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Police = The governmental department charged with the regulation and control of the affairs of a
community, now chiefly the department established to maintain order, enforce the law, and prevent and
detect crime. (French word)

COMPARATIVE = an estimate of relative likeness or unlikeness of two objects or event

= package of transnational flow of people, production, investment, information, ideas and authority.
= growing interpenetration of states, markets, communication and ideas.
= The process of creating transnational markets, politics, and legal systems in an effort to form and
sustain a global economy.


= law enforcers are expected to be the protector of the people.unaccountable flow of
migration and open markets present new threats to state-based human rights regimes great challenge
to law enforcement.

Threats to Law Enforcement

increasing volume of human rights violations as evidence by genocide and mass killing
conflict between nations
Transnational criminal networks for drug trafficking, money laundering, terrorism
1. Common Law Systems = usually exists in English speaking countries of the world
= there is strong adversarial system and rely upon oral system of evidence in which the public
trial is a main focal point
= also known as Anglo-American Justice
2. Civil Law Systems = distinguished by strong inquisitorial system where less right is granted to the
accused and the written law is taken as gospel and subject to little interpretation
= also known as Continental Justice or Romano-Germanic Justice
3. Socialist System = distinguished by procedures designed to rehabilitate the offender.
= known as Marxist-Leninist Justice and exist in places such as Africa and Asia
4. Islamic System = based more on the concept of natural justice or customary law or tribal traditions


Continental = is the theory of police service which maintains that police officers are servants of
higher authorities. This theory prevails in the continental countries like France, Italy and Spain.

Home Rule = the theory of police service which states that police officers are servants of the
community or the people. This theory prevails in England and United States. It is also the police
service which prevails in country with decentralized form of government. This is likewise the police
service theory that should prevail in the Philippines based on the existing laws, concepts and principles.


a. Old police service = states that the yardstick of police proficiency relies on the number
of arrest made.

b. Modern police service = states that the yardstick of police proficiency relies on the
absence of crime.

Deviance Control = is the modern police function which primarily involves the mission to reinforce
community values and laws. This was adopted by Germany, China and Japan.

Civil order control = is not organizationally separated from deviance control but is performed by regular
street police in the country of England and United States.


Praetorian guards = military bodies who serve as guardians of peace in ancient Rome in which
the idea of policing said to have originated
Officer de la Paix = a French term which claimed to be the origin of the term Police Officer

1. Anglo-Saxon Period of Policing System (Ancient England)

Quest Review Center Comparative Police System 1
A. Tun Policing System
A system of policing emerged during the Anglo-Saxon period whereby all male residents were
required to guard the town (tun) to preserve peace and protect the lives and properties of the people.
About 700 AD, the people living in England in small rural towns used the Anglo-Saxon System.
Ten families in a town (tun) equaled a tithing. Each tithing elected a leader who was known as the
Tithingman. Since 10 tithings amounted to 100, the leader of the 100 families was named the reeve.
Both the tithingman and reeve were elected officials. They possessed judicial power as well as police

B. Hue and Cry

A village law started in Britain which provided methods of apprehending a criminal by an act of
the complainant to shout to call all male residents to assemble and arrest the suspect.

C. Trial by Ordeal
A judicial practice where in the guilt or innocence of the accused is determined by subjecting him
to an unpleasant, usually dangerous, experience. (In present terminologies, it would mean an
employment of a 3rd degree.) The word ordeal was derived from the Medieval Latin word Dei
Indicum which means a miraculous decision.

2. Norman Period of Policing System

This system of policing existed during the time of Norman William The Conqueror (King of
France). When he invaded and conquered England, a military regime of conquers and dictators began
and changed the concept of crime being committed against the state.

A. Shire-Rieve
Shire-Rieve was a policing system during the Norman Period when England was divided into
fifty-five (55) military areas, each headed by a ruler called the Rieve (head-man or lieutenant of the
army). The fifty-five (55) military divisions in England are called shires. The shire-rieve had absolute
powers that no one could questions his or her actions.
Two Constabuli or The Keeper of the Horse were appointed to each village to aid the
Rieve in his duties. It became the source of the word Constable.
The term Shire-Rieve is said to be the origin of the word Sheriff.

B. Travelling Judge or Circuit Judge

A judge selected to hear cases which were formerly being judged by the Shire-Rieve and tasked
to travel through and hear criminal cases. This was the first instance of the division of the police
and judicial powers.

C. Legis Henrici
An act that was enacted during this period with the following features:
Offenses were classified as against the king and individual.
Policeman becomes public servant.
The police and the citizens have the broad power to arrest. It introduced the system called
citizens arrest.
Grand Jury was created to inquire on the facts of the law. A system which made inquisition onto
the facts of a crime and eliminate the Anglo-Saxon Trial or Trial by Ordeal System.

D. Frankpledge System
A system of policing whereby a group of ten neighboring male residents over twelve years of
age were required to guard the town to preserve peace and protect the lives and properties of the people

3. Westminster Period of Policing System

It is called by this name because the laws governing policing came out of the capital of England,
which at the time was Westminster. This period has the following features:
Guards were appointed and the duties of the constables at night (watch) and in daytime
(ward) were defined
Statute of Westminster of 1285, a collection of regulations aimed at keeping the peace.

B. Statute of 1295
The law that marks the beginning of the curfew hours, which demanded the closing of the
gates of London during sundown.
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C. Justice of the Peace (About 1361)
Three or four men who were learned in the law of the land were given authority to pursue,
arrest, chastise and imprisonment violators of law. They handled felonies, misdemeanors and
infractions of city or village ordinances. This was later abolished about 75 years after.

D. Star Chamber Court (1487)

A special court designed to try offenders against the state. The room set-up is formed in a
shape of a star and judges were given great powers such as the power to force testimony from a
defendant leading to a great abuse of power or brutality on the part of the judges.

4. Keepers of the Peace

A proclamation issued by King Richard of England sometime in 1195 that required the
appointment of knights to keep the Kings peace by standing as guards on bridges and gates while
checking the people entering and leaving the cities and towns.

5. King Charles II of England (1663)

King Charles II passed an act which established or promoted the employment of watchmen or
bellmen to be on duty from sunset to sunrise.

6. Magna Carta or "The Great Charter"

A law promulgated by King John of England upon the demand of the Knights of the Round
Table forcing the King to sign the same with the following features:
No freeman shall be taken, imprisoned, banished or exiled except by legal judgment of his peers.
No person shall be tried for murder unless there is proof of the body of the victim.


Henry Fielding = appointed as Magistrate in 1748, introduced the first detective force, known as
the Bow Street Runners
Bow Runners = a group of men organized by Henry Fielding and named by his brother John Fielding
task to catch thieves and robbers
identified by carrying a Tipstaff with the Royal Crown
= made up of eight constables who also investigated crimes handed over to them by the
volunteer constables and watchmen

1798 = Marine Police Force was established, salaried constables were being paid by local magistrates.
= initially made up of 220 Constables assisted by 1,000 registered dock workers, and was
responsible for preventing the theft of cargo. = widely regarded as being the first modern police force
in the world, in the sense that they were not government controlled and were responsible for the
prevention of crime.

Sir Robert Peel = appointed as Home Secretary in 1822

METROPOLITAN POLICE = organized in 1829 by Sir Robert Peel (Metropolitan Police Act of 1829)
= the largest of the police services that operate in greater London (the others include the City of
London Police and the British Transport Police)
= finest police force around the world.

TOTAL POLICING = motto of London Metropolitan Police

1833 = Coldbath Fields Riot (Grays Inn Road). A major crowd disturbance dealt with by the
Metropolitan Police with controversial use of force.
1836 = The Metropolitan Police absorb the Bow Street Horse Patrol into its control.
1838 = incorporates Marine Police and Bow Street Runners into the Metropolitan Police and
the disbandment of the Bow Street Office and other Offices. These were all agreed and put into

Administration Policing Principles of London Metropolitan Police

1. Stable and effective civil police under government control
2. Absence of crime is the best proof of efficiency
3. Fast distribution of crime news to the police is essential.

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Commissioner = highest rank in the Metropolitan Police
Police Constable = lowest rank

Contributions of the French in Policing

Assigning house numbers
Installing street lights
Use of police ambulances
Use of warrant card and ID signifying the authority to arrest


1. Municipal Police = includes village, township, city and country police departments, sheriff departments.
Types of Local Police
a. Country Sheriff = in charged with the operation of county jail, civil function such as service of
eviction notices and other court orders and police responsibility.
b. City Police = most common local police organization. It has jurisdiction in matters that occur in
an incorporated municipality.
2. State Police = includes special investigative agencies that concentrate on statewide law enforcement
3. Federal Police = agencies operated by federal government at the national level

Some Federal Agencies Having Police Functions

a. Protection of Life, Property and Enforcement of Penal Statutes
1. Federal Bureau of Investigation (Department of Justice) = investigates all violations of federal law
except when the enforcement authority was given to other specific federal agency
2. United States Secret Service (Department of Treasury) = concerned with investigation of
counterfeiting, forging or altering of any of the money or other securities of the U.S. It is also in charged
of the protection of the president and his family, and of the executive mansion grounds
3. Bureau of Narcotics (Department of Treasury) = investigated all violations of federal law relating to
prohibited drugs
4. Immigration and Naturalization Service (Department of Justice) = investigates all violations of
immigration and naturalization laws, patrol boarders to prevent surreptitious entry of aliens,

b. Protection of the National Revenue

1. Intelligence Unit of the Bureau of Internal Revenue = investigation of violations of income tax laws
2. Alcohol Tax Unit of the Bureau of Internal Revenue = violations of internal revenue laws
3. Division of Investigation and Patrol, Bureau of Customs = investigates smuggling activities and
enforces customs and navigation laws.
4. Private Police = additional police protection made by employing sworn officers through contract when
they are not officially on duty

Two Basic Forms of Private Police

a. Proprietary Police = when a person wish to receive service, he hires and security personnel directly
b. Contract Security = services of an independent security company

U.S. Police Agencies

New York City = it is where the first full time police force was organized in the United States
New York Police Department = the largest police force in the United States
Texas Ranger = police force originally created in response to colonization
Boston Police Department = first local modern police department established in the United
Pennsylvania State Police = the first state police agency established
Los Angeles Police Department = police force that hired the first female police officer
named, Alice Stebbins Wells

The United States police rank model is generally quasi-military in structure. Although the large
and varied number of federal, state, and local police departments and sheriff's office have different ranks,
a general model, from highest to lowest rank, would be:
Chief of Police/Police Commissioner/Superintendent/Sheriff
Deputy Chief of Police/Deputy Commissioner/Deputy Superintendent/Undersheriff
Major/Deputy Inspector
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Officer/Deputy Sheriff/Corporal

Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) = colloquially known as Mounties and internally as The
Force = is the national police force of Canada and one of the most recognized of its kind in the word
being a national, federal, provincial and municipal policing body. It is founded in 1920 by the Merger of
Royal Northwest Mounted Police(1873) with the Dominion Police (1868).
= headed by the Commission under the direction of the Minister of Public Safety Canada.

Commissioner = highest rank in the Royal Canadian Mounted Police

Police Constable 4th Class = lowest rank

Australian Police = a progressive and multi-faceted law enforcement organization, taking strong lead in
the fight against 21st century crime.
Commissioner = highest rank
Constable = lowest rank

Hong Kong Police Force
= is the largest disciplined service under the Security Bureau of Hong Kong. It is the world's
second, and Asia's first, police agency to operate with a modern policing system. It was formed on 1 May
in 1969, Queen Elizabeth II granted the Royal Charter to the Hong Kong Police Force for
their handling of the Hong Kong 1967 riots renaming them: the Royal Hong Kong Police Force.
Following the transfer of sovereignty, the Force is once again named the Hong Kong Police Force

Structure HKPF
The Force is commanded by the Commissioner of Police, who is assisted by two deputy
a. Deputy Commissioner Operations = supervises all operational matters including crime and
b. Deputy Commissioner Management = is responsible for the direction and coordination of
force management including personnel, training, and management services.

Motto =We Serve with Pride and Care

The Hong Kong Police Force is organized into Six Regions:

Hong Kong Island
Kowloon East
Kowloon West
New Territories North
New Territories South
Marine Region

The Force Headquarters (Management) is made up of five departments:

Operations & Support
Crime & Security
Personnel & Training
Management Services
Finance, Administration and Planning

Hong Kong Police College = s responsible for all matters relating to training within the Hong Kong
Police except internal security, Auxiliary and Marine Police training. Training provided by the Police
College includes recruit and continuation training, crime investigation training, police driver training and
weapon tactics training. The information technology training, command training, local and overseas
management training, some specialist courses and periodic courses on firearms and first aid are also
provided by the Police College.

Service Quality Wing = is responsible for spearheading initiatives to improve services provided to force
customers both external and internal. The wing comprises three branches: Performance Review,
Research and Inspections and Complaints and Internal Investigations (C&II)
Complaints and Internal Investigations (C&II) = includes the Complaints Against Police Office
(CAPO) oversees the investigation and successful resolution of all complaints made both externally and
internally against members of the force.
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Entry Requirements to HKPF
Must be a permanent resident of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and have lived in Hong
Kong for at least seven years.

For Inspector
Academic Requirements
Hong Kong degree, or equivalent; or
An accredited Associate Degree from Hong Kong tertiary institution / A Higher Diploma from a
Hong Kong polytechnic / polytechnic university, or a Diploma from a registered post-secondary
college awarded after the date of its registration, or equivalent; or
A pass in two subjects at Advanced Level in the Hong Kong Advanced Level Examination (2A)
plus three other subjects at Grade C or above in the HKCEE (3O), or a combination of results in
five Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education (HKDSE) subjects of Level 3 in New Senior
Secondary (NSS) subjects, Attained with Distinction in Applied Learning (ApL) subjects (subject
to a maximum of two ApL subjects) and Grade C in Other Language subjects, or equivalent.

For Police Constable

Academic Requirements

Five passes or above, which may include Chinese Language and English Language, in the
HKCEE, or a combination of results in five Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education (HKDSE)
subjects of Level 2 in New Senior Secondary (NSS) subjects, Attained in Applied Learning (ApL)
subjects (subject to a maximum of two ApL subjects) and Grade E in Other Language subjects, or

Selection Processes For Inspector

Written Examination
Extended Interview
Psychometric Test
Final Interview Board
Physical Fitness Test
Integrity Checks and Medical Examination

Selection Processes for Police Constable

Physical Fitness Test
Group Interview
Psychometric Test
Final Interview Board
Basic Law Test
Integrity Checks and Medical Examination

Commissioner of Police (CP)
Deputy Commissioner of Police (DCP)
Senior Assistant Commissioner of Police (SACP)
Assistant Commissioner of Police (ACP)
Chief Superintendent of Police (CSP)
Senior Superintendent of Police (SSP)
Superintendent of Police (SP)
Chief Inspector of Police (CIP)
Senior Inspector of Police (SIP)
Inspector of Police (IP)
Probationary Inspector of Police (PI)
Station Sergeant (SSGT)
Sergeant (SGT)
Senior Constable (SPC)
Police Constable (PC)
TAIWAN POLICE FORCE = is the unified police force of taiwan

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= under the supervision of NATIONAL POLICE AGENCY which is directly under the MINISTRY
= under effective civilian control

1) to maintain public order,
2) 2) to protect social security,
3) 3) to prevent all dangers, and
4) ) to promote the welfare of all people.


1. Administration Police = are generally referred to those who are required to wear uniforms to carry
out duties of household visits, patrolling, raid, guarding, duty officer, and reserves.
2. Traffic Police = the primary duties of the Traffic Police are to keep traffic order, to ensure traffic
safety, to prevent traffic accidents, and to smooth traffic flow.
3. Special Police = are those who are responsible for protecting the Central Government, establishing
contingent plans and assisting local and specialized police units in maintaining public order.
4. Criminal Investigation Police = the primary duties of the criminal investigation police are to prevent
and detect crimes.
5. Specialized Police = main duties are to protect state-run enterprises and public facilities like railways,
highways, airports, harbors, MRT and Bank of Taiwan.


Police Supervisor General
Police Supervisor Rank
Police Supervisor Rank Two
Police Supervisor Rank Three
Police Supervisor Rank Four
Police Officer Rank One
Police Officer Rank Two
Police Officer Rank Three
Police Officer Rank Four
Police Rank One
Police Rank Two
Police Rank Three
Police Rank Four

Myanmar Police Force = formally known as The People's Police Force (Burmese: Pyi Thu Yae Tup
= established in 1964 as independent department under Ministry of Home Affairs. It was
reorganized on 1 October 1995.
There are 14 State and Divisional Police Forces and three additional State/Division Police Forces

Each State and Divisional Police Force consist of four components

Office of the Commander of the State and Divisional Police Force
Office of the Commander of the District Police Force
Office of the Commander of the Township Police Force
Police Stations

1. Central Training Institute of Myanmar Police Force
2. No.1 Police Training Depot = undertakes Basic Training Course for Police Sergeant for 2 years;
Warrant Officer and Police Sergeants Course for 12 Weeks; and Basic Training Course for Constables
for 6 Month
3. No. 2 Police Training Depot = undertakes only Basic Training Course for Constables, which normally
takes around 6 months to complete.


Indonesian National Police (Kepolisian Negara Republika Indonesia) = is the official police force of
= organized 1946
= also known as Polri

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Markasbesar/Mabes = name of the headquaters of Indonesian National Police located in
KebayoranBaru, South, Jakarta, Indonesia


1. Kepolisian Daerah or polda = provincial police
2. Kepolisian Wilayah or Polwil = regional police
3. Kepolisian Resort or Polres = city police
4. Kepolisian Sector or Polsek = sub-district police

1. Brigade Mobile (BRIMOB) = the most militarized trained to deal with mass demonstrations
= paramilitary role to conduct security stabilization operations and providing security for VIP and
vital facilities
2. Anti-Riot Unit (Pasukan Anti Huru-Hura) = received special anti-riot training
3. Sea and Air Police = responsible patrolling the airspace
4. Plainclothes Unit = assigned in conducting investigations
5. Maritime Police = responsible in protecting the territorial sea
6. Anti-Terrorist Unit = trained in counter-terrorism
7. Forensics = in-charged of laboratory examination of evidence


At least sixth-grade education and should pass the competitive examination.
After 3 years, personnel with junior secondary diploma could enter into training to become NCO.


Police General = equivalent of Director General of PNP
Second Bhayangkara = equivalent of police officer 1 of the PNP

ROYAL MALAYSIAN POLICE (RMP: Malay: Polis Diraja Malaysia, PDRM) = police force of Malaysia.
= headquarters is located at Bukit Aman, Kuala Lumpur
= The constitution, control, employment, recruitment,fund, discipline, duties and powers of the
police force is specified and governed by the Police Act 1967

Motto = TEGAS, ADIL DAN BERHEMAH = Firm, Fair And Prudent

RMP Organizations
1. Management Department = the Management Department is tasked with the routine of management
and administration affairs of the RMP. This department is also the nerve centre of the RMP and acts as
the support services platform for the rest of the force.
2. Logistics Department = has the role to provide several equipments needed in RMP
3. Criminal Investigation Division = deals with the investigation, arrest and prosecution of hard
crimes (murder, robbery, rape etc) and petty crimes (theft, house-breaking etc).
= This department also specializes in gambling, vice and secret societies (triads)
Branches of Criminal Investigation Division
D1 Administrative Division
D2 Criminal Record Registration
D3 Internal Affairs
D4 Statistics
D5 Prosecution and Law Divisions
D6 Technical Assistance Division
D7 Gambling / Vice / Secret Societies
D8 Investigation Division / Planning
D9 Special Investigation Division
D10 Forensic Laboratory Division
D11 Sexual Investigation Division
D12 National Centre Bureau-Interpol Division

4. Narcotics Criminal Investigation Division = this department's function is to fight against

dangerous drugs by enforcing the law to stop and reduce the demand and supply of dangerous drugs.
5. Internal Security and Public Order Department = responsible for traffic control and Search &
Rescue (SAR) operations
6. The Police Field Force (PFF) = organized in battalions and was a para-military units of the Royal
Malaysia Police. Also known as the Jungle Squad
= established in 1948
7. Police Counter-Terrorism Unit = an elite unit of RMP responsible in counter-terrorism operations
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8. UNGERIN = Unit Gempur Marin (UNGERIN) (Marine Combat Unit) was established in 2006 and it was
fully operational by the end of 2007
= first name was Unit Selam Tempur due to the pressing need to suppress the pirate attacks
alongside the coastal area of Malacca Straits and open sea area of South China Sea which were
continuously widespread from time to time despite various efforts done to overcome the problem
= members received training from U.S
9. Federal Reserve Unit (FRU) = (Malay: Pasukan Simpanan Persekutuan)
= its role is riot suppression, crowd control, disaster relief & rescue, as well as special
operations assistance
= organized in 1955
10. C4-i Implementations System = (abbreviation for Command, Control, Communications,
Computer-Integrated) = based at Police Control Centre in all police contingents in Malaysia.
= this unit is assigned to patrol the city and the suburbs.
11. The Marine Operations Force or (Malay: Pasukan Gerakan Marin) = tasked with maintaining law
and order and coordinating search and rescue operations in the Malaysian Maritime Zone and on the
high seas
12. Royal Malaysian Police Air Wing Unit or Unit Udara PDRM (UUP) = is a special unit of Royal
Malaysia Police with a vital role in maintaining national security with thorough surveillance and patrol
from the air
13. Special Branch = This department is responsible for collecting intelligence for national security
14. Traffic Unit = responsible in maintaining the flow of traffic
15. Commercial Crimes Investigation Department = this department's main function is to investigate,
arrest, and prosecute offenders committing white collar crimes such as fraud, breach of trust, cyber-
crimes, forgery, counterfeiting etc
16. Mounted Police = police who patrol on horseback (equestrians) or camelback. They continue to
serve in remote areas and in metropolitan areas where their day-to-day function may be picturesque or
ceremonial, but they are also employed in crowd control because of their mobile mass and height

INSPECTOR-GENERAL OF POLICE = equivalent of director general (Philippines)
POLICE CONSTABLE = equivalent of police officer 1 (Philippines)

Francis James Bernard = formed the skeleton force as the heritage of Singapore Police Force in 1819.
Singapore Police Force (SPF) is the main agency task with the maintaining law and order in the
city-state. It is formerly known as Republic of Singapore Police. Organized with split staff (15)
and line functions (13) roughly modeled after the military. Headquarters at New Poenix Park in
Novena. The highest rank is Commissioner of Police and the lowest is Police Constable.
Section 7 of Police Force Act of 1857 = constitution of the SPF
High school graduates who were interested in law enforcement as a career can be recruited
and those who are selected for officers had to be approved by the Public Service Commission.
Career development course were encouraged for officer and senior officers are required to travel
oversees for training such as in Police Staff College in Britain, FBI Natl Academy in US
and Police Academy in Japan.
Nine (9) months training. Newly appointed officer will be placed on a one year probation

Commissioner of Police = equivalent of director general in the Philippines
Constable = equivalent of Police Officer 1 in the PNP


Keihoryo (Police Bureau within the Ministry of Home affairs to 1945)

Japanese Colonial Government = the one which organized the first formal policing in
Japanese Yakuza = considered as the center of Asian organized crime action.

1. National Public Safety Commission = a government body responsible for the administrative
supervision of the police. Under the jurisdiction of the Prime Minister
2. Japan National Police Agency (NPA) = a totally gunless police force, except for its special attack
Quest Review Center Comparative Police System 9
Organizations Attached to the NPA
a. National Police Agency = provides training to police officers and conduct academic research
b. National Research Institute of Police Science = conducts research in police science
c. Imperial Guards = provides escort to the Emperor, Empress, Crown Prince and other Imperial family.
= responsible for the security of Imperial Palace

3. Regional Police Bureau = exercise control and supervision over regional police offices and provides
support with the prefectural police.
Director General = heads each Regional Bureau acting upon orders from the Commission
General of the NPA.

Regional Police Bureau = the local organizations to carry out part of the NPAs functions. There are
about 7 Bureaus in the major cities except for Tokyo and Hokkaido where in Tokyo, Metropolitan
Police department (headed by Superintendent General) has long been established and shares the
same location with the NPA. Prefectural Police has the whole of Hokkaido under its jurisdiction.

4. Prefectural Public Safety Commission (PPSC) = administrative commission functioning under the
representative system which supervise the prefectural police. Under the Jurisdiction of the
Governor. Though not empowered to give order to the Commission.

5. Koban = a system of policing adopted in Japan, a substation near major transportation hubs and
shopping areas and in residential districts which forms the first line of police response to the public.
= Koban usually staffed by 3-5 officers and about 7000 residential police boxes (Chuzaisho-
staffed by a single officer). About 20 % of police is assigned to Koban.


Ministry of National Defense = is the top of the hierarchy with judicial and public security
agencies such as Ministry of Public safety and the Ministry of State Security.
Ministry of Public Security= is the principal police authority of the mainland of the Peoples
Republic of China which oversee the day to day law enforcement. (It is the equivalent of the
National Police Agency in Japan).
Ministry of State Security = the Chinese governments largest and most active foreign
intelligence agency, though it is also involved in domestic security matters.

Kinds of police
1. Peoples Armed Police (PAP), 1980s deals with domestic disturbances, acts as riot police and
guards government compounds and foreign embassies. Usually handles border defense but is called
sometimes to back up local police.
2. State Security Police = (1983) safeguards state security, prevent foreign espionage, sabotage
and conspiracies. Under the Ministry of State Security and directly accountable to the State council.
3. Prison Police = a part of the correctional arm of the overall police system stationed in prisons and
correction units. This is under the leadership of the Ministry of Justice.
4. Judicial Police = responsible for maintaining the security and order in courts and serving
instruments and some also executing death sentences.
5. Quasi parapolice (Cheng guan) = operate in many places and hired by officials to help carry out
some unpopular actions such as collecting taxes and fines and ousting peasants from seized land.

Special Police College = conducts nationwide recruitment once a year.

Central Military Commission = appoints police in China
Peoples Liberation Army = Chinese Armed forces.
Civil Service Promotion Examinations = basis for regulation of the Rank promotion Examination for
police officer.


Commissioner General = equivalent of Director General in the PNP
Constable 2nd Class = equivalent of Police Officer 1 in the PNP


Royal Thai Police = formerly known as THAILAND NATIONAL POLICE DEPARTMENT (TNPD)
= In 1998, TNPD was transferred from the Ministry of Interior of Thailand to be directly under the
Office of the Prime Minister using the name Royal Thai Police. The position of its supreme head was
changed from that of the Director-General of the TNPD to the Commissioner-General of the Royal
Thai Police

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Royal Thai Police Headquarters = based in Bangkok
Police-General = highest rank of the Royal Thai Police
Policeman / Constable = lowest rank


Royal Brunei Police Force (Polis Diraja Brunei PDRB) = created in 1921 which is
responsible for keeping law and order and providing law enforcement services throughout Brunei
Inspector-General of Police = highest rank
Lance Corporal = lowest rank

Philippine Police System

During the Spanish Regime
Maintenance of law and order is a part of the military system for the defense of the colony;
Locally organized police forces although performing civil duties is a direct adjunct of the
colonial military establishments; (policemen in appearance yet colonial soldiers in the
ultimate sense.
Police functions consisted mainly of (1) suppression of brigandage by patrolling unsettled
areas; (2) detection of local or petty uprising by spying upon the work and movements of
the people and; (3) the enforcement of tax collection including church revenues.
Cuardilleros = a body of rural police organized in each town established by Royal decree of Jan.
8, 1836. It mandates that 5% of the able bodied male inhabitants of each province where to be
enlisted in this police organization for 3 years. There services are originally not paid or gratuitous
subject to some privileges although in some province they received a proportionate pay ranging
from 4.00 to 8.00 depending on the revenue collection.
Carabineros De Seguridad Publica = Organized in 1712 for the purpose of carrying the
regulations of the Department of State. This was armed and considered as the mounted police
who later discharged the duties of a port, harbor and river police. It was later given special
commission by Royal Decree of December 20, 1842 and it was called Cuerco De Seguridad
Publica ( Corps of Crabbiness for Public Security).
Gurdia Civil = Created by Royal decree on February 12, 1852, to partially relieve the Spanish
peninsula troops of their works in policing towns. It is consisted of a body of Filipino policemen
organized originally in each of the provincial capital of the province of Luzon under the Alcalde
Philippine Commission Act No. of 175 = (July 18, 1901) an act providing for the organization
and government of an Insular Constabulary.
Sec. 1, Act 255 of October 3, 1901 = renamed the Insular Constabulary to Philippine
Constabulary (a national police institution for preserving peace, keeping order and enforcing the
Henry Allen = the first Chief of the Philippine Constabulary.
Rafael Crame = the first Filipino Chief of the Philippine Constabulary.
Act No 70 = (On January 9, 1901) The Metropolitan Police Force of Manila was organized
E.O. 389 = Ordered that the PC be one of the four services of the AFP, dated December 23,
P.D. 765 = Integration Act of 1975, dated August 8, 1975, established the Integrated National
Police (INP) composed of the PC as the nucleus and the Integrated local police forces as
components, under the Ministry of National Defense.
E.O. 1012 =transferred to the city and municipal government the operational supervision and
direction over the INP units assigned within their locality.
R.A. 4864 =It created the POLCOM (Police Commission) as a supervisory agency to oversee the
training and professionalization of the local police under the Officer of the President. Otherwise
known as the Police Professionalization act of 1966, dated September 8, 1966. It was later
renamed as the National Police Commission (NAPOLCOM).
E.O. 1040 = Transferred the Admin. Control and Supervision of the INP from the ministry of
National Defense to the National Police Commission
R.A. 6975 = It is otherwise known as the Department of Interior and Local Government Act of
1990, enacted on December 13, 1990. Established the PNP, BFP, BJMP and the PPSC.
R.A. 8551 Philippine National Police Reform and Reorganization Act of 1998, enacted 1998,
amending the provision of R.A. 6975
Act No. 181 = created the Division of Investigation (DI) of the Department of Justice dated
November 1938.
R.A. 157 = created the National Bureau of Investigation, enacted June 19, 1947 and later
reorganized by R,A. 2678
Line and Staff = the organizational structure of the P.N.P. which is also adopted by many police
organization in the world.

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P.N.P. = headed by Chief with a rank of Director General with two (2) Deputy Director General (1)
for Administration and (2) for Operation. Although there are three (3) Deputy Director General
SOP No. 7 = prescribed PNP guidelines in the conduct of operations against terrorists and other
lawless elements involved in terrorist activities.

United Nations = officially came into existence on October 24, 1945

= Coined by Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt in the declaration by United Nation. This
declaration was made to officially state the Cooperation of the allies (Great Britain, the United States,
and the Union of soviet Socialist Republics)

Branches of UN
1. UN general Assembly = This is the main decision- making and representative assembly in the UN
through its policies and recommendations. It is composed of all member states , is headed by a
president elected from the member states, and meets from September to December

Functions of General Assembly

a. Deliberative = initiating studies and making recommendations for the development of international law
b. Supervisory = receiving and considering annual and special reports from another organs
c. Financial = approval and apportionment of budget
d. Elective = election of non-permanent members of the security council
e. Constituent = admissions of members and the amendments of charter

2. UN Security Council = is another branch in the organization of the UN and is the most powerful of
all the branches.

a. Preventive Action = consist of provisional measures to prevent a conflict from worsening, and may
involve the deployment of PEACEKEEPING AND OBSERVER missions
b. Enforcement Action = consist of deployment of air, sea and land forces
Five Permanent Members of Security Council
1. China
2. France
3. Russia
4. United Kingdom
5. United States
*The other 10 members are rotating or elective members for a period of two years by the
General Assembly

3. International Court of Justice = Located in the Hague, Netherlands. This branch is responsible for
the judicial matters of the UN.
4.Secretariat = Its main responsibility is providing studies, information, and other data needed
5. Economic and Social Council = consists of 45 members elected by the General Assembly for a 3
year term.

Efforts are Towards the Following:

a. Higher standards of living
b. Condition of economic and social progress and development
c. Solutions of international economic, social, health and related problems
d. Universal respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms

6. Trusteeship Council = assists the security council and the general assembly in the administration of
the International Trusteeship System

UN CHARTER = it is closest to a constitution that basically governs the relations of international

persons. Technically, it is a Treaty.

TREATY = an international agreement concluded between states in written form and sworn by
international law, whether embodied in a single instrument or in two or more instruments and whatever
its particular designation.


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Interpol (1923) = (International Criminal Police Organization) is the police forces organization
that primarily manifest global or international cooperation in addressing transnational crime. Its
headquarters was initially located in Vienna Austria (it is where Interpol was founded) but at
present it is transferred to Lyon France.
INTERPOL = is the worlds largest international police organization, with 190 member countries.
It exists to help create a safer world by supporting law enforcement agencies worldwide to
combat crime.
It aims to facilitate international police co-operation, and supports and assists all organizations,
authorities and services whose mission is to prevent or combat internal crime.
= the organization of law enforcement agencies worldwide that serves as transmission or
communication line for the exchange of information, data and request for assistance
between and among the member countries.
It focuses on: (1) Combat crimes and transnational crimes; (2) protect minorities against the
dominant groups; and (3) Maintain law enforcement regardless of race or religion.

INTERPOL s Structure
General Assembly
Executive Committee
General Secretariat
National Central Bureaus
The Commission for the Control of INTERPOLs Files.

General Assembly = is the supreme governing body of the Interpol, it meets annually and
comprises delegates appointed by each member country. The assembly takes all important decisions
related to policy, resources, working methods, finances, activities and programmes.

Executive Committee = consisting of 13 members elected by the General Assembly and comprises the
president, three vice presidents and nine delegates covering the four regions.
It is the INTERPOLs select deliberate organ which meets three times a year, usually in March,
July and immediately before the General Assembly.

Current Members of the EC as of 2012

KHOO Boon Hui (Singapore) Current President and Singapores Senior Deputy Secretary of
the Ministry of Home Affairs and former Commissioner of Police.
3 Vice Presidents
Adamu Abubakar MOHAMMED (Nigeria)
Mireille BALLESTRAZZI (France)
Oscar Adolfo NARANJO TRUJILLO (Colombia)

9 Delegates
Pieter Jaap AALBERSBERG (The Netherlands)
Fath ELRAHMAN Osman (Sudan)
Emmanuel GASANA (Rwanda)
Francisco GIL MONTERO (Spain)
Nobuyuki KAWAI (Japan)
Tariq KHOSA (Pakistan)
Sanna PALO (Finland)
Marcos VASQUEZ MEZA (Chile)
Timothy A. WILLIAMS (United States)

General Secretariat = (Lyon, France) operates 24 hours a day, 365 days a year and is run by the
Secretary General. It Works with Officials of more than 80 countries side-by-side using four official
languages: Arabic, English, French and Spanish. It consists of seven (7) regional offices across the
world namely:
Cote DIvoire,
El Salvador,
Thailand, and

National Central Bureaus (NCB) = Each INTERPOL member country maintains a National Central
Bureau staffed by National law enforcement officers. The NCB is the designated contact point for the
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General Secretariat, regional offices and other member countries requiring assistance with overseas
investigations and the location and apprehension of fugitives.

Advisers = these are experts in a purely advisory capacity, who may be appointed by the Executive
Committee and confirmed by the General Assembly.

Commission for the Control of INTERPOL File (CCF) = this is an independent body whose mandate
is threefold:
(1) to ensure that the processing of personal information by INTERPOL complies with the
Organizations regulations,
(2) to advice INTERPOL on any project, operation, set of rules or other matter concerning the
information contained in INTERPOLS files.

INTERPOLs Governance = comprises the General Assembly and the Executive Committee, which is
headed by the President.
The President of the Organization is elected by the General Assembly for a period of four (4)
years. His role is to chair the General Assembly and Executive Committee and ensure that INTERPOLS
activities conform with decisions made at these meetings.

Oskar Dressler = the first secretary general of the Interpol.

Johann Schober = the first president of the Interpol.

1. Red Notice a notice which is issued to seek the arrest or provisional arrest of wanted persons with a
view to extradition.
2. Blue Notice this type of notice is issued in order to locate, identify or obtain information on a person
of interest in a criminal investigation.
3. Green Notice to warn about a person's criminal activities if that person is considered to be a
possible threat to public safety.
4. Yellow Notice to help locate missing persons, often minors, or to help identify persons who are
unable to identify themselves.
5. Black Notice a notice issued to seek information on unidentified bodies.
6. Orange Notice to warn of an event, a person, an object or a process representing an imminent
threat and danger to persons or property.
7. Purple Notice issued to provide information on modus operandi, objects, devices and concealment
methods used by criminals.
8. INTERPOLUnited Nations Security Council Special Notice is issued for individuals and entities
that are subject to UN sanctions.

The following are channels of global bilateral and multilateral international cooperation against
transnational crime:
Global multi-lateral cooperation via Interpol;
Bilateral police cooperation agreements with individual states;
European multilateral cooperation via Europol.

*System of policing that serves as a grass root approach to bring the people and the police together in
cooperative manners:
Problem Oriented Policing
Community Oriented Policing
Cooperative Policing
Team Policing


1. Secure Global Police Communications Services
INTERPOL developed the I-24/7 global police communications system to exchange crucial data
quickly and securely is a cornerstone of effective international law enforcement.

2. Operational Data Services and Databases for Police

INTERPOL provides operational data services and databases for police to fight
international crime, police need access to information which can assist investigations or help prevent
crime. INTERPOL manages several databases, accessible to the INTERPOL bureaus in all member
countries through its I-24/7.

3. Operational Police Support Services

a. 24-Hour Support
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The Command and Co-ordination Centre(CCC) operates round the clock in all of INTERPOLs
four official languages (English, French, Spanish and Arabic) and serves as the first point of contact for
any member country faced with a crisis situation.
b. Crisis Response and Major Events
In the event of a disaster or major crime, INTERPOL Response Teams or Disaster Victim
Identification teams composed of officers from the General Secretariat and member countries can be
dispatched to the scene within hours of an event.
c. International Alert System
An important component of INTERPOLs operational police support is the notice system, of
which the Red Notice for wanted persons is the most well known. In addition to the six color-coded
notices (Red, Blue, Green, Yellow, Black and Orange), is the INTERPOL-United Nations Special
Notice issued for groups or individuals who are the targets of UN sanctions against Al Qaeda and the
d. Analyzing Crime Data
Criminal intelligence analysis is recognized by the law enforcement community as a valuable
tool, helping to provide timely warning of threats and operational police activities. INTERPOL contributes
to investigations by assisting officers working at the General Secretariat and in member countries with
research and analysis on crime trends and with training courses in criminal analysis techniques.

Divisions of Criminal Intelligence Analysis

a. Operational Analysis = aims to achieve a specific law enforcement outcome. Usually, it has
immediate benefit
b. Strategic Analysis = provides early warning signals of threats and to support decision making in
setting priorities to deal with criminal issues

4. Police Training and Development

As one of the 4 INTERPOL core functions, Police Training and Development continues to evolve
as a priority for INTERPOL and member countries.


1981 (Manila) = The first formal meeting of The Chiefs of ASEAN Police
= Attended by 5 original member countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and


1. Brunei 4. Myanmar
2. Cambodia 5. Vietnam
3. Lao

1983 (Jakarta) = Endorsement of the model & design of ASEANAPOL logo
1984 (Kuala Lumpur) = Royal Brunei Police became a member and joined the annual
1996 (Kuala Lumpur) = Vietnam joined as a new member
1998 (Brunei) = Laos joined ASEANAPOL
2000 (Myanmar) = Myanmar became the 10th country to joined as a new member
2005 (Bali) = The setting up of a working group to consider the viability of establishing a
permanent ASEANAPOL Secretariat
= Silver Jubilee Commemoration of ASEANAPOL
2008 (Brunei) = The Royal Malaysia Police was chosen as a host of permanent ASEANAPOL
2009 (Vietnam) = Adoption of Terms of Reference (TOR)
2010 = On 1st January 2010 commencement of ASEANAPOL Secretariat in Kuala Lumpur,

1. ASEANAPOL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE = comprise of deputy heads of delegation attending the
annual ASEANAPOL conference. It provides a summary reports of the activities of the Secretariat to the
Head of the Delegation

2. ASEANAPOL PERMANENT SECRETARIAT = is on rotational basis with member countries taking

turn to host the ASEANAPOL conference and automatically assume the role of the secretariat for the
current year.
= headed by executive director and assisted by 2 directors

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Tenure of Services
a. Executive Director - 2 years
b. Directors - 3 years (one for Police Services and one for Plans and Programs
*During the 29th ASEANAPOL Conference in Hanoi, Vietnam in 2009, the Terms of Reference on
the establishment of ASEANAPOL Secretariat was finally endorsed. Kuala Lumpur was made the
permanent seat.
*The ASEANAPOL Secretariat started its operation fully on January 1, 2010.

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