semi urban area, and most people live on inherited land. In the project area
most people are owner occupiers but a few live in rented houses.

D.5.2.4 Access to Health Facilities

There are government Health complex in both the Upazilas. Two government hospitals
provide services, one owned by Ashuganj power plant and another is owned by Zia Fertilizer
factory in Ashuganj Upazila. Two Clinics are in the Ashuganj union near the project area.

54
Also one Diabetic Centre is rendering services for diabetic patients. In Bhairab, there is a 50
beds government hospital and a private hospital exists in the Pourashava. People usually
use chemists and quack doctor primarily richer people use the private Clinic. Zia fertilizer
and power plant hospital is mainly for staff treatment but in emergency case a limited service
is provided for local people.

For Ashuganj the following health facilities are available - Upazila Health Complex-1,
Community Health Centre-6, Hospital (non-govt.)-2, Private Clinic-2, Diabetics Centre-1, and
Veterinary Hospital-1.

For Bhairab the following health facilities are available - Upazila Health Complex-1 (50
Beds), Upazila Community Health Centre-2 (Shemulkandi, Bhairab), Community Clinic-7,
Health and Family Welfare Centre-5, Hospital (non-govt.)-6, Private Clinic-2, EPI Vaccination
Centre-170, X-Ray Machine-1.

Main diseases prevalent in the area are waterborne diseases i.e. diarrhoea, dysentery and
typhoid Also Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) is commonly seen in the area. STD is
prevalent due to migratory people and workers in the boiler based rice husking mills. In the
area lot of women workers work in these husking mills locally known as Chatal.
Approximately there are 250 Chatals in the project area.

D.5.2.5 Source of Drinking Water and Sanitation

As per DPHE information, Ashuganj Upazila has attained 100% sanitation coverage. Total
sanitary latrines are 1722 and the total TW is 1539.

There is no water supply system in the study site. The people are dependent on tube well
water for drinking purpose. On average 17.35 households fetch water from a single tube
well. While the sanitation provision in Ashuganj and Bhairab Upazila. was 44.89% of the
households in Ashuganj and 39.74 % holds in Bhairab upazila, there has been significant
improved. In the situation and Ashuganj has nearly 100% and Bhairab just under 90%
households with proper sanitation facilities.

D.5.2.6 Fuel Source

In the study area, most of the households have natural gas connection (40%) for cooking
purposed. Others depend on fuel wood but fuel wood is costly. Field survey work indicated
that households using natural gas for cooking and those using wood fuel are similar while
others depend on dung and leaves (Table D.14).

Table D.14 Cooking Fuel

Ashuganj Upazila Bhairab Upazila


Type of Cooking Fuel (%) of Total
Natural Gas connection 40% 50%
Leaves 5% 5%
Cow dung 20% 15%
Wood / Straw 35% 30%
Total 100% 100%
Source: Field Survey and FGD meeting

D.5.2.7 Literacy

The rate of educational enrollment is rapidly increasing in the project area and according to
the Ashuganj Upazila education office approximately 90% of children now enroll for school.

55
20,000 students attend primary school excluding kindergarten. With 26,709 household in the
upazila there is close to one student from each family in primary classes. Only the ultra poor
do not sent their children to school.

According to BBS 2001 census in Ashuganj upazila the literacy rate for both sex is 46.2%,
with 47.7% for men and 42.7% for women (see Table D.15). According to BBS 2001, the
literacy rate of 7+ population is 50.06% in Ashuganj and is 49.05 % in Arashida. From FGD
meeting at Dakshin Panishar it was found that the education rate is now approximately 60%
and it is assumed that the population in the immediate project area is generally better
educated.. The deduction rate is also increasing among the females.

Table D.15 Rate of Literacy for Male and Female

Upazila Both Male Female


Ashuganj 46.2 47.7 42.7%
Bhairab 40.7 44.8 36.6%
Source: BBS, Census 2001

D.5.2.8 Electricity Facility

Currently in the project area between 70% to 80% of households have electricity
connections. In Ashuganj union it is about 80%. Dakhshin Panishar and Simulkandi unions
of Bhaiab Upazila have 80% & 70% electricity coverage respectively. In the immediate
project area most households have electricity connection. The area may be considered as
dependent on electricity due to growing business in the area .Table D.16 indicates the level
of electricity connection at the time of the 2001 Census.

Table D.16 Electricity Facility

Area (Upazila Basis) Electricity Facility Available in Household


(No)
Ashuganj 57.75%
Bhairab 51.31%

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E. ANTICIPATED ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND MITIGATION MEASURES

E.1 Environmental Impacts Identification

Major activities described in Section C-Description of the Project have the potential to impact
on the physical, biological and socio-economic environment at and within the project area of
influence. This section discusses the potential impacts and identifies appropriate mitigation
measures.

The Ashuganj 450MW Combined-Cycle Power Plant (Ashuganj CCPP) will use energy
conversion process in which chemical energy from gas fuel is converted to thermal energy.
The process liberates both:

heat for which there is a need for cooling prior to release back to the natural
environment, and,
combustion gases such as CO2, NOx, and CO which are discharged to the
surrounding atmosphere.

An environmental baseline survey was conducted in the project areas by the APCSL
Consultant in 2009 and the environmental parameters likely to be affected during the project
implementation and operation phases were identified. The environmental parameters taken
into consideration were as follows:

ecology (fisheries, aquatic species, eutrophication, wetland, forest plants, animals,


species diversity and endangered species),
physico-chemical (erosion & siltation, flooding, drainage congestion, air pollution,
noise pollution, solid waste and water pollution) and,
human interest related aspects.

Parameters where there is potential for long term impacts are identified as follows:

Fisheries and aquatic species with potential increase in water temperatures from the
new Ashuganj facility and from other power plant coolant facilities in the river system
with the potential for accumulated impacts,
Air pollution from combustion gases causing atmospheric emissions,
Noise pollution and vibration from plant operations.

Other impacts which were considered:

The Ashuganj site has long been dedicated as a location for power generation and the
housing of company workers and associated infrastructure. The whole landscape has been
transformed and there is no bird or animal life of any significance, nor is there any forestry.
No sites of archaeological or historic interest are affected by the project. There has been a
tree planting programme within the Ashuganj site by APSCL and for site development for
this project there will be loss of some trees.

Immediately outside the plant walls there is agriculture land and APSCL has worked with
local villagers in the past to assist in providing cooling water for irrigation. Part of the cooling
system water discharge is currently diverted to a reservoir inside the Company Complex
where it is retained and used by the farmers for irrigation as required. This has a positive
impact in that some coolant water is retained and not discharged direct to the river system
and local farmers directly benefit. It is intended that the existing irrigation arrangements will
be continued providing water to paddy fields through a new link canal. Normal costing of

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irrigation water is Tk.1500/biga using diesel pumps. Plant discharge water is being supplied
at the rate of Tk.200.00 per/biga to the farmer.

E.2 Evaluation and Mitigation of Impacts

Environmental impacts were identified in the APSCL Consultant study and predicted for both
positive and negative impacts in terms of ecological, physico-chemical and socioeconomic
parameters. Evaluation of impacts and possible mitigation measures are described in this
section with reference to the sources and characteristics of impacts.

E.2.1 Impact due to Project Location

The proposed 450 MW CCPP will be constructed on land already owned and occupied by
APSCL. The land is in the southwest section of the APSC. The site is partially vacant
requiring land development and the filling of some pond area. Some company housing and
redundant structures will be demolished before starting construction. The project is
contained within an existing industrial complex with power station facilities which have
operated for more than 40 years and the proposed power plant will not change the existing
local landscape. It will be constructed following the architectural style of existing industrial
power house structures. There are no significant adverse impacts due to project location.

APSCL has a tree planting programme and the same will be implemented to ensure that an
adequate buffer zone can be developed around the proposed project site. This buffer zone
will serve as wind-breaks, erosion control measures, sediment traps, sound insulation and
visual screening. The annual tree planting programme of APSCL is implemented during the
monsoon. Planting will take place in September and APSCL will plant 5 trees for every 1 tree
which will be removed during the construction of the project. Local species are used in this
programme.

E.2.1.1 Human Settlement

No acquisition of new land is required and no private housing or settlements will be


displaced. There is possibility of relocation of worker housing and this will be handled by
APSCL and is described in the Resettlement Action Plan, which has been undertaken as
part of the overall Feasibility study for the project.

E.2.2 Adverse Impacts during Construction

Various activities during construction of the proposed power plant will be a source of
potential hazard and environmental impact. Such impacts will include air pollution, noise
pollution and vibration, ground water quality, river water quality and health and safety issues.

E.2.2.1 Air Pollution

Source of Impacts

The area is predominantly fine sandy-clay soils, which can pollute the air during heavy wind
events. There is potential for increased dust level from the movement of light and heavy
transport vehicles, and the activities at the wharf and during piling work. This air pollution
may create some breathing problems to the workers and power station company employees.

Mitigation Measures

To reduce the impacts of air pollution on-site, it is recommended that construction starts
within the wet season when dust particles will be naturally suppressed. However, since

58
construction work is generally suspended during the rainy season due to technical and
environmental problems, scheduling the work during summer is the best option. Any
construction work in the dry season will employ dust control measures using dedicated
sprinkler trucks on all haul roads and at construction sites where fine materials are used or
stored. Any material stock piles will be properly managed and covered if necessary. Workers
will be provided with personnel protection equipment when working in dust prone areas.

E.2.2.2 Water Pollution

Source of Impacts

During construction, there will be some decrease in water quality as a result of


sedimentation. The impact will occur during times of rainfall but because of the flat
topography, it is unlikely to be severe. Also, there will be use of heavy machinery to fill land
areas and the need for concreting of foundations and the assembly of plant.

Mitigation Measures

Surface water drains will be directed to the existing pond system to the north of the site to
allow settlement of runoff materials.

All machinery used will be properly stored and refuelled at designated approved sites and
contractor activities will be monitored. If aggregate is crushed and concrete made at site
special arrangements will be made for bunding of work areas and the provision of settlement
ponds

E.2.2.3 Potential Increase in Noise Level and Impact of Vibration

Source of Impacts

Generation of noise and vibration are generally associated with any construction work.
Noise and vibration are generated from various construction activities such as piling of
foundation, stone crushing and bricks, and installation of machines and equipment, etc.

Mitigation Measures

Construction work will be restricted to the normal APSCL working hours between 8.00 am
and 6.00 pm at the plant site. Use of personal protective equipment will be enforced.
Monitoring of noise impacts will be implemented as part of the Monitoring plan to ensure
compliance with Bangladesh Environmental Quality Standard for industrial zones

E.2.2.4 Potential spread of diseases

Source of Impacts

The project will be constructed by unskilled and semi-skilled workforce over a period of 18
months. Infectious diseases are a potential problem as most workers will be semi literate
and their level of knowledge of health and hygiene is low. There is the potential, during
construction, for unhygienic condition leading to transmission of various diseases.

Mitigation Measures

Arrangements for good quality drinking water, hygienic sanitation and accommodation
facilities for the staff and the workers shall be made available. Employees will have access

59
to APSCL medical facilities at the site and eemergency medical services and adequate first
aid facilities will be available at the site during construction period.

E.2.2.5 Incidence of Accidents

Source of Impacts

Accidents may potentially occur at any time during construction work and may cause loss of
lives and properties.

Mitigation Measures

Adequate first aid facilities and emergency arrangements will be in place to the adjacent
health complexes and other emergency services.

E.2.2.6 Activities in the Wharf

Source of Impacts

Construction activity will be undertaken using the existing jetty within the APSCL complex for
off loading of construction materials. This will avoid having to take construction components
and material through the existing plant but will result in potential for disruption of
transportation on the river and potential for environmental impact to water quality in the river
system.

Mitigation Measures

The permanent existing jetty is provided with crane of capacity 200 ton plus 50 ton auxiliary.
This crane requires major rehabilitation. After rehabilitation of the crane and with the help of
some other cranes of appropriate capacity, any larger unit can be unloaded. The wharf
facility will be upgraded to ensure that materials can be handled safely with minimal
possibility of any loss of water quality from runoff to the river. The road from the wharf will be
upgraded. Any fuel storage areas will have proper containment facilities to ensure there is no
contamination to the river system.

In case the larger pieces of equipment are required, a jetty immediately down the stream will
be used. This jetty is currently under construction by BIWTA immediately downstream of the
existing complex.

Any machinery working in or over the river will be properly maintained and stored when not
in use to avoid pollution to the river system. There will be monitoring of construction activities
over the water by APSCL.

E.2.3 Impacts during Operation Stage

E.2.3.1 Air quality impacts

Source of Impacts

Ambient air quality may be affected due to emission of flue gases from the gas turbine stack.
Incomplete burning of gases from the operation of gas turbine may also affect the air quality.

Burning of fossil fuels at high temperature (above 1600oC) generally produce two forms of
nitrogen oxides - nitric oxide (NO) and NO2; commonly referred to as nitrogen oxides (NOx).
The gas turbine intakes excess air at 127% more than the required for combustion. If a fully

60
premixed burner (dry low NOx burner) is used, formation of NOx is reduced since the
combustion temperature is much less (about 1317oC). The proportion of NO and NO2 varies
depending on the combustion technology, and in the case of gas turbines approximately 90
percent of NOx are present as NO with the remaining being NO2 (Atlanta Enterprise Study).
Once NO enters the atmosphere, it reacts with oxygen in the air and forms NO 2. The health
hazard due to NO2 is far greater than that of NO.

Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from 450 MW CCPP

CO is generated when incomplete combustion takes place. CO2 emissions were estimated
based on design parameters given below:

Maximum combined-cycle capacity 446.56 MW


Maximum gas turbine capacity 334 MW (ISO rating), 296 MW at Field
Condition
Heat rate 7.145SCF/kWh
Maximum quantity of natural gas consumed 2.894MMCF per hour @ 296 MW (Field
condition)

From these design parameters, it was estimated that the contribution of the new units to CO 2
emission is about 0.371 kg per kWh. The 154 MW steam turbine will use the heat from the
exhaust gases as fuel. No additional natural gas will be consumed to run the steam turbine.

Particulate Matter

Natural gas that will be used as fuel for the new units does not contain particulate matter.
Any particulate in the exhaust gases is likely to be dust drawn in through the air intakes.
Proper filters and appropriate maintenance of the filters on the air intake will prevent this
problem and will be carried out as part of the maintenance schedule.

Mitigation Measures

The new units will use dry low NOx burner equipped with a premix burning system which
restricts the combustion temperature to 1316OC - below the Ox formation temperature
(1600OC). Thus, the possibility of NOx formation is minimal.

A comparison of different burner technology shows that in the event of NO x formation, the
dry low NOx burner will produce 9 ppmv of NOx equivalent to 15.38 gm/sec, water injection
method of limiting NOx formation will produce about 25 ppmv equivalent to 42.72 gm/sec,
while a dual-fuel burner will generate NOx at about 75 ppmvmax equivalent to 128.17 gm/sec
(basis is 15 per cent dry O2).

Table E.1 shows the ground level NOx concentration comparing the different design of
burner combined with a stack height of 40 m.

Table E.1 Ground level NOx Concentration at Various Distances from the Plant

Allowable
Concentration of Concentration of limit of NOx
Concentration of
Downwind NOx with dry low NOx with water as per
NOx with liquid
Distance, km NOx burner, injection method 3 Bangladesh
3 3 fuel, mg/m
mg/m mg/m standard,
3
mg/m
1 2 3 4 5
0.10 41.17 41.17 41.17 100

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Allowable
Concentration of Concentration of limit of NOx
Concentration of
Downwind NOx with dry low NOx with water as per
NOx with liquid
Distance, km NOx burner, injection method 3 Bangladesh
3 3 fuel, mg/m
mg/m mg/m standard,
3
mg/m
0.20 41.17 41.17 41.17 100
0.50 41.86 43.10 46.96 100
1.0 46.00 54.75 81.17 100
1.1347 46.21 55.17 83.17 100
2.0 44.59 50.68 69.69 100
5.0 42.04 43.57 48.38 100
10.0 41.43 41.89 43.33 100
20.0 41.24 41.37 41.78 100

The proposed project will replace old units totalling 274 MW totalling 274 MW which
consume natural gas at a rate of 70.66 MMSCFD. The new units at 450 MW will consume
only 62.21 MMSCFD assuming an efficiency of 90%. Therefore, a reduction of 0.00499
MMSCF per MWh (or 46.42%) is achieved with consequent reduction of CO, CO2 and NOx.

The design of combustion chamber and control system will ensure complete combustion
thus, restricting the formation of CO.

E.2.3.2 Noise Pollution and Vibration

Source of Impacts

There is potential for an increase in the noise level and vibration from the gas turbine. The
new plant will use advanced design to minimize vibration and generation of noise. Noise-
generating equipment like the gas turbine will be equipped with sound mufflers to contain the
noise. The operation of the old gas turbines will be stopped once the new units are
operating, thus, noise will be minimized.

Mitigation Measures

The noise level at the power plant will be reduced by including baffle type silencers in both
inlet and exhaust ducts. This will arrest noise generated by airflow and exhaust gases,
respectively. Noise due to running of the machine will be reduced by acoustic enclosures.

The noise level in the boundary limit of APSC is expected to be around 65 dB (A) which is
within the limit of Bangladesh Standard for Industrial Zone in Daytime (75 dBA) and also at
night time (70 dBA). The foundation of the new power plant will be designed to minimize the
vibration effect from equipment. Trees will also be planted at the property line to serve as
long-term noise baffle. The noise limits prescribed by DoE is given below:

Table E.2 Standard Values for Noise (DOE, 1997)

Area category dB(A), Daytime dB(A) Nighttime


Calm Area 45 35
Residential Area 50 40
Mixed Area 60 50
Commercial 70 60
Industrial Area 75 70
1. Day time is from 0600 hrs in the morning to 1900 hrs. in the evening
2. Night time is from 2100 hrs in the night to 0600 hrs in the morning.

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3. Calm area is the 100 meter radius within hospital or school or any government designated
special areas.

E.2.3.3 Water quality impacts

E.2.3.3.1 Source of Impacts

Both the construction and the operation phases of the power plant require water for various
purposes. The typical water requirements for a combined cycle power plant are:

Fuel system with operating water for fuel oil separators


Lubricating oils system require operating water for lubricating oil separators
Cooling water with make-up water for boiler and for condenser cooling in
steam turbine unit of CC power plant
Heat recovery system - make-up water for steam and for hot water circuits
Oily water treatment system - back-flushing water for treatment unit
Service water - plant washing water, toilets and showers
Air Inlet System - flushing water for air filter cleaning

Cooling water requirements

Currently, the existing power plant units (a total of 724 MW) at the Ashuganj Power Station
Complex (APSC) abstract water from the Meghna River at a rate of 39 m3/sec for cooling
purposes. The new CCPP units will require about 6.4 m3/sec for its cooling water system
also to be abstracted from the Meghna River.

When the new CCPP units are commissioned, five power plant units (or 274 MW) will stop
its operation resulting to a reduction of cooling water requirements to about 6.78 m3/sec.
Thus, compared to the existing cooling water requirements, the operation of the new CCPP
units will improve efficiency and will result to an overall reduction of cooling water
requirements at a rate of 0.4 m3/sec (or 1.03% reduction).

The cooling water system of the existing power plant units at APSC use once-through
cooling (OTC) where the spent warm water is discharged to a receiving body of water (in this
case the Meghna River) or a temporary pond. Cooling water prior to discharge is estimated
to have a maximum temperature of 7oC above ambient. Thermal discharge from the cooling
water system of all the existing units at APSC is about 39 m 3/sec. When the new CCPP
units will start its operation, the old power plant units consisting of 274 MW will stop its
operation, thus, thermal discharges to Meghna River will be 38.6 m3/sec or a reduction of 0.4
m3/sec.

The existing cooling water discharge system at APSC consists of a retaining pond to
temporarily hold the hot water and an open discharge channel of about 2 km prior to
discharge at the Meghna River.

Mitigation Measures

Design of the new cooling water intake structure will consider the temperature of existing
discharges at APSC while the discharge channel will be designed in such a way that
adequate turbulence and mixing are generated for maximum heat dispersion prior to release
at Meghna River. At present, about 80% of the cooling water discharges of the existing
power plant units at APSC are retained to a holding pond before release to local farmers for
irrigation purposes during the dry season. The same will be adopted for the new units to
have more water available for farmers to irrigate their crops during the dry season.

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Actual measurements of cooling water discharges in six sampling stations at and around
APSC (see Figure D.4) conducted on February 20-26, 2011 (sampling time from 12:30PM to
2:00PM) showed an average of 29.5oC prior to discharge outside the boundary of APSC
(Discharge Channels 1-3). At the time of sampling, the river water intake from Meghna River
has an average temperature of 24.6oC.

At Discharge Channel 4, the average temperature is 36.7oC at the discharge point within the
APSC premises (Station 4) while the average temperature from the same channel at
Meghna River (Station 5) is 29.3oC. The length of Discharge Channel 4 from discharge point
to Meghna River is 100 m. These measurements suggest that the reduction in temperature
of cooling water discharges from the source to Meghna River at a distance of 100 m is
7.4oC. DoE limit is 40oC during summer and 45oC during winter for discharge to inland
surface water (Schedule 10, Rule 13 Environment Conservation Rules 1997, p3132-3134 of
the Bangladesh Gazette of 28 August 1997). The thermal discharges from APSC meet the
limits set by DoE.

E.2.3.4 Lubricating Oil

Source of Impacts

There will be continuous make-up of lubricating oil to the Gas Turbine. This will be supplied
by engine driven pumps through lube oil coolers. A portion of the lube oil will be cleaned by
means of centrifuge oil purifier and will be put back into engine oil pump. Samples of oil from
engine system will be periodically taken for laboratory analysis to ensure quality of oil to
acceptable specification. In case of deteriorating oil quality, the engine oil will be replaced
with a clean batch.

Mitigation Measures

Used oil will be separated by oil-water separator prior to collection in drums for reuse or
recycle to approved re-users. APSCL will source appropriate re-users or recycling
possibilities and ensure it is not used inappropriately in such activities as brick kilns and
other secondary users.

E.2.3.5 Generation of wastewater

Source of Impacts

The plant will be operated with full time staff people and a small quantity of sewage and
domestic wastewater will be generated. Water will be used for general cleaning and garden
watering purposes.

Wastewater will be treated and some of the treated wastewater will be discharged into a
small pit located at the plant site and reused for cleaning purposes. A septic tank system
with proper soak away pit will be installed to treat domestic sewage.

E.2.3.6 Solid Waste

Source of Impacts

Solid waste will be generated by staff and power plant operation such paper, packaging
materials and food wastes etc. Such solid waste would be non-toxic and do not require any
special disposal arrangements.

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Mitigation Measures

Solid waste materials will be separated at a designated point within the APSC prior to
disposal in approved local authority waste disposal sites.

E.2.3.7 Other Mitigation Measures

E.2.3.7.1 Disaster Management Plan

APSC will put together a disaster management plan to protect the properties from disasters
such as water logging/flood etc. In addition, APSC will have full provision for fire fighting and
first aid medical services.

E.2.4 Positive Impacts

E.2.4.1 During Construction Phase

The project will create job opportunities for skilled and semi-skilled local labour. The area will
be more developed commercially and land value will also increase. Local people will be
encouraged to be involved in employment and other commercial activities.

E.2.4.2 During Operation Phase

The new power plant will improve the reliability and stability of the power supply system in
order to meet the power shortage particularly, in the Dhaka and adjoining areas including
Ashuganj. The project will have a significant contribution to the economic development in
the region.

APSCL will employ more permanent staff at the site during operations and the local
economy will benefit. The project will help stimulate local business activity. Despite the
project being a power generation and fossil fuel consuming project, once in operation it will
ensure that , because of modern technology, that emissions will be fewer than those from
the current gas burning plants. There will be fewer emissions compared to the existing
facilities and a positive health benefit will ensue.

65
F. ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES

The following presents the different alternatives considered for the proposed 450 MW
Ashuganj Combined-Cycle Power Plant.

F.1 Do Nothing or Without Project Alternative

A do nothing or without project alternative would place further strains on Bangladeshs


current energy supply deficiencies. Ashuganj Power complex would continue to run using old
inefficient plant, which breaks down regularly and for which spare parts are not easy to
obtain. Load shedding which is already a daily occurrence would continue if not become
more widespread in the area. Domestic users would continue to suffer and industrial uses
would have their competitiveness further eroded.

The do nothing scenario would also result in continued emission discharge from an inefficient
plant compared with the chance to install the new 450MW CCPP high technology, efficient
and more environmentally friendly system with fewer emissions. Allowing the present
situation to continue would mean the burning of larger amounts of gas inefficiently and this
would result in continued higher levels of atmospheric emissions and impacts to human
health. The do nothing alternative is, therefore, rejected as an option.

F.2 Type of Fuel

Three alternatives fuels (gas, oil and coal) were considered from the point of view of
environmental impacts. A comparative analysis of the proposed alternatives is indicated in
Table F.1.

Table F.1 Comparison of Different Alternatives

Environmental Original Proposal (Gas Alternative 1 (Oil Alternative 2 (Coal Remarks


Element fired comb. Cycle) fired steam) fired steam)

Air Pollution L M H

CO2 emission L M H

Waste Water L H H

Noise Pollution H M M

Resettlement L M H Minimum land for gas


fired plant

Space for Construction L M H Minimum space for


gas fired plant

Time for construction L H H

Surface water L L L
contamination

Soil contamination L M M

Terrestrial Flora L L M

Aquatic flora L L L

Fishery L L L

Overall Evaluation Good Medium Poor

Note: L Low impact; M Medium Impact; H High impact

In terms of the use of alternative fuel sources, natural gas is a relatively clean source of fuel.
In the case of Bangladesh the gas fuel source is particularly environmentally friendly with

66
relatively low content of sulphur and particulate matter levels and consequently, lower levels
of atmospheric pollution.

Gas is the chosen fuel over coal or fuel oil. Gas supply and gas allocation is currently
available at the APSCL site.

F.3 Alternative Sites

There are few feasible alternatives sites in terms of location for a gas facility. Using an
existing power plant site to develop additional capacity has great advantages over a green
field site, which would require large development costs for site development and connexion
to gas and the power networks. There would also be a long lead in time. The APSCL site has
an available and allocated supply of gas in an area where gas supplies are not plentiful. The
site is also close to existing power plant infrastructure including power transmission lines.
Developing a site, when it is available, close to existing power infrastructure is, therefore,
seen as a major factor in site selection.

Four site locations inside the APSCL complex were assessed in the northeast and southwest
extremities of the power company land. The following criteria were used: distance from the
fuel supply and cooling tower, grid access, road access, land availability, and jetty and cargo
access. The characteristics of the different sites are summarized in the Table F.2 below.

The chosen site is the only one large enough to accommodate the 450 MW proposal. Other
areas within the complex are already planned for upgrading of other power components and
in particular for the proposed 150 MW combined cycle power plant which is intended to
replace the existing 146 MW combined cycle plant.

Table F.2 Comparative Study of Four Sites

Factors Site-1 Site-2 Site-3 Site-4


Fuel Natural gas Natural gas available Natural gas available Natural gas available
available from Titas 700m long pipe line Extension of Titas Extension of Titas RMS
RMS & long pipe required from RMS and 50m long and 600m long pipe
required. existing Titas RMS pipe required required for connection
Long pipe line Tanks available for Tanks available for from Titas RMS
Tanks available for alternate fuel, within alternate fuel, within Tanks available for
alternate fuel, 50m. 1km. alternative fuel, within
within 100m. 1.5km.
Cooling Available within Available within Available within Available within 750m but
Water 300m 300m 300m but very very difficult to reach.
New intake New intake required difficult to reach New intake required.
required Discharge difficult New intake required. Discharge easy
Discharge very Route difficult Discharge very Route difficult and costly.
difficult difficult
Routing very Route very difficult.
difficult
Access Possible by 230kV Possible by 230kV Possible by 230kV Access to existing 230kV
to grid cable about 500m cable about 300m cable about 400m switchyard difficult
long long long New switchyard
Bay available in Bay available in Bay available in required
230kV switchyard, 230kV switchyard, 230kV switchyard, 1km 4-ckt 230kV line
difficult difficult difficult required
Land Available=9,600m Available= 9,080m2, Available 6,363m2 Available 82,670m2,
For For (1+1+1) 53000m2 For (1+1+1)53000m2 For (1+1+1)=53000m2
(1+1+1)53000m2 Land not sufficient for Land Not sufficient required
(2+2+2) = (1:1:1) up to 450MW Criticality with Land more than sufficient
12,500m2 Critical with existing training school. Layout easy for one
.Land not sufficient. oil tank and main module.
Criticality with entrance/road Low land, development
existing CC plant required
No access road exists for
heavy cargo
Access Exists Exists Exists To be constructed inside

67
Factors Site-1 Site-2 Site-3 Site-4
Road boundary
Jetty and Existing- 250 Tons Existing- 250 Tons Existing- 250 Tons Jetty at existing plant not
cargo crane not suitable crane crane sufficient
access to Difficult access, to Difficult access to Temporary jetty at ferry
site jetty. jetty. ghat required.
Comment Not suitable Not suitable Not suitable Suitable

F.4 Power Plant Configuration

Alternative configurations were looked at for the project; 1:1:1 (1GT+1HRSG + 1ST) and
2:2:1 configurations were examined. It was determined that the land area at Ashuganj
could only accommodate a 1:1:1 configuration. At the same time, the 1:1:1 configuration
was considered the suitable configuration due to the following:

Though the 2:2:1 configuration could support slightly higher capacity than the 1:1:1
arrangement, its efficiency rating is relatively lower.
The land available in Ashuganj could only accommodate the 1:1:1 plant layout (in
multi shaft arrangement, with heat recovery boiler and balance of plant
equipment).

68
G. INFORMATION DISCLOSURE, CONSULTATION, AND PARTICIPATION

G.1 Overview of Public Consultation Process

Public Participation and Consultation are vital components for the success of any
development project, to ensure two way communications between the project sponsor and
relevant stakeholders, accountability and transparency in the development process.

A Consultation process was initiated at the commencement of the project. The overall
objective was to ensure that stakeholders were kept informed about project proposals and
developments, and that they were afforded the opportunity to contribute their views to project
planning and the decision making processes.

To involve the local community in the planning stage, the Participatory Rapid Assessment
(PRA) technique was used to gather information from key stakeholders of the Ashuganj
Upazila during baseline survey. The PRA covers the following indicators:

Major occupations of the affected people


Monthly income amounts of poor, middle and large income group of current uses of
water resources
Opinion about technology options
Opinion about atmospheric emissions and water quality
Problems encountered such as conflict in the use, protection and conservation and
management of fisheries resources
Participation and conflict resolution mechanism
Perception of the community towards proposed development
Suggestions on how Government may assist the community with program of
development, such as the use of coolant water for irrigation.

During the baseline study in 2009, the following PRA tools have been used:

Focused Group Discussion (FGD)


Key Informant Interviews (KII)
Stakeholder Consultation

G.2 Information Dissemination Process

On behalf of APSCL, Atlanta Enterprises arranged several consultation meetings with local
stakeholders for information dissemination and community participation. Such meetings
were with the concerned NGOs, and other relevant persons. The consultant and their team
investigated all the relevant matters regarding the project by arranging meetings, and group
discussions for peoples awareness.

Information campaigns were carried out in association with APSCL. The consultant worked
with Focus Group Meeting in the community. In these meetings all classes of public
including businessmen, farmers, school teachers, religious leaders, NGOs and Members
and Chairman of the Union Council were present.

The project was explained and those present were informed that the project will be
constructed in the existing APSCL land. No acquisition of land is needed for the proposed
project. 4 to 6 new tower is needed to be installed for transmission of the power to the
national grid line. No permanent acquisition of land and consequent resettlement will be
required for the project. Some noise, air pollution may occur, but it will be minimized using
proper methods. The consultant has carefully studied all types of impacts in the locality likely

69
to be caused by the proposed plant and informed the meetings of the impacts. Information
dissemination and consultation will continue throughout the project implementation period.

G.3 Key Stakeholders View

Consultation with the key stakeholders was held at Upazila Conference hall on August 11,
2009. It will be a continuous process until the completion of the project. During the survey
period, school teachers, village leaders and Members and Chairman of the local bodies and
others were consulted in groups and individually with particular importance to female headed
households. The concerns and suggestions are given below.

Local people at Ashuganj raised the following issues:

1. Sound pollution should be restricted;


2. The plant authority should arrange meeting between local public representatives and
the concerned person of power plant before finalization the detailed lay out plan.
3. Height of the chimney should be 50 meter.
4. Water temperature is to be maintained at minimum but the plant authority repeatedly
confirmed that it should not exceed DoE (Department of Environment) regulations
and in not a threat to the environment.

Mr. .MD. Rezaul Maksud Jahidi, UNO, Ashuganj Upazila suggested that

1. Proposed plant will have positive impact on the over-all socio-economic condition. No
impact on environment. Precautionary Safety measures should be taken in the flow
of artificial outfall into the cooling water canal.
2. to ensure social welfare from the plant by providing job and technical education etc
3. to develop the area as tourist site by creating recreational facilities and beautification.

Minutes of Focus Group Discussion Meeting held at Upazila level in local language are
attached at Annex 2.

G.4 Details of Consultation Meeting and Discussion

G.4.1 Focus Group Discussion

At union level, five Focus Group Meetings were held in the project site. These are Ashuganj,
Araishida, Durgapur of Ashuganj Upazila and Bhirab Pourashava and Simulkandi of Bhairab
Upazila. In the meetings all classes of stakeholders including businessmen, farmers,
schoolteachers, religious leaders, NGO and public representatives as well as Members and
Chairman of the Union Council were present. Details of Participants are listed in Table G.1.

Summary of focus Group Discussion (FGD):

Project affected people appeal that they/their dependents should be given


employment opportunity during construction of the project.
Due compensation for affected persons for any unforeseen loss due to the project
should be given
Community and religious sites are to be protected if acquisition of land in course of
time is necessary
Electricity facilities are to be extended to the villagers including community places like
school, mosque, temple etc.
Local unemployed youths are to be given training and employment opportunity as far
as practicable.

70
Under Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) department the local people expect
scholarship facility to be provided for the poor students at constructing school,
college and vocational institute, health centre in the Upazila.
Sound and vibration should be contained under accepted level by installing good and
of best quality equipment
Temperature should be at minimum level during discharging water from cooling
system.
Fish breeding and the flora and fauna of the area should be saved.

Table G.1 Lists of Participants during FDG and KII

Sl. Date Name of the Stakeholders and designation


1 11/8/06 Mr. .Md. Anisur Rahman, Upazila Chairman, Ashuganj
Cell-01920013193, 01713103959, 01711930905
Phone 0852874533
2 Md. Sirajul Islam, Vice Chairman, Ashuganj Upazila Parishad
Cell-01731807887
3 Mr. .MD. Rezaul Maksud Jahidi , UNO , Ashuganj Upazila
Cell No-01711166328
Phone -0852874522
4 Md. Shah Alam, R.E office, PDB Ashuganj.
5 Dr.Md. Shahid Ullah, Upazila Livestock Officer, Ashuganj
6 Md. Tofazzal Hossain, GTCL, Ashuganj.
7 MD. Abdur Rahman, Upazila Fishery Officer, Ashuganj
8 3/8/09 Mr. Balai Chandra Das, Upazila Agriculture officer, Ashuganj
Cell-01712999361
9 ,, Mr. Bayjidul Islam, SAE,DPHE, Ashuganj
Cell-01199479052
10 ,, Md. Nazrul Islam, Junior Statistical Asstt. Ashuganj
Cell-01913799830
11 ,, Md. Masud Bhuyan, Upazila primary Education Officer,
Ashuganj
12 Mr. Mir Hossain, Senior Sub Asst. Engineer,BADC, Ashuganj
13 ,, Mr. Monirul Islam BRDB, Ashuganj
14 Md. Momin Mia, UP Chairman, 5 no Araisida Union,Ashuganj
Cell-01937523433
15 Mr. Anwar Hossain, Secretary,5 no Araisida Union, Ashuganj
Cell-01712466595

16 Mr. Abu Bakar Siddique , Principal , Araisida Kamil Madrasa.


Ashuganj
Cell-01818499193
17 Md. Johirul Islam, Retired School Headmastar, 5 no Araisida
Union Ashuganj
18 Md. Ismail Hossain Shirazi, Ex-UP Chairman, 5 no Araisida
Union , Ashuganj
Cell-01711530897
19 Md. Moslem Uddin, Sub-Asst. Agriculture Officer, 5 no Araisida
Union, Ashuganj
Cell-01818011060
20 Dr. Selim, Local Doctor, 5 no Araisida Union, Ashuganj
Cell-01730167356
21 11/8/09 Md. Nurul Islam Commander UP Chairman, Ashuganj
Cell-01711009577
22 11/8/09 Md. Atiqur Rahman, Secretary Ashuganj UP
23 2/8/09 Md. Abdus Sattar, Ex Secretary Ashuganj UP,
Cell-01712846038

71
Sl. Date Name of the Stakeholders and designation
24 3/8/09 Md. Abdul Haq
Headmaster of High school, Ashuganj
Cell-01716589968
25 ,, Hazi Md. Yunus Mian
Local Businessman, Ashuganj
Cell-01712054750
26 Md,Jamal Uddin
Businessman, Ashuganj
Cell-01714265152
27 Hazi Md. Safillah
Ex. UP Chairman, Ashuganj
28 ,, Md. Mahbubur Rahman
President,
Rice Husking Mills(Chatal), Ashuganj
29 Md. Shamim Ahmed,
Secretary, Dakshin panishar (Durgapur) Union, Ashuganj
Cell-01190468090
30 Md. Ruhul Amin
Local businessman , Dakshin Panishar (Durgapur)
Cell-01670604054
31 Md. Salauddin Khan
Businessman, Dakhin panishar (Durgapur)
Cell-01712213266
32 Md. Saju Khan
UP Chairman Dakin Paisa (Durgapur) Union, Ashuganj
Cell-01711549389
33 Mr. Nepal Chandra Starker
Farmer, , Dakin punisher (Durgapur), Ashuganj

Cell-01925204493
34 2/8/09 Dr.Md. Altar Husain, UNO,Bhairab Upazila
Cell-o1716849873,
Phone-0942471572
35 ,, Mr. Mizanur Rahman
Upazila Fishery officer, Bhairab
Cell-01715493072
36 ,, Dr. Abdul Baset, Upazila Livestock Officer ,Bhairab
Cell-01712061188
Phone-0942471305
37 Kazi Nazrul Islam, Upazila Agriculture Officer, Bhairab
Cell-01711131960
38 Dr. Hosan Sarwar Khan
Upazila Medical Officer, Bhairab
Cell-01727504646
39 Md. Lokman Mian
Upazila DPHE Engineer, Bhairab
Cell-01198168267
40 Mr. Nazmul Islam
Upazila Statistical officer
Bhairab
41 Md. Akhteruzzaman
Assistant Commissioner of Land, Bhairab

42 Md. Rezaul karim


Upazila Education Officer, Bhairab
Cell-01824891089
43 Md. Altaf Hosain

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Sl. Date Name of the Stakeholders and designation
Upazila Secondary Education Officer
Bhairab
Cell-01712094255
44 Md. Nabi Hossan
Sub Asstt. Engineer,
PDB, Bhairab
Phone-0942471629
45 Ms. Shefali Jahan
Upazila BRDB officer, Bhairab
Cell-01712257941
46 Md. Jahiruddin
Upazila cel-Engineer,LGED Bhairab
Cell-01712444984

47 Haji Afikul Islam(Haris), UP Chairman, Shemulkandi Union,


Bhairab
Cell-01712678922
48 Md. Nurul Islam, Headmaster of High School, Shemulkandi
Union, Bhairab

49 Md. Shahiduzzaman
Principal, Shemulkandi College.

50 Moulana Ahmed Karim


Local Imam,Shemulkandi Union, Bhairab.
51 Dr. Abdul Wahab
President Shemulkandi Bazar Comity. , Bhairab
52 Md. Arshad Ali Bhuyan
Local Farmer, Shemulkandi Union, Bhairab.
53 Md. Ferozeur Rahman
Fisherman, Shemulkandi Union, Bhairab.
54 Md. Osman Gony
Chairman, Srinagar Union (part of Ex Sadekpur
Union),Bhairab.
Cell-01712214311
55 Mr. Krisnokanto Shutrodar,
Farmer, Srinagar Union (part of Ex Sadekpur Union),Bhairab.
56 Mrs. Moushumi Das Gupta
College Teacher, Srinagar Union (part of Ex Sadekpur
Union),Bhairab..
Cell-01716155549

57 Mr. Pobitro Das


Fisherman, Srinagar Union (part of Ex Sadekpur
Union),Bhairab.

58 Kazi Shirajul Islam


Businessman, Srinagar Union (part of Ex Sadekpur
Union),Bhairab.

59 Md. Amdad Mian


Local People, Srinagar Union ( part of Ex Sadekpur
Union),Bhairab.

Questionnaire and Checklist used for the FGD are provided in Annex 3.

73
G.4.2 Key Informant Interviews

Key Informant Interviews was carried out among the knowledgeable and elderly people of
the project site to incorporate their views and suggestions from their long experiences and
knowledge. Semi-structured interviews (SSI) was undertaken with officials of APSCL,
Pourashava and other line service agencies, institutional users, local leaders and elected
representatives, and NGO representatives. A gender balanced approach was followed while
selecting participants for semi-structured interviews and stakeholders meetings. The
objective was to share information about the project and obtain feedback on important
existing issues that should be considered in the planning process.

Summary of Key Informant Interview (KII):

To take care of the public safety as well as to provide security in critical locations. In
order to remove any fear of explosion, the authority should exercise adequate care
in construction & maintenance work, particularly of gas pipe line.
Works should be completed as quickly as possible in order to reduce construction
impacts.
The electricity should be made available to the people at the earliest possible
opportunity.
To ensure quality of material & best workmanship for a safe and durable power plant
and to provide uninterrupted supply to the consumers.
Prompt placement of fund by the authority for quick completion of the plant.
The executing agency should follow all rules, regulations and standards in the
construction of the project.
Care should be taken for ensuring the least possible damage to local infrastructure
viz. roads & structures during construction of the project including gas pipe line.
Contingency plan should be taken to meet any eventual accident.

G.4.3 Suggestions from the Local People

Local people urged to be involved in all sorts of employment opportunity both


temporary and permanent.
Ensure stable electricity connection for the local area
Noise pollution should be avoided.

Pictures of an FGD Meeting during EIA preparation by Atlanta are shown below:

74
Photograph 1 FGD at Ashuganj Upazila Complex

Photograph 2 KII with Member, Arishida Union, Ashuganj Upazila

75
H. GRIEVANCE REDRESS MECHANISM

Great care will be taken to prevent grievances. This can be done through careful
implementation of the EMP, by ensuring full consultation, and by establishing extensive
communication and coordination between the community, the PMU and APSCL, and the
local government authorities in general. Local people will be fully informed of their rights and
of the procedures for addressing complaints whether verbally or in writing during
consultation. The following process is consistent with the grievance redress mechanism for
social issues such as resettlement.

A grievance redress mechanism (GRM) will be established soon after project


commencement. The first level and most accessible and immediate venue for the fastest
resolve of grievances is the PMU, chiefly through the Project Manager of the APSCL, with
assistance from the Manager (HSE). A contact phone number for complaints will be posted
in the project areas. Grievances will be resolved through continuous interactions with
affected persons and the PMU will answer queries and resolve grievances regarding various
issues. Corrective measures will be undertaken at the field-level itself within seven days. All
grievances will be documented with full information of the person and issue.

Should the grievance remain unresolved, the PMU's Project Manager, will activate the
second level of the GRM by referring the issue (with written documentation) to the local
Grievance Redress Committee (GRC) of the Upazila, who will, based on review of the
grievances, address them in consultation with the PMU and the affected persons. Affected
persons also will have the right to submit grievance at this level if they are not satisfied with
the first level decision. A hearing will be called, if necessary, where the affected person can
present his/her concern/issues. The process will promote conflict resolution through
mediation. The local GRC will consist of the following persons: (i) Upazila Nirbahi Officer
(GRC Chair); (ii) representative of the head of the Upazila; (iii) representative of the affected
persons; (iv) official of the land registry department, where a land issue is involved; (v)
official of the Department of Environment (DOE)s divisional office; (vi) town planner of the
Upazila; (vii) Environmental Specialist of the PMU, and (viii) an NGO or PO. The local GRC
will suggest corrective measures at the field level and assign responsibilities for
implementing its decisions.

The GRC will record grievances, categorize and prioritize them and provide solutions within
a month; and will report to the aggrieved parties about developments regarding their
grievances and the decisions of the GRC. In the event that a grievance is not addressed,
the aggrieved person can seek legal redress of the grievance in the appropriate Courts.

76
I. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN

I.1 Objective

The Environmental Management Plan (EMP) aims to ensure the compliance to the
safeguard requirements of ADB and GoB of all activities undertaken during the
implementation and operation of the proposed 450 MW CCPP. Furthermore, it aims at
integrating the environmental components of the project with existing initiatives and
programs in these fields. The plan consists of mitigation, monitoring and institutional
measures to be taken during implementation and operation to eliminate adverse
environmental impacts, offset them, or reduce them to acceptable levels. The plan also
includes the actions needed to implement these measures.

I.2 Mitigation Measures

This section includes the principles, procedures and mitigation measures that are necessary
for ensuring the most appropriate environmental mitigation and enhancement plans
applicable during different stages of project implementation. To avoid and minimize the
impacts resulting from the activities of the project, measures/management plans are based
on appropriate technological design, improvements or adjustments, good site operational
practices etc. The overall strategy has the following sequence:

IMPACT AVOIDANCE: Changing project location, design and construction methods


to avoid impacts;

IMPACT MINIMIZATION: Where impacts cannot be avoided, implementing mitigation


measures to reduce the impact to acceptable levels;

COMPENSATION: Arranging compensation where impacts cannot be avoided or


sufficiently mitigated.

ENHANCEMENT: Measures, which, at insignificant cost to the project, give


appreciable social or developmental benefits.

The mitigation plan has been recommended to highlight the action to avoid/minimize/ control
the impacts arising out of different project phases i.e. pre-construction, construction and
operation, for each of the anticipated impact as described in Section E. The EMP has been
fully discussed and agreed in detail with APSCL Senior Management Team.

Table I.1 summarizes the potential impacts, the mitigation measures, the indicated time
frame for implementation, and the responsibility for ensuring the management plans are
efficiently implemented.

Table I.1 Environmental Management Plan

Environmental Responsibility
Mitigation Measures Time Frame
Impact/Issue Implementation Supervision
A. Pre-Construction Phase
A1Demolition of According to the Before APSCL Authority EMU-
buildings and Resettlement report for construction APSCL
structures (2x3 the project 134 people (20 activity starts
storied buildings, 2- families & 42 individuals
CI temporary who are currently housed
structures) on the by APSCL will be provided
south east of the with new houses within

77
Environmental Responsibility
Mitigation Measures Time Frame
Impact/Issue Implementation Supervision
proposed site) the APSCL.
A2 Temporary land Cash compensation for Prior to APSCL Authority EMU-
acquisition and temporary loss of land commence APSCL
income disruption construction
due to transmission work
tower
A3 Removal of trees Minimized tree cutting. Before APSCL EMU-APSCL
Identified trees will be construction
removed from the site activity starts
before the
commencement of
construction with prior
approval of APSCL. No
government approval is
required on private land After
for removal trees. construction
APSCL will replant the
uprooted trees in 1:5 ratio
as per DoEs norms.
B. Construction Phase
B1. Any debris generated will During Contractor EMU-APSCL
Land clearance
be disposed of only at Construction including
designated sites owners
Adequate protection will Engineer
be provided to prevent the and concern
dispersed of loose officer of
material EPC
contractor
B.2 Transport of All vehicles delivering During Contractor EMU-APSCL
construction material material to the site will be Construction including
to site covered to avoid spillage owners
of material Engineer
All haul roads will be kept and concern
clean and clear of all dust officer of
/ mud or other extraneous EPC
material dropped by such contractor
vehicles.
All vehicles used on site
for this purpose will carry
currently valid fitness
certificates issued by the
BRTA at all times copies
of the same should be
submitted to the Project
Director.
All vehicles used on site
for this purpose should
comply with the pollution
norms of ECR 1997
In dry weather conditions
any haul roads or roads
used through the company
residential area will be
sprayed as necessary to
suppress dust.
B.3 Storage of Stockpiles of all During Contractor EMU-APSCL
Construction construction material will Construction including

78
Environmental Responsibility
Mitigation Measures Time Frame
Impact/Issue Implementation Supervision
Material On site be at least 100 m from owners
watercourses along the Engineer
project area. and concern
officer of
EPC
contractor
B.4 Slope Protection All slope protection During Contractor EMU-APSCL
measures will be carried Construction including
out as detailed in the owners
engineering design with Engineer
prior approval of the and concern
Project Director. officer of
EPC
contractor
B.5 Erosion Control Suitable erosion protection During Contractor EMU-APSCL
Measures measures will be carried Construction including
out as detailed in the owners
engineering design with Engineer
prior approval of the and concern
Project Director. officer of
EPC
contractor
B.6 Hot-mix Plants All hot-mix plants and During Contractor EMU-APSCL
and Batching Plants batching plants will comply Construction including
with requirements of ECR owners
emission control norms Engineer
(Schedule 11, ECR). and concern
officer of
EPC
contractor
B.7 Contamination of Vehicle/ machinery and During Contractor EMU-APSCL
Soils by fuel and equipment for operation, Construction including
lubricants maintenance and refueling owners
will be carried out in such Engineer
a fashion that spillage of and concern
fuels and lubricants do not officer of
contaminate the ground. EPC
Fuel storage and refilling contractor
areas will be located at
least 300 m from all cross
drainage structures and
water bodies or as
directed by the site
engineer.
B.8 Contamination The work will be carried During Contractor EMU-APSCL
from Fuel and out in such a manner that Construction including
Lubricants pollution of natural owners
watercourses, ponds and Engineer
tanks is avoided. and concern
Vehicles, machinery & officer of
maintenance equipment EPC
and refueling will be done contractor
in a manner as specified
to prevent pollution of
water.
B.9 Use of bricks Give preference to local During Contractor EMU-APSCL
material brickworks that have Construction including
owners

79
Environmental Responsibility
Mitigation Measures Time Frame
Impact/Issue Implementation Supervision
DOEs approval. Engineer
Procure bricks only from and concern
brick kiln using natural gas officer of
as fuel. EPC
All bricks delivered to site contractor
to be accompanied by a
certificate showing that the
kiln concerned has not
used fuel wood in their
production.
Contractor to use
kerosene, gas or other
non fuel wood materials
for heating bitumen and
for domestic purposes.
B.10 Construction All construction camps will During Contractor EMU-APSCL
Camp be inside the APSCL Construction including
complex owners
Sufficient measures will be Engineer
taken in the construction and concern
camps, i.e. provision of officer of
garbage tanks and EPC
sanitary facilities. Waste in contractor
septic tanks will be
cleared periodically.
Drinking water will meet
Environment Quality
Standards.
Garbage will be collected
in a tank and disposed of
periodically.
Special attention will be
paid to the sanitary
condition of camps.
Location of temporary
sanitation facilities must
avoid settlements which
are adjacent to the APSCL
boundary.
Collecting kitchen waste in
separate bins and
disposing of in a pit at
designated areas.
Collecting plastics in
separate bins and
disposing as specified
Sufficient water and
work force
B.11 Dust/Air Locating Hot Mix Plants During Contractor EMU-APSCL
Pollution (HMP) away from habitat. Construction including
Locating Concrete owners
batching plant (CBP) away Engineer
from human habitation and concern
and water bodies. officer of
Locating HMP and CBP EPC
away from the downwind contractor
direction.

80
Environmental Responsibility
Mitigation Measures Time Frame
Impact/Issue Implementation Supervision
Adequate dust control
devices for HMP and
CBP.
Carrying out routine
maintenance and/ or
replacement of dust
control devices.
Carrying out regular
maintenance of plant,
equipment and vehicles.
Maintaining adequate
moisture in aggregates
before loading and
unloading to feeder bins of
HMP to prevent dust
emission.
Defining vehicle
movement path inside
plant site and maintaining
the movement path for
control of dust emission.
B.12 Noise Pollution All vehicles, equipment During Contractor EMU-APSCL
and machinery used for Construction including
the project will comply with owners
the relevant ECR norms Engineer
and the relevant BRTA and concern
rules. officer of
Using enclosure for all EPC
diesel generator sets. contractor
Source control through
proper maintenance of all
equipment.
Use of properly designed
engine enclosures and
intake silencers.
Construction workers
operating equipment that
generates noise should be
equipped with noise
protection. It is
recommended that
workers operating
equipment generating
noise of 80 dB (A)
continuously for 8 hours or
more should use ear
muffs. Workers
experiencing prolonged
noise level 70 -80 dB (A)
should wear ear plugs.
B.13 Water Pollution Storage of construction During Contractor EMU-APSCL
material and excavated Construction including
soil above high flood level. owners
Strictly avoiding Engineer
cleaning/washing of and concern
construction vehicle in any officer of
water body EPC

81
Environmental Responsibility
Mitigation Measures Time Frame
Impact/Issue Implementation Supervision
Work at the wharf area contractor
with machinery unloading
over water to be controlled
strict inspection of cranes
for any leakages. Proper
storage of equipment on
concrete hardstand when
not in use.
Proper refueling facilities
for equipment operating
close to water.
B.14 Loss of f All work will be carried out During Contractor EMU-APSCL
Vegetation in such a fashion that the Construction including
damage or disruption to owners
the flora is minimal. Only Engineer
the trees or shrubs that and concern
impinge directly on the officer of
permanent works or EPC
necessary temporary contractor
works will be removed
with prior approval from
the APSCL.
B.15 Occupational Water supply, sanitation, During Contractor EMU-APSCL
health and safety of drainage and medical Construction including
workers health facilities at owners
campsite. Engineer
Providing and using PPEs and concern
Using working reverse officer of
horn for all construction EPC
equipment and contractor
construction vehicles i.e.
tippers, dumpers, roller,
etc.
Providing earth link circuit
breaker (ELCB) for all
electrical connections.
Maintaining first aid at
construction sites.
Maintaining emergency
response system.
Conducting induction and
periodic training for all
workers and supervisors.
Conducting periodic
training for all personnel
working at plant site.
B16 Employment Employment of local During Contractor EMU-APSCL
opportunity people as much as Construction including
(Beneficial impact) possible owners
Provide sufficient Engineer
notification to the and concern
surrounding people about officer of
the intended onset of EPC
project activities contractor
C. Operation Stage
C1. Air Emission The proposed power plant Throughout Contractor will be Contractor
would be of latest design Operation responsible during will be

82
Environmental Responsibility
Mitigation Measures Time Frame
Impact/Issue Implementation Supervision
with an optimum efficiency Period contract period and responsible
of combined cycle. Hence APSCL. will take during
there will be less CO2 necessary measures contract
emission per unit of after ends of contract period and
energy (kWh) generated. period Instrument
Formation of NOx will be section of
limited with the use of dry APSCL,
low NOx burner including
The natural gas of owners
Bangladesh contains engineers
fewer impurities. will fix any
Generated heat will be problem
dispersed through after contract
chimney of at least 50 period.
meters/ reasonable height EMU-APSCL
as per design so that the will monitor
emission will not have any
adverse impact in the
surrounding atmosphere.
C2. Noise The noise level at the Throughout APSCL will ensure that Contractor
power plant will be Operation EPC contractor takes will be
reduced by putting baffle Period measures for protection responsible
type silencers in both inlet of noise pollution during during
duct and exhaust duct to contract period and contract
arrest noise due to flow of after contract period period and
air and exhaust gases EMU of APSCL will Instrument
respectively. The noise take necessary section of
due to running of the measures against noise APSCL
machine will be arrested pollution including
by acoustic enclosures. owners
Noise reduction is to be engineers
integrated in the plant will fix any
building design to meet problem
the regulatory standards after contract
during operation. period.
All vehicles will be EMU-APSCL
maintained properly and will monitor.
scheduled during day
activities.
Provision of silencers for
generators
Routine maintenance of
plant
Regular noise monitoring,
especially at the school
and residential quarters
located close by
The workers of the APSCL
450 MW CCPP will use
safety device for
protection of ears (ear-
muffs and ear-plugs etc.)
following DoE and EHS
guidelines of WB.
Plant foundation shall be
designed to minimize
vibration effect.

83
Environmental Responsibility
Mitigation Measures Time Frame
Impact/Issue Implementation Supervision
Planting of indigenous
trees and shrubs around
the project sties and in
addition there will be
concrete wall around the
campus of Ashuganj
power complex and
therefore, there will be no
chance of any noise
pollution to the school and
residents in and out side
campus.
C3.Thermal load Use of a holding pond Throughout APSCL ensures that Concern unit
Discharge before discharge for Operation EPC contractor of EPC
irrigation purpose. There Period discharges thermal load contractor
is 2 km channel between within GOB/WB will be
outlet and discharge point. standards during their responsible
tenure and after during
contract period. APSCL construction
will take necessary period and
measures to keep after
thermal load within commercial
GOB/WB standards hand over
HRSG or
boiler
section of
APSCL will
fix and EMU
unit of
APSCL will
monitor.
C4.Wastewater Regular routine monitoring Throughout APSCL will monitor that Contractor
Discharge of treated discharged Operation EPC contractor will be
effluent of the ETP of 450 Period complies ETP discharge responsible
MW CCPP limit of WB and GOB during
Any deviation from the and after contract contract
acceptable limit of any period APSCL will take period and
parameter of discharged similar measures for after contract
effluent from 450 MW compliance of ETP period Civil
CCPP shall be addressed discharges limit of WB engineering
immediately and GOB unit of
Part of the withdrawn APSCL will
water will undergo fix and EMU
chemical treatment to of APSCL
provide boiler make-up will monitor
and other close cycle
cooling in ancillary
equipment. The
wastewater will be treated
to meet GOB/WB
guidelines prior to
discharge to the river.
C5. Oily waste Dirty oil from the engine Throughout EPC contractor will Contractor
Discharge will be passed through an Operation comply discharge limit will be
oil-water separator before Stage of GOB and WB during responsible
collected in drums for their contract period and during
reuse or sale to approved after contract period contract
reusers APSCL will regularly period and

84
Environmental Responsibility
Mitigation Measures Time Frame
Impact/Issue Implementation Supervision
monitor and report to after contract
the higher authority to period Civil
take proper mitigation engineering
measures unit of
APSCL will
fix and EMU
of APSCL
will monitor
C6. Sanitary and The sewage will be kept in Throughout EPC contractor will Contractor
domestic waste septic tank and soak pit Operation comply discharge limit will be
system Stage of GOB and WB during responsible
Solid waste will be their contract period and during
segregated according to after contract period contract
the category and will be APSCL will regularly period and
sent to the designated monitor and report to after contract
dumping ground and/or the DoE as per their period. Civil
recycling requirement. engineering
unit of
APSCL will
fix and EMU
of APSCL
will monitor
C7.Socioeconomic APSCL will ensure that Throughout APSCL ensures that Contractor
improvement the EPC contractor takes Operation EPC contractor appoint during
(Beneficial impact) step to employ local Stage local people during their contract
people during 450 MW tenure and after period and
CCPP operation contract period. APSCL after contract
will appoint local period.
employees Managing
Director
APSCL will
supervise

I.3 Specific Management Plan

Certain important and specific management plans with their respective action procedures for
carrying out the overall EMP effectively are enumerated as follows:

I.3.1 Waste Management Plan

The schematic flow chart (Figure I.1) is shown below. This flow chart will also be used during
the operation phase with few changes whenever necessary.

The present project activities will involve establishment of camps, transport, site
development and construction and operation of power plant. For each activity, various types
and quantity of wastes will be generated. The Engineering Procurement and Construction
(EPC) contractor and owners engineer will prepare a comprehensive list of waste types,
sources and plans to manage all of these wastes in an environmentally friendly manner. The
major sources are identified as:

Camp waste
Construction and Operation waste
Emission

85
The EPC contractors will implement wastes segregation strategy as a first step of their waste
management program where the hazardous and non-hazardous materials will be separated
out following the waste management flow diagram as shown in Figure I.1. The non-
hazardous materials will then be further sorted out into bio-degradable and non-
biodegradable groups. Among the bio-degradable materials, EPC contractor and APSCL will
recycle the recyclable materials and rest will send to designated waste dumping site.

Camp Waste Management

The EPC contractor will prepare a list of all identified source and type of wastes that would
be generated in their campsite (Table I.2) and is committed to minimize waste generation as
much as possible. The EPC contractor will facilitate the local authority to collect, manage,
treat and dispose of the wastes on its own initiative.

Figure I.1 Waste Management Flow Diagram for the EPC Contractor

The EPC contractor will setup selective waste collection facilities at the site. Special areas
for short-term waste storage will be designated to facilitate the program. The EPC is
committed to comply with the applicable environmental and sanitary norms and have been

86
equipped in due manner at the proposed facilities, including arrangement for disposal of
hazardous wastes (if any) and the environmental impact of waste generated at the
Companys facilities will be minimized.

The EPC contractor will follow regulations and guidelines for camp wastewater discharges
into surrounding waterways. Liquid wastes including sewage that could damage the
environment will never be released or allowed to drain directly into a watercourse. The
campsite is provided with septic tank with closed sewage systems.

Table I.2 Types and Sources of Domestic Wastes

Potential constituents of the


Type of wastes Main components
released wastes
Drainage Bathing water, Rainwater Trace amount of oil and grease,
soap
Emission Construction equipments, Emission of smokes, CO, CO2
vehicles, cranes etc. etc
Domestic sewage Biodegradable organic matter Semi-solids, used detergent,
Coli form bacteria
Domestic refuse Garbage, packing materials, Plastic, organic waste,
paper, batteries, paper bags, batteries,
cartoon, plastic, plastic bottles, Glasses
cans, wrappers, organic waste,
waste, glass bottles etc.
Kitchen waste Waste vegetable, wastes during Protein, bio-degradable organic
processing of vegetables, waste Matters
food, soap and detergent, fishes
scales, meat's scales and
wastes etc produced in kitchen
Washroom Bathing and water Soap, detergent, trace amount
of oil and grease

Construction and Operation Waste Management

During construction, there may be debris and other wastes such as filter cartridges, various
discarded chemical products, empty drums, pipe dope buckets, household types trash,
discarded chemicals, wood pallets, lime, cement and mud sacks etc.

During operation, CO, NOx, CO2, excess oxygen from combustion will be released through a
50-m stack and there will be generation of wastewater. A continuous emissions monitoring
system will be installed to determine the level of gaseous emissions.

APSCL will ensure that EPC contractor follows international maintenance and product
vendor recommended practices including the APSCLs corporate operations and
maintenance guidelines (if any), the GoB and the WBs guidelines to minimize the
generation of waste.

The EPC contractor will reduce the generation of waste during construction while APSCL will
implement waste-reduction initiatives during operation. The proposed approaches of EPC
contractor during contract period and APSCL afterwards are:

Use of best-available technologies to minimize environmental degradation;


Reuse of recyclable materials
Proper disposal of hazardous and non-hazardous solid and liquids waste;
Minimization of water use in kitchen and worker camp;

87
Monitoring and maintaining chain of custody for the disposal of wastes and
construction debris;
Monthly environmental reporting to the concern authorities;
Involvement of DoE regarding any disposal of wastes, which are not specified in the
environmental guidelines (ECR 1997)

I.3.2 Occupational Health and Safety Management Plan

In the work place good industrial practice will be maintained during construction and
operation by the contractor, EMU, and APSCL. During construction phase, the contractor
will follow their own corporate Occupation Health and Safety (OHS) procedures including
specific GOB (Labor-Laws-2006) and WB guidelines.

Presently the APSCL does not have OHS guidelines but still follows BPDBs general
regulation and standard operation code. HSE committee of APSCL will monitor and train the
workers. Weekly and/or fortnightly training will be conducted to create awareness of workers
to the Contractors obligation on environmental aspects. The cost of training for workers will
be part of the Contractors package.

Health Hazard Management

The construction phase includes site preparation, plant construction and access road
construction etc. The health hazards associated with these activities are mainly due to dust
and noise pollution. Excessive noise can cause loss of hearing and psychological changes.
Dust pollution can cause eye and respiratory irritation and in some cases allergic reactions.
The inhalation of exhaust gases from construction vehicles and machinery can also cause
harmful effect to the health. Stress can also be caused by working in shifts, high work load,
poor living condition of workers etc.

To minimize the hazards arising from the activities at different phases of plant construction
and operation, the following measures will be taken:

Workers/staff will submit a pre-employment medical report (if possible to EPC


Contractor and/or APSCL;
Any work on volatile toxic chemicals will be undertaken in a well ventilated place and
as per the corporate OHS guideline.
Workers handling toxic chemicals will be provided with protective gear and will be
relieved frequently from their posting to minimize exposure.
Workers exposed to excessive noise will be provided with protective gear and will be
relieved frequently from their post to limit exposure.
Workers exposed to dust will be provided with appropriate mask and other protective
gear;
Frequent spraying of water will be undertaken to minimize dispersion of dust during
construction
Construction workers will be provided with sanitary toilets, potable drinking water,
washing facilities, shelter sheds etc
Proper disposal of waste and sewage will be observed.
Health education and information on hygiene will be provided to the workers regularly
as well as inspection of drinking water quality (if the water supplied by the
contractors/ company).

88
Precaution during work in Confined Space

Supervisors, inspectors and related personnel who work in this area will be provided ear
plugs or ear muffs.

Areas with excessive noise will have proper signs such as Hearing Protection Areas and
their boundaries will be defined with red line. No person will be allowed to enter this area
unless wearing personal hearing protectors.

The confined work spaces will be provided with sufficient air to avoid any health risk.
Adequate care will be taken to minimize stress and ergonomic designs will be used,
whenever necessary to prevent health hazards.

First aid facilities will be kept in place and evacuation plans for emergency situations will be
facilitated with adequate drills, instructions and signs. Adequate fire fighting arrangements
will be installed and maintained in workable condition on a regular basis. In case of
emergency, firefighters from district level will be called on.

OHS Record Keeping and Reporting

There shall a record keeping system during construction and operation phases. The records
shall include OHS training provided to the workers, health records of workers during
operation phase including audiometric tests records of workers (as they may provide a
useful reference for workers' compensation) and make those records available to any
employee or relevant health and safety representative10.

Records related to hazardous materials used during construction and operation phases of
the proposed power plant will be maintained and shall be kept on file for at least 30 years
because some health effects e.g. cancers many take a long period to become evident. Thus
the information kept will be valuable in epidemiological studies and for developing effective
control strategies. Reporting will be maintained as per GOB and WB guidelines and will be
regularly communicated to the higher authority as a routine work.

Community Health and Safety

The contractors should implement risk management strategies to protect the community
from physical, chemical, or other hazards associated with sites under construction. Risks
may arise from inadvertent or intentional trespassing, including potential contact with
hazardous materials, or excavations and structures which may pose falling and entrapment
hazards. Risk management strategies should include:

Restricting access to the site, through a combination of institutional and


administrative controls, with a focus on high risk structures and areas depending on
site specific situations, including fencing, signage; and communication of risks to
the local community;
Removing hazardous conditions on construction sites that cannot be controlled
affectively with site access restrictions, such as covering openings to small confined
spaces, ensuring means of escape for larger openings such as trenches or
excavations, or locked storage of hazardous materials.

10
Occupational Health Safety Guidelines, WB, December 2007

89
I.3.3 Storage Facilities for Chemicals, Fuel, Oil and Grease

Oil Storage Facilities

During construction and operation, fuel, lubricants and other chemicals will be required for
heavy equipment, vehicles etc. small portion of which will be stored on site. The schematic
diagram of chemical storage facility (Figure I.2) may be used by the EPC contractor and
O&M contractor.

The EPC contractor will design a catchment system to minimize spill damage. There is
always a risk of fuel leakage either as the result of an accident, failure to close valves or
failure of equipment or materials. Leaks caused by corrosion in oil storage tanks will be
prevented to the maximum extent possible with coatings and cathode protection (both
interior and exterior). The EPC contractor will employ early leak detection monitoring system
where personnel will be aware and trained on oil spill prevention, mitigation and
management of the situation such as how to stop further loss, isolate the source, contain the
spread of contamination, clean up spills, and file an incident report.

During construction and operation, EPC, APCSL (or an O&M contractor) will maintain an
updated inventory of hydrocarbon and chemical used and stored including fuel tankers, fixed
fuel dumps and their locations. The EPC and APSCL (or an O&M Contractor if needed) will
maintain this practice and develop a contingency plan during project implementation.
Contingency plans will be based on the location and volume of potential spills.

Figure I.2 Conceptual Drawing for the Separation of Spillage

Oil Leaks and Drainage Systems

The EPC contractor will construct separate storm water drainage systems for rainwater so
that oil and chemicals will not contaminate the natural stream. Suitable absorbent material
will be available onsite for immediate prevention.

90
I.3.4 House Keeping

The EPC contractor will maintain housekeeping practice to ensure safe working environment
for the workers where waste generation will be minimized. The house keeping will include
the following:

Chemical usage
Erosion minimization
Emission reduction
Segregated waste handling
Periodic chain of custody inspection

I.3.5 Emergency Response Plan

During pre-operational mobilization, APSCL will develop an Emergency Response Plan


(ERP) for the operational activities. The manual will be based upon existing manuals that
have been developed for existing power plants owned and operated by APSCL.

The following emergency action procedures should be addressed as precautionary


measures to minimize/prevent the possibility of occurrences of fire, explosion or high voltage
electrical power stress/shock.

All fire fighting and protection equipment and material as well as detection system
should be designated, fabricated and examined in accordance with NFPA codes and
standards
Workers/Employees/Personnel should be trained in the operational procedures and
proper maintenance of fire fighting/extinguishing equipment and detection system to
face/handle the hazards at the time of emergency
Installation of relevant equipment and system should be undertaken at identified
locations, should major hazards occur at any time
Regular fire fighting emergency drill should be performed by the emergency team
members on a quarterly basis
Monthly inspection of all fire fighting and related equipment and material should be
undertaken by the Disaster Management Team
Annual testing of all fire prevention, suppression and detection system should be
performed.

I.3.6 Chance- Find Procedures for Physical Cultural Property

The Contractor/s will be responsible for familiarizing himself/themselves with the following
Chance Finds Procedures in case culturally valuable materials are uncovered during
excavation or any project activities:

Stop work immediately following the discovery of any materials with possible
archaeological, historical, paleontological, or other cultural value. Announce findings
to project manager and notify to the Department of Archeology under Ministry of
cultural Affairs, GOB
Protect artifacts as well as possible using plastic covers, and implement measures to
stabilize the area, if necessary, to properly protect artifacts
Prevent and penalize any unauthorized access to the artifacts
Restart construction works only upon the authorization of the relevant authorities.

91
I.4 Institutional Arrangement and Environmental Monitoring Plan

I.4.1 Institutional Framework

The APSCL, an enterprise of BPDB, will be the executing agency (EA) responsible for the
over all technical supervision and execution of the proposed project. The managing director
(MD) of APSCL is the overall supervisor of the project and there will be a dedicated project
director (PD) and necessary staff having expertise for development of the proposed project.

The APSCL will also incorporate all consulting services under the project and will oversee
the conduct of feasibility studies, EIA studies by project consultants.

Thus the responsibility of fulfilling environmental requirements of GOB for the proposed
additional 450 MW CCPP and conducting required level of environmental assessment
consistent with ADB safeguard lie with the APSCL. The project consultants will assist EMU
of APSCL in this regard.

The mitigation measures that are incorporated into the design will be verified by the APSCL
before providing technical approvals. The mitigation measures that form part of the contract
document will also be verified by APSCL.

The mitigation measures identified in the EIA will be incorporated into the project cycle.
Environmental controls pertaining to design and location will be incorporated into the
detailed design by the project consultant. Mitigation measures during construction stage
shall form part of the contract documents and will be implemented by the EPC contractor
during contract period.

The EPC contractor shall prepare and submit an environmental health safety action plan
(EHSAP) to APSCL, prior to the implementation of the project. The EHSAP shall adhere to
the environmental management plan (EMP) as suggested in this EIA. The Environmental
Management Action Plan complies with both the GOB and ADB requirements in all aspects
of the project implementation.

The EHSAP shall focus on project mitigation, management, monitoring and ongoing
consultation activities for the project. The EPC contractor shall implement and provide
manpower to ensure compliance during the contract period and shall comply to
environmental, social, health and safety standards following GOB, ADB and WB guidelines
whichever is applicable.

The EPC contractor will provide the APSCL (through EMU) with monthly reports on the
implementation of mitigation measures. The reports prepared by the EPC contractor (both
monthly and quarterly) will be consolidated and submitted to APSCL for review.

The Project Director (PD) and Environment Manager (Environment Management Specialist)
APSCL, proposed for the entire plant will supervise the implementation of the specified
environmental monitoring parameters through APSCLs owner's engineers. The Manager
Environment of the APSCL Authority will have the required manpower, expertise and funding
to ensure proper monitoring of the occupation health and safety of all staff.

Manager Environment and PD will report to the Director (Technical) and they will examine
the contractual obligations and other national and international regulations (where
applicable) regarding the environmental issues need to be fulfilled by the EPC contractor.

The EPC contractor will follow GOB, WB guidelines and also their corporate Health Safety
and Environment (HSE) policies.

92
Consistent with their mandate, the DOE will undertake routine and random monitoring of
specific environmental plans addressed in this EIA.

A qualified and experienced external expert or a qualified NGO will be retained to verify
environmental monitoring information and to provide third party evaluation.

Overall, organizational chart for APSCL and proposed EMU is presented in Figure I.3 and
Figure I.4, respectively.

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Figure I.3 Organizational chart for APSCL

94
Figure I.4 Proposed EMU

Table I.3 summarizes the role and responsibilities of the institution in conducting environmental
assessment and implementing the environmental management plan of the proposed 450 MW
CCPP.

Table I.3 Institutional Roles and Responsibilities

Responsible
Project Stage Responsibilities
Organization
Preconstructio APSCL (with the Prepare EIA consistent with
n assistance from Conduct public consultation
project Fulfill GOB requirements
Consultant)
Incorporate mitigation measures into engineering design and
technical specification
Incorporate environmental mitigation and monitoring
measures into contract document
Update the EMP (mitigation
Construction APSCL With the assistance of project consultants, ensure
implementation of environmental management measures at
each stage of the construction and update the EMP as
necessary.
Complaint Redress Committee will attend to any kind of
environmental and social complaint arising from residents
and workers during construction
Project Consultant Review of construction site management plan to be prepared
by the contractor.
Provide support to APSCL in conducting routine monitoring
of implementation of mitigation measures by contractor
Contractor Employ an EHS officer who will ensure implementation of
environmental measures during the construction stage
Prepare EHSAP and submit to APSCL for review
Prepare a construction site management plan prior to any
site works and submit to APSCL for review.

94
Responsible
Project Stage Responsibilities
Organization
Prepare emergency response plan and submit to APSCL
prior to construction phase for review
Implement mitigation measures and submit monthly reports
to APSCL
Operation APSCL Review and consolidate semiannual reports and submit to
ADB
Address complaint if any related to environmental and social
issue
Implementing and/or monitoring measures

DOE Review monitoring reports and conduct periodic monitoring

I.4.2 Monitoring Plan

Monitoring is a critical activity with respect to the implementation of EMP for the proposed 450
MW CCPP. The primary purpose of monitoring plan is to ensure that the environmental
objectives set during project preparation will be consistently achieved during project
implementation. The results of the monitoring plan will provide critical information to influence
decision-making during the construction and operation stages. It is expected to provide
information regarding the effectiveness of the mitigation and enhancement measures proposed
within the EMP and suggest further actions that need to be taken to achieve the desired results.

The primary objectives of monitoring are:

To check whether mitigation and enhancement measures are actually being adopted,
and are proving effective in practice.
To provide a method whereby impacts which were subjected to uncertainty at the time of
preparation of the EMP, or which are unforeseen, can be identified and steps can be
taken to adopt appropriate control measures
To provide information on the actual nature and extent of key impacts and the
effectiveness of mitigation and enhancement measures used on the project
To satisfy legal, safeguard and community obligations

The EPC contractor will be responsible for implementing the EMP and the preparation of
monthly progress reports regarding implementation of the program during contract period. The
EMU of APSCL including owner's engineer will oversee the environmental monitoring program
during the construction and operation stages and will also monitor compliance of the EPC
contractor (during contract period) with the implementation of required mitigation measures, EIA
and contract provisions pertaining to environmental aspects. Compliance of EPC contractor to
protocols specified in the GOB, ADBs SPS 2009, WB General EHS 2007 (whenever applicable)
and the EMP will also be closely monitored by the EMU and owner's engineer. After contract
period, APSCL will implement the monitoring plan.

The EMU of APSCL in cooperation with the owner's engineer, during project implementation will
be required to:

develop an environmental auditing protocol/checklist for the construction and operation


period; and

95
monitor the EPC contractors performance regarding implementation of mitigation
measures and submit quarterly reports based on the monitoring data/findings.

The EPC contractor will undertake monitoring of various parameters consistent with the
schedule indicated in Table I.5 and will prepare monthly and quarterly reports as required.
Should there be any complaints arising from the operation of the proposed power plant and
associated facilities as well as the sanitation facilities, the APSCL will conduct site inspections
and appropriate sampling to validate claims. Based on the findings, mitigation measures will be
implemented by the EPC contractor during contract period. After contract period, APSCL will
take responsibilities. The details of environmental monitoring parameters for construction and
operation phases are as follows:

Monitoring Schedule

The following table provides the monitoring schedule for the construction and operational
phases of the proposed power plant. Monitoring should start one year in advance of
construction to characterize the resources potentially affected by the project.

Table I.4 Monitoring Activities during Project Cycle

Resource Required and


Issue Parameter Monitoring Frequency
Responsibility
Construction Phase
Ambient Air quality NOX, CO, Temperature, Once in every month (or This monitoring
PM10 (as per DoE as per DoE's reporting activities will be done by
requirement) obligation) the EPC contractor
during contract period
Quarterly report should when EMU in APSCL
be summarized and will supervise
sent to ADB for review
as part of semiannual
environmental
monitoring report
River water Water temp., DO, BOD5, Once in every month (or Monitoring at this stage
COD, Oil and Grease , as per DoE's is the obligation of the
and heavy metals (as reporting obligation) EPC contractor and
per DoEs requirements) EMU in APSCL will
Quarterly report should Supervise
be summarized and
sent to ADB for review
as part of semiannual
environmental
monitoring report
Drinking Water Physical parameter: Once in every month The EPC contractor will
- color, turbidity, (If the workers use monitor the drinking
Chemical parameters: drinking water from the water parameter
- pH, nitrate, alkalinity, contractors supply
total hardness, calcium source)
hardness, arsenic, Iron
(Fe), Cl, Mn, arsenic,
Biological parameters:
- total coliform, fecal
coliform,

96
Resource Required and
Issue Parameter Monitoring Frequency
Responsibility
Noise level Noise at different Once in every month, as The contractor will be
locations and when required. responsible for the
monitoring activities and
EMU in APSCL will
supervise.
Process Waste Solid / liquid wastes Wastes will be collected The contractor will be
and disposed on daily responsible for waste
basis, as and when management. APSCL
required will supervise and
advise as and when is
required
Operation Stage
Meteorological Wind direction and Monitoring data can be APSCL will collect and
Measurements speed, temperature, taken from the record this information
humidity and Meteorological
precipitation. Department of Dhaka
Office
Atmospheric Emissions Stack emission (CO, Once a month EPC contractor shall
CO2, NOx, excess install continuous stack
oxygen content and emission monitoring
temperature) devices to monitor and
take mitigation
measures to comply
DOE regulations
including WB guidelines
(EHS guidelines for
Thermal power plant-
2008) and EMU in
APSCL will supervise
during that period. After
end of contract period,
EMU and APSCL will
take over the monitoring
activities.
Ambient air quality NOX, PM2.5 (if required) Quarterly EPC contractor will
and temperature (DoEs carry out monitoring
requirement) activities up to contract
period and comply with
DOE regulations
including WB EHS
Guidelines for Thermal
Power Plant (December
2008) during that period
EMU in APSCL will
supervise but
afterwards EMU in
APSCL will conduct
monitoring of those
parameters
River water Water temp., DO, Semi annually EPC contractor will
BOD5, COD, Oil and continue monitoring up
Grease and heavy to contract period during
metals that period EMU in

97
Resource Required and
Issue Parameter Monitoring Frequency
Responsibility
APSCL will supervise
but after ends of
contract, EMU in
APSCL will take
monitoring
responsibilities.
Drinking water Physical parameter: Once in every month EPC contractor will
- color, turbidity, ensure supply of good
Chemical parameters: quality of water to
- pH, nitrate, alkalinity, workers and conduct
total hardness, calcium monitoring of water
hardness, arsenic, Iron quality up to contract
(Fe), Cl, Mn, Arsenic period during that period
Biological parameters: - EMU in APSCL will
total coliform, faceal supervise but after
coliform, contract period EMU in
APSCL will monitor the
drinking water
parameter
Noise level Noise at different Once in every month, as EPC contractor will
locations and when required. carry out noise level
monitoring and comply
DOE regulations
including WB EHS
Guidelines for Thermal
Power Plant (December
2008) during that period
EMU in APSCL will
supervise but after
contract periods, EMU
in APSCL will be
responsible for the
monitoring activities
Process Waste Solid / liquid wastes Wastes will be collected EPC contractor will be
and disposed responsible for waste
on daily basis, as and management during
when is required their tenure, maintain
chain of custody and to
comply DOE regulations
including Guidelines for
Thermal Power Plant
(December 2008).
During this period EMU
in APSCL will supervise
but after ends of
contract period APSCL
will take the
responsibilities of waste
management
Note: Actual monitoring time and location will be decided by the proposed Environmental Management Unit during
the construction and operation phase.

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Report Implementation Schedule

In accordance with the provision of the institutional framework, monitoring plan, EIA, DoE
compliance regulations and Contract document, the Contractor shall prepare an
Implementation Schedule for the measures to be carried out as part of the environmental
management and monitoring program. Table I.5 shows a tentative plan for environmental
reporting.

Table I.5 The Schedule of Environmental Monitoring Reports

Particular Frequency/Stage Responsible Agency


Construction Stage
Initial Review Before start of Work Contractors and owners
engineer will prepare, APSCL
will review the report
Environmental Monitoring The monthly environmental Contractor will produce and will
Report monitoring report should be forward to the PD/Manager
summarized as semiannual Environment (EMU). This report
report and also submitted to will be forwarded to the DoE
ADB for review. and ADB
Incident Report As and when required Project Director/ Project
Manager/ Manager environment
may raise, that need to be
resolved by the contractor
Mid-term Review: Approximate midway of the Owners engineer will review
review of activities project and prepare a report, which will
possible modification to be reviewed by APSCL
procedure and/or overall
plan
Final Review : Towards the end of the project Owners engineer will review
review of program and prepare a report, which will
recommendation for be reviewed by APSCL
similar future program

Completion Report
At the time of commission The turnkey contractor will
prepare monthly environmental
monitoring report and will
forwarded to EMS, APSCL,
which will also be forwarded to
the DoE, ADB.
Operation Stage
Environmental Monitoring The monthly environmental Owner's Engineer with the help
monitoring report should be of other chemists working at the
summarized and submitted to APSCL will prepare monthly
ADB for review as an annual monitoring report which will be
report forwarded to the DoE, ADB.
The EMS, APSCL will overall
supervise and help to
implement their reporting
obligation

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Training

Training is an integral part of a preventive strategy. The training will be provided .to manager
(HSE), environmental engineer, chemist, supervisors and technicians and related staff who are
responsible for environmental monitoring activities.

The following issues will be addressed in training of the managers, staff and workers:

Workers will be trained to understand the environmental monitoring issues and


parameters,
Concern officers and staff will be trained how to monitor and operation of the
environmental monitoring equipments;
Arrange workplace consultation on noise control;
Workers will participate in training and contribute to the noise management strategy;
Persons likely to be exposed to risks will be provided with information and instruction in
safety procedures associated with the plant at the work place;
Relevant health and safety information will be provided to persons involved in installation
and commissioning, use and testing of the plant.
Information on emergency procedures relating to the plant will be displayed in a manner
that can be readily observed by persons who may be affected by the operation of the
plant.
Training will be provided to use firefighting equipment as and when is necessary.
Facility staff will be trained in the safety procedures those are to be implemented during
unloading, transfer and storage of hazardous materials.

Overseas Training in other Asian Countries (India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka etc. to be decided later)
to Learn Good Practices

Cost Estimates

The summary of environmental monitoring and mitigation cost for the proposed 450 MW CCPP
is summarized in Table-I.6.

TableI.6 Environmental Monitoring and Mitigation Cost Per Month

Item Unit Cost (BD-Tk.) Total Cost (BD-Tk.)


Monitoring cost during
construction phase and part of
operation phase is included in the
EPC contractors package during
contract period

A, Environmental monitoring
i. 100,000.00 per month i. 100,000.00
i. In-house laboratory
equipment procurement
initial cost*
B. Manpower arrangements for

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Item Unit Cost (BD-Tk.) Total Cost (BD-Tk.)
EMU in APSCL

i. Manager (Health, Safety, i. - i. -


Environment)- already exists

ii. Environmental Engineer -(1- ii. 50,000.00


person, proposed))-
Remuneration-from project
iii. 25,000.00
iii. Junior Chemist- (1-person)
remuneration from project
iv. N/A
iv. N/A iv. EPC con
EPC contractor's package

v. Local laboratory expert- (1-


person for 1.5 months)-
remuneration from the v. 22,000.00 per month
project
C. Training Cost

i. Overseas Training (one time i. 20,000,00/ (once)


cost-from project)
ii. Local Environmental Training ii. 1,30,000.00/ per
Specialist- (1 person for 3 month
months)-remuneration
Total cost (Cost for overseas training, local environment training 125,000.00
specialist and laboratory expert is not included)
Total (in million Taka) per month 0.25

* The indicative cost for laboratory equipment procurement is obtained from quotation (BUET Laboratory, 2010)

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J. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

The proposed 450 MW Ashuganj CCPP will be constructed within the 311 acre existing
Ashuganj Power Supply Company Limited (APSCL) complex where land has been set aside in
the past for future expansion of power facilities. If the project is constructed at this site there
will be only the loss of a small amount of agricultural land which will be required for the new 1.2
km transmission line which will connect the project to the national grid system. Compensation
for the land on which four new transmission towers are required is detailed in the Resettlement
Plan which forms part of the overall feasibility study. There is no resettlement of people as a
consequence of the project. There are also no sites of historic, cultural or biodiversity interest at
the site or in the vicinity of the site.

This EIA identifies various potential impacts and recommends appropriate mitigation measures
together with a management and monitoring program. Potential negative environmental impacts
have been identified during construction, but these are temporary in nature and can be
managed with the Environment Management Plan and monitoring program proposed. The main
impacts from the operation phase of the power station relate to air emissions, noise, and
impacts on water quality particularly potential increase in ambient temperature at Meghna River
within the vicinity of APSCL complex.

The new power plant units will replace the existing old and inefficient power plant units totaling
274 MW which use natural gas at a rate of 70.66 MMSCFD. With the new units, fuel
consumption will be reduced by 46.4%, thus more energy efficient with consequent reduction in
emissions. At the same time, the new units will use dry low NO x burner with premix burning
system restricting combustion temperature to a level that limits formation of NOx. The possibility
of NOx formation, therefore, is minimal. Since the new plant will be a single gas turbine of
advanced design, noise and vibration will also be significantly less than that from the existing
equipment operating at Ashuganj.

Operating the new units will also result to a slight reduction of cooling water abstracted from the
Meghna River with consequent reduction in thermal discharges. Measurements of ambient
temperature within the vicinity of APSCL complex in February 2011 show that it is within the
prescribed limits of DoE.

The potential negative environmental impacts identified during the construction stage can be
managed with the mitigation and environmental management plan. To ensure compliance of
EPC contractor, APSCL will monitor their performance. APSCL will need to increase its
capacity and will use consultants as necessary to assist the preparation of contractual
documents which will clearly identify environmental responsibilities and describing penalties for
non-compliance.

The Project will result in significant positive economic beneficial impacts for Ashuganj area and
the country as a whole with the provision of improved and more reliable power supply.

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K. PART B PROJECT COMPONENTS - INITIAL ENVIRONMENTAL EXAMINATION

Part B: Increased Renewable Energy Use

The following section presents the initial environmental examination (IEE) of the
subcomponents for Part B and these are: (i) 5 MW Kaptai Solar PV; (ii) off-grid wind-solar hybrid
system at Hatiya Island, and (iii) installation (and retrofitting) about 1,000 km of street lighting
with solar PV and LED-based technology covering the cities of Dhaka, Chittagong, Sylhet,
Khulna, Borishal, and Rajshahi.

I. Kaptai 5 MW Solar Power Sub Project

1.0 Introduction

This IEE has been prepared as part of ADB TA 7242-BAN: Preparing the Power System
Efficiency Improvement Project. The IEE is designed to comply with the ADBs Safeguard Policy
(2009) and the ADBs Environmental Assessment Guidelines (2003). The Kaptai 5 MW Solar
power project, proposed for construction at Kaptai on land owned by the Bangladesh Power
Development Board (BPDB), is one of the priority subprojects within the ADB TA 7242. The
BPDB of the Ministry of Power, Energy and Mineral Resources is the owner of the project and
thus, the project proponent. The Project aims to improve power supply by photovoltaic cells to
add 5 MWs of power to the national grid.

Site visits were made to Kaptai on 5th October 2010 for discussions with the BPDB staff at the
Karnafuli Plant and to investigate possible sites for the 5 MW PV Plant. A further visit took place
on 22nd January 2011 when a more detailed survey of the proposed site was undertaken and
meetings were also arranged with local government representatives, local elite, businessmen,
farmers and labors.

2.0 Description of the Project

2.1 Background

Bangladesh Power Development Board currently generates power though various thermal
power stations in Bangladesh; it is also responsible for operating the Kaptai 230 MW capacity
hydropower project at Kaptai. The latter is the only operational hydropower plant in the country
and the first units were constructed in 1962.The power company has a current staff of 447 with
871 sanctioned posts at Kaptai and owns 849 acres of land for the hydropower plant operation.

Countrywide, BPDB is now eager to diversify into other sources of power generation and is at
present, looking at 4 sites for grid-connected solar PV projects with total installed capacity of 14
MW and 1 site for100 MW wind power projects. The projects under consideration are the
following:

4 MW Rajshahi-1 Solar PV Park


1 MW Rajshahi-2 Solar PV Park
4 MW Sarishabari Solar PV Park
5 MW Kaptai Solar PV Park
100 MW Anwara Wind Power Park

For the wind power project, private sector sponsors had been identified by the Government to

103
provide financing and to develop the project. Out of the four solar PV projects, the 5 MW Kaptai
solar PV plant is the most attractive since global horizontal irradiation in the Chittagong area is
relatively higher than at other identified sites (see Figure 2.1). Figure .2.1 indicates that Kaptai
lies in the zone of greatest solar radiation, receiving between 4 kWh/m2/day and 4.5
kWh/m2/day during the winter month of December.

Figure 2.1 Global Horizontal Solar Irradiation Map

104
Source: PPTA Consultant, February 2011

Figure 2.2 Global Horizontal Solar Irradiation Chart for Kaptai

Figure 2.2 indicates that the annual sum for global horizontal irradiation (GHI) at the Kaptai site
is a substantial 1,872.7 kWh/m. The seasonal pattern for irradiation shown indicates highest
GHI values in spring with a low during summer even though this is the period with longest solar
days. The latter is because this is also the monsoon season with high degrees of cloud cover,
which affect direct irradiation. GHI intensifies from autumn towards winter with the onset of the
dry season.

2.2 Site Selection and Location

Site visits were undertaken to determine a suitable site for 5 MW station taking into
consideration technical, environmental and social and possible resettlement issues. The site
selected is at N2229'31.69" and E9213'36.89". The map below indicates the selected project
site in relation to the Karnafuli dam and reservoir and the existing substation to which the project
needs to be connected by a new 11KV. The proposed power line is shown as a yellow line (see
Figure 2.3).

105
Figure 2.3 Kaptai proposed site and 11KV evacuation line

The proposed site is located at the apron on the immediate downstream, side of the dam at an
elevation of around 20 meters above Mean Sea Level (MSL).This compares with the height of
the dam wall at 118 m above MSL. The height of dam water behind the dam is around 106 m
above MSL depending on seasonal variations.

Approximately 7- 8 hectares of the area identified (see Maps) could be used for solar PV. The
site is less than 500 meters to the south of the local road which follows the top of the dam and
provides access to company residential and recreational areas to the east. The chosen area
was used for construction of the dam in 1962 and there are the remains of temporary buildings
on the site. There is road access still available into the site area. The area is now unused with
grass, bushes and some trees growing (clearly seen in the aerial photograph in Figure 2.4). To
the east of the site is an old warehouse with a concrete vehicle service ramp, while in the south
east there is an army barracks with various sheds and buildings.

The western boundary of the site is the old downstream channel of the Karnufuli River. In the
middle of the site are the old concrete platform foundations which were used during the dam
construction in 1962 for stone crushing and a batching plant. It may not be necessary to
demolish these structures. The ground is gently sloping on the western slopes more abruptly at
the southernmost tip of the site. The soil was determined as compacted and suitable to support
the necessary foundations for the PV panels and other infrastructure.

106
Figure 2.4 Site for proposed Solar Plant

2.3 Scope and Layout

The project will involve minor civil works, the installation of about 22,728 solar photovoltaic
panels and associated power equipment, and the construction of a control building. Figure 2.5
shows a typical flow diagram of solar power generation.

107
Source: IEE Report, Bangchak Solar Power Project, ADB, November 2010)

Figure 2.5 Typical solar generation diagram

The shape of the PV plant layout is designed to be best suited to the shape of land available for
development. The following design is proposed:

Definition of the tilt. This was optimized using a design program and was set at 15.
Space between the rows. The edge to edge distance between single rows was
defined to be 3m after considering different spacing options and revenue losses due
to shading vs. increase in land cost.
A safety distance of 5m from the access road is proposed. And the plant and PV
modules themselves will be located 5 m from the plant perimeter fence.
A cross-section of the sheds is shown below. The modules are located in one row
per shed and placed in upright position. They are then clamped onto amounting
structure which can be manufactured locally.

About 2 km of 11 KV transmission line is needed to connect the power generated by the solar
panels to the nearest existing substation within the premises of Kaptai Hydropower Plant (KHP)
(see Figure 2.3 above). Aside from the installation of the transmission lines, a control room
structure with panel, circuit breaker and protection device will be constructed near the existing
substation.

The area that will be traversed by the transmission line is also within KHP and owned by BPDB.
The 2 km is the shortest route available to evacuate the power to nearest existing substation.

108
Figure 2.6 Module orientation and shed parameters

2.4 Technical design

Solar PV cells fall into two categories:

Thin film technologies.


Crystalline silicon technologies.

Thin film technologies

Thin film technologies include amorphous silicon (aSi), cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper
indium diselenide. These technologies are less efficient but cheaper to manufacture than
Crystalline silicon technologies.

Crystalline silicon technologies

Mono-crystalline silicon (cSi) is so far the most efficient PV technology available in


the market. Commercial modules have efficiency ratings of more than 18% while
research studies show efficiency of around 28%.
Poly-crystalline silicon (pSi) is manufactured more cheaply and less efficient than
mono-crystalline. Efficiency ratings of commercial modules reach around 16%
though research Figures for this technology could reach as high as 24%.

Thin film technologies will not be used in the project. For the conceptual design the widely
available mid-price range poly-crystal line modules were chosen in the analysis. With a module
capacity of 220 Wp, a total of 22,728 modules will be employed to make up an aggregate
capacity of 5000 kWp.

The 22,728 individual Solar PV modules to be installed in the project work, on the photovoltaic

109
principle. Spectrums of light excite electrons in the solar cell (usually silicon) creating DC
electricity. Solar modules are one of the most reliable energy conversion systems in the world,
which is why they are often used for remote applications as they are also very low maintenance.
The modules will be manufactured to a high quality level and there will be no need for
maintenance for many years. Cells have a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Warranties of
between 5 or 10 years, performance guarantee at 85% of rated output after 25 years are
testimony to the reliability of such cells.

Due to the large size of the Kaptai plant, a central inverter concept is adopted. A typical inverter,
widely available, was chosen in the analysis with 1000 kW AC nominal power. So five central
inverters are required for the Kaptai site and it will be necessary to maintain a necessary stock
of spare parts at site.

In order to meet the voltage and current constraints of the inverters, the module string concepts
are the following:

24 Modules are connected in series to make up a string and


947 strings are connected to 5 inverters.

In this way, the electrical design is kept simple and modular. The nominal AC capacity of the
plant is 5000 kWp. The arrangement of PV Solar infrastructure is indicated at site in Figure 2.7
below.

Figure 2.7 Proposed layout of PV solar panels

110
2.5 Project Schedule

From the start of the civil works to the completion of the works a timeframe of 4 to 6 months is
expected. A typical schedule for the work is as follows:
preparation of the terrain - leveling, access and internal roads - 2 to 6 weeks
civil works - opening of trenches for the cables, concrete slab for housing and
substation, if applicable concrete foundations for the mounting system - 4 to 10
weeks
mechanical works - installation of the mounting system, followed by the modules - 2
to 4 months
electrical works - laying of cables, installation of inverters. This can run parallel to
mechanical works- 2 to 4 months
High voltage works, and connection of low voltage and high voltage cables- 4 to 8
weeks
Grid connection, commissioning, operation tests (done in parallel to construction and
per 1,000 MW section) - completed in 2 to 4 weeks after finalization of construction

2.6 Category of Project

Under Bangladesh regulations, the Department of the Environment is the reviewing agency for
environmental reports and Kaptai requires an IEE to be approved. For ADB, the project was
screened using the Rapid Environmental Assessment (REA) Checklist and it requires an IEE.

3.0 Description of the Environment

3.1 Site Condition

The site is on almost flat land becoming a little steeper to the south and is immediately below
the main dam wall of the Kaptai dam. It is about 500 m to the south of the road which follows the
dam wall and in the west it overlooks the old channel of the river below the dam.

The project site is adjacent to an existing 11 kV power distribution line (approximately 2 km


long) running east-west from an existing substation, the line supplies users to the east of the
project site. Table 3.1 shows the salient features at the site.

Table 3.1 Salient features of solar PV site

Feature Details
Altitude 20 m above msl
Longitude 9213'36.89"East longitude
Latitude 2229'31.69" North latitude
o
Max. Mean Temperature, C 33
o
Min. Mean Temperature, C 13
Relative Humidity, % 80, during rainy season
Annual rainfall, mm 2200- 3600
Avg. Annual Evaporation 500 mm
Wind Generally mild
Land availability, Ha 17.82 acre
Topography Hilly

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Feature Details
Soil Type Loams to clay
Nearest River Karnafuli runs east west direction from the dam
Nearest Highway Chittagong-Kaptai
Nearest Village Chitmerong- 7 km away
Nearest Forest Kaptai National Park- 7 km away, Shitapahar Reserve Forest-
10 km away
Sensitive places Kaptai National Park is 7 km away of the site
Source: Field Visit, October 2010

3.2 Physical Environment

3.2.1 Climate

The project area has a sub-tropical monsoon climate. The monsoon proper lasts from June to
September. The cool dry season lasts from November to February.

Rainfall The rainy season extends from June through November and about 80% of the
annual rainfall is concentrated in this season. The annual rainfall in the area is estimated at
2200 mm to 3600 mm.

Temperature Maximum temperature of the area is 330 C in the month of July and the minimum
is 130 C in the month of December. With clear skies in the dry season, there may be differences
of 170 C between day and night temperature, but diurnal differences are much less during the
rainy season.

Humidity Although the humidity is 35-45% from November through March, it reaches 80%
or even higher during the rainy season.

Wind Wind is generally considered to be mild except during strong thunderstorms and cyclones.
The maximum wind velocity recorded is 96 km/h

Cyclones Cyclones are a common phenomenon in the coastal areas. The cyclones are
associated with storm surges, which penetrate deep inside the Karnafuli-Halda Basin.

Air Quality The Department of Environment (Chittagong Division) does not have any record
on regular air quality monitoring program for ambient condition or emission for the project area.
During field surveys, no particular problem with air quality was noticed. The apparently good air
quality is probably due to the fact that the area is rural and no big industrial installations are
located near the project site that could serve as a major source of air pollutants. Figure 2.8
shows the existing land use within the project site.

112
Figure 2.8 Photo of general land use for the site showing grass and tree cover

3.2.2 Water Resources

The area upstream of the Kaptai dam is the watershed of the Karnafuli reservoir or Lake, which
is artificially formed by the pounding of water by the dam on the Karnafuli River. The Lake is
stretches in a north south direction formed within Karnafuli valley between parallel hilly ridges.
The reservoir covers an area of approximately 777 sq. km at a maximum water level of 33.23 m,
MSL.

Downstream of the Kaptai dam the land gradually flattens towards the west until it reaches the
tidal flats of the Bay of Bengal. The main rivers in the area are the Karnafuli, Ichamati and
Halda. The influence of the tide is observed as far upstream as the dam site.

Water Quality There is very little monitoring of the quality of water in the lake and BPDB
has no water quality monitoring programme. After rainfall water flows from upstream carrying
heavy silt and mud leading to turbidity.

Water quality is sometimes affected by the rotting of water hyacinth and during dry season,
fungus is formed in stagnant water changing the color and taste of water. Much detritus
(bamboo pieces, tree branches, leaves etc) is derived from upstream. Engine boats, launches
etc. using the lake spill oil/fuel in the water adding to pollution. The water is clean enough,
however, for BPDB to use the water from the lake as its main source of water at the power site.

3.2.3 Geology and Soil

Geologically, the landmass of Bangladesh can be divided into three brand categories of
physiographic regions (Miah, 1981). These are: (i) The Tertiary Hills, (ii) The Pleistocene
Uplands, and (iii) The Recent Plains.

The project area is in the Tertiary Hills region and falls in the Northern and Eastern Hills region
according to Agro Ecological Regions of Bangladesh. The relief is complex; slopes are very
steep and some low hills have flat summits. The major hill soils are yellow brown to strong
brown; they are permeable, friable, loamy and are low in moisture holding capacity. However,

113
soil patterns generally are complex due to local differences in sand, silt and clay contents of the
underlying sedimentary rocks and the amount of erosion that has occurred. Brown Hill Soil is
the predominant general soil type of the immediate Kaptai area.

3.3 Biological Environment

3.3.1 Regional Setting

The ecology of the project area within Chittagong Hill Tract (CHT) is different from the other
parts of the country because of its geophysical setting. The project site is located in a hilly
terrain, which is composed of many small and medium hills, valleys, terraces and foothills. Plain
land between hills and ranges are seldom seen. The hills in the CHT area are extensions of the
Himalayan mountain systems, which runs almost north to south.

The area of Rangamati district in which the project falls has an area of 6,116.13 sq km of which
about 78% (4,824.63 sq km) is covered by tropical-evergreen mixed forest. Most of the forest is
privately owned unclassified forest, but there are few reserved forest areas controlled by the
district. Kaptai National Park is about 7 km and Shita pahar Reserve Forest is about 10 km
away of the project area.

3.3.2 Flora

The major flora of the surrounding site is grass, bushes, nursery and limited fruit bearing trees
and plants and crops. In the eastern side of the site, there are various types of trees like teak,
korai, jack fruit, jam, a nursery of tree and plants, banana plants, green vegetation with sun
grass and bushes.

3.3.3 Fauna

The development of Kaptai Lake has tremendously contributed to the development of fisheries
in the area. When Kaptai project started about 58,300 ha of the lake area was under fish
cultivation. At present the area has been reduced by about 5000 hectares because of siltation.
The seasonal fluctuation of water level in the lake is about 10.06 m. Before commissioning of
the project annual production of the fish was around 150 tons. Lake has created a natural
spawning ground for carp species.

The mammals like chika, rat, mouse, bezi, etc are common and badur, kathbirali are fairly
common. Among terrestrial fauna reptiles Tiktiki and Anjan are common; Turtles are fairly
common in ponds. Dora Shap and Daraisshap, Mete shap are also fairly common. Gokhra and
Guishap are rare. Among amphibians Kuno bang and kotkoti bang are common. Gecho bang
and Jhijhi bang are reasonably common. Sona bang and Pana bang are rare and threatened.
Among birds Choroi, Babui, BhatShalik, Go Shalik, PatiKak, Doel, Bulbuli etc. are common.

3.4 Socioeconomic Environment

The project area falls under Kaptai upazila of Rangamati District. The town has a population of
approximately 100,000; male 57%, female 43%. Literacy rate among the town people is 25.5%.
The household size in the town is 4.53 which do not show any significant difference from that of
Rangamati district which is 4.8.

A majority of the households depend on river, canal, and wells for their drinking water in the

114
project area. More than 50% households are provided with Tap water in Kaptai. Only a small
portion of the households in the project area have sanitary toilet facilities.

More than 50% of the population in Kaptai upazila has electricity connection. The distribution of
households by main source of household income in the Kaptai area is as follows: Agriculture
14.89%, agricultural labour 5.82%, wage labour 3.12%, commerce 7.62%, service 26.08%,
forestry 2.4%, industry 26.24% and others 13.83%.

Main crops are paddy, hilly potato, cotton, ginger, and vegetables. Main fruits are jackfruit,
banana, pineapple, coconut and lemon.

There is an Upazila Health Complex, Kaptai Project Hospital and one Christian missionary
hospital about 5 km from the project site.

4.0 Screening of Potential Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Measures

4.1 Impacts during construction phase

Considering the nature of the construction works and the ecological insensitivity of the project
site, construction activity will only create minor and manageable environmental disturbances
such as noise from trucks and excavation equipment, which will small impacts on the nearby
army barracks.

No toxic and hazardous materials will be used in the construction apart from diesel oils for
vehicles, which will be properly stored. The site will be properly fenced to keep people and
animals from straying onto the site during construction and operations.

Machinery employed during construction will be properly stored at a concrete platform and
bundling containment provided. Machinery will be properly, maintained and fuelled at
designated areas.

The 2 km transmission route is in part parallel to a distribution network as it crosses the main
dam which is a grassed area. The alignment also follows existing roads over company land and
it is not anticipated that many trees will be affected.

4.2 Impacts during operation phase

Soil erosion and run off from site during rain events and from daily washing and cleaning of
solar panels. It will be necessary to create proper drainage during construction and provide
storm water basin for water retention at the south of the site to avoid surface water pollution.

The PV poly-crystalline modules to be used in the project are emissions free once they are
manufactured and have no emission impacts during operations. The only requirement during
operation is daily maintenance to keep cell surfaces clean to maintain maximum performance.

Vegetation will be removed and there will be the required cutting of some trees. A tree planting
programme outside the project boundary will be undertaken generally around the site, but
specifically:

in the east for screening from the existing activities an old warehouse and army
barracks which are situated on the east and south side of the proposed location.

115
in the west for screening and slope protection adjoining the river Karnafuli.

Proper arrangements will be made for solid waste and sanitation facilities.

4.3 Decommissioning

It is possible to landfill the type of PV module being used at Kaptai. But such modules also
contain substances such as glass, aluminum and semiconductor materials that can be
successfully recovered and reused, either in new photovoltaic modules or other products.
Arrangements can be made with manufacturers to take back panels either at the end of the
project or as they are replaced.

4.5 Social & Resettlement Impacts

All the land for the project, including the transmission lines is owned by the Bangladesh Water
Development Board, and free from any occupants or establishments. Development of the site
for this project will have no impact on livelihoods or income of any households or people. No
issues are triggered under ADB safeguard policy and no indigenous population will be impacted
by the project at this site.

4.6 Positive Impacts

The project will add 5 MW of power to the national grid system contributing to improved and
more regular supply of power to the country as a whole.

Project benefits also include savings from the non-use of alternative sources of conventional
fossil fuels. There is a significant reduction in emissions (e.g. gases and particulate matter) over
the project life and a resultant net positive impact. Table 4.1 indicates that, over 20 years, the
project avoids the potential discharge of nearly 110,000 tons of CO2to the atmosphere.

Table 4.1 Estimated Electricity Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction

Net Annual Total Annual Total


1
Emissions Factor (tons CO2/MWh) Generation Generation emissions emissions
(20 year 20 years reductions reductions
average) (20 years)
Operating Build Combined MWh MWh Tons CO2 Tons CO2
Margin Margin Margin

0.7231 0.7502 0.7366 7,412.73 148,255 5,460 109,204


1
CDM SSC-POA Efficient Lighting Initiative of Bangladesh

There will also be benefits in terms of local employment for construction and during the
operations phase when approximately 10 new staff will be needed for operation of the plant and
for cleaning of the PV modules.

5.0 Environmental Management and Monitoring Plan and Institutional Requirements

Bangladesh Power Development Board (BPDB) will employ an environmental engineer who will
be responsible to the Manager, Karnafuli Hydropower plant for implementation of the measures
in the EMP indicated in Table 5.1. The issues of health, safety and environment will be

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incorporated in the BPDB system which is in place for the existing hydropower operation.

The construction contracts will incorporate requirements for the EPC contractors to be
responsible for undertaking effective measures for environmental impact mitigation and the EPC
contractor will have to commit to the EMP. Environmental performance of the EPC contractors
will be monitored by the BPDB project manager.

Table 5.1 Environmental Management Plan and Monitoring Program

Environmental Institutional Responsibility


Means of
Aspect & Remedial Measure
Implementation Implementation Supervision
Potential Impact
Construction stage
Removal of trees Identified trees to be Include conditions in Contractors Bangladesh
and vegetation removed from the site contract. BPDB Environment Power
and loss for site before the responsible for tree Engineer Development
clearance work. commencement of planting and Tree Board,
construction with prior landscaping at programme to
approval BPDB completion of be responsibility
Tree planting programme construction work of BPDB
around perimeter of site at and for costs
completion of work.

Noise to adjacent Noise levels to be kept Monitoring monthly Contractors Bangladesh


barracks, and within Bangladesh noise during the Environment Power
other uses from emission standards construction period Engineer Development
land clearance and Board,
preparation &
erection of solar
panels using plant
& machinery.
Occupational Develop Safety Plan Supervision and EPC contractor Bangladesh
Health & Safety Provide Safety Manual Inspection on a Power
Issues Use of Personal daily basis during Development
Working with Protection Equipment construction period Board
Machinery & according to the
cranes OHS Plan
Working with
electrical risks.
Safety at site from Construct perimeter wall Part of construction EPC contractor Bangladesh
human and animal around site at the contract and later Power
incursion. beginning of work to avoid maintenance by Development
people and domestic BPDB Board
animals entering the site
during construction and
operations.
Contamination of Machinery to be properly Conditions included EPC contractor Bangladesh
land and surface stored at a concrete in construction and later Power
water from platform and bundling contracts maintenance by Development
machinery activity containment provided. BPDB Board
and from use of oil Machinery to be properly,
and fuel maintained and fuelled at
designated areas
Operational Stage
Runoff from land Create proper drainage Include in contracts EPC contractor Bangladesh

117
Environmental Institutional Responsibility
Means of
Aspect & Remedial Measure
Implementation Implementation Supervision
Potential Impact
from rain events during construction and during Power
on cleared land provide storm water basin construction and Development
and from washing for water retention BPDB in Board
of solar panels construction Environmental
resulting in erosion Engineer
& sedimentation in
the river.
Glint and glare This is not expected to be Regular monitoring BPDB to BPDB
from solar panels an issue but will be by the monitor and
monitored with a view Environmental discuss with
changing panel orientation Engineer local leaders
and village
groups as
required
Occupational Implement safety Weekly monitoring BPDB BPDB
Health & Safety measures as per the OHS environmental
manual engineer
Sanitation Toilet facilities to be Monitor septic tank BPDB BPDB
arrangements for provided for arrangements environmental
workers at site approximately 10 engineer
operation and
maintenance workers at
site with septic tank
facilities
Solid Waste Any solid waste generated Regular monitoring BPDB BPDB
Disposal at site will be collected in of waste disposal environment
defined areas. arrangements. engineer
Any broken or deficient Monitoring of PV
PV cells will be stored and cells during regular
arrangements made to cleaning activity
recycle or send to
appropriate landfill sites
Decommissioning Phase
Removal of PV Ensure a plan is Monitor situation and BPDB BPDB
panels at the end developed well in advance make environment
of the project life of plant decommissioning decommissioning engineer
identifying recycling plan for recycling
options and make through
necessary arrangements manufacturer or
to recycle or dispose of determine landfill
panels in appropriate land options
fill sites

6.0 Grievance Redress Mechanism

For Kaptai, the people impacted by the project will be its own employees who live and work
inside the Company land at Kaptai Hydropower Plant (KHP). There is a presence of an army
within the premises of KHP and have a barracks adjoining the project site.

A grievance redress mechanism (GRM) will be established soon after project commencement.
The first level and most accessible and immediate venue for the fastest resolve of grievances is

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the PMU, chiefly through the Project Manager of the BPDB, with assistance from the
Environmental Engineer. A contact phone number for complaints will be posted in the project
areas. Grievances will be resolved through continuous interactions with affected persons and
the PMU will answer queries and resolve grievances regarding various issues. Corrective
measures will be undertaken at the field-level itself within seven days. All grievances will be
documented with full information of the person and issue.

Should the grievance remain unresolved, the PMU's Project Manager, will activate the second
level of the GRM by referring the issue (with written documentation) to the local Grievance
Redress Committee (GRC) of the Upazila, who will, based on review of the grievances, address
them in consultation with the PMU and the affected persons. Affected persons also will have
the right to submit grievance at this level if they are not satisfied with the first level decision. A
hearing will be called, if necessary, where the affected person can present his/her
concern/issues. The process will promote conflict resolution through mediation. The local GRC
will consist of the following persons: (i) Upazila Nirbahi Officer (GRC Chair); (ii) representative of
the head of the Upazila; (iii) representative of the affected persons; (iv) official of the
Department of Environment (DOE)s divisional office; and (v) Environmental Specialist of the
PMU. The local GRC will suggest corrective measures at the field level and assign
responsibilities for implementing its decisions.

The GRC will record any grievances, categorize and prioritize them and provide solutions within
a month; and will report to the aggrieved parties about developments regarding their grievances
and the decisions of the GRC. In the event that a grievance is not addressed, the aggrieved
person can seek legal redress of the grievance in the appropriate Courts.

7.0 Public Consultation and Information Disclosure

7.1 General

BPDB has a system in place to ensure that local people have a say and a chance to raise
issues of concern. There are two standing committees on which the company has
representation. One is with local heads and concerned persons in the area and the other is with
local villager representatives. Environment related issues are discussed in these meetings e.g.
forest activities, recycling of water, siltation problems and navigation issues. These committees
will be the forum at which any problems or grievances can be raised in regard to the Kaptai
project.

7.2 Consultation Meeting

A consultation meeting was held on 22/01/2011 with local government representatives, local
elite, businessmen, farmers and local workers. Major issues discussed were as follows:

Problems faced by present electricity supply system


Prospects of establishment and operations of solar system
Affordability for supporting solar electricity
Merits and demerits of solar system

7.2.1 Summary of consultation

The community people were fully in favor of establishment of this solar plant and they are ready
support its implementation in all respect. The people recognized that solar will be an

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environmentally friendly source of power and they saw the following benefits of additional and
reliable power supply to:

support the 35% of local households and business enterprises which are not
supplied with power at present
support the establishment and operation of new industrial and commercial
enterprises
contribute in generation of local based employment and income opportunities
develop market network and improve access to markets
improve access to health services
improve access to education and skilled development training

The people also said that they were ready and willing to pay the additional charges for electricity
consumption for commercial and industrial use.

8.0 Findings and Recommendation and Conclusions

The project site has been vacant land since the construction of the main Kaptai dam in 1962.
There is no loss of livelihood or resettlement problems arising from the implementation of the
project. The site is not located in a sensitive ecosystem, and has no historical and cultural value.
The site is in a hollow, on low lying land immediately behind the main hydropower dam wall. The
nature of the project site coupled with the clean nature of solar power generation means that the
project will not cause any significant lasting environmental and social impacts during
construction, operation and decommissioning.

Only minor and transient environmental disturbances will be experienced at the project site
during construction and operation, and they will be minimized through implementation of the
EMP attached to this IEE. It is recommended that this IEE is adequate to justify the
environmental and social feasibility of the Project. There is no need for further analysis and the
environmental assessment of the Project is considered complete.

BPDB is committed to its environmental and social responsibility and discharges this
responsibility in adherence to principles of good corporate governance. In its daily business
operations, BPDB will meet its environmental and occupational health commitments, and is
committed to the EMP measures. The Company will employ and environment manager to
oversee the project construction and implementation.

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II. Hatiya Solar PV-Wind-Diesel Hybrid System

1.0 Introduction

Bangladeshs Renewable Energy Policy issued in 2008 aims to increase the share of renewable
energy generated to 5% of total power generation by 2015 and to 10% by 2020. Among
renewable energies, solar, biomass and wind are the most abundant resources that can play an
important role in meeting these targets. At present, grid-connected and off-grid renewable
energy projects play an equally important role in meeting sustainable energy supply demand in
Bangladesh. The Hatiya Solar PV-Wind-Diesel Hybrid System project incorporates renewable
energies and will reinforce the isolated grid network on the island of Hatiya.

The proposed project integrates a 1 MW solar PV and a 1 MW wind power project with the
existing oil-based power generation already in operation on the island. The project aims to show
the technical feasibility of island grid connected solar PV and wind power systems. It is also
intended to serve as a case study which can be used as a capacity building tool to encourage
the development of further hybrid power systems in Bangladesh.

The Hatiya Solar PV-Wind-Diesel Hybrid System is also one of the priority subprojects within
the ADB TA Preparing the Power System Efficiency Improvement Project in Bangladesh. The
BPDB of the Ministry of Power, Energy and Mineral Resources will be the owner of the project
and thus, the project proponent. This IEE has been prepared as part of the ADB TA referred to
above. The IEE is designed to comply with the ADBs Safeguard Policy (2009) and the ADBs
Environmental Assessment Guidelines (2003).

Site visits were made to Hatiya and meetings were convened with local government
representatives, businessmen, fishermen, farmers and workers.

2.0 Description of the Project

2.1 Background

Bangladesh Power Development Board currently generates power though various thermal
power stations and the Karnafuli 230 MW capacity hydropower project serving the Chittagong
area.

Countrywide, BPDB is now eager to diversify into other sources of power generation and is at
present, looking at grid-connected solar PV projects and at wind power projects. Projects under
consideration include the 4 MW Rajshahi-1 Solar PV project, the 1 MW Rajshahi-2 Solar PV
project, the 4 MW Sarishabari Solar PV project, the 5 MW Kaptai Solar project and a 100 MW
Wind Power Park at Anwara. BPDB also wants to investigate the opportunity to develop off grid
systems for remote areas such as the Hatiya Island location and would

2.2 Site Selection and Location

There are number of coastal locations in the Bay of Bengal which are in need of power and also
experience both high levels of irradiation (see Figure 2.1) and regular wind regimes which might
be exploited for wind power. Such islands have no access to the Bangladesh power grid system
and must be supplied using expensive diesel generation. Hatiya is one such location where
diesel power is in use. A diesel power plant on the island generates 280 kW. It falls within the
coastal belt area of high solar irradiation.

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Figure 2.1 indicates the location of Hatiya in relation to the relative intensity of solar radiation in
Bangladesh and Hatiya Island still experiences between 4 and 4.5 kWh/m2/day in the winter
month of December. As regards the availability of wind energy, there is no specific data for
Hatiya, but preliminary wind measurement surveys and studies sponsored by international
agencies, like GTZ and ODA have indicated the potent of setting up wind turbines in the coastal
belts and the offshore islands. The critical months with lower wind velocities, as analyzed
through these studies, are the winter months (November - February). Good wind speeds (4m to
7m/s) are available during the summer and especially during the monsoons, when the solar
energy insolation generally remains low.

Figure 2.1 Global Horizontal Solar Irradiation Map

Site visits were undertaken to determine a suitable site for the different elements of a hybrid
system at Hatiya. Hatiya Island is situated at the mouth of Meghna River in the northern Bay of
Bengal. The proposed site (see Figure 2.2 and Figure 2.3) was identified initially by the resident
engineer of BPDB based on load demand proximity, land availability and willingness of land
owners to sell their land for power plant site development and possible resettlement issues.

The existing power station was visited in collaboration with the BPDB engineer on the island

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and the surrounding land was examined from the point of view of technical, environmental and
social issues and any possible resettlement requirements.

Figure 2.2 Map showing the sites in relation to Hatiya Island

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Figure 2.3 Hatiya proposed solar PV and wind farm

The solar PV project site is proposed at a location at the central part of the island at
N2216.147' and E9108.377' (see Figure 2.4). The site has an elevation of more than 13
meters above mean sea level. The site is close to a village which is 8 kilometers south of Hatiya
town, which is in turn the load centre for the project. 3.5 hectares of land needs to be acquired
from private landowners at the proposed location. Discussions with landowners indicate that
they are willing to sell their land for power plant development.

The site is flat and no major preparations are needed. Currently, the land is cultivated with rice
during autumn and legumes during winter, as is the usual agricultural pattern in Hatiya (see
photograph at Figure 4.1). The soil type is alluvial which is compacted during dry season. The
site is at the intersection of the main road on Hatiya with a feeder road linking to the east of the
island.

In front of the site are the Banglalink telecommunications tower and an existing 11 kV power line
of BPDB. Power will be evacuated through this medium voltage line. However, repair work is
required to upgrade the rest of the existing island supply grid network to accommodate the
increase in the generating capacity, and project costs include the renovation of the existing grid
and rehabilitation work. The project also includes the installation of a new generator with
associated equipment including safety equipment.

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Figure 2.4 Site for proposed Solar Plant

The wind power site is proposed at a location four kilometers east of the proposed solar PV
site (see Figure 2.3). It is immediately to the west of the greenbelt area on the eastern side of
the island). The proposed wind power site is also cultivated with rice. A 4 kilometer 11 kV line
will be required to connect the wind power site to the solar PV site. Figure 2.5 shows the
location of the four wind turbines.

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Figure 2.5 Site for proposed 1 MW wind power site

2.3 Electricity Demand

The island has a population estimated to be more than 450,000 with around 80,000 households.
At present, an isolated grid network exists; it providing electricity to less than 4.0 percent of the
population for just 4 hours each day. Many customers have been disconnected because of the
completely inadequate supply network.

Table 2.1 shows the existing information regarding the existing system and shows the existing
consumers, consumer demand and the details of the distribution system.

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Table 2.1 Hatiya Electricity Supply

Table 2.2 Connections and Potential Electricity Connections

According to survey of existing and potential users undertaken as part of the feasibility study,
(see Table 2.2 above) more than 3000 consumers were identified. The estimated demand of
those in the existing grid catchment is around 1.5 MW while the operating diesel generation
capacity is only 280 kW.

2.4 Proposed System Configuration

The feasibility study takes into account the total demand from consumers currently covered
(both connected and disconnected). The hybrid option chosen for the project consists of diesel
generation set, solar PV array, wind turbine generators, battery banks and inverters.

The capacities of solar PV and wind turbine generators were predetermined to be 1,000 kW
each. The optimization model determines the capacity of diesel generator required in meeting

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the total electricity demand. The optimization results show that the least-cost option for the
project is the combination of the following:

1000 kW solar PV (DC generation) using 220 Wp solar PV panels, with a total of 4,546
modules
1000 kW wind turbine generator (AC generation) using 250 kW wind turbine generators
- 4 units
5500 kW diesel generation (AC generation)

2.5 Scope and Layout

2.5.1 Solar PV

The shape of the PV plant layout (see Figure 2.6) is designed to best suite the shape of land
available for development and the following design is proposed:

Definition of the tilt to be optimized using a design program and was set at 15.
The edge to edge distance between single rows is proposed to be 3m.
There will be a safety distance of 5m from the proposed access road and the plant
and PV modules themselves will be located 5 m from the plant perimeter fence.
A cross-section of the sheds is shown below. The modules are located in one row
per shed and placed in upright position. They are then clamped onto a mounting
structure which can be manufactured locally.

Figure 2.6 Module Orientation and Shed Parameters

For the solar PV modules, crystalline silicon technology will be used. Thin film technologies will
not be used for the PV modules in the project. For the conceptual design the widely available
mid-price range poly-crystalline modules were chosen in the analysis. With a module capacity of
220 Wp, a total of 4,546 modules are required.

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The 4,546 individual Solar PV modules to be installed in the project work, on the photovoltaic
principle. Spectrums of light excite electrons in the solar cell (usually silicon) creating DC
electricity. Solar modules are one of the most reliable energy conversion systems in the world,
which is why they are often used for remote applications as they are also very low maintenance.
The modules will be manufactured to a high quality level and there will be no need for
maintenance for many years. Cells have a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Warranties of
between 5 or 10 years, performance guarantee at 85% of rated output after 25 years are
testimony to the reliability of such cells.

2.5.2 Wind Power

The wind power site consists of 4 wind turbines which will be assembled in a row along the
existing road (see Figure 2.5).

2.5.3 Diesel Generator Set

The configuration of 1 MW solar-1 MW wind and 5.5 MW diesel generator is the best available
technology that could meet the power demand of Hatiya (about 450,000 people) given its
location. The existing power capacity of 280 kW is only supplying about 4% of the households
for a maximum of 14 hrs per day. The estimated energy peak demand is 4 MW. The bid
documents will include that guaranteed emissions will meet the limits set for by ECR 1997.

2.6 Project Schedule

Construction of the project is planned to take place over approximately 26 months. The time
schedule for the various elements is as below:

Renovation and Rehabilitation of Local Grid 3 months


Diesel Generator Installation 10 months
Solar PV Installation 18 months
Wind Turbine Installation 5 months

Diesel Generator Installation consists of the following elements:

Construction of Buildings, Water Supply and Drainage 6 months


Installation of Generating Unit 2 months
Electrical Wiring, Safety Equip., Control Panel, Breakers 3 months
Testing and Commissioning 1 month

Some of the above diesel installation work above will take place in parallel and will require 10
months in all to complete. The Solar PV Installation requires the following:

Site Preparation, Foundation Works and Fencing 2 months


Construction of Mounting Structures 3 months
Construction of Inspection Roads and Drainage 2.5 months
Construction of Buildings 2.5 months
Installation of PV modules 3 months
DC Cabling and Control Systems 2 months
Inverter Installation 2.5 months
PV Plant AC Cabling and Grid Connection 2 months
Final Testing and Commissioning 2 months

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The work will require 18 months and the solar part of the project will be in operation before any
work can begin on the wind turbine installation.

For the wind turbine Installation work can start for 20 months into the project as there will be a
requirement for setting up the necessary wind measurement preparation and for at least 12
months wind analysis data before design of the turbines can take place. Once the turbines have
been designed physical work consisting of the following can begin and construction will take 5
months:

Civil Works and Electrical Works 2 months


Construction of Foundation and Drying 1 month
Wind Turbine Generator Construction Assembly (WTG) 1 month
WTG Testing and Commissioning 1 month

2.7 Category of Project

Under Bangladesh regulations the Department of the Environment is the reviewing agency for
environmental reports and Hatiya requires an IEE approval. For ADB, the project was screened
using the Rapid Environmental Assessment (REA) Checklist and requires an IEE.

3.0 Description of the Environment

3.1 Site Condition

The proposed solar PV site is situated in a village called Rehani under Surza Mukhi Mouza of
Burirchar Union of 8 kilometers south of Hatiya centre and relatively close to the load centre. In
front of the site is the Banglalink telecommunications tower and a 11 kV line of BPDB.

Four kilometers east of the site could be developed for wind power (before the greenbelt of the
eastern side of the island.

The site is flat and no major preparations are needed. The soil type is alluvial and compacted
during dry season. The site is at the intersection of the main road of Hatiya and feeder road to
the east of the island. Currently, the land is cultivated with rice during autumn and legumes
during winter, as in most cases in Hatiya. Table 3.1 shows the salient features at the site.

Table 3.1 Salient features of solar PV wind hybrid site

FEATURE DETAILS
Altitude 13 m above msl
Longitude 9108.377'East longitude
Latitude 2216.147' North latitude
Max. Mean Temperature, 0C 33
Min. Mean Temperature, 0C 14
Relative Humidity, % 90, during rainy season
Annual rainfall, mm 4005
Wind Wind direction is generally south/southeast
Land availability, Ha 5 hector
Topography Flat
Soil Type Alluvial and compacted during dry season

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FEATURE DETAILS
Nearest River Meghna coast, about 8 km away from the site
Nearest Highway Hatiya- Jhahajmara
Nearest Village Rehani- 8 km away from south of Hatiya
Centre
Nearest Forest No
Sensitive places The nearest protected area (Nijum Dwip) is
about 50 km away from the plant site
Source: Field Visit, January 2011

The site condition can be visualized from the photographs shown below:

Photograph 1 East site of the proposed Solar PV plant


Photograph 2 Southeast site of the proposed Solar PV plant

3.2 Physical Environment

3.2.1 Climate

The project area experiences the sub-tropical monsoon climate typical of Bangladesh. The SW
monsoon dominates the rainy/summer season and NE monsoon the dry/winter season. There
are four major seasons in the project area relative to the annual hydrological cycle that reflects
the seasonal distribution of annual rainfall. There is about 2,320 mm rainfall during the five-
month rainy season from May to September. The post-monsoon, October to November
(Fall/Autumn), is warm and humid with unstable atmospheric conditions that induce local
thunderstorm and cyclones from the Bay of Bengal. The cool dry season, December-March
(winter), is sunny with infrequent rainfall that seldom exceeds five per cent of the total annual
rainfall. The pre-monsoon season, April-May (spring), is hot and is characterised by
thunderstorms called Nor'westers, with heavy local rainfall and hail. Severe cyclones may affect
these islands during the pre- and post-monsoon transitional periods.

The nearest meteorological station located at Hatiya, is about 10 km distance from the nearest
boundary of the project area. The data on surface meteorological parameters like wind speed,
wind direction, temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, etc. were procured from this station for
the year 2008 period to understand the meteorology of the project area.

The summary of the meteorological information for Hatiya station is given in Table 3.2.

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Table 3.2 Meteorological data for Hatiya, 2009

Avg. Temp. Relative


o Rainfall Mean Wind Prevailing Wind
Month C Humidity
total (mm) Speed (knot) Direction
Max. Min. %
January 24.6 14.1 80 0 3.4 North (N)
February 27.8 15.4 72 0 4.0 North (N)
March 30.8 21.6 77 7 8.0 South (S)
April 30.4 23.7 83 207 7.6 South (S)
May 32.9 25.6 81 150 5.7 South (S)
June 30.9 25.1 88 828 4.7 South (S)
July 30.0 25.4 90 839 5.7 South (S)
August 29.8 25.3 88 515 5.2 South (S)
September 30.5 24.9 86 1039 5.8 South-east (SE)
October 31.1 23.4 82 429 10.0 South-south- east
(SSE)
November 29.3 17.7 80 0 5.5 North-north-west
(NNW)
December 27.3 15.4 78 0 4.6 North
Annual 29.6 21.5 82 4005
Source: BMD, March 2009

Cyclones Due to the funnel shaped coast of the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh very often
becomes the landing ground of cyclones formed in the Bay of Bengal. Approximately 45
damaging cyclones were reported in the coastal area of Bangladesh from 1793 through May
1997. Thus cyclone frequency during this period averaged about once in every 4.5 years. These
cyclones cause enormous damage to the nation's lands, crops, infrastructure and lives of
coastal people. However, some examples of the most destructive tropical cyclones are
presented in Table 3.3.

Table 3.3 Chronology of Major Cyclones and Storm Surges


that occurred Primarily in Noakhali Coast

Month and Nature Of Approximate


Year Affected Area
Date Phenomena Damage
1876 October 31 Noakhali, Hatiya, Severe storm surges 400,000 lives and
Patuakhali, Chittagong Surge height 14m enormous property lost
1960 October 10-11 Noakhali, Hatiya, Char Cyclonic storm 6,000 people killed
Jabbar Max. speed 129km/hr
Surge height 3m
1963 May 28-29 Noakhali, Chittagong, Coxs Cyclonic storm 11,520 people killed
Bazar Max. speed 201km/hr
Surge height 6m
1965 May 11-12 Noakhali, Kutubdia Island, Cyclonic storm 19,270 lives lost
Barisal, Chittagong Max. speed 161km/hr
Surge height 4m
1985 May 24-25 Noakhali, Hatiya, Char Cyclonic storm 11,069 lives lost
Jabbar, Sandwip, Coxs Max. speed 154km/hr 135,033 livestock lost
Bazar, Chittagong Surge height 4m
1991 April 29 Noakhali, Patuakhali, Cyclonic storm 150,000 people and
Barisal, Chittagong, Coxs Max. speed 193km/hr innumerable animals

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Month and Nature Of Approximate
Year Affected Area
Date Phenomena Damage
Bazar, Kutubdia Island Surge height 6m killed
Source: District Water Resource Assessment, May 2006

Air Quality The Department of Environment (Chittagong Division) does not have any record
on regular air quality monitoring program for ambient condition or emission for the Project area.

During field survey, no particular problem with air quality could be noticed. The apparently good
air quality is probably due to the fact that there are no big industrial installations or brick fields
near the project area that could serve as a major source of air pollutants (see photographs).
The existing power supply is provided by a 280 kW diesel generator which operates for only four
hours daily.

3.2.2 Water Resources

Hatiya Island is exposed to the sea and Meghna estuary is about 8 km away from the site. Tidal
behavior varies along the coast in terms of magnitude but not of pattern. The variation in such a
short coastline might be attributed to the shallowness of the Bay and varying topography of
coastal waters. The tidal range at the Noakhali coast is strong, ranging from 0.48 m at neap tide
to 3.79 m at spring tide (Table 3.4).

Table 3.4 Monthly extreme tidal level


at Meghna River near Noakhali Coast in 2007

Month Highest (m) Lowest (m)


January 2.12 0.60
February 2.10 0.51
March 2.41 0.48
April 2.54 0.76
May 2.97 1.17
June 3.41 1.74
July 3.78 2.16
August 3.79 2.17
September 3.46 1.75
October 2.91 1.47
November 2.50 0.89
December 2.18 0.69
Source: Bangladesh Tide Tables, 2007)

Water Quality Water quality in the coastal environment of the Bay of Bengal is affected
by pollution originating from land-based sources including industry and agricultural discharges
directly into the Bay. Industrial pollution from land-based sources is known to occur but
monitoring data have not been identified. Marine oil tankers operations including shipping
vessels activities are also a source of pollution. Scrapping of vessels on the beaches north of
Chittagong is the source of many types of air, water and ground pollution.

Ground water samples were collected from the tube wells of CDSP Bazar and Jahajmara Bazar
of Jahajmara union (Figure 3.1)), which are about 2 km and 4 km distance, respectively from the
nearest boundary of the project area. Water of these tube wells has been used mainly for
drinking purpose. The ground water depths were 860 feet in CDSP Bazar and 1150 feet in

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Jahajmara Bazar (Table 3.5). Iron concentration ranges between 3.68 and 4.78 mg/l, levels that
are not hazardous for human health, which was also confirmed by the local community. They
also mentioned that there was no problem of iron-related-spot in the cloth, household materials
and others till now. Chloride concentration varies 7.09 to 10.64, which is also favorable for
drinking water quality. The arsenic concentration is much lower than the WHO standard (0.05
mg/l) in drinking water and the team found no case evidence of arsenic poisoning among the
local community.

Table 3.5 Groundwater quality of tube well near the Project area

Tube Well Ground water quality (mg/L)


Station Location -
depth (feet) Fe Cl As
GW1 CDSP Bazar (GW1) 860 4.78 7.09 0.009
GW2 Jahajmara Bazar 1150 3.68 10.64 0.010
Source: EIA Report for offshore drilling over Hatiya Prospect, Cairn Energy Sangu Field Ltd., October 2007

3.2.3 Geology and Soil

Geomorphologically, the proposed area falls under the Meghna Deltaic Plain. The Meghna
Deltaic Plain lies between the Tetulia and Sandwip Channels at the head of the Bay of Bengal.
It represents the present-day active deltaic region that draws nearly the entire water/sediment
influx of the GBM river system.

The major soils are grey to olive, deep, calcareous silt loam and silty clay loams and are
stratified either throughout or at shallow depth. Calcareous Alluvium and Non calcareous Grey
Floodplain soils are the dominant general soil types. Top soils and sub soils of the area are
mildly alkaline. General fertility is medium but low in Nitrogen and organic matter.

3.3 Biological Environment

3.3.1 Fisheries

The Hatiya Island is located at the downstream of the Meghna estuary and subjected to
massive erosion in the north-eastern side. The geographical and physical setting of Hatiya
Island provides a unique ecological characteristic that supports the abundance of different
aquatic organisms. The Hatiya coast is free from industrial or other pollutants; thus it has
become an ideal feeding, breeding, nursing and spawning ground for many aquatic organisms,
including some commercially important fisheries. Table 3.6 presents the available fish species in
Hatiya coast.

Table 3.6 Fish species around Hatiya Island of the Bay of Bengal

Fish Species Composition


Local Name English Name Scientific Name
Pitambari Skate (Guitar fid) Rhynchobatus diidinensis
Ilish (jatka) Shad (river shad) Hilsa Ilisha
Loittya Bombay duck Harpodon nehereus
Gongra Cat fish Tachysuus Thalassinus
Kamila Eel Muraenesox Talabonoides
Koral Sea Bass Lates Calcarifer
Kauwa Hard Tail Megalaspis Cordyla

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Fish Species Composition
Local Name English Name Scientific Name
Ranga choukya Red snapper Lutianus Johnii
Samudra koi Triple tail Lobotes surinamensis
Sadha Datina White Grunter Pomadasys hasta
Guti poa Jew fish otolithes maculates
Rupa poa Silver jew fish Otolithes argenteus
Bole koral Grouper Epineplelus Lanceotatus
Hundra Lady fish Sillago domina
Guti poa Jew fish otolithes maculates
Lambu poa Long Jew fish Otolithes brunneus
Kala datina Black Jew fish Johnius diacanthus
Lal poa Silver Jew fish Johnius argentatus
Chhuri Ribbon fish Trichiurus haumela
Nailla Spral Dussumieria acuta
Koiputi Gizzard Shad Anodontostoma Chacunda
Acfhila Lizard Fish Anodontostoma tumbil
Bata Mullets Mugil spp.
Barguni Therapon perch Therapon spp
Riksha Long thread Tassel fish Polynemus paradiseus
Taka chanda Silvar belly Leiognathidae spp
Kukur jib Tongue sole Cynoglossus spp
Potka Blow fish Lagocephagus spp
Chiring Gobiod Boleophthalmus boddacnti
Pangas Pangas Pangasius pangasius
Loilla icha Small prawn Metapenaeus bruicornis
Kurkuirra icha Small prawn Metapenaeus affinis
Lalche icha Small prawn Penaeus japonicas
Godda icha Small prawn Parapenaeopsis
Chamma icha Small prawn Solenocera crassicornis
Loitta icha Small prawn Metapenaeus mirabile
Gura icha Small prawn Exopalaemon styliferus
Guda chingri Small prawn Alphus euphrosyne
Source: EIA Report for offshore drilling over Hatiya Prospect, Cairn Energy Sangu Field Ltd.

About 30% people of the Hatiya Island directly or indirectly earns mainly from the Open Water
Capture Fisheries. The Closed Water Culture Fisheries is not significant in the study area. The
capture fisheries is dominated by the rich and influential persons since the business needs a
high capital investment for hiring fishermen, mechanized boats, nets etc.

In addition to their daily activities as full-time, part-time and subsistence fishermen, some of the
communities engage daily laborers to help catch fish in the large mechanized boats. Most of the
fishermen live on others land or government Khash lands. In general, their economic condition
is poor.

In south of Hatiya Island, fishermen go about 50-100 nautical miles out into the Bay of Bengal
for fishing but in north, north-east and west side they use only the zone 2-5 km from the island
for fishing.

3.3.2 Flora

The Project area is within the Meghna floodplain, dominated by freshwater environment,
inhabited by freshwater plants and animal species and that of the Meghna Estuary floodplain,

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influenced by saline to brackish water environment and inhabited mostly by salt tolerant
species.

The floristic composition of the district is characterized by the luxurious growth of different
species of Supari, Taal, khejur, Narkel are to be seen in the Pourashava. Planted tree species
like Segun, Babla, (Mehogoni, Raintree, Arjun etc. can also be seen along the roadside. Among
terrestrial herbal/medicinal flora includes Shajon, Latkon, Nageshor etc.

Some aquatic plant species are distributed in the wetlands and marshy lands area. Shapla
(water Lily),Kalmi lata, Halencha, Kochuripana, Shola etc.

3.3.3 Fauna

Among terrestrial fauna mammals Bege, Indur, Chika, Katbiral etc. are common; Shial,
Bagdasha are uncommon. Among terrestrial fauna reptiles Tiktiki, Kalo gui, Gokhra sap, Kasim,
Dora sap, etc. are common. Among terrestrial fauna amphibian Sona bang and Kuno bang are
common; Among terrestrial fauna birds, Doyel, Moyna, Tia, Bulbul, Tuntune, Charai, Sada bok,
bali hans. etc. are common; Sojaru, Ban Biral, Khaksial, etc. are rare.

There is no marine turtle breeding ground in Hatiya Island as reported by the local community.
There is no indication of any vulnerable, threatened or endangered wildlife on or in the vicinity of
the Pourashava area.

3.4. Socioeconomic Environment

Hatiya Island is an Upazila under the Noakhali District. It is comprised of 11 Unions of which the
nearest human settlement from the proposed project area is Burirchar Union (see Figure 2.7).
For conducting a meaningful socio-economic impact study of the proposed activities of the PV-
Wind-Diesel Hybrid project, Burirchar union was taken as reference zone for collecting relevant
baseline information on socio-economic profile.

Area

Total area of Burirchar union is 77.63 sq. kilometer (Personal communication): Hatiya Upazila
Health Officer, July 2005; Satellite Image Mosaic 2001 Landsat TM, EGIS).

Demography

The Population is 76, 469 having a households (HHs) number of 13,520: The average HH size
is with 5.66 persons. The male to female ratio is 1.04. There are around 30 floating households
in this area.

Resources

There is a good opportunity of open fishing from surrounding Shahabazpur River, Burir Chara
khal and Bay of Bengal. The larger part of the land is habitable and arable and residual is sandy
and mudflat.

Agriculture All Kharif and Rabi (seasonal) crops including HYV Paddy, Pulse, Mustard Seed,
Groundnut, Wheat, Green Chili, Sweet Potato, Onion, Garlic, vegetables etc. are produced.

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Fishery -Total Ponds: 200, Marine Fishing HH: 853, Marine Fishing Population: 5204, Marine
Fisherman HH with Boat: 10, Fisheries Labourer HH: 15. Huge amount of Fish catches from
adjacent rivers, local ponds, canal, khals and Bay of Bengal. No prevention of migratory species
of fish into any seasonally flooded interior areas of Mainland.

Forest: Mangrove plantation covers around 2000 ha (southeast). Fruit and timber trees are
present in almost all homesteads.

Figure 2.7 Location of Burirchar Union

Occupation Major sources of income come from crop production/sharecropping, followed by


fishing, agricultural daily labour, business and employment. But, main source of income for poor
vulnerable household is rickshaw / van pulling and informal employment (daily wage labour) at
urban centre.

Education Literacy Rate (Average): 17.0% School - 14; College -1

Other Infrastructures Godown (No):1 Market Centre (No): 6; Road-cum- Embankment:


25 (km) Mill/ Factory: 5; Family Planning Centre (No):1 Post Office: 1 Boat Ghat: 2 Launch
Ghat: 1 Comm. Bank: 1

Drinking Water & Sanitation Access to Sanitary Latrine: 317 HHs; TWs: 3234 HHs

NGO 2 (ASA and DUS).

Other Information It has internal road communication by baby-Taxi, van and rickshaw. Sea
truck and launch services are there. Country boat and trawlers are also the sources of

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communications.

Sources: (i) Personal communication: Hatiya Upazila Health Officer, July 2005, (ii) Satellite Image Mosaic 1999-2001 Landsat TM,
EGIS, (iii) LGED Base Map- Thana Hatiya, UNDP/ILO Project BGD/ 89/ 041.1993, (iv) Bangladesh Population Census, 1991, Zila-
Noakhali, BBS, Published October 1993, (v) Name of Islands with District & Thana for MES Project Area, 1997, (vi) Household Agri.
Survey, MES, March, 1997, and (vii) List of Marine Fishing Village in Patuakhali, DoF, 1998

4.0 Screening of Potential Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Measures

4.1 Impacts during Construction Phase

The construction work will consist of site preparation and the assembly of solar panels and
EWG for the four units at the wind farm. Considering the nature of the construction works,
construction activity will only create minor and manageable environmental disturbances such as
noise from trucks and excavation equipment, which will have small impacts on farm workers and
adjacent residential areas.

No toxic and hazardous materials will be used in the construction apart from diesel oils for
vehicles, which will be properly stored. Both the new solar and wind sites will be properly fenced
prior to the commencement of any work activity to keep people and animals from straying onto
the site during construction and operations.

Machinery employed during construction will be properly stored at a concrete platforms and
bunding containment provided. Machinery will be properly, maintained and fuelled at designated
areas including the diesel generator site to be upgraded in the BPDC site in Hatiya town. The
present agricultural land required for development of the project will be compacted and some
trees will need to be removed.

The existing 11kV transmission route will be used to upload power to Hatiya town. A 4 km
power line is required to connect the solar and wind components of the project and will follow
the existing road alignment and the existing right of way (see Photograph 4.1). Any loss of trees
and any loss of private land required for power poles or site development will be compensated
for as per the measures in the Hatiya Resettlement Plan.

4.2 Impacts during Operation Phase

Soil erosion and run off will occur at the sites during rain events and, at the solar PV site from
daily washing and cleaning of solar panels. It will be necessary to create proper drainage during
construction and provide storm water basins for water collection and sediment retention at sites
to avoid surface water pollution.

The PV poly-crystalline modules to be used in the project are emissions free once they are
manufactured and have no emission impacts during operations. The only requirement during
construction is daily maintenance to keep cell surfaces clean to maintain maximum
performance. Proper arrangements will be made for solid waste and sanitation facilities.

Vegetation will be removed and there will be the required cutting of some trees. A tree planting
programme outside the project boundary will be undertaken generally around the site, but
specifically:

in the east for screening from the existing activities an old warehouse and army
barracks which are situated on the east and south side of the proposed location.

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in the west for screening and slope protection adjoining the river Kanafuli.

4.3 Decommissioning

It is possible to landfill the type of PV module being used at Kaptai. But such modules also
contain substances such as glass, aluminum and semiconductor materials that can be
successfully recovered and reused, either in new photovoltaic modules or other products.
Arrangements can be made with manufacturers to take back panels either at the end of the
project or as they are replaced.

4.4 Social and Resettlement Impacts

The land for the project is all privately owned farm land. 18 Households or 107 people will be
affected with loss of 35,086 m2 of land. One of the mentioned household will lose 10% of their
land, while seventeen of the eighteen households identified will lose less than 10% of their land.
The land is all cropped land so there will be loss of crops and permanent loss of a small amount
of land for the affected land owners. See photographs of land for the PV solar plant in Section
3.1 (Site Condition) of this report.

4.5 Positive Impacts

The project will bring reliable supply to Hatiya Island and provide a regular source of power. The
present service runs for only 4 hours. Business, education services and all forms of services will
benefit.

Project benefit also includes savings in the absence of the use of alternative sources of
conventional fossil fuels. There will be reduction in emissions from reduction in the use of diesel
fuel. Households currently meeting their lighting needs with kerosene, will switch over to
electricity, which will also contribute to air quality improvements and reduce fire-hazards.

Estimated CO2 emission reduction is about 1,900 tons per year for the power generated by the
solar PV-wind hybrid system equivalent to 3,040 MWh.

There will also be benefits in terms of local employment for construction and during the
operations phase when approximately 25-30 new staff will be needed for operation of the plant
and for cleaning of the PV modules.

5.0 Institutional Requirements and Environmental Monitoring Plan

BPDB currently operates the existing small diesel power plant with as small staff. BPDB will set
up a separate management structure to run the new system with three engineers and four
support staff. Environmental environment training will be provided to

The construction contracts will incorporate requirements for the EPC contractors to be
responsible for undertaking effective measures for environmental impact mitigation and the EPC
contractor will have to commit to the EMP (see Table 5.1). Environmental performance of the
EPC contractors will be monitored by the BPDB senior engineer.

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Table 5.1 Environmental Management Plan and Monitoring Program

Environmental Institutional Responsibility


Means of
Aspect & Remedial Measure
Implementation Implementation Supervision
Potential Impact
Construction stage
Removal of trees Identified trees to be Include conditions in Contractors Bangladesh
and vegetation removed from the site contract. Environment Power
and loss of before the BPDB responsible Engineer Development
agricultural land. commencement of for tree planting and Tree Board,
construction with prior landscaping at programme to
approval BPDB completion of be responsibility
Compensate for loss of construction work of BPDB
crops and permanent loss and for costs of this
of land trees and
livelihoods according to
the Resettlement plan
Noise to adjacent Noise levels to be kept Monitoring monthly Contractors Bangladesh
residential and within Bangladesh noise during the Environment Power
farming activity emission standards construction period Engineer Development
during & erection Board,
of solar panels
and wind using
plant & machinery.
Occupational Develop Safety Plan Supervision and EPC contractor Bangladesh
Health & Safety Provide Safety Manual Inspection on a Power
Issues Use of Personal daily basis during Development
Working with Protection Equipment construction period Board
Machinery & according to the
cranes OHS Plan
Working with
electrical risks.
Safety at site from Construct perimeter fence Part of construction EPC contractor Bangladesh
human and animal around sites at the contract and later Power
incursion. beginning of work to avoid maintenance by Development
people and domestic BPDB Board
animals entering the site
during construction and
operations.
Contamination of Machinery to be properly Conditions included EPC contractor Bangladesh
land and surface stored at a concrete in construction and later Power
water from platform and bunding contracts maintenance by Development
machinery activity containment provided. BPDB Board
and from use of oil Machinery to be properly,
and fuel maintained and fuelled at
designated areas
Operational Stage
Runoff from land Create proper drainage Include in contracts EPC contractor Bangladesh
from rain events during construction and during Power
on cleared land provide storm water basin construction and Development
and from washing for water retention BPDB in Board
of solar panels construction Environmental
resulting in erosion Engineer
& sedimentation in
the river.

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Environmental Institutional Responsibility
Means of
Aspect & Remedial Measure
Implementation Implementation Supervision
Potential Impact
Glint and glare This is not expected to be Regular monitoring BPDB to BPDB
from solar panels an issue but will be by the monitor and
monitored with a view Environmental discuss with
changing panel orientation Engineer local leaders
and village
groups as
required
Occupational Implement safety Weekly monitoring BPDB BPDB
Health& Safety measures as per the OHS environmental
manual engineer
Sanitation Toilet facilities to be Monitor septic tank BPDB BPDB
arrangements for provided for arrangements environmental
workers at site approximately 10 engineer
operation and
maintenance workers at
site with septic tank
facilities
Solid Waste Any solid waste generated Regular monitoring BPDB BPDB
Disposal at site will be collected in of waste disposal environmental
defined areas. arrangements. engineer
Any broken or deficient Monitoring of PV
PV cells will be stored and cells during regular
arrangements made to cleaning activity
recycle or send to
appropriate landfill sites
Noise from wind The best technology will Regular monitoring
operation be employed for to ensure noise
equipment and sound levels are within
impacts will be reduced to acceptable limits
a minimum
Impact to bird and The sites chosen are not Monitor operations
bat life from WTG on flight paths of migrant for any impacts to
birds. There will be only 4 wildlife
turbine units in operation.
Impact is assessed as
insignificant
If batteries are Develop arrangements Monitor battery use BPDB BPDB
used there may be with suppliers to return and ensure that environmental
soil and surface batteries or waste arrangements made. engineer
water disposal arrangements Records of disposal
contamination made arrangements to be
from batteries kept
Decommissioning Phase
Removal of PV Ensure a plan is Monitor situation and BPDB BPDB
panels at the end developed well in advance make environmental
of the project life of plant decommissioning decommissioning engineer
identifying recycling plan for recycling
options and make through
necessary arrangements manufacturer or
to recycle or dispose of determine landfill
panels and wind turbine options
generator components

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Environmental Institutional Responsibility
Means of
Aspect & Remedial Measure
Implementation Implementation Supervision
Potential Impact
(turbines and blades) in
appropriate land fill sites

6.0 Public Consultation and Information Disclosure

6.1 Consultation Meeting

A consultation meeting was held on January 26, 2011 with local government representatives,
businessmen, fishermen, farmers, teachers, and local workers. Major issues discussed by the
group were constraints faced by the community as a result of poor power supply and community
services. Local development is adversely affected, the people feel vulnerable because of the
lack of social infrastructure and public utility services.

Community opinions in regard to the proposed solar and wind plant establishment were as
follows:

the community as a whole agreed to the establishment and operation of the solar
and wind plant at the identified site
the people are ready to provide full support to assist the implementation of the
proposed plant
The land owners and community people were ready to surrender their land for the
project implementation
The people believe that the new system will provide them with electricity that will
improve their socio-economic development
The people are ready to pay for the electricity service
They think that the plant will be environmentally friendly.

7.0 Grievance Redress Mechanism

Similar to Kaptai solar PV, Hatiya solar PV-wind hybrid system will be implemented by BPDB,
thus, the grievance redress mechanism will be essentially the same as discussed below.

A grievance redress mechanism (GRM) will be established soon after project commencement.
The first level and most accessible and immediate venue for the fastest resolve of grievances is
the PMU, chiefly through the Project Manager of the BPDB, with assistance from the
Environmental Engineer. A contact phone number for complaints will be posted in the project
areas. Grievances will be resolved through continuous interactions with affected persons and
the PMU will answer queries and resolve grievances regarding various issues. Corrective
measures will be undertaken at the field-level itself within seven days. All grievances will be
documented with full information of the person and issue.

Should the grievance remain unresolved, the PMU's Project Manager, will activate the second
level of the GRM by referring the issue (with written documentation) to the local Grievance
Redress Committee (GRC) of the Upazila, who will, based on review of the grievances, address
them in consultation with the PMU and the affected persons. Affected persons also will have
the right to submit grievance at this level if they are not satisfied with the first level decision. A
hearing will be called, if necessary, where the affected person can present his/her
concern/issues. The process will promote conflict resolution through mediation. The local GRC

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will consist of the following persons: (i) Upazila Nirbahi Officer (GRC Chair); (ii) representative of
the head of the Upazila; (iii) representative of the affected persons; (iv) official of the
Department of Environment (DOE)s divisional office; and (v) Environmental Specialist of the
PMU. The local GRC will suggest corrective measures at the field level and assign
responsibilities for implementing its decisions.

The GRC will record any grievances, categorize and prioritize them and provide solutions within
a month; and will report to the aggrieved parties about developments regarding their grievances
and the decisions of the GRC. In the event that a grievance is not addressed, the aggrieved
person can seek legal redress of the grievance in the appropriate Courts.

8.0 Findings, Conclusions and Recommendation

The project sites for the solar and wind plant are on flat agricultural land; the diesel site is on
existing BPDB land in Hatiya. Some private land will be lost as a result of the project, no single
land owner loses more than 10% of his farm land and the people affected will be compensated
for loss of land and crops. The people in the area are eager for the project which they see as a
means of more secure power supply and associated benefits for business and work
opportunities.

The site is not located in a sensitive ecosystem, and has no historical and cultural value. The
nature of project and the clean nature of solar power and wind power generation mean that
there will be few significant lasting environmental and social impacts. Minor and transient
environmental disturbances will be experienced at the project site during construction and
operation, and they will be minimized through implementation of the EMP attached to this IEE. It
is recommended that this IEE is adequate to justify the environmental and social feasibility of
the Project. There is no need for further analysis and the environmental assessment of the
Project is considered complete.

BPDB is committed to its environmental and social responsibility and discharges this
responsibility in adherence to principles of good corporate governance. In its daily business
operations, BPDB will meet its environmental and occupational health commitments, and is
committed to the EMP measures. The project engineer responsible for project and the
construction and operations phase of the project will be provided with environmental training.

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III. 1,000 km Solar PV and LED System of Streetlighting for Cities

1.0 Introduction

Energy shortages pose perhaps the biggest threat to Bangladeshs future economic growth. The
present maximum demand for electricity varies between 4,500 MW and 5,600 MW and it is
expected to rise to 7,000 MW within the next two years. Maximum generation available is
between 3,800 MW and 4,600 MW. The estimated demand supply gap currently is 2,000 MW.
The National Strategy for Accelerated Poverty Reduction (FY 2010-11) indicates that by 2021,
all citizens of Bangladesh will have access to electricity. Bangladesh also has a policy which
aims to increase the share of renewable energies to 5% of the total power generation in 2015
and to 10% by 2020.

The Government of Bangladesh has requested the Asian Development Bank and the Islamic
Development Bank for co-financing of up to $300 Million for the implementation of the
Bangladesh Power Systems Efficiency Improvement Project (the Project). The project aim is to
assist the Government of Bangladesh (GOB) in combating this energy crisis through appropriate
candidate subprojects both grid and off-grid under a loan program. Four subprojects were
selected to be financed under this Loan. Three of the projects focus on generation of clean
energy and improving power supply to the national power grid network in Bangladesh and one
sub-project providing off-grid or direct sources or providing power to specific communities.
The 1000 km Solar PV LED Street Lighting subproject is one of the sub-projects being
considered and it focuses on energy efficiency with the replacement of existing street lights with
solar power as the source of energy. It is proposed to replace lighting along 1000 km of city
roads in Bangladesh with more efficient light sources and solar PV modules for energy
generation.

The proposed projects executing agency is the Bangladesh Power Development Board (BPDB)
but project implementation will be done through the countrys 6 city corporations.

This Initial Environmental Assessment (IEE) has been prepared as part of the ADB TA
Preparing the Power System Efficiency Improvement Project in Bangladesh. The IEE is
designed to comply with the ADBs Safeguard Policy (2009) and the ADBs Environmental
Assessment Guidelines (2003).

2.0 Description of the Project

2.1 Background

The main benefits of city street lighting include provision of security to communities and
improvement of driving visibility contributing to safe vehicular movement. The costs of providing
street lighting (installing, energizing and maintaining street lights), however, becomes a huge
burden to almost all city governments in the world. Of these costs, energizing the street lights
represents the single biggest component.

The utilization of LED (light emitting diode) lamps reduce lighting intensity and improves energy
efficiency, thus reducing overall electricity consumption for street lighting and helping to lower
electricity costs significantly.

The combined use of LED lamps and solar PV for street lighting further reduces the annual
costs in the provision of street lighting services. Solar PV in tandem with LED lamps for street

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lighting improves electricity services (by freeing up electricity consumption of street lights and
making it available to other consumer segments). This will in turn contribute to energy sector
goals of improving energy security (energy efficiency improvement and use of renewable energy
resources), environmental protection, etc and to global objectives by reducing greenhouse gas
emissions.

The proposed project will demonstrate the technical feasibility of solar PV and LED lamps for
street lighting in Bangladesh and will serve as capacity building tool for the use of energy
efficient lighting technology and renewable energies for street lighting services in Bangladesh
and the region.

Street lighting impacts on safety of road users as well as communities through improved road
visibility and prevention of criminal activities. In view of the importance of street lights and the
cost involved in providing this necessary service, it is essential that city governments must take
advantage on the combined use of technological advancement in lighting technologies and
renewable energies.

The costs of providing street lighting services can be reduced through the following:

Replacing inefficient lights


Reducing the number of lamps
Installing efficient switching equipment
Reducing operating hours
Improving maintenance and data management
Improving input voltage quality/optimizing power factor

Of the above options, efforts to reduce lighting intensity are the easiest to implement and cost
the least. LED technology offers several advantages over other lighting options.

Energy efficiency - LED lamps are 7 times more energy efficient than incandescent and
twice as efficient as fluorescent lamps.

Low light pollution LEDs produce directional light. Almost all the light form street lights
using LED is directed downwards and there is a reduction in light pollution.

Directional light improves efficiency, as the 20-50% light that was being wasted by being
directed upwards is now used to illuminate the road.

Low carbon footprint of manufacture LEDs last 4 to 10 times longer than any other
bulbs, further reducing the carbon footprint of manufacture over their life time. LEDs also
consist of plastic and electric wires alternative options often have heavy metal bases
that use much more energy in their manufacture.

Low replacement costs Long lifespan ensures that maintenance costs are very low. A
LED based light system can last 10 17 years as against 12 months for high pressure
sodium vapour (HPSV) lamps.

Intelligent lighting controls Intelligent systems use computers to optimize lighting. It is


possible to dim or switch off lights during hours of low traffic, brighten individual lights or
light clusters selectively as traffic approaches and reduce light intensity during twilight

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hours. It is also possible to selectively change light color to ensure best visibility under
different conditions. All these possibilities are available with LED lighting systems.

Excellent color rendering index High pressure sodium vapour (HPSV) lamps may
produce more lumens but since they produce mostly yellow light, the contrast is poor as
well as the visibility. Far fewer, well directed lumens from a LED lamp can provide the
same service as that from a bigger HPSV light.

2.2 Location

The six cities for the project are Dhaka, Chittagong, Khulna, Rajshali, Sylhet and Borishal (see
Figure 2.1 for locations).

Figure 2.1 Location of the Six City Corporations

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Specific streets to be replaced with solar PV LED street lamp have not been identified yet but a
tentative allocation by city could be based on their shares of the total length of streets in the six
respective city corporations. This allocation is shown in Table 2.1 with Dhaka and Chittagong
receiving more than 77% of the funding on the basis of the relative size of the street system in
the respective cities.

Table 2.1 Tentative allocations of solar PV LED street lighting project

2.3 Project Technical Details and Components

2.3.1 Scope and Layout

The Solar PV LED street lamp proposed for the project consist of the following elements:

LED luminaire
Street light mounting pole
Solar PV module
Battery
Solar charge controller
Timer and automatic controller
Cables

It is assumed that new pole mountings will be erected. Figure 2.2 shows the arrangements for
the solar module, the LED luminaire and the storage battery and pole mounting.

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Figure 2.2 Solar PV LED solar street light system

LED lamps have rectangular beam pattern and generate uniform illuminance. Typical lighting
areas that will be covered by a LED lamp based on various street pole heights are shown in
Figure 2.3 below. These parameters will be used as the basis for determining pole height and
spacing for this LED street lighting project.

Presently, the number of street lights in major cities of the country ranges from 33 to 38 poles
per kilometre. This gives between 26 30 meters street light pole spacing. Street lamp pole
heights vary according to road type. In Dhaka, street lamps along the airport road have height of
around 15 meters, while those along the city centre range from 8 to 12 meters.

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Figure 2.3 Lighting area and pole height relationship of typical LED street lamp

2.3.2 Solar PV and Battery Specifications

For the feasibility study an international climatological database was used to derive the relevant
radiation data. The database uses long time data sets from local stations in Bangladesh to
calculate hourly values, monthly average values and yearly sums for various climate parameters
such as radiation, temperature, precipitation and sunshine duration. For locations where there
were no data available from measurement stations, the data were calculated by means of an
interpolation of the available stations based on a 3-D inverse distance model.

The global horizontal irradiation consists of direct and diffuse radiation while the irradiation on
the tilted surface, in addition includes ground reflected radiation (albedo). The annual sum for
global horizontal irradiation (GHI) in Dhaka is 1,842.1 kWh/m. The seasonal pattern for
irradiation shown in the table below indicates highest GHI values in spring and low during
summer though this is the period with longest solar days. But summer is also the monsoon
season with high degree of cloud cover, affecting negatively the direct irradiation. The GHI also
appears to intensify from winter to spring which is explained by the onset of the dry season.

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Figure 2.4 Monthly Solar Irradiation for Dhaka

The solar irradiation for both horizontal and inclined plane (15) are the following:

Solar Radiation per m (0): 1,842.1 kWh/m


Solar Radiation per m (15): 1,911.8 kWh/m

LED Lighting Output Requirement

The project feasibility study adopts Standards for from the Integrated for Street Lighting Project
for Delhi, India. Three different road classifications are identified and the illuminance criteria for
the different road types are as indicated in Table 2.2.

Table 2.2 Categories of Road and Lighting Requirement

Lighting Output
Road Category Type of Road
Requirement
A1 Dual/single carriageway, width > 10.5, 35 Lux (lumens/m2)
12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 30 meters
A2 Single carriageway, width > 7 m up to 10 25 Lux (lumens/m2)
m
A3 Single carriageway, width < 7 m Colony 20 Lux (lumens/m2
Roads

PV and Battery Sizing

To determine solar PV panel size and battery size, the following is assumed:

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Hours of operations per day: 12 hours from 1800 0600 hours daily
Days of autonomy: 3 days
Battery voltage level: 12 V
Array inclination: 15 degrees

With the above assumptions, the 40-watt LED lamp systems average daily energy requirement
is 0.480 kWh per day. To satisfy the illuminance requirements for the three different luminaire
sizes, the following module size and battery size is determined as in Table 2.3.

Table 2.3 Panel and Battery Sizes

Luminaire size PV Polycrystalline Solar Module Battery Size


Size
15 Watt LED 40 Wp PV panel 50 Ah, 12 volts
30 Watt LED 75 Wp solar PV panel 100 Ah, 12 volts
40 Watt LED 100 Wp solar PV panel 150 Ah, 12 volts

2.3.4 Summary of Technical Specifications

Using an average street light pole spacing of 30 meters, the 1000-kilometer of streets covered
by the project will require about 33,000 lighting units. A summary of the project technical
parameters are indicated in Table 2.4.

Table 2.4 Solar PV LED lamp technical parameters

The total project cost amounts to USD 66 million with more than USD 54 million in foreign
currency. This is shown in Table 2.5.

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Table 2.5 Estimated solar PV LED costs per luminaire size

2.4 Project Schedule

The physical works for the project site preparation, foundation work, installation of poles and
fixture assembly are expected to take 13 months.

2.5 Category of Project

Under Bangladesh regulations the Department of the Environment does not requires an IEE to
be approved for street lighting. For ADB an Initial Environmental Examination is required.

3.0 Socioeconomic Profile of the Cities

3.1 Dhaka

3.1.1 Administration

Dhaka City Corporation (DCC) is located in central Bangladesh at 23420N 902230E/23.7N


90.375E, on the eastern banks of the Buriganga River. The city covers a total area of 153.84
square kilometres (59.40 sq mi). It consists of eight principal thanas Lalbagh, Kotwali,
Sutrapur, Ramna, Motijheel, Paltan, Dhanmondi, Mohammadpur, Tejgaon and 16 auxiliary
thanas Gulshan, Mirpur, Pallabi, Shah Ali, Turaag, Sabujbagh, Dhaka Cantonment, Demra,
Hazaribagh, Shyampur, Badda, Kafrul, Kamrangir char, Khilgaon and Uttara. In total the city has
130 wards and 725 mohallas.

The Dhaka City Corporation is a self-governing corporation which runs the affairs of the city.
The incorporated, area is divided into several wards, which have elected commissioners. The
mayor of the city is elected by popular vote every five years.
3.1.2 Population and Households

The population of Dhaka City Corporation stands at approximately 7.0 million. The city, in
combination with localities forming the wider metropolitan area, is home to an estimated
12.8 million as of 2008. The population is growing by an estimated 4.2% per year, one of the

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highest rates amongst Asian cities. Following table reflects the population status of Savar
Upazila and Dhamsona Unions, under which the study area is located.

Table 3.1 Population Status of Savar Upazila and Dhamsona Union, Dhaka

Area Total Population Male (%) Female (%)


Bangladesh 156,050,883 53 47
Dhaka City Corporation 7,996,000 55.15 44.85
Source: Population Census, 2001

3.1.3 Literacy and Educational Institutions

The literacy rate is estimated at 62.3%. The city population is composed of peoples from
virtually every region of Bangladesh. Dhaka has the largest number of schools, colleges and
universities of any Bangladeshi city. The education system is divided into 4 levels: Primary (from
grades 1 to 5), Secondary (from grades 6 to 10), Higher Secondary (from grades 11 to 12) and
tertiary. There are 52 universities in Dhaka.

3.1.4 Occupational Details

The city has a growing middle class population, driving the market for modern consumer and
luxury goods. The city has historically attracted a large number of migrant workers. Hawkers,
peddlers, small shops, rickshaw transport, roadside vendors and stalls employ a large segment
of the population rickshaw-drivers alone number as many as 400,000. Half the workforce is
employed in household and unorganized labour, while about 800,000 work are in the textile
industry. Even so, unemployment remains high at 23%. As of 2009, Dhaka's Gross Municipal
Product (GMP) is registered at $81 billion. With an annual growth rate of 6.2%, the GMP is
projected to rise to $215 billion by 2025. The annual per capita income of Dhaka is estimated at
$500, with 48% of households living below the poverty line, including a large segment of the
population coming from the villages in search of employment, with many surviving on less than
$10 a day.

Table 3.2: Occupational Status of Dhaka City Corporation

Groups by
Dhaka City Corporation
Occupation
Agriculture 1.62%
Agricultural laborer 0.41%
Wage laborer 2.71%
Industrial laborer 1.87%
Business 29.08%
Service 35.49%
Transport 8.53%
house renting out 2.23%
Construction 2.76%
and others 15.3%
Source: Population Census, 2001

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3.1.5 Religion

Islam is the dominant religion of Dhaka's people. About 92.72% of the city practicing the
religion; with a majority belonging to the Sunni sect. There is also a small Shia sect, and an
Ahmadiya community. Hinduism is the second-largest religion, with about 6.5%, and smaller
communities practice Buddhism and Christianity, with each constituting about 0.78% of the total
population.

3.1.6 Public Health

Dhaka has a water-borne sewage system, but this serves only 25% of the population while
another 30% are served with septic tanks. Only two-thirds of households in Dhaka are served
by the city water supply system. More than 9.7 million tonnes of solid wastes are produced in
Dhaka city each year. While private and government efforts have succeeded in collecting
garbage city-wide and using it as manure, most solid wastes are often dumped untreated in
nearby low-lying areas and water bodies.

3.1.7 Archaeological, Historical and Cultural Sites/Resources

Archaeological heritage and relics in the city are LALBAGH FORT and the tomb of Bibi Pari
(1668), BARA KATRA (1641), CHHOTA KATRA and the tomb of Bibi Champa (1663), Ancient
Fort and the palace of the Nawab (Jail Hospital, 1638), AHSAN MANZIL (1872), HUSAINI
DALAN (1642), Binod Bibi Mosque (1456 AD), Seven Domed Mosque (1676), Chawk Mosque
(1676), Bibi Meher Mosque (1814), Armanitola Mosque (1716), Khawja Shahbaj Mosque
(1679), Shayesta Khan Mosque (1664-78), Khawja Ambar Mosque (1677-78), Moriam Saleh
Mosque (1706), Sitara Begum Mosque (1815), Farruk Shayer Mosque (1703-1704), Tara
Mosque, Azimpur Mosque (1746), Kartalab Khan Mosque (1700-1704), Holy Rosary Church
(1678), Setara Begum Mosque (1819), Bagmara Math (Nawabganj), Home stead of Raja Harish
Chandra (eighteenth century, Savar), Shree Shree Sani Ashram and Math (1199 AD),
Dhakeshwari Mandir (eventeenth century), Jaykali Mondir, Bahadur Shah Park, Nimtali Deuri
(Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, 1765).

3.1.8 Transport

Cycle rickshaws and auto rickshaws are the main mode of transport, with close to 400,000
rickshaws running each day the largest number for any city in the world. However, only about
85,000 rickshaws are licensed by the city government. Relatively low-cost and non-polluting
cycle rickshaws nevertheless cause traffic congestion and have been banned from many parts
of the city. Public buses are operated by the state-run Bangladesh Road Transport Corporation
(BRTC) and by private companies and operators. Scooters, taxis and privately owned
automobiles are increasingly becoming popular with the city's growing middle class. The
government has overseen the replacement of two-stroke engine taxis with "Green taxis" locally
called CNG, which run on compressed natural gas.

Dhaka has 1,868 kilometres (1,161 mi) of paved roads. It is connected to the other parts of the
country through strong highway and railway links.

3.2 Chittagong

3.2.1 Administration

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Chittagong City Corporation (under Chittagong Development Authority) is a city in southeastern
Bangladesh built on banks of the Karnaphuli River. The city is home to Bangladesh's busiest
seaport and has a population of over 2.5 million, making it the second largest city in the country.
Chittagong is located at 22220N 91480E/ 22.366667N 91.8E/ 22.366667. It has a total
area of 157 square kilometers (61 sq mi).

The city is divided into several wards and mahallas, under the jurisdiction of the Chittagong City
Corporation. Chittagong City Corporation is governed by the city mayor, who is an elected
representative for a 5 years term. Chittagong City Corporation has 41 wards.

3.2.2 Population and Households.

Chittagong city has a population of 4 million, male 54.36% and female 45.64%. Population
density per square km is 15276. Islam is the most common religion among the people. Total
population of CCC is 2,579,107 (2008) and population density15,351/km2. Total area is
168 km2 (64.9 sq mi)

Table 3.3 Population Status of Chittagong City Corporation

Area Total Population Male (%) Female (%)


Bangladesh 156,050,883 53 47
Chittagong City Council 4 million 54.36 45.64
Source: Population Census, 2001

3.2.3 Literacy and Educational Institutions

Average literacy is 43.2%; male 50.3%, female 35%. Educational institutions consist of
university 3, medical college 2, Bangladesh institute of technology 1, college of physical
education 1, teachers training college 1, regional public administration institute 1, polytechnic
institute 1, homeopathy college 2, nursing institute 1, forest research institute 1, veterinary
college 1, home economics college 1, Bangladesh military academy 1, vocational institute 1, law
college 2, art college 1, marine academy 1, marine fisheries academy 1, cadet college 1,
madrasa 217, college 103, high school 574, junior school 4 and primary schools 2,240.

3.2.4 Occupational Details

The breakdown of employment in Chittagonb is shown below

Table 3.4 Occupational Status of Chittagong City Corporation

Groups by Occupation Chittagong City Council


Agriculture 18.71%
Fishing 1.16%
Agricultural labourer 12.13%
Wage labourer 3.54%
Business 16.58%
Service 24.09%
Transport 4.52%
Industry 1.72%

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Groups by Occupation Chittagong City Council
Construction 1.43%
Others 16.12%
Source: Population Census, 2001

3.2.5 Religion

Muslims form 83.92% of the population. Other major religions are Hinduism (13.76%);
Buddhism (2.01%), Christianity (0.11%) and others 0.2%.

3.2.6 Public Health

The following are the facilities available in Chittagong - Health centres Government Hospital 20,
Upazila Health Complex 5, Private Hospital and Clinic 225, Child and Maternity Welfare Centre
75, Satellite Clinic 127, Family Planning Centre 361 and Veterinary Hospital 8.

3.2.7 Archaeological, Historical and Cultural Sites/Resources

Archaeological heritage and relics to be found in the City are Bronze statues (8th and 9th
centuries, in Anwara upazila), Fakira Mosque (Hathazari), Musa Khan Mosque (1658), Kura
Katni Mosque (1806), Kala Mosque (16th century), Chhuti Khan Mosque (Mirsharai), Kadam
Mobarak Mosque (1719), Andar Killah Mosque, Wali Khan Mosque (1790), Badar Awlia Dargah,
Bakshi Hamid Mosque of Banshkhali (1568), Chittagong Court Building (1893), Collegiate
School, Ethnological Museum (1974).

3.2.8 Transport

Roads available in the City consist of Pucca roads 985.32 km, semi pucca roads 912.87 km,
mud road 6534 km. There are also 146 km of railways; 67 nautical miles of waterways and one
airport. Traditional transport - palanquin, horse carriage and bullock cart are also available, but
are much reduced in use.

3.3 Sylhet

3.3.1 Administration

Sylhet City Corporation (SCC) is located at 245330N 915300E / 24.8917N 91.8833E /


24.8917; 91.8833, in the north eastern region of Bangladesh in the Sylhet Division of the Sylhet
District and Sylhet Sadar Upazila. The area of SCC is 26.50 km2 (10.2 sq mi). SCC consists of
27 wards and 210 mahallas.

3.3.2 Population and Households

The population of SCC within the city corporation, is approximately 463,198 in 2008 (density
population is 17,479 per km).

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Table 3.5 Population Status of Sylhet City Corporation

Area Total Population Male (%) Female (%)


Bangladesh 156,050,883 53 47
Sylhet City Corporation 427,265 54.68, 45.32;
Source: Population Census, 2001

3.3.3 Literacy and Educational Institutions

Average literacy is 44.5%; male 50.6%, female 38.4%. Educational institutions are as follows:
university 1, medical college 3, polytechnic institute 1, PTI 1, college 35, vocational training
institute 1, high school 218, primary school 1320, madrasa 148.

3.3.4 Occupational Details

Occupational involvement of Sylhets population is as indicated in Table 3.6.Nearly half 46.6%


of the population are involved in agriculture.

Table 3.6 Occupational Status of Sylhet City Corporation

Groups by Occupation Sylhet City Corporation


Agriculture 30.82%
Agricultural labourer 15.59%
non agricultural labourer 7.33%
Fishing 3.6%
Business 12.2%
Transport 2.21%
Construction 1.66%
house renting out 3.11%
Others 23.48%.
Source: Population Census, 2001

3.3.5 Religion

The breakdown of religious affiliation is Muslim 91.96%, Hindu 7.80%, Christian 0.09%, and
others 0.15%; ethnic nationals: Khasi (Khasia), Manipuri and Patra (Pathar).

3.3.6 Public Health

Health facilities consist of Hospitals 3, upazila health complex 10, union health and family
planning centre 68 and satellite clinic 17

3.3.7 Archaeological, Historical and Cultural Sites/Resources

Archaeological heritage Stone monument in Sylhet area are Jaintapur, Mound of Gharduara,
Gaiyabi Mosque, tombs of Hazrat shah jalal (r) and shah paran (r), Abu Torab Mosque, Nawabi
Masque, Mughal Mosque at Akhalia, Dhaka Dakshmin Temple, Tin Mandir (trio temple).

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3.3.8 Transport

Sylhet has 794 km of pucca roads, 275 km of railways with airway connections to Dhaka and
abroad. Palanquin and horse carriage are no long in use. The main transport systems used in
the city are Cycle rickshaws, auto rickshaws (mainly known as baby-taxis or CNGs), buses,
mini-buses and cars. There are about 80,000 rickshaws running each day. Sylhet is well
connected by highways and railway links to Chittagong and Dhaka, as well as other parts of
Sylhet. Highway links to India have been established through the Asian highway. The Sylhet
Railway Station is the main railway station providing trains on national routes operated by the
state-run Bangladesh Railway.

3.4 Rajshahi

3.4.1 Administration

Rajshahi City Council (RCC) is administered through a mayor and 30 ward commissioners who
are elected for a five year period by direct votes. Rajshahi is located in the north-west of the
country and has an estimated population of around 475,000 people. Its total area is 96.69 km2
(37.33 sq mi) and it is situated on the northern banks of the river Padma (or Ganges which is
one of the major rivers of the Indian subcontinent). Rajshahi consists of 4 Thanas, 35 Wards
and 175 Mahallahs.

3.4.2 Population and Households

The area of the Rajshahi Town is 96.69 sq km. It consists of four thanas, 39 wards and 169
mahallas. The town has a population 646716. Density of population is 6689 per sq km
(Population Census 2001, Preliminary Report).

Table 3.7 Population Status of Rajshahi City Corporation

Area Total Population Male (%) Female (%)


Bangladesh 156,050,883 53 47
RCC 646,716 52.42 47.58
Source: Population Census, 2001

3.4.3 Literacy and Educational Institutions

Average literacy is 30.61%; male 37.6% and female 23.2%. Educational institutions consist of
the following: university 1, medical college 1, engineering college 2, college 110, teacher's
training college 2, law college 1, agriculture college 1, physical training college 1, survey
institute 1, para medical institute 1, silk research institute 1, homeopath college 1, primary
teacher's training institute 1, nursing institute 1, police academy (sardah) 1, cadet college 1,
madrasa 267, high school 393, junior high school 10, government primary school 559, non-
government primary school 430, community school 4, KG school 8. Noted educational
institutions include : Rajshahi College (1873), Rajshahi BB Academy (1898), Rajshahi Medical
College (1949), Rajshahi Collegiate School (1928), PN Girl's High School (1886), Rajshahi
Government Madrasa (1874), Diamond Jubilee Industrial School (1898), Sardaha Police
Academy (1912), Putia PN Technical High School (1865), Birkudsha Abinash High School
(1917, Bagmara upazila), Sreedhar Government Primary School (1857, Durgapur upazila),
Godagari High School (1948), Mohanpur Pilot High School (1948), Shitlai, Kharkhari and

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Naohata Primary School (1885, Paba upazila), Talonda Ananda Mohan High School (1882,
Tanore upazila).

3.4.4 Occupational Details

More than 60% of the population are reliant on agriculture for work; the full breakdown of
occupations is shown in Table 3.8.

Table 3.8 Occupational Status of Rajshahi City Corporation

Groups by Occupation RCC


Agriculture 38.73%
Agricultural labourer 23.64%
Wage labourer 3.50%
Service 8.81%
Business 12.44%
Transport 2.36%
Others 10.52%
Source: Population Census, 2001

3.4.5 Religion

The breakdown of religious affiliation is as follows: Muslim 93%; Hindu 5%, Christian 1.5% and
others 0.5%; ethnic nationals: Santal represents 2.34% of the total population.

3.4.6 Public Health

The breakdown of health facilities is as follow. Health centres Medical college hospital 1, zila
sadar hospital, diabetic hospital 1, heart foundation hospital 1, police hospital 1, railway hospital
1, leprosy hospital 1, prison hospital 1, TB hospital 1, TB clinic 1, triteness hospital 1, eye
hospital 1, upazila health complex 9, health & family welfare centre 77, maternity and child
welfare centre 1, veterinary hospital 1, and satellite clinic 88.

3.4.7 Archaeological, Historical and Cultural Sites/Resources

Archaeological heritage and relics in the city consist of two domed Kismat Madia Mosque
(eighteenth century), one domed Ruipara (Durgapur) Jami Mosque (sixteenth century),
Bagdhani Mosque at Paba upazila, three domed Bhagna Jami Mosque at Tanore upazila (1223
AH), tomb of Hazrat Shah Makhdum (R), tomb of Hazrat Shah Sultan at Godagari upazila
(fourteenth century), Bara Kuthi (eighteenth century), Talando Shiva Mandir (1860), Rajbari,
Govinda Mandir, Shiva Mandir, Gopal Mandir, and Dolmancha (Putia).

3.4.8 Transport

The city has 896 km of pucca roads, 686 km of semi pucca roads and 4726 km of mud road.
There are 70 km of railways, 13 rail station; 91 nautical miles of waterways and one airport.
Traditional transport was by palanquin, horse carriage and bullock cart but these means of
transport are either extinct or nearly extinct.

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3.5 Barishal

3.5.1 Administration

Barisal City Corporation (BCC) is situated on the northern shore of the Bay of Bengal in
southern Bangladesh. Barisal city corporation consists of 30 wards and 50 mahallas. The area
of the town is 16.37 sq km. Barisal municipality was established in 1957 and was turned into a
city corporation in 2000.

3.5.2 Population and Households

According to an estimate of 2008 Barisal has a population of 210,374, in which males constitute
53.28% and females 46.72%.

Table 3.9 Population Status of Barishal City Corporation

Area Total Population Male (%) Female (%)


Bangladesh 156,050,883 53 47
BCC 646,716 52.42 47.58
Source: Population Census, 2001

3.5.3 Literacy and Educational Institutions

Average literacy rate in the city is 42.9%; male 47.9%, female 37.9%. The following educational
institutions exist: university college 1, polytechnic institute 1, medical college 1, physical
education college 1, teacher's training college 2, nursing institute 1, cadet college 1,
government college 7, non-government college 39, government high school 4, non-government
high school 312, junior school 33, government primary school 1204, non-government primary
school 412, madrasa 698, cadet school 5, kindergarten 11, music school 2. Noted educational
institutions: sher-e-bangla medical college and Hospital, b m college (1889), Oxford Mission
High School, Barisal Zila School, Banaripara Union Institution (1889), Pinglakathi Government
Model Primary School (1882), Bheduriarchar Government Primary School (1892).

3.5.4 Occupational Details

Although a city, more than 54% of the population work in agriculture (see Table 3.10).

Table 3.10 Occupational Status of Barisal City Corporation

Groups by Occupation BCC


Agriculture 35.28%
Agricultural labourer 18.76%
Wage labourer 4.16%
Fishing 3.45%
Service 10.64%
Business 13.89%,
Construction 1.25%
Transport 1.72%
Others 10.85%.
Source: Population Census, 2001

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3.5.5 Religion

Barishal has the following break down of religious affiliation. Muslim 86.19%; Hindu 13.10%,
Christian 0.63% and others 0.08%.

3.5.6 Public Health

Barishal has the following health facilities; health centres Medical college hospital 1, private
hospital 7, upazila health complex 11, private clinic 6, union health and family planning centre
75, family welfare centre 37, satellite clinic 32.

3.5.7 Archaeological, Historical and Cultural Sites/Resources

Sites of archaeological heritage and relics in Barishal are Rammohan Samadhi Mandir, Sujabad
Kella, Sangram Kella, Sharkal Fort, Girja Mahalla, Bell's Park, Ebadullah Mosque, Kasai
Mosque, Oxford Church, Shankar Math, Kali Bari of Mukunda Das, Joint Mosque at Bhatikhana,
aswini kumar town hall, Charkella, durgasagar Dighi, one domed Mosque (Kasba), brass image
of Manasa weighing three maunds (Char Bania Bari).

3.5.8 Transport

Barishal has 362.5 km of pucca roads, 378 km of semi pucca roads, 3133 km of mud road. It
also has the following; waterways 355 nautical miles; airport 1. Traditional transport- Palanquin,
horse carriage, bullock cart and Gaina boat are nolonger used or are declining in use in the city.

3.6 Khulna

3.6.1 Administration

Khulna City Corporation (KCC) is the third largest city in Bangladesh. It is located on the banks
of the Rupsha and Bhairab rivers in Khulna District. Khulna (Town) consists of 38 wards and
183 mahallas. The area of the town is 59.57 km2 (23 sq mi).

3.6.2 Population and Households

The city has a population of 1227239 with a density of people of 59574 per sq km.

Table 3.11 Population Status of Khulna City Corporation

Area Total Population Male (%) Female (%)


Bangladesh 156,050,883 53 47
KCC 122,7239 52.79 47.21
Source: Population Census, 2001

3.6.3 Literacy and Educational Institutions

Average literacy in the city is 43.9%; with 52.2% for male and 34.6% for female. Educational
institutions consist of the following: university 1, university college 1, medical college 1,
Bangladesh Institute of Technology 1, teacher's training college 1, regional public administration
training institute 1, polytechnic institute 1, vocational institute 1, homeopathic college 1, social

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welfare training centre 1, madrasa 205, government college 5, non-government college 42,
government. secondary school 9, non-government secondary school 248, lower secondary
school 107, government primary school 625, non-government primary school 79, community
primary school 34, satellite primary school 63, NGO operated school 199, primary teacher's
institution 1.

3.6.4 Occupational Details

Table 3.12 Occupational Status of Khulna City Corporation

Groups by Occupation KCC


Agriculture 25.11%,
Agricultural labourer 11.3%,
Wage labourer 7.15%,
Fishing 1.66%,
Service 18.93%,
Industry 16.38%,
Transport 4.09%,
Construction 1.53%,
Others 12.22%.
Source: Population Census, 2001

3.6.5 Religion

Religious affiliation in the city is as follows; Muslim 73.49%, Hindu 25.74%, Christian 0.67%,
Buddhist 0.04%, and Others 0.06%.

3.6.6 Public Health

There are the following health facilities: Health centres Medical college hospital 1, district sadar
hospital 1, upazila health complex 9, TB hospital 1, infectious disease hospital 1, christian
missionary hospital 1, salvation army (NGO) hospital 1, chest disease niramoy centre 1, railway
hospital at kopilmuni 1, jail hospital 1, police hospital 1.

3.6.7 Archaeological, Historical and Cultural Sites/Resources

There are few archaeological resources in KCC with the Masjeed Kur Mosque and a House of
Sir Prafulla Chandra Roy the main sites of interest.

3.6.8 Transport

In the city there are 400 km of pucca road, 350km of semi pucca road, with 3575 km of mud
roads. There are 36 km of railway and 470 nautical miles of waterways. The Palanquin
traditional transport is no longer used, and horse carriage and bullock cart are hardly used.

4.0 Screening of Potential Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Measures

4.1 Construction Impacts

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The project is for the replacement of existing street lamps and costing for the project includes
the price of new poles. If new poles are used it will also be necessary to remove existing power
poles; this should be done in conjunction with the installation of the new poles. Erection of the
lighting poles will involve site preparation, foundation installation and fixtures assembly and
these activities are likely to have minor environmental impacts. The removal of existing poles
will have some added impacts.

There is likely to be a local small increase in traffic and noise, dust, and sediment. There will be
short term disruption of vehicle and pedestrian traffic. Any grass verges or landscaping affected
or destroyed will need to be repaired and replaced by the City Councils. There will be some
impact from noise and if existing light poles and associated infrastructure such as wiring are
removed.

For traffic control and safety, workers will be used to direct vehicles and pedestrians to facilitate
the movement of construction vehicles. Construction barriers will be erected for safety and to
direct pedestrian traffic safely around the construction activities. Traffic flow through the site will
be coordinate and properly controlled. To avoid noise site work activities will be restricted to
daytime operations. Measures to combat dust emissions will be employed by spraying with
water as necessary. Workers will be required to use appropriate personal protection equipment
while working in areas susceptible to noise and dust.

Generated wastes from any demolition and erection activities will be disposed of off-site in an
appropriate, legal, and safe manner. In the event that hazardous wastes are generated during
construction, the contractor will properly dispose of them off site in accordance with appropriate
waste regulations. All other wastes generated on site will be disposed in accordance with
appropriate waste disposal regulations.

Part of the project will be retrofit and part will be new installation. Bulbs that will be replaced by
new solar PV LED may be re-used in other areas without street lighting to minimize disposal.
Proper disposal will be ensured for those existing bulbs that will not be re-used.

The same existing poles will be used for the installation of the new solar PV LED lights so there
will be no disposal.

4.2 Operation Impacts

As this is a replacement project on existing city streets where there are existing lighting poles
and systems, there are likely to be no additional negative impacts from this project. The project
takes place along well established urban streets with existing street lighting. The sites will
consist of streets with paved roads, walkways and some lawn and landscaped areas. There will
be no generation of waste and no increase in water consumption.

There will be no impacts on historic sites or recreational and park areas. The operation of these
replacement lighting fixtures will not generate any noise and no long term impacts are
anticipated to local traffic. There will be no vegetation or habitat loss and no impacts on any
wildlife.

4.3 Decommissioning and Replacement

The PV solar module being to be used contain substances such as glass, aluminum and
semiconductor materials that can be successfully recovered and reused, either in new

163
photovoltaic modules or other products. The modules have long lives but arrangement will be
made with manufacturers to take back panels either at the end of the project or as they are
replaced and appropriated recycled or disposed of.

Similarly batteries used in the system will need to be properly recycled or disposed of by the six
city corporations. The Corporation will identify recycling options and ensure that any lead-acid
batteries are collected and either dispose of as hazardous waste according to the requirement
of GOB regulations or are recycled using recognized and reputable agencies and procedures.

4.4 Social & Resettlement Impacts

All the land for the replacement project is publicly owned land inside existing right of ways. No
Issues are triggered under ADB safeguard policy and no indigenous Population will be impacted
by the project at this site.

4.5 Positive Impacts

The project is basically designed as an energy efficiency project which will reduce demand on
existing conventional sources of power generation by using a LED lighting system and switching
street lighting to a solar source of power. LED lamps are significantly more efficient than
incandescent and fluorescent lamps and are low light polluting. LEDs have a low carbon
footprint lasting 4 to 10 times longer than any other bulbs and there is a low replacement &
maintenance cost as a LED based light system can last 10 17 years.

Assuming that the existing streetlight system is using 150 Watt (W) high pressure sodium vapor
lamps11, replacing the same with 15 W LED solar PV system at 33,000 units (for the entire
1,000 km), the CO2 emission reduction per year is estimated at about 18,100 tons. This
reduction represents 24,571.8 MWh of electricity saved from conventional power source.

Over a 20-year period, the project will generate 491,436 MWh of power. The use of solar
generation means that there will be significant savings of 361,992 tons of CO2 over a 20 year
period (see Table 4.1).

Table 4.1 Estimated Electricity Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction

Total
Annual Total
1 Net Annual Generation
Emissions Factor (tons CO2/MWh) emissions emissions
Generation Over 20
reductions reductions
years
(20 years)
Operating Build Combined MWh MWh Tons CO2 Tons CO2
Margin Margin Margin
0.7231 0.7502 0.7366 24,571.8 491,436 18,099.6 361,992
1
CDM SSC-POA Efficient Lighting Initiative of Bangladesh

11
Baseline technology

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5.0 Environmental Management and Monitoring Plan and Institutional Requirements

The six city corporations will follow the Guidelines indicated in the attached general
Environmental Management and Monitoring Plan (see Table 5.1) and will ensure there is proper
supervision of the safety and environmental impacts and suggested mitigation measures below.

The BPDB will be the executing agency responsible for overall guidance and project
implementation. A PMU headed by a Project Director, will implement the project. This sub
project is part of the larger Project investment, including other Subprojects for which BPDB is
responsible; to ensure effective implementation of the EMP aspects, at least one environmental
safeguard specialist will be recruited to assist the PMU in this regard. The PMU will submit
reports on a semi-annual basis to ADB. Corrective actions will be taken when necessary based
on close monitoring and results of grievance redress process.

Table 5.1 Environmental Management Plan and Monitoring Program

Environmental Institutional Responsibility


Means of
Aspect & Remedial Measure
Implementation Implementation Supervision
Potential Impact
Construction stage
Removal of Vegetation program for Regular monitoring City Council or City Council
landscaping and any replanting of verges City council or EPC EPC contractor
vegetation during and central reservation. contractor to
erection of poles.

Noise to Work to be restricted to Regular monitoring City Council or City Council


residential and day time between 8 and EPC contractor
commercial area 6 p.m.
during erection &
removal of old
lamp poles
Occupational Develop Safety Plan Supervision and Any EPC City Council
Health & Safety Provide Safety Manual Inspection on a contractor and
Issues Use of Personal daily basis during the City Council
Working with Protection Equipment construction period
Machinery & according to the City
cranes Council OHS Plan
Working with
electrical risks.
Disruption to traffic Sites to be properly Proper monitoring by Any EPC City Council
and pedestrians cordoned off alternative EPC contractor and contractor and
during erection pedestrian access City Council the City Council
and any demolition provided. Traffic direction
work and diversion plans to be
implemented
Solid Waste Any solid waste generated Regular monitoring BPDB
Disposal at site or waste and rubble of waste disposal environment
from removal of poles will arrangements. engineer
be collected in defined Monitoring of PV
areas and properly cells during regular
disposed of. cleaning activity
Any broken or deficient
PV cells or batteries will
be stored and

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Environmental Institutional Responsibility
Means of
Aspect & Remedial Measure
Implementation Implementation Supervision
Potential Impact
arrangements made to
recycle or send to
appropriate landfill sites
Operation & Decommissioning
Broken or deficient Any PV cells will be stored Monitoring during City Council City Council and
PV cells and at special sites and routine cleaning and workers BPDB of all 6
batteries arrangements made to maintenance of PV Councils
recycle or send to cells.
appropriate landfill sites.
Used batteries will be
properly stored and either
recycle or disposed of
according to the
requirements of GOB

6.0 Public Consultation and Information Disclosure

During project implementation, consultation of local people and awareness will be ensured
through meetings organised by the Project Environmental Engineer in each of the affected
areas in the six City corporations. These meetings will be used to ensure that the community is
aware of the construction implementation plans, detailed design and EMP. The meetings will
also identify any implementation problems and timely remedial actions that will be undertaken.
Given the small magnitude of likely impact, only internal monitoring will be necessary.

7.0 Grievance Redress Mechanism

The streetlighting component will follow the same grievance process as the Hatiya solar PV-
wind hybrid system given that BPDB is also the Executing Agency. The process is described
below.

A grievance redress mechanism (GRM) will be established soon after project commencement.
The first level and most accessible and immediate venue for the fastest resolve of grievances is
the PMU, chiefly through the Project Manager of the BPDB, with assistance from the
Environmental Engineer. A contact phone number for complaints will be posted in the project
areas. Grievances will be resolved through continuous interactions with affected persons and
the PMU will answer queries and resolve grievances regarding various issues. Corrective
measures will be undertaken at the field-level itself within seven days. All grievances will be
documented with full information of the person and issue.

Should the grievance remain unresolved, the PMU's Project Manager, will activate the second
level of the GRM by referring the issue (with written documentation) to the local Grievance
Redress Committee (GRC) of the Upazila, who will, based on review of the grievances, address
them in consultation with the PMU and the affected persons. Affected persons also will have
the right to submit grievance at this level if they are not satisfied with the first level decision. A
hearing will be called, if necessary, where the affected person can present his/her
concern/issues. The process will promote conflict resolution through mediation. The local GRC
will consist of the following persons: (i) Upazila Nirbahi Officer (GRC Chair); (ii) representative of
the head of the Upazila; (iii) representative of the affected persons; (iv) official of the

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Department of Environment (DOE)s divisional office; and (v) Environmental Specialist of the
PMU. The local GRC will suggest corrective measures at the field level and assign
responsibilities for implementing its decisions.

The GRC will record any grievances, categorize and prioritize them and provide solutions within
a month; and will report to the aggrieved parties about developments regarding their grievances
and the decisions of the GRC. In the event that a grievance is not addressed, the aggrieved
person can seek legal redress of the grievance in the appropriate Courts.

8.0 Findings and Recommendation

The project is designed as a programme to reduce reliance on conventional sources of


electricity supply. The project involves replacement of existing lighting infrastructure so there are
no issues with respect to loss of livelihood or resettlement. There are no impacts on any
sensitive environmental receptors or historical and cultural values. Only minor and transient
environmental disturbances will be experienced at the project site during construction, and they
can be minimized through implementation of the EMP measures attached to this IEE.

The eventual disposal and/or recycling of solar PV modules will need to be handled to ensure
recycling and/or sending of the materials to land approved land fill. Used batteries will need to
be properly disposed of. It is recommended that this IEE is adequate to justify the environmental
and social feasibility of the Project. There is no need for further analysis and the environmental
assessment of the Project is considered complete.

BPDB is committed to its environmental and social responsibilities and will supervise the City
Corporations in the implementation of this project and ensure that the measures included in the
EMP attached to this IEE are complied with.

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